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Ethics Charter (Année du Maghreb)

General Frame

The present charter focuses on defining the phases of the editorial process for the articles published by L’Année du Maghreb and to ensure that they are consistent with the European Charter for Researchers, with reference to the main fundamental ethics in social science research and with that of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE : https://publicationethics.org) concerning the fundamental ethical principles of research in Human and Social Sciences, the individual responsibility of researchers, the dissemination of research and employment by the Writing of interns or employees.

L’Année du Maghreb is a semestrial scientific journal, published by CNRS Editions, and made available on-line on the internet portal Openedition.org of the CLÉO. In its digital version, it provides freely and without embargo for the public, the most recent results of social sciences, political sciences, and law, relative to countries of the Maghreb and their diasporas.

The Rédaction de L’Année du Maghreb is a scientific association regulated by the 1901 Law, and housed by the IREMAM. It is competent for everything concerning the publishing policies of the journal, its finances, relations with its publisher and its circulation and distribution. It takes on the scientific responsibility of the journal and its representation in all acts of civil life.

The papers can be sent in response to a call for papers by the journal or spontaneously for puboication in the Varia section. The yearly political Chronicles are explicitly sollicitated from researchers specialised on the Maghrebi countries. The supervisor of the yearly Chronicles can also ask a specific author to write a close-up article on a particular issue.

Every article is assessed by a double-blind peer reviewing, under the supervision of someone within the editorial staff. The publication engages the whole editorial board, and from a judicial standpoint, the president of the Rédaction of L’Année du Maghreb. The authors must ensure that the publication of research results do not harm people, institutions or groups which are mentionned. They will ensure anonymity of the actors or will ask them to sign an authorisation to cite their names. Any statements must be referenced.

We ensure that L’Année du Maghreb, supported by CNRS Edition, is free of all conflicts of interest. Authors submitting an article must declare any potential conflict of interest that could interfere with the objectivity or integrity of the publication.

Conflicts of interest are situations that may be perceived as having an influence on the presentation or publication of a study. This can be financial, non-financial, professional, contractual or personal.

The Authors

The authors commit to present to the editors of L’Année du Maghreb an unpublished article resulting from an original research.
Articles in
L’Année du Maghreb may be published in English, French and Arabic. The original version is published in the printed volume. Translations, if they become available, are added to the article published online.

By default, a summary of each article is published in all three languages. It must be communicated by the authors, in French and English, with five keywords, with the first version of their article. The authors and the board will then work together to ensure that they are expressed in clear and intelligible language, accessible to all.

The abstracts in Arabic are translated into a «metaredaction» edited by the l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale (IFAO) and comprising eleven journals: the abstract and the keywords are translated into Arabic, sent for verification to an external evaluator, then sent back to the journal. The key words and abstracts then run in a bouquet of journals focused on the Arab world and accessible free of charge in Openedition.

By publishing in L'Année du Maghreb, the authors authorize the journal to reproduce and disseminate their contributions on electronic portals and digital media which have an agreement with CNRS Éditions. Authors shall retain the intellectual property of their text and may republish it elsewhere, provided that they inform the editors and include a reference to the first edition, as well as the link to the online publication.

The authors commit to make clear, in their article, what is their own writing from what they have borrowed from others, systematically quoting the authors and their sources, including for their own work. The board of editors cannot be held responsible for plagiarism that has not been detected during the evaluation process and will turn against the authors in the event of a complaint. A plagiarism detected during the evaluation process will result in no longer allowing its author to be included among the authors or evaluators of L’Année du Maghreb.

Authors must respect the principle of joint ownership of data when conducting research jointly with other researchers. In the case of articles written by more than three authors, the respective role of each one should be specified by an initial note.

The order of presentation of the authors is by default the alphabetical order in French. This use may be waived in the event of a greater contribution by one of the authors to the writing or design of the article. In the event of a dispute on this point, the final word shall be given to the editor of the issue.

In the spirit of transparency and access to the data, we expect the authors to be able, if necessary, to present their databases or coding in order to prove the veracity of their conclusions.

The evaluators

The evaluators are responsible for the reading of the texts and an informed opinion on them. Their role is purely advisory, and they have no decision-making authority.
They are chosen by the editorial board of the journal but do not belong to it.
Their anonymity is guaranteed by the editorial staff and can only be waived with their express permission.

They are responsible for deciding whether or not an article submitted to L’Année du Maghreb may be published. They may condition their opinion to formal or substantive amendments intended to make the article publishable. They have a month to evaluate an article.
Their opinion must be clearly argued by a report of 200 to 400 words sent to the editorial board. Also, they may refer the original text with proposed amendments and annotations. The report on each item is sent on two separate forms:
- a form for articles which are part of a special issue
- a form for Varia articles (outside special issue)

For articles in the Varia section, contribution proposals are first evaluated and discussed by the editorial board. If its opinion of the article positive, the text enters the classical double evaluation procedure.
The evaluators commit not to make use of the texts they have evaluated before their publication; and not to make any use of them if they are not published.

Special issue coordinators

They are responsible for a scientific proposal, which has been validated and implemented by the journal’s editorial board through the coordinators of the special issue.
The coordinators may be a team of two to four people, usually different from the editorial board.
-This team drafts a call for papers discussed and validated by the editorial board.
- As soon as the call for papers is published, they propose to the editor a visual (photography, painting drawing or engraving, etc.) to illustrate the cover page of the dossier.
- coordinators are responsible for solicitting contributions from their network of colleagues. 
- Once the proposals arrive, they participate in the selection of proposals for contributions (about 15 are selected) with the editorial board. They have a veto at this stage: the board cannot impose on them a contribution they do not want. In turn, the editorial board has a veto over proposals which the coordinators may not want.
- The team of coordinators shares responsibility for monitoring each article. Each coordinator can thus advise the authors for whom he or she is responsible throughout the evaluation process.
- The coordinators share responsibility for the literary and scientific quality of the articles with the person in charge within the editorial board of the article (hereafter called : article supervisor). They are also responsible, after the intervention of the evaluators and the return on the part of the authors, for the scientific validation of the article.
- The coordinators and supervisors decide together to publish or not an article.
 In the event of disagreement, they seek arbitration from the editor-in-chief, who may extend the consultation to the entire editorial board.
During the article evaluation and selection process, coordinators write an introduction and submit it to the editor at least 15 days before the closing of the issue.

The coordinators are responsible for funding and implementing the translation of their special issue. If their publication is the result of funded research, they may be asked to contribute to L’Année du Maghreb.

The Editor in chief

He or she is the scientific referee of a special issue. In charge, he shares this responsibility with an assistant who takes charge of the Varias, the Chronicles or a group of articles. The editor-in-Chief and his/her assistant are the interfaces between the coordinators, the supervisor and the editing secretary.

He or she is by principle, the recipient of all exchanges relating to the evaluation of articles to his/her e-mail address or to the collective address lannee.dumaghreb@gmail.com. 
It validates the publication of the call for papers, and more generally any document that must appear on the website or be printed in the number he or she coordinates.

He or she sets the schedule and ensures that the deadlines are met. He or she takes care to make them explicit in different letters:
- Deadline for receipt of proposals
- Date of proposal selection meeting
- Deadline for sending texts
- Deadline for sending evaluations
- Deadline for return of texts by authors after amendments
- Deadline for submission of texts validated by the supervisor in the Dropbox

He or she writes back to authors, contacts the evaluators, the supervisor or the special issue coordinators for each of these deadlines, without ever seeming irritated.

He or she is responsible for announcing all decisions at each stage, in the most individualized way possible: 
- The editor-in-chief of the special issue shall notify the authors of the acceptance of their proposal. He or she shall send them the author’s guidelines and expressly ask them for a summary of 250 to 300 words in French and English (including the translation of the title of the article), and five keywords in both languages.
- or the refusal of proposals (arguments likely to appear in a collective e-mail in cci: many proposals, difficult choice, lack of defined corpus or field of inquiry, non-coidence with the call for contributions...)

- Acceptance/refusal of an article after evaluation (necessarily a more individualized response will be needed)
- Acceptance/refusal of an article after evaluation and rewriting by the author (deploy then treasures of diplomacy not to upset the author and hold the editorial board responsible, thus implicitly exonerating the coordinators of the special issue of any responsibility in the decision.

He or she is in charge of the Dropbox and its four sub-folders:
- 01 Texts received
This file corresponds to the raw download of texts received from the authors.
- 02 Anonymized and ready to send texts
Anonymity consists of removing any reference to the author throughout the text (usually at the beginning or the end of the text, sometimes with "as I said in this or that article", which can be replaced by a third person); deleting the author of the Word metadata, and give the file an anonymity number. In order of arrival, these texts are numbered DOS 01, DOS 02....
- 03 Evaluated Texts
Before returning them to the author, check that the names of the reviewers do not appear in the comments or in the proposed amendments. Care must also be taken to ensure that there is no derogatory language in comments or evaluation reports. This is the role of the article supervisor, but the Editor-in-Chief must also ensure this.
- 04 Texts in the process of being published
Texts which have been revised by the authors and verified and validated by the article supervisors. At the beginning of the text, the green light can be given for editing.

He or she maintains the spreadsheet table and alerts the editorial board if necessary:
- Dates of arrival of texts
- Appointment of evaluators and monitoring officers in consultation with the editorial board and notification of the arrival of texts.
 
- Procedure status (red colour code for negative opinions, green for positive and orange for mixed opinions)
- Remarks and contacts
It may be necessary to periodically update the special issue coordinators and the article supervisors during the rewriting phase of the texts.

He or she should not forget to thank the evaluators, the coordinators and the editing secretary at the time of publication, by sending them the announcement prepared by the editing secretary.

The article supervisor

Members of the editorial staff, they are responsible for the follow-up of an article. They are the interfaces between the authors, the evaluators and the editorial board, and work hand in hand with one of the coordinators of the special issue.

They are designated by the editorial board, on a voluntary basis and according to their interests. They are contacted by the editor-in-chief once the reviews have been returned by the evaluators, and placed in the Dropbox n°3 "Evaluated Texts". He or she checks that the annotations are anonymous.
- They shall inform the authors of the opinion of the two evaluators. In the event of two negative opinions from the evaluators and from the two article supervisors (from the editorial board and from the coordinators), the decision may be taken. It is then notified to the author by the editor-in-chief.
- If the evaluation is positive or conditional on the author taking into account the evaluators' assessments, it shall be notified to the author of the article and to the coordinator in charge of the same article.

In this case, the article supervisor draws up a summary (or juxtaposition) of the two evaluations and explains to the author the expected changes.  He or she must ensure that there are no hurtful comments in the evaluation reports and must not hesitate to rewrite comments that are considered excessive. He/she may also attach to his mail the texts annotated by the evaluators after ensuring that they were anonymous and that they did not contain any offensive or ironic remarks.
- He/she receives the amended article and ensures, with the coordinator, that the requested changes have been taken into account.
 
- The article supervisor is responsible for the formal quality of the article. In particular, it ensures compliance with the editorial standards of the journal and spelling. 
- The article supervisor and the coordinator validate together the article for publication. In case of disagreement, they seek arbitration from the other coordinators and the editor-in-chief, who can extend the consultation to the entire editorial board.

If the edited article is refused for publication, the editor-in-chief notifies the author on behalf of the editorial board.
- The article supervisor places the article in the Dropbox, folder n°4 "Texts in the process of being published" by indicating its number (DOX XXX) and the name of its author, with summaries and keywords in the two languages on the first page. 
The journal keeps an archive of everything it publishes, which guarantees the integrity of each article and prevents any subsequent changes.

The Publishing Secretary

She/he is responsible for both the layout process of the journal in its printed version and the editing of articles online. As such, she/he is the interface between authors and CNRS Éditions and between authors and the journal.openedition.org platform.

Internships

Interns are students recruited on the basis of their interests and competence, on a voluntary basis. Their work and remuneration are decided with the editorial board and according to the legislation.

Contact

At each stage of the editorial process, you can contact:
- Director of publication: lannee.dumaghreb@gmail.com
- Publishers of the journal: cnrseditions@cnrseditions.fr

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