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115 | 2016
Annuaire du Collège de France 2014-2015
Résumé des cours et travaux 115e année
VI. Conférenciers invités

New Perspectives on the Philistines in light of recent excavations at Tell es-Safi – biblical Gath of the Philistines

Aren M. Maeir
p. 879

Notes de la rédaction

Conférence prononcée le 25 février 2015 (invitation sur proposition du Pr Thomas Römer) et disponible en vidéo sur le site internet du Collège de France : http://www.college-de-france.fr/site/thomas-romer/guestlecturer-2014-2015.htm. Une version française du résumé a été publiée dans La lettre du Collège de France, no 40 (août 2015) : http://lettre-cdf.revues.org/2113

Texte intégral

1The Philistines and their culture represent one of the most fascinating episodes in the history of the early Near East, particularly in light of the rich archaeological, biblical and epigraphic data relating to this culture, and the central role in which the Philistines are portrayed in the early biblical narratives. The last two decades of excavations at Tell es-Safi/Gath, identified as biblical Gath of the Philistines (home town of Goliath according to the biblical text), one of the five cities of the Philistines Pentapolis, has revealed significant and groundbreaking finds relating to the origins, formation, character and transformation of the Philistine culture. Coupled with new data and new analyses of finds from other sites relevant for the study of the Philistine culture, a reassessment of the accepted paradigms regarding this fascinating culture can be suggested. This is seen in various aspects, such as :

1) There is little evidence for a major break and massive destructions between the Late Bronze Canaanite and the earliest Philistine levels at major Philistine sites.

2) One cannot define a monolithic foreign origin for the Philistines – rather, they are comprised of peoples of mixed foreign origins – including perhaps some groups with a “pirate-like” character – who then intermixed with local Canaanites, to form an “entangled” cultural entity.

3) While in the early Iron Age a strong emphasis of Philistine identity was placed on the non-local cultural facets of the Philistine culture, as the Iron Age advanced, more and more of the local traditions became of importance. Nevertheless, throughout and until the end of the Iron Age, distinct non-local attributes were of symbolic significance in the Philistine culture.

4) The dominant role of the Philistine Kingdom of Gath well into the 9th cent. BCE – in fact until the conquest of the site by Hazael of Aram Damascus ca. 830  BCE – raises doubts as to the veracity of the biblical description of Judahite control over Philistia during the reign of David and Solomon (ca. 10th cent. BCE). In fact, in recreations of the geo-political matrix of the early Iron Age Levant, the role of the Kingdom of Gath must be emphasized.

2In my lecture, I discussed these and other points, all of which require a rather significant revision of the accepted paradigms on the Philistine culture and its relations with adjacent Iron Age cultures (Israel, Judah, Phoenicia, Egypt, etc.). As such, I stressed that the study of the Philistine culture and its interface with biblical Israel and related cultures is in a state of flux and development – and that I believe that in the near future, many new developments and insights will emerge.

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Référence papier

Annuaire du Collège de France 2014-2015. Résumé des cours et travaux 115e année, Paris, Collège de France, novembre 2016, p. 879. ISBN 978-2-7226-0453-7

Référence électronique

Aren M. Maeir, « New Perspectives on the Philistines in light of recent excavations at Tell es-Safi – biblical Gath of the Philistines », L’annuaire du Collège de France [En ligne], 115 | 2016, mis en ligne le 22 juin 2018, consulté le 19 juillet 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/annuaire-cdf/12689

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Auteur

Aren M. Maeir

Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israël)

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Droits d’auteur

Collège de France

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