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The Hellenistic Tumulus of Eşenköy in NW Turkey

Tülin Tan
p. 33-52

Texte intégral

This paper was adapted from my Master’s Thesis ‟Eşenköy Tumulus and its Findings” that was completed in 2012 at the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The photographs in the study were taken by myself. I owe special thanks to the staff of the Bursa Directorate of Surveys, Aylin Kırlangıç and Umut Becene for providing architectural images, Oğuz Aras from the Archaeology Department of the Atatürk university for illustrating the findings, Prof. Kaan İren for his help in procuring the map used in this study. I also thank Ceylan Adar İlter for the English translating of this text.

1Tumuli, which are artificial hillocks on a flat plain, were burial grounds for the privileged in ancient times. The tumulus tradition was used from 2000 B.C. to the 3rd-4th century A.D., spanning Bulgaria, Greece, Central Asia and Southern Russia along with Anatolia and Syria. The tradition faded out with the spread of monotheistic beliefs and acceptance of Christianity.

2The tumulus examined in this study is located near Eşenköy in the sub-county of Manyas in the province of Balıkesir in NW Turkey. It is 52 m in diameter with 10 m ground clearance and lies at an altitude of 52 MSL. This tumulus is not far from the Bandırma-Balıkesir highway and is reached by taking the side-road to the town of Aksakal from Manyas (26 km from Bandırma) then continuing about 10 km through Eşenköy village and taking the northwest road for 1.5 km. The tomb, which is completely sculpted from Prokonnessos marble, has an architectural design consisting of a dromos, antechamber, and tomb chamber. There is a high probability that the tumulus tomb is associated with the ancient city of Daskyleion, which is about 3-4 km to the southwest (Map 1).

Map 1

Map 1

Map showing location of ancient city of Daskyleion.

Architecture

3The structural plan of the north-south oriented Eşenköy tomb shows similarities to Lydian tumulus tombs, even though the dromos is hypaethral, and the antechamber and tomb chamber are covered by a ‟flat roof” (Fig. 1-3).

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

General plan of Eşenköy Tumulus.

Fig. 2

Fig. 2

Plan of Eşenköy Tumulus showing tomb and antechamber.

Fig. 3

Fig. 3

Section through Eşenköy Tumulus Tomb.

1. Dromos

4The 7.5 m long dromos (entrance passage), situated on the north side of the Eşenköy tomb chamber, is hypaethral. The most protected, covered point is 0.90-1.00 m above ground level. Although the western wall section can be distinguished clearly, the eastern wall is less definite, due to damage. Large and small irregular stones were used in the soil foundations of the dromos wall. When construction of the tomb was completed, the periphery and dromos were filled with stones of various sizes.

5The wall, foundations and top layer of dromoi, which were built as passageways leading to tumulus tombs, display different characteristics depending on the geography and era to which they belong. We come across hypaethral dromoi with mud mortar walls of irregular stones secured in a rustic way, as in the Eşenköy Tumulus, which bears a general resemblance to the structure of Lydian tumuli. These dromoi were built with expert workmanship and enclosed by a gable roof, flat roof or barrel vault.

  • 1 Dinç 1993: 33.

6The dromoi of the Lydian tumuli were constructed during a shorter time span; from the third quarter of the 6th century B.C. to the end of the 6th century B.C.1. The foundations of the dromoi in Lydian tombs were built with compacted soil or ashlar masonry, as well as roughly-trimmed bedrock.

  • 2 Dinç 1993: 194; Dedeoğlu 1992: 66.
  • 3 Nayır 1982: 202, 203.
  • 4 Dinç 1993: 201.

7Examples similar to the dromos at Eşenköy are mostly encountered in Lydian tumuli. One of these is the Yabızlar Hill Tumulus-Tomb from the early 5th century B.C., about 1 km southeast of Çukurova village, which 5 km east of Salihli sub-county in the province of Manisa. The tomb’s 3.80 m dromos is hypaethral, the foundation is of compacted soil, and the walls were built with rubble and mud mortar2. Another example is the soil-based, hypaethral Mitralyöztepe Tumulus, which is 700 m away from Alibeyli village in the Saruhanlı sub-county of Manisa province3. The walls of this dromos had also been built with field stones and mud mortar4. The hasty execution of the dromos walls of both these tombs can also be seen in the dromos walls of Eşenköy Tumulus (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4

Fig. 4

Walls of Eşenköy dromos and tomb entrance.

2. Antechamber

8The door crossing, which opens out to the north, is 1.26 m high and 0.97 m wide. It is closed with a marble door of 1.60 m height and 1.05 m width. The marble threshold under this door is 2.02 m long, 0.35 m high, and 0.60 m deep. The two 12-13 cm high iron clamps placed at the opening to set the door in place must have been made to prevent the door from tipping forward, probably because the conduit for the door did not fit well. When we removed the iron door (without damaging the iron clamps), lead residue was observed on the middle part of the threshold stone. This may have been due to the insufficiency of the iron clamps to stabilize the door (Fig. 5-6).

Fig. 5

Fig. 5

‟Plug-type” door connecting dromos to antechamber.

Fig. 6

Fig. 6

Iron clamps on threshold of Eşenköy tomb.

9The antechamber is on a square plan of 2.00 m by 2.00 m and height of 2.27 m. The tomb, built completely from marble, has its walls, foundation, and ceiling finely trimmed with skilled workmanship. The foundation was built by combining three marble segments of 2.02 m in length. Regarding the width of these three segments, that in front of the north-facing entrance door is 0.56 m, the middle segment is 1.02 m, and the segment in front of the door leading to the tomb chamber is 0.76 m.

  • 5 Dinç 1993: 35, 36.

10Doors with grooves that are incised on the door block in the shape of a frame, to fit the tomb chamber opening, as in Lydian tumuli, are flat, plain and roughly worked. They are mostly constructed with square-shaped blocks seated onto the door lintel, jamb, and threshold blocks. There are, as well, doors with blocks on top of each other, belonging to the plug-type group5. Taking this into account, it can be said that the Eşenköy antechamber door was made in the shape of a ‟plug-door”. The antechamber’s foundation, constructed of three segments, differs from the ceiling, which was made by merging two segments of plain marble in the shape of a ‟flat roof” (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7

Fig. 7

Ceiling of antechamber: flat roof constructed of two marble segments and moulding encompassing the three walls below the ceiling.

11Because the foundation segment, adjacent to the wall in the western corner of the entrance door to the antechamber, was broken, the middle and first foundation segments at the entrance were bonded together with an iron clamp. This iron clamp was strengthened by pouring lead around it. The 1.02 m wide and 2.02 m long middle segment in the centre of the antechamber is attached to the segment directly in front of the door leading to the tomb chamber by three ‟dovetail” lead clamps. Of these three clamps, the one closer to the western wall is 30 cm long and 10 cm wide, the one in the middle is 34 cm long and 10 cm wide, and the one closer to the east wall is 34 cm long and 12 cm wide (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8

Fig. 8

Three ‟dovetail” lead clamps identified in antechamber.

12Even though the moulding in the antechamber slightly inward at 2.00 m from ground level, cannot be seen on the front door, it has been implemented on all three walls. The door crossing between the tomb chamber and the antechamber is 1.00 m wide, 1.49 m high and 0.51 m deep. It was covered by three marble blocks of different sizes placed on top of each other. However, the top block has been severely damaged. When the less-damaged large block was pulled out to be placed on the east wall next to the entrance door, clamp nests measuring 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm and 0.59 m from ground level on both sides of the 0.51 m deep door crossing, and a rectangular-shaped lead clamp that fastened the block to the foundation, could also be seen.

13The mouldings carved on the space above the door that provides entry to the tomb chamber was adorned by a small volute on each end. The centre of the concave tri-concentric spiralled volutes is defined with a point at the end, and a three-leafed palmate, coming out from the end point in the shape of a spearhead, was engraved leaning downwards (Fig. 9-10).

Fig. 9

Fig. 9

Volute decorations on top of door between antechamber and tomb chamber.

Fig. 10

Fig. 10

Volute decorations on door between antechamber and tomb chamber.

  • 6 Dinç 1993: 42.

14It can be said that, apart from a few examples, Lydian tomb antechambers were generally constructed with the same materials as the tomb chambers, and the antechambers were smaller than the tomb chambers6. The Eşenköy Tumulus appears to be similar to Lydian parallels in this respect.

3. Tomb chamber

15The tomb chamber, south of the antechamber, is larger than the antechamber. The nearly-square tomb chamber measures 2.64 m in an east-west direction and 2.95 m in a north-south direction. The height is 2.27 m, as with the antechamber. There is a 2.23 m long, 0.90 m wide and 0.51 m high kline, made in blocks, with red-painted ionic volute decorations on the head and foot rests. These rests have definitive high reliefs on their front face. The kline appears to have been placed adjacent to the wall, from traces on the back face of the southern wall.

16The 0.52 m high offerings table with a marble slab measuring 0.91 m by 0.51 m was found fallen down approximately 1 m on the northern axis of the east end of the kline in the tomb chamber. It has lion claws on the base of the front feet of its red-fluted front legs.

17The niche in the tomb chamber, which is 0.19 m from the door on the north, 2.00 m from the back wall on the south, and 0.32 m above the foundation level, is 0.76 m long and 0.12 m high. The niche which is not very deep, and with marble of suitable measurement inside, is an embellishment not encountered in the antechamber. The half-broken segment placed within the niche, which was probably made due to a damaged vein in the marble, was not found. Approximately 15 cm below the niche, and 15 cm from the ground, there is 25 cm long lead space continuing until the wall, where the northern door opening is (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11

Fig. 11

Niche in east wall of antechamber and segment inserted with lead beneath.

18Except for the wall where the antechamber’s door opening is, the frame was built to close part of the ceiling 1.60-1.70 m above the foundation level in the tomb chamber. The moulding was applied to all four walls by following each other on end, with sharp profiling. Above this moulding, transition to the ceiling was achieved by another moulding.

19The ‟flat roof”, constructed by merging the smoothly-trimmed marble walls with two straight marble segments, is similar to the antechamber. However, the tomb chamber’s foundation differs from the antechamber in that it consists of one segment instead of three segments (Fig. 12).

Fig. 12

Fig. 12

Ceiling of tomb chamber made of two marble segments with flat roof-like upper structure.

  • 7 Dinç 1993: 43.

20In tumulus tombs generally, tomb chambers which form the main section differ from other sections by having been constructed with finer workmanship7. However, except for the dromos walls, fine workmanship is discernible in the whole structure of Eşenköy Tumulus.

  • 8 Dinç 1993: 139, 137.
  • 9 Dinç, 1993: 121, 207, 195, 196; Nayır 1982: 200; Dedeoğlu 1996: 205, 202.
  • 10 Sevinç 1996: 445; Sevinç et al. 1998: 310, 308.

21Similar examples to the ‟flat roof” in the Eşenköy Tumulus chamber are known to be adopted from the Lydian tumulus tradition. For instance, the upper structure of the tumulus tomb dromos of late 6th century B.C. BT 80.1 is ‟flat roofed”8. The tomb chambers of BT 62.4 Bekçitepe are dated to late 6th-early 5th century B.C., Mangaltepe dates from the 5th century B.C., Abidintepe, dated to around the late 6th century B.C., and Yabızlar Tumulus, from the early 5th century B.C., were also constructed with a ‟flat roof”9. Furthermore, the upper structure of the Dedetepe Tumulus tomb chamber belonging to the Troas tumuli dating from the late 6th-early 5th century B.C. was covered in the form of ‟flat roof”10.

  • 11 Dinç 1993: 13, 14, 236, 241, 237, 238; İzmirligil 1975: 44.
  • 12 Onurkan 1988: 3.
  • 13 Ateşlier 1992: 29.

22In contrast, there are three tumuli (T1, T2, T3) in Uşak province on the hill to the south of Çingil Çayırı Creak and the village cemetery situated between the Yaylalar village road and Tatar village to the southwest of Selçikler village, 2 km southwest of Sivas. One of these is different. The upper broken-axis tomb structure of the dromos of early 5th century B.C. T1 tumulus tomb is ‟gable roofed”11. The situation is rather different in the Thracian region. The tomb dromos of Kırklareli A Tumulus, belonging to the 4th-3rd century B.C., had been covered with a ‟barrel vault”12. Located 7-8 km northeast of Eşenköy is the kösemtuğ Tumulus, constructed in the Macedonian style and thought to have belonged to a noble Macedonian. It dates from the second half of the 4th century B.C. The structure of its top covering differs from Eşenköy by being constructed using the intermodulation technique13.

Findings in the tomb chamber

1. Marble Furniture / Furnishings

23Among the furniture and furnishings of Eşenköy Tumulus, which was built completely from Prokonnessos marble, there is a kline, table, and an unidentifiable object that stand out.

1.1. Marble Kline

24The kline in the chamber of Eşenköy tomb was found in front of the south wall, across the entrance located to the north, and was placed with its headrest to the west and footrest to the east. This practice is also encountered in Lydian tumulus tombs, such as BT 62.4, Harta Abidintepe, Bekçitepe, Mangaltepe, and Yabızlar Hill tumulus tomb chambers.

25The marble kline in the tomb chamber is 2.23 m long, 0.90 m wide and 0.51 m high. The surrounding area where the body was laid on the kline is framed by an unadorned band. The head and foot rests are elevated and the top corners, plain and without decoration, form a semicircular convex curve with a band (Fig. 13-14).

Fig. 13

Fig. 13

Marble kline in tomb chamber.

Fig. 14

Fig. 14

Illustration of kline in tomb chamber.

26There are relief-like, Ionian volute decorations outlined in red paint on the head and foot rests at the front of the kline. The points at the centre of the concave volutes, made up of three spirals within each other, are red, the same as the outline of the volutes. There is a palmate at the point where the convex curves meet. A slight green colour can be discerned barely between the volutes, where the spearhead is thrust. The meanders on the band above the red volutes, which can also be discerned only with difficulty, were probably coloured as well. Directly on part of the underside of the head pieces, a high relief-like decorated, engraved leg descends from the end of the symmetrical small convex curved volute, narrowing towards the centre. It continues widening from the thinner part in the middle where the symmetrically-decorated button is located and ends with three curved volutes. At the bottom, the volutes rise towards the top on both sides, also symmetrically. Although the decorations on the east side where the head rest resides are not very discernible, the decorations on the west side where the foot rest is located are quite distinct. There is some black paint, sporadically erased over time, on the front façade of the kline (Fig. 15-16).

Fig. 15

Fig. 15

Volute decoration on head piece on front of kline and high relief decoration on back with decoration on footrest.

Fig. 16

Fig. 16

Illustrations of volute decoration on head piece on front of kline and high relief decoration on back with decoration on footrest.

  • 14 Dedeoğlu 1992: 69.
  • 15 Dedeoğlu 1992: 69; Dinç 1993: 194.

27The high relief leg decoration seen on the front face of the kline at Eşenköy is engraved as in the decoration on the kline legs at the tumulus tomb chambers of Yabızlar Hill and Bekçitepe. The kline feet at Yabızlar Hill have seven extensions in their palmate pattern, Ionian cymatium, and Ionian volutes. These volutes were given a head piece image on the sides by plastic reliefs, and a lotus bud can be seen underneath14. The decorations seen on the kline feet of the tomb, dating from the 5th century B.C., appear as late Archaic Period architectural decorative features15.

  • 16 Dinç 1993: 214, 211; Nayır 1982: 202.

28The two Ionian antithetic volutes with decorated reliefs on the kline in Bekçitepe tomb from 530/525-500 B.C. have convex-profiled volute canals. The canals were attached to the eye of the volute, spiky-pointed, and a sharp-profiled thrust wedge was applied to the merging points on the top and bottom parts of the canals at each of the merging points16. However, contrary to the high relief decoration on the kline leg in the Eşenköy Tumulus, the kline legs at Bekçitepe are decorated in more detail. The Bekçitepe tomb’s high relief decorations on the table supports are also more elaborate.

1.2. Offerings Table

29The offerings table was made of Prokonnessos marble like the whole tomb and other furniture in the tomb chamber. Oxidation on the slab suggests the placement of metal pots. The slab is 0.91 m by 0.51 m long and 0.52 m in height. There is a 4 cm wide flat band with a concave bend in the top corner of the front of the table which mouldings with a measurement of 5 cm and then leans in with a 10 cm bend again. The top band of the two 4 cm wide bands, located below, one under the other, has an inward profile of 0.1 cm. After the two band sequence, the trimmed front face continues down in a block shape. The legs on both sides are 5 cm in from the outer side and flow over 1 cm after going out from the 4 cm wide band on the upper part of the outer front surface of the table. The bands are 8 cm on top, then narrow towards the bottom with a width of 6 cm. The lion claw below is on a 3 cm high plinth. Both legs make a 14 cm outward profile from the front face and have 3 grooves accentuated with red coloured paint descending downwards. Above the grooves, also in red, are lines forming a wave pattern. Regarding the 4 cm wide band on the interior and exterior sides of the front legs, on the inner part it has a concave curve. On the top, the band ends with a 14 cm curve under the double decline with an inward curve. This can also be seen in the short side view of the legs.

30After the front legs on the two short sides make a profile with an inward 5 cm curve from the end of the 3 cm band on the top; below, as on the front, from the two bands on top of each other, the one on top makes a 0.1 cm deep inward profile. The flat-rimmed side faces descend from the end of the bands.

31The back face is left untrimmed, as on the front, and the sides descend flat from the end of the 5 cm wide band after forming an 11 cm profiled concave curve. The back legs, like the front legs, are 5 cm inwards from the side corners. Again, similar to the front legs, they make an 11 cm outward profile and were left untrimmed without any decoration. The appearance of the side of the two back legs is not different from the front legs and has been decorated with bands: 5 cm wide at the top, and 3 cm wide at the bottom. These bands, like on the front legs, lean in with a 12 cm curve on top. The channels painted red on both legs on the front of the block-shaped table were left without grooves (Fig. 17-18).

Fig. 17

Fig. 17

Marble offerings table in tomb chamber.

Fig. 18

Fig. 18

Illustration of marble offerings table.

1.3. Plinth

32One of the findings in the burial chamber of Eşenköy Tumulus was the 94 cm long, 16 cm-wide, and 11.5 cm deep marble plinth block. This has 6 circular cavities variously 6-7-8 cm in diameter with varying distances of 8.5-9.5 cm in between. Although the surface where the cavities are and one long side surface were trimmed flat, the two short sides and the other long side surfaces were left rough without being trimmed (Fig. 19).

Fig. 19

Fig. 19

Different views of marble object with circular cavities.

33This plinth is thought to be where alabaster pots were placed. Because the number of circular cavities is more than the number of the acquired alabaster pot fragments and integrated pots found in the tomb chamber, it is likely that grave robbers smashed the alabasters in the tomb chamber.

2. Small findings

34A small group of objects that were recovered in addition to the kline, offerings table, and plinth in the tomb were also recorded.

2.1 Ceramics

  • 17 Delemen and Çokay-Kepçe 2009: 18.
  • 18 Greenewalt 2010: 204.
  • 19 Greenewalt 2010: 207.

35The Lydian invention called the ‟Lydion” was used as a perfume container17. These had a high cylindrical foot and compressed, spherical-bodied form. Pertaining to Lydia, a small number of this type of unique container began to be produced in the 6th century B.C. and continued until the 5th century B.C. This kind of container – tall and round-bodied, with a wide mouth and no handles – was used as a cosmetics vessel mostly in Lydia, Daskyleion and Gordion and was widely-used as a tomb gift in Anatolia18. Earlier examples were made with a conical short base, round and wide horizontally-grooved body, a neck that widened outwards, and it was wide flat-lipped. The base, underbody and neck parts are either brown or red-lined. The neck and lip have either a narrow belt or at times a white-lined surface. Towards the end of the 6th century B.C., they began to show differences: the neck and base are straight, walls are thicker, lips are made narrower, the body and lower base are without lining, and the neck band is wider and without the moiré look19.

2.1.1. Lydion 1 (Fig. 20-21)

36The baked colour of this vessel is light pink. There are white-lined grooves on the lip and neck. A black lining on the neck, lower body and base is slightly visible. The protuberant mouth passes onto the short thick neck. It narrows towards the base, after swelling with a light profile towards the body, and has a high base (Terracotta, Height: 13 cm, Mouth diameter: 7.2 cm, Neck Diameter: 5.6 cm, Neck Height: 3 cm, Body Diameter: 9 cm, Base height: 3 cm).

Fig. 20-21

Fig. 20-21

Photo and drawing of Lydion 1 container found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.1.2. Lydion 2 (Fig. 22-23)

37There are small fractured and missing parts on the squeezed out, disc-shaped lip of this vessel. The baked colour is light pink. There are white-lined grooves on the lip and shoulder. The black lining on the neck, lower body, and base is more visible than on the other Lydion ware. The protuberant disc-shaped mouth leads to a short, thick neck with a light profile and swells towards the body then narrows towards the base (Terracotta, Height: 8 cm, Mouth Diameter: 8 cm, Neck Diameter 5.8 cm, Neck Height: 3 cm, Body Diameter: 8.9 cm, Base Height: 3 cm).

Fig. 22-23

Fig. 22-23

Photo and drawing of Lydion 2 vessel found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.1.3. Oil lamp (Fig. 24-25)

  • 20 Bailey 1980: 59.

38There is spillage on this light orange-coloured clay oil lamp. It has a wide, round and dual conical body. The discus around the pouring hole is surrounded by a deep engraved line. The high base with concave curve is emphasized by the curved surround. There is a high conical bulge in the middle. The nozzle, which is on a comparably lower level of the body, narrows towards the end. There is a cavity, which can be considered a hole, on the horn-shaped thumb holder. This oil lamp resembles Q95, the Howland Type 25 C oil lamp dated to between the third quarter of the 4th century and first quarter of 3rd century B.C. and produced in Rhodes workshops20 (Length: 10.1 cm, Width: 6.7 cm, Height: 3.7 cm, Base Diameter: 4.1 cm, Base Height: 0.5 cm, Middle Diameter: 6.2 cm, Discus Diameter: 2.2 cm).

2.1.4. Vessel Fragment 1 (Fig. 26-27)

39Below the lip, a band makes a light 2.1 cm-thick outwards profile. After the thick, short neck, which is on an incline towards the body, the shoulder meets the body. The body starts with a widening at the shoulder then narrows to the base. It has a handle arising on the thick neck, forming a triangular shape up to the end of the shoulder, which is the beginning of the body. The base is slightly flared. This vessel fragment, which is thought to be an amphora, most probably belongs to the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. (Height: 25 cm, Body Diameter: 21 cm, Base Diameter: 10 cm, Base Height 1.3 cm, Neck Height: 6.8 cm).

Fig. 26-27

Fig. 26-27

Photo and drawing of Vessel fragment 1 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.1.5. Vessel Fragment 2 (Fig. 28-29)

40This partial vessel was reconstructed by piecing together fragments belonging to the neck, handle and body of a black-glazed micaceous vessel. It has a handle dropping down to the shoulder from the short, thick neck in a triangular formation. It had probably been dual handled. Although not much can be said about the general appearance of this vessel due to its broken and missing parts, it has similar characteristics and the same date as vessel fragment 1 (Conserved Height: 8.5 cm, Conserved Width: 15 cm).

Fig. 28-29

Fig. 28-29

Vessel Fragment 2 recovered from Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.1.6. Vessel Fragment 3 (Fig. 30-31)

  • 21 Delemen and Çokay-Kepçe 2009: 18, 1, 3, illustration 2.

41When the recovered fragments had been integrated, only about half of this vessel was able to be completed. Burn marks can be seen inside and outside the black vessel. The wide middle body of the vessel, without a neck, continues from where the protuberant lip ends. It has a handle, shaped like a thick band, stretching from below the lip to the bulge in the middle. It has rough clay lamination. There is a probability that there was another handle at a symmetrical height to the existing handle. Taking into consideration that the form was reconstructed from existing fragments, this vessel, as well as showing similarities to the vessel shape known as ‟lebes”, shows similarities to the form called ‟aenia”, and also a vessel type named ‟aula” or ‟olla”, which was used as a cooking cauldron. Although there is no certainty according to written sources, it is said to be used in cult rites as well as in the kitchen, and thought to be made from copper and terracotta. With a lid and grip, it could be placed directly over the fire or hung above it21. When this is considered, the burn marks on the vessel fragment and its recovery in front of the dromos wall raises the possibility it was used in a ritual before or after a funeral (Existing Height: 16.5 cm, Body Diameter: 18.5 cm).

Fig. 30-31

Fig. 30-31

Vessel fragment 3 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.2. Terracotta Figurines

2.2.1. Figurine (Fig. 32)

42This figurine was found in fragments and then reconstructed. However, the bottom part of the skirt is broken. From beneath the fabric wrapping the body, the bending right arm leans on to the chest. The left leg is put slightly forward. It is made of red clay, and though not very visible, has a light black coating. The back is hollow. The sad-faced figurine’s face is decayed. The hair is tied above the forehead and the figure has a high polos on its head (Height: 14.6 cm, Width: 4.3 cm, Head Thickness: 2 cm, Body Thickness: 1.2 cm).

Fig. 32

Fig. 32

Figurine found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.2.2. Figurine Head 1 (Fig. 33)

43Albeit only the head part was recovered, it shows similarities to the previous figurine. It is red clayed and has a black coating in small clustered parts. The hair has been gathered above the forehead and it has a polos on its head. Calcifications have formed on the surface (Height: 2.9 cm, Width: 2.1 cm, Thickness: 1.6 cm).

2.2.3. Figurine Head 2 (Fig. 34)

44This figurine is made of pink-coloured clay. The hair is put up above the forehead but differs from the two other figurines by not having a polos on its head (Height: 2.5 cm, Width: 2.3 cm, Thickness: 1.4 cm).

Fig. 33-34

Fig. 33-34

Figurine head 1 (left) and 2 (right) found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.3. Alabastrons

2.3.1. Alabastron Fragment 1 (Fig. 35-36)

45The mouthpiece and base belonging to the alabastron have not been preserved but there is a grip on the upper body (Conserved Height: 11.5 cm, Conserved Width: 7.3 cm).

Fig. 35-36

Fig. 35-36

Alabastron fragment 1 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

2.3.2. Alabastron Fragment 2 (Fig. 37-38)

46Of this alabastron, the cylindrical-shaped body and rounded bottom part are preserved but the mouth has not survived (Conserved Height: 13.5 cm, Conserved Width: 7.7 cm).

Fig. 37-38

Fig. 37-38

Alabastron fragment 2 found in Eşenköy Tomb chamber.

2.3.3. Alabastron Fragment 3 (Fig. 39-40)

47A cylindrical body shaped alabastron fragment. The mouth is missing (Conserved Height: 16.2 cm, Conserved Width: 7.4 cm).

Fig. 39-40

Fig. 39-40

Alabastron fragment 3 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.

Conclusion

48The burials that have been heaped over with stones then covered with earth are called tumuli. Descendants of the dead had these artificial hillocks made that are recognisable from the outside. The size of the tumulus recalls the owner’s honour and esteem, power, and heroism for future generations. Tumuli, which are generally similar in their outer appearance, show variations depending on the region they are located and changes in the political and cultural circumstances of the community to which they belong, i.e. they adopted the tumuli to the circumstances of their geographical region.

49Towards the end of the 12th century B.C., the Phrygians, having moved from Europe to the Balkans, first settled in the Thracian Region then migrated to Central Anatolia and brought the tumulus tradition with them towards the end of the Iron Age. Tumulus tombs are first seen after the Phrygians settled in Central Anatolia and were used during the long period of polytheism, then the practice ceased with the acceptance of monotheism.

50The tumulus tombs in Phrygia’s capital Gordium and the surrounding area were constructed from the late 9th century until the beginning of the 8th century B.C. The Phrygians began to weaken politically at the beginning of the 7th century B.C. During this period, Lydian rule on their western border strengthened and Phrygian rule lost its power to Lydia. The Lydian tumulus tomb tradition was put into practice because of religious, cultural and visual interaction between the Phrygians and Lydians, and continued to be used until the Roman Period.

  • 22 Dinç 1993: 41.

51In Phrygian tumuli, tomb chambers of wood without a door were built in deep pits dug into the earth and surrounded by rubble. Gifts were placed around the dead, who were laid on wooden couches. After the roof was laid over the tomb, the exterior was covered with earth and piles of ashes. Lydian tumuli underwent some changes. Lydian tumuli are generally constructed of a dromos, an antechamber or porch, and a tomb chamber. Porches were the clear spaces in front of the door and were constructed using the same workmanship and methods as the tomb structures, but different from the antechambers22. In Lydia, however, there were also tumuli with tombs having a layout of tomb chambers aligned next to each other without an antechamber, dromos, or porch.

52Phrygian tumuli were constructed of wood. However, neither limestone nor marble were used in Lydian tumuli and at times they were carved into the bedrock. Also, the antechamber and tomb chamber(s), built on a rectangular or square plan, had a stone kline or berms inside instead of a wooden couch, and doors were used to inter-link the rooms. The upper structure was sometimes covered by a vault and sometimes by a flat roof. To avoid landslides, crepis walls were constructed on the perimeters.

  • 23 Dedeoğlu 1992: 70.

53Eşenköy Tumulus, which belongs to the 5th century B.C., was constructed with a dromos, an antechamber and a tomb chamber. It is similar to Lydian tumuli dating from between the 7th and 4th centuries B.C. in technique and tradition23. The ‟flat roof” design that was especially used for the upper structure of Lydian tumuli in the middle and end of the 6th century B.C. as a regional speciality was also applied at Eşenköy.

54The fact that the Eşenköy Tumulus was completely constructed with Prokonnessos marble, and also the quality of workmanship seen throughout the tomb, kline and offering table in the tomb chamber, suggest that this tomb was built for someone very important living in Daskyleion. Because the findings were not recovered in situ in the tomb chamber, and especially because the skeleton was recovered in small fragments, a gender differentiation could not be made. Therefore, an accurate judgment could not be made whether the owner of the tomb was a man or woman. For the same reason, even though it is not possible to give exact information on how the corpse was placed on the kline, it is thought to be in a dorsal position (on his-her back). Examination of the skeletal fragments, the existence of sheep and goat bones from the hollow horned and split hoofed animal group, and bones of leporine animals, as well a human skeleton, lead us to conclude that there was a sacrificial ceremony during and after the burial ritual. During the excavation, burnt carbon fragments were found close to the tomb under the dromos wall, made with mud mortar and irregular stones with its west section better protected. This supports the notion of a sacrificial ceremony performed during or after the burial.

55According to the geographical and regional characteristics of ancient times, the socio-economic level of families and the life they lived, even though the tomb and manner of burial were chosen after death, show differences. Gifts for the dead to use in the other world were always given. Two terracotta lydions, a vessel known to be indigenous to Lydia, were recovered from within Eşenköy Tumulus. Findings and the plan of the tomb structure suggest that the tomb is Lydia-related. Among the findings alongside, there is an oil lamp from the Hellenistic Era. Vessel fragments and terracotta figurines suggest that the tomb was re-used afterwards. This was a custom widely used in ancient times. When the years it took to build a tumulus and tomb and the construction costs are considered, it was preferred to re-use an existing tomb and, not infrequently, members of the same family were buried in the same tomb.

  • 24 ökse 2005: 4.

56The burn mark on the end of the nozzle of the oil lamp recovered from the tomb when the earth was being removed proves that it was used. This usage, with high probability, took place at the offering ceremony during the burial ritual. The tradition of leaving an oil lamp to lighten the dead individual’s path after the burial changed slightly after the acceptance of monotheism. The custom continued with the lighting a candle at the side of the dead in Christianity and Judaism; turning on a light on in the residence of the dead allowed the soul to wander freely in Anatolia24. The traditional religious ceremony that took place during rituals for the burial of the deceased are thought to have also been carried out at Eşenköy. Leaving a light of some kind in the burial area is thought to be based on lighting the way of the dead individual to another world.

  • 25 Bakır 2011: 25.

57Daskyleion is known to have been a multicultural settlement with Phrygian, Lydian, Persian, Hellenic and local communities. Daskyleion became the centre of a satrapy of the Persian Empire, which had sovereignty over Anatolia for two hundred years after they captured Sardes in 547 B.C. and overthrew Lydian rule. This explains the Lydian and Persian influences on the 5th century Eşenköy Tomb, situated 3-4 km from Daskyleion. During the period of Persian satrapy in Anatolia, when it became evident that works called ‟Greco-Persian Art” were actually produced by Anatolian artists, the definitive term then became ‟Anatolian-Persian Art”25. In accordance with this, it would not be wrong to say the Eşenköy Tumulus was constructed by the hands of an Anatolian master.

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Bibliographie

Ateşlier, S., 1992: Daskyleion-Kösemtuğ Tümülüsü Mimarisi, unpublished Master’s Thesis, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir.

Bakır, T., 2011: Balıkesir’in Eski Çağlardaki Valilik Merkezi Daskyleion, Balıkesir Valiliği (İl özel İdaresi) tarafından bastırılmıştır, Balıkesir.

Bailey, D. M., 1980: A Catalogue of the Lamps in the British Museum, I, London.

Dedeoğlu, H., 1992: ‟Yabızlar Tepesi Tümülüsü”, II. Müze Kurtarma Kazıları Semineri, Ankara: 65-79.

Dedeoğlu, H., 1996: ‟Harta Abidintepe Tümülüsü”, Ege Üniversitesi Arkeoloji Dergisi 4: 197-206.

Delemen, İ., 2004: Tekirdağ Naip Tümülüsü, Ege Yayınları, İstanbul.

Delemen, İ. and Çokay-Kepçe, S., 2009: Yunan ve Roma Kap Formları Sözlüğü, Türk Eskiçağ Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yayınları, İstanbul.

Dinç, R., 1993: Lydia Tümülüsleri, unpublished PhD Thesis, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir.

Duyuran, R., 1960: ‟Çanakkale’de Eski Dardanos şehri Yakınında Bulunan Tümülüs Hakkında ön Rapor”, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi X, 1: 64-66.

Greenewalt, C. H. Jr., 2010: ‟Lidya kozmetiği/Lydian Cosmetics”, in Cahill N.D. (ed.), Lidyalılar ve Dünyaları. The Lydians and Their World, Yapı kredi Yayınları, İstanbul: 201-216.

İzmirligil, Ü., 1975: ‟Uşak-Selçikler Tümülüsleri. Tumuli in Uşak-Selçikler”, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 22, 1: 41-50.

Nayır, K., 1982: ‟Alibeyli Tümülüsleri kurtarma kazısı 1981”, KST IV: 199-206.

Onurkan, S., 1988: Doğu Trakya Tümülüsleri Maden Eserleri, Türk Tarih kurumu Basımevi, Ankara.

Ökse, A. T., 2005: ‟Eski Çağdan Günümüze ölü Gömme ve Anma Gelenekleri”, Türk Arkeoloji ve Etnoğrafya Dergisi 5: 1-8.

Sevinç, N., 1996: ‟Çanakkale-Gümüşçay Tümülüsleri 1994 Yılı kurtarma kazıları ön Raporu”, Müze Kurtarma Kazıları Semineri VI, Ankara: 442-445.

Sevinç, N., Rose, C. B., Strahan, D. and Tekkök-Biçken, B., 1998: ‟Dedetepe Tümülüs”, Studia Troica 8: 305-323.

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Notes

1 Dinç 1993: 33.

2 Dinç 1993: 194; Dedeoğlu 1992: 66.

3 Nayır 1982: 202, 203.

4 Dinç 1993: 201.

5 Dinç 1993: 35, 36.

6 Dinç 1993: 42.

7 Dinç 1993: 43.

8 Dinç 1993: 139, 137.

9 Dinç, 1993: 121, 207, 195, 196; Nayır 1982: 200; Dedeoğlu 1996: 205, 202.

10 Sevinç 1996: 445; Sevinç et al. 1998: 310, 308.

11 Dinç 1993: 13, 14, 236, 241, 237, 238; İzmirligil 1975: 44.

12 Onurkan 1988: 3.

13 Ateşlier 1992: 29.

14 Dedeoğlu 1992: 69.

15 Dedeoğlu 1992: 69; Dinç 1993: 194.

16 Dinç 1993: 214, 211; Nayır 1982: 202.

17 Delemen and Çokay-Kepçe 2009: 18.

18 Greenewalt 2010: 204.

19 Greenewalt 2010: 207.

20 Bailey 1980: 59.

21 Delemen and Çokay-Kepçe 2009: 18, 1, 3, illustration 2.

22 Dinç 1993: 41.

23 Dedeoğlu 1992: 70.

24 ökse 2005: 4.

25 Bakır 2011: 25.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Map 1
Légende Map showing location of ancient city of Daskyleion.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k
Titre Fig. 1
Légende General plan of Eşenköy Tumulus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Titre Fig. 2
Légende Plan of Eşenköy Tumulus showing tomb and antechamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Fig. 3
Légende Section through Eşenköy Tumulus Tomb.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Titre Fig. 4
Légende Walls of Eşenköy dromos and tomb entrance.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 400k
Titre Fig. 5
Légende ‟Plug-type” door connecting dromos to antechamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 80k
Titre Fig. 6
Légende Iron clamps on threshold of Eşenköy tomb.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 372k
Titre Fig. 7
Légende Ceiling of antechamber: flat roof constructed of two marble segments and moulding encompassing the three walls below the ceiling.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Fig. 8
Légende Three ‟dovetail” lead clamps identified in antechamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Fig. 9
Légende Volute decorations on top of door between antechamber and tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 88k
Titre Fig. 10
Légende Volute decorations on door between antechamber and tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Fig. 11
Légende Niche in east wall of antechamber and segment inserted with lead beneath.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Titre Fig. 12
Légende Ceiling of tomb chamber made of two marble segments with flat roof-like upper structure.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 60k
Titre Fig. 13
Légende Marble kline in tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 296k
Titre Fig. 14
Légende Illustration of kline in tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 48k
Titre Fig. 15
Légende Volute decoration on head piece on front of kline and high relief decoration on back with decoration on footrest.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 96k
Titre Fig. 16
Légende Illustrations of volute decoration on head piece on front of kline and high relief decoration on back with decoration on footrest.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Titre Fig. 17
Légende Marble offerings table in tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 268k
Titre Fig. 18
Légende Illustration of marble offerings table.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Titre Fig. 19
Légende Different views of marble object with circular cavities.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Titre Fig. 20-21
Légende Photo and drawing of Lydion 1 container found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Titre Fig. 22-23
Légende Photo and drawing of Lydion 2 vessel found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Titre Fig. 24-25
Légende Photo and drawings of oil lamp found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k
Titre Fig. 26-27
Légende Photo and drawing of Vessel fragment 1 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Fig. 28-29
Légende Vessel Fragment 2 recovered from Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Titre Fig. 30-31
Légende Vessel fragment 3 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Titre Fig. 32
Légende Figurine found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Fig. 33-34
Légende Figurine head 1 (left) and 2 (right) found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Titre Fig. 35-36
Légende Alabastron fragment 1 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Titre Fig. 37-38
Légende Alabastron fragment 2 found in Eşenköy Tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Titre Fig. 39-40
Légende Alabastron fragment 3 found in Eşenköy tomb chamber.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/437/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Tülin Tan, « The Hellenistic Tumulus of Eşenköy in NW Turkey », Anatolia Antiqua, XXV | 2017, 33-52.

Référence électronique

Tülin Tan, « The Hellenistic Tumulus of Eşenköy in NW Turkey », Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXV | 2017, mis en ligne le 01 mai 2019, consulté le 27 juin 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/437

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Auteur

Tülin Tan

Bandırma Archaeology Museum

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Droits d’auteur

Anatolia Antiqua

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