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Creating spaces for improving reading competence: science-fiction in ESP courses

Créer des espaces pour améliorer les compétences en lecture: la science-fiction dans des cours d’anglais de spécialité
María Cristina Boiero de Angelo, Gabriela Jure, Lía Fernandez et Luciana Remondino
p. 33-47


Ce travail concerne une expérience éducative fondée sur la science-fiction en tant que matériel d’apprentissage dans des cours d’anglais de spécialité pour des étudiants en biologie, microbiologie, géologie, mathématiques et informatique, à l’Université Nationale de Rio Cuarto, en Argentine. Après une description du contexte éducatif, les objectifs et la portée du projet seront exposés, ainsi que les raisons du choix du genre de la science-fiction.
Nous illustrerons ensuite les adaptations apportées aux textes choisis (simplification des passages longs et ajout de vocabulaire et de renseignements précis provenant de sources scientifiques). Nous donnerons l’exemple de quelques activités conçues non seulement pour renforcer les compétences linguistiques mais aussi pour encourager le développement des processus affectifs et cognitifs, et pour stimuler l’échange d’opinions sur des sujets éthiques et scientifiques. Enfin, nous commenterons les résultats de l’impact sur la motivation, l’amélioration et l’acquisition des compétences de lecture et des concepts scientifiques et éthiques dans une langue seconde.

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Texte intégral


I. Introduction

1Current trends in teaching ESP in Latin American universities reflect a wide variety of approaches that, notwithstanding their differences, respond basically to the need of future professionals to use English with a certain degree of proficiency. Issues such as course and materials design, motivation, and teaching methodologies are common concerns for ESP teachers, as the recent 10th Latin American ESP colloquium held in Rio Cuarto, Argentina, in 2007 showed (Loyo et al. 2007). It was generally agreed that reading comprehension is one of the most important skills for Latin American students to master, given the role of English as the international language used for communication in academic settings. Today’s university students need to develop reading skills not only to read academic and research articles, textbooks, dissertations, theses, reviews, and abstracts, but also to search for support materials on the Internet.

  • 1 PIMEG : Proyectos de Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza de Grado.

2This article refers to a classroom teaching experiment in which science-fiction stories are used as complementary study material in reading comprehension courses for students of Biology, Microbiology, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science. It was first tried at an experimental level in 2002 within an institutional program for the improvement of undergraduate education1, and subsequently enriched by further research, comments, and contributions from both students and colleagues.

3Among research studies related to the present teaching project, reference should be made to those by Lee Zoreda and Zoreda-Lozano (1996), and Gilberto Díaz-Santos (2000), both in the Latin American context. The former provides a strong argument “for including science-fiction as a critical and cultural component within the curricula of technical English at Mexican universities” (490), while the latter, in Cuba, advances a new proposal which is “a cross between the content-based reading model traditionally used in ESP and some activities aimed at the exploration of literary works”. More recently, we have come across the French line of research on professionally-based fiction (PBF) or FASP according to the French acronym (Petit & Isani 2004).

I.1. Overview of the problem

4The large number of approaches to facilitate reading comprehension put forward in specialized journals makes the choice of the most appropriate methods difficult. Students’ learning styles and strategies, the context of the teaching situation, the field of study, as well as other variables that affect the personality, motivation, and purpose of studying a foreign language, all influence the expected outcome (Oxford 1990, 2003). Regarding external influences, at least two major problems are encountered when teaching ESP at Argentine universities: poorly developed reading habits, and a limited knowledge of Spanish grammar and lexis. Indeed, in the past ten years or so, literature and composition have lost their influential position in the classroom with the subsequent decline of language and a quenching of the desire to read – one of the regrettable effects of reforms in primary and secondary education policies. Moreover, the extensive use of excerpts and photocopies in most subjects, instead of full and meaningful readings, adds to the sense of fragmentation prevailing in our society, and to the lack of awareness concerning the interconnection of disciplines. The negative impact of these shortcomings upon students learning a second language is perceived not only in the lack of motivation to learn English, but also in the difficulty to undertake or understand basic assignments such as responding to activities in well-organized paragraphs or coherent sentences, even in Spanish. In turn, these limitations have an unfavourable effect upon the creative process, as well as upon the ability to discern between dissimilar viewpoints and draw independent conclusions. It should be noticed that these problems go beyond the ESP classroom, influencing students’ performance in other subjects as well.

I.2. Specific teaching context

5Within the context of the National University of Rio Cuarto, Argentina, most departments demand specialised English courses, which in most cases have become compulsory subjects. The courses involved in the present study cater for non-anglophone students of Biology, Microbiology, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science, who are usually required to read content-area textbooks and papers in English at a relatively early stage in their studies. Additionally, despite three to five years of regular English instruction at high school, most of these students still have a low proficiency level. Once in college, the curricula offer few opportunities to help them develop reading strategies, since they only have one or, at most, two obligatory courses. More advanced students prefer to obtain the credits by sitting for the final exam as ‘non-attending’ students while others postpone the ESP requirement until they have completed all the other courses. Those who attend classes do not generally feel enthusiastic about the subject; a great proportion fails to attend regularly; and almost half of the enrolled students drop the course by mid-semester (Fernández 2008). These observations have confirmed earlier and more thorough studies on causes of undergraduate failure in all five schools of the University (Moyano et al. 2003; Vazquez 2005).

6The above considerations briefly reflect the problems that have been of concern to our team and that gave rise to the present proposal with the object of complementing existing teaching material and helping students overcome the difficulties mentioned previously. The project also aims at stimulating students’ imagination, promoting their reading habits, improving their reading competence of texts other than scientific ones, and contributing to the development of critical thinking skills.

II. Methodology

II. 1. Subjects

7Three ESP classes participated in this project. The students’ ages ranged from 18 to 21 years, and they were mostly second year undergraduates. Respondents to the 2007 survey consisted of 91 students majoring in Geology (2%), Microbiology and Biology (74%), Maths and Computer Science (24%).

II. 2. Materials

8Looking for stimulating materials, a selection was made of science-fiction novels and short stories which were modified to include shortened and/or simplified passages, plus vocabulary and credible information from scientific bibliography close to the students’ fields of study (See Appendix I).

9The succinct discussion that follows provides some arguments against the assumption that the language of science is merely referential. These perspectives, in turn, further support the use of stories with scientific content for sensitizing students of science to the pleasurable experience of reading.

10Notwithstanding the endeavours of science to make its language “as transparent and neutral as possible” (Barthes 1967, in Newton 1997: 94), the notion of literal meaning associated to the scientific discourse is problematic. In fact, “today’s conventional language and knowledge were metaphorical yesterday, and even conventional language requires interpretation each time it is used pragmatically” (Marcos 1997: 129). Or, as Rorty states, “old metaphors are constantly dying off into literalness” (1989: 16). From this viewpoint, the instrumental status generally assigned to the language of science is subject to a new scrutiny that exceeds the scope of this paper. Reference should be made, however, to observations derived from close studies of Aristotle’s writings (Marcos 1997) that reveal that metaphor is a creative discovery of similarity, the same in science as in poetry. In fact, he “was the first philosopher to assert the importance of the role of metaphor in the growth of knowledge and language” (Marcos 1997: 123). Considered in these terms, language can be seen as an integrating force between the world of science and the world of literature. Additionally, the elaboration of abstract models (frequent in scientific practice) involves imaginative processes such as schematization, categorization, metaphor and metonymy (Lakoff 1988).

11The rationale for the use of narratives in a course of English for Science is based on the fact that literary texts not only stimulate those thought processes, but also allow the reader’s critical involvement by compelling him or her to go beyond a literal (or conventional) comprehension of what is explicitly said. This is a fundamental practice since we are surrounded in our daily lives by messages that are not overtly manifested. The process of reading, from the perspective of the relation between reader and text, is seen by Rosenblatt (1996: 67) as “transactional” in the sense that it emphasizes a fluid dynamic circuit, a reciprocal process in time, the fusion of reader and text in a synthesis that becomes “meaning”. The reader brings to the text an accumulation or memory of past internal encounters with both language and the world. When reading, the words in the text interact with those elements stored in the reader’s mind that trigger internal states related to words – states not only linked to references of verbal symbols, but also to personal, sensitive, imaginative and associative aspects. Thus, literature becomes the fittest means for exploring important questions about human beings and human life (Nussbaum 1992, 1995; Rorty 1989). If our students learn to “read for life”, as Martha Nussbaum calls for, they would bring to the literary texts their “pressing questions and perplexities, searching for images of what [they] might do and be” (1992: 29). Literature has the power of engaging our imaginative mechanisms, providing a narrative context for our self-understanding and our actions, for exploring paths of possible action, and building our character in the process. Imagination, as “a moral discipline of the mind” (Murdoch 1993: 322), is heightened by literature, thus making our worldview expand or change and preparing us to face reality with an open mind. As we combine conscious and unconscious links between linguistic relations, events and background knowledge (intertexts), we develop not only complex strategies that allow us to go beyond the “mere acquisition of knowledge”, but also habits of reflection, crucial for our students’ professional future.

  • 2 Permission for adapting and reproducing the short stories was granted by the publishers.

12Hence, the choice of narratives as complementary teaching material was guided by their thematic relevance to the students’ core subjects as well as by the prospect of engaging their imaginative mechanisms to solve problematic situations. Accordingly, Michael Crichton’s Jurassic Park and its sequel The Lost World, in their abridged forms, were considered suitable texts for students of Biological and Earth Sciences for the following reasons: 1) both plots are familiar to the students; 2) they deal with a contemporary issue, that of genetic engineering and its consequences; 3) actual scientific data are used to support the fictional events; and 4) they feature the degree of action and suspense needed to keep young readers’ attention. Jurassic Park (1991) was adapted for students attending the first level of English while The Lost World (1995) was used in the second level. As for the year-long course of English for Mathematics and Computer Science, three different short stories – Arthur Clarke’s “Into the Comet” (1992), Isaac Asimov’s “True Love” (1985) and Philip Prowse’s “Help!” (2001) – proved to have been appealing topics for our students. These stories were collected in a single textbook named Fiction in English for Students of Mathematics and Computing (2006)2.

13The texts were divided into sections followed by activities (see Appendix II) intended to give the students the possibility of imagining future events, comparing actual and imaginary situations, questioning hypothesis or viewpoints, commenting on facts or actions, making assumptions, and inferring information. Assignments also aimed at providing further practice in identifying topic sentences (skimming), understanding paragraph cohesion, deducing the meaning of unknown words, and the rapid location of information in texts (scanning).

14A questionnaire was administered to students at the end of the year. They were given the option to remain anonymous. The survey had a twofold purpose: a) to gain insights into their attitudes towards reading, and b) to assess their perception about the impact of the project on their reading competence in English. The questionnaire consisted of 14 items and was divided into two parts. Part A contained 8 items related to their reading competence in Spanish, reading habits, motivation for reading, favourite genres, and perception of the importance of reading skills. Part B included 6 questions about the implementation of the project in the classroom (see Appendix III).

II. 3. Procedures

15During the first half of the first semester, students worked with handbooks specially designed on the basis of excerpts from books, journals, and scientific magazines, graded according to grammatical and lexical complexity, and special attention was given to the practice of different reading strategies. The stories were introduced after the students’ reading ability had been measured by means of a comprehension test including summarizing, finding a core idea, identifying function words, as well as questions involving reorganization, reinterpretation, and inference. At this stage, two out of the four course hours per week were devoted to the science-fiction texts.

16It should be pointed out that students’ responses to assignments were in Spanish, thus providing an important insight into the development of their mother tongue competence in writing.

II. 4. Analysis

17The answers were loaded and analysed by means of the statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS 9.0). Measures of central tendency were calculated where appropriate as well as frequencies for the different answers. Surveys using the questionnaire have been carried out every year since 2004, but only the 2007 results are given for illustrative purposes.

III. Results

18Only 3.3% of the students believed they had a low reading proficiency level. 70% of the students stated that they had read fragments of literary pieces in high school. However, none of the options indicating their preference in reading material, i.e., scientific texts, literary texts, newspapers, popular magazines and science-fiction, were selected with a percentage higher than 48.4%. Around 40% of the students stated that their motivation for reading came from their families, school, or the university, and only 3% said that they had no motivation at all. 60% of the students had read up to 2 books in the year. Among the books they marked as favourites, they mentioned novels, poems and true-to-life stories. Half of the students stated that their main objective for reading was entertainment and learning, though they regarded reading as a key issue for their professional development: 90% considered it as either relatively important or very important, and only 9 students marked it as “of low importance” (10%).

19In general, the project was viewed as a positive learning experience: 90% of the students indicated that the fictional texts had contributed to their vocabulary development; 78% to their grammatical comprehension and construction of logical relations, while only 5-6% stated they had not noticed any changes. Outstandingly, 100% of the students evaluated the reading comprehension process as positive. Regarding motivation, 70% expressed that it was far more entertaining to work with texts that combined literary and scientific material. Impact on language acquisition was documented when the students were scored. They had three tests at three different times in the year to check their progress in reading competence. The percentages of passing marks (75%, 80% and 95% in the first, second, and third exam, respectively) were consistent with the students’ responses in the self-evaluation items.

IV. Discussion

20The first reaction of the students to the inclusion of science-fiction stories in the courses was surprise and perplexity. Most of them could not see the relationship between this literary genre and ESP. At the end of the year, however, they felt that reading a story had helped them to access texts other than those specific to their careers, and manifested their interest in reading other stories in English. They also acknowledged that it was a pleasant way to review grammar structures and to expand their vocabulary. This positive attitude associated with the pleasure of reading has been shown by Krashen (1981) to be essential for the improvement of reading ability.

21It was also an enriching experience from the sociological and affective point of view. For one thing, students showed great pleasure when listening to the teacher reading aloud the sections of each of the chapters, for they felt like ‘being at a story-telling session’. This feeling helped create an informal and relaxed environment which favoured the relationship between teachers and learners, and furthered cooperation among students through teamwork and the exchange of ideas, predictions, interpretations and discussions. Pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activities based on the link between fictional events and topics from students’ core subjects not only prompted debates on the responsibility of researchers in the face of a scientific breakthrough or the boundaries between science and ethics, but helped them realize the interconnection among different fields of studies as well.

22Though training in low level skills was more intensive during the class hours devoted to the scientific texts, students’ attention was drawn to the different types of clues available in the stories to identify sense units, and to guess meaning of new words from context. These tasks required a second, silent reading on the part of the students followed by teacher-student discussions and verbalization of thought processes (Cohen 1998), all conducted in Spanish.

23The use of fiction in ESP courses over a period of five years has led us to believe in the pedagogical value of the project. The combination of literary and scientific discourses resulted in more productive foreign language learning and contributed to the integration of second language reading skills, science concepts, and ethical concerns. Besides providing the context for language practice, the stories functioned as a bridge between the real world and the ethical issues that may evolve from scientific questions by helping students recognize hypothetical dilemmas while developing moral imagination and a sense of responsibility. Additionally, most of the project participants could overcome initial difficulties in organizing their thoughts in words, backing Van Peer’s statement (1989) that by stimulating the imagination, the narrative text fosters the development of the more complex cognitive abilities – inference, integration, and conjecture. We therefore strongly encourage our colleagues to critically adapt, enlarge, and apply this approach in other ESP teaching contexts.

  • 3 The questionnaire was in Spanish to make sure that the students understood the items.

Appendix III – Questionnaire3

Part A : Reading in your mother tongue

1. How would you evaluate your reading competence?

a. Advanced (I can read and understand all kinds of texts)

b. Average (I can read and understand texts of low complexity)

c. Below average (I have difficulties in understanding what I read)

2. About your reading experience in high school

a. I’ve read more than five books

b. I’ve read from two to five books

c. I’ve read two books

d. I’ve read only one book

e. I’ve read only fragments of literary pieces.

3. What type of literature do you prefer? (You may choose more than one option)

a. Novels

b. Poems

c. Biographies

d. True-to-life stories

Please, provide titles of the books you have enjoyed most.

4. What do you usually read? (You may choose more than one option)

a. Scientific texts

b. Literary texts

c. Science-fiction

d. Newspapers

e. Magazines

f. Comics

5. Where did you find motivation for reading?

a. Family

b. School

c. Friends

d. University

e. I’m not motivated at all

6. How many books do you read in a year? (Do not include textbooks)

a. More than ten

b. From 5 to 10

c. From 2 to 5

d. Less than 2

7. Why do you read?

a. For enjoyment and/or general interest (personal reading)

b. For learning

8. How important is reading for your professional development?

a. Very important

b. Relatively important

c. Of low importance

Part B : Science-fiction in the English class

1. It was an interesting experience

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Quite agree

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

f. Neutral

2. It contributed to enlarging my vocabulary

a. Strongly agree

b. Agree

c. Quite agree

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

f. Neutral

3. It contributed to my understanding of English grammar

a. Strongly agree

b Agree

c Quite agree

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

f. Neutral

4. It helped me understand logical relations

a. Strongly agree

b Agree

c Quite agree

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

f. Neutral

5. It helped me develop my reading competence in English

a. Strongly agree

b Agree

c Quite agree

d. Disagree

e. Strongly disagree

f. Neutral

6. How do you prefer to work in the English classroom?

a. With scientific texts only. Why?

b. With both literary and scientific material. Why?

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Theoretical background

Barthes, R. 1967. “Science versus Literature”, in Newton K. M. (ed). 1997. Twentieth-Century Literary Theory. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan.

Cohen, A. D. 1998. Strategies in learning and using a second language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Diaz-Santos, G. 2000. “Technothrillers and English for science and technology.” English for Specific Purposes, 19, 3: 221-236.

Fernández, L. 2008. “Learning Styles and Reading Strategies of ESP students.” Unpublished thesis. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto.

Krashen, S. 1981. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Lakoff, G. 1988. “Cognitive Semantics” in Eco, U. et al (eds.) Meaning and Mental Representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 119-154.

Lee Z., M. & J. Zoreda-Lozano. 1996. “Science-fiction: Promoting Cultural/Critical Values in the Technical English University Curriculum in Mexico”. Ometeca III:1/2-IV:1/2: 490-507.

Loyo, A., M. Rivero y A. McCormack. (Comp.) 2007. 10th Latin American ESP Colloquium “ESP Research in Latin American”-Book of Abstracts. Rio Cuarto: Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto.

Marcos, A. 1997. “The tension between Aristotle’s theories and uses of metaphor.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 28, 1: 123-129.

Moyano, M., V. Macchiarola, I. Jure, A. Solari & M. E. Berrutti. 2003. El rol de la Universidad pública: Políticas de mejoramiento de la enseñanza de grado. Río Cuarto: Editorial de la UNRC.

Murdoch, I. 1993. Metaphysics as a Guide to Morals. London: Penguin.

Newton K. M. (ed). 1997. Twentieth-Century Literary Theory. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan.

Nussbaum, M. C. 1992. Love’s Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nussbaum, M. C. 1995. Poetic Justice. Boston: Beacon Press.

Oxford, L. R. 1990. Language Learning Strategies. Boston: Heinsle & Heinsle.

Oxford, L. Rebecca. 2003. “Language Learning Styles and Strategies: An Overview”. (accessed March 8, 2007).

Petit, M. & S. Isani (dir.) 2004. Aspects de la fiction à substrat professionnel. Bordeaux: Universitè Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Collection Travaux 20.25.

Rorty, R. 1989. Contingency, Irony and Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenblatt, L. M. 1996. Textos y contexto. Buenos Aires: Lectura y vida.

Van Peer, W. 1989. “How to do things with texts: Towards a pragmatic foundation for the teaching of texts” in Short, M. (ed.) Reading, Analysing and Teaching Literature. London: Longman.

Vázquez, Alicia. 2005. ¿Alfabetización en la Universidad?. Colección de cuadernillos de actualización para pensar la Enseñanza Universitaria. Año 1. Nº 1. Río Cuarto: Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto.

Classroom application

Asimov, I. “True Love”. In Mc Rae, J. & L. Pantaleón. 1985. Chapter and Verse. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 98-101.

Boiero, M., M. G. Jure, L. Fernández & L. Remondino. 2006. Fiction in English for Mathematics and Computing. Serie: Materiales para la Enseñanza. Río Cuarto: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto.

Clarke, A. C. “Into the Comet”. In Clarke, A. C. 1992. Tales of Ten Worlds. Oxford: Heinemann Guided Readers.

Crichton, M. 1991. Jurassic Park. (Retold by F. H. Cornish). 2005. Macmillan Readers. New York: Macmillan.

Crichton, M. 1995. The Lost World. (Retold by J. McAlpin). 1998. Penguin Readers. London: Longman.

Prowse, P. 2001. Help! Cambridge English Readers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Appendix I – Sample pages

Appendix I. Fig. 1: Sample excerpt from Help! showing modifications in bold

Appendix I. Fig. 1: Sample excerpt from Help! showing modifications in bold

Appendix I. Fig. 2: Sample excerpt from The Lost World showing modifications in bold

Appendix I. Fig. 2: Sample excerpt from The Lost World showing modifications in bold

Appendix II – Sample activities

Appendix II. Fig. 1: Sample activities for « Into the Comet » by Arthur. C. Clarke

Appendix II. Fig. 1: Sample activities for « Into the Comet » by Arthur. C. Clarke

Appendix II. Fig. 2: Sample activity for The Lost World

Appendix II. Fig. 2: Sample activity for The Lost World

Appendix II. Fig. 3: Sample activity for Jurassic Park

Appendix II. Fig. 3: Sample activity for Jurassic Park
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1 PIMEG : Proyectos de Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza de Grado.

2 Permission for adapting and reproducing the short stories was granted by the publishers.

3 The questionnaire was in Spanish to make sure that the students understood the items.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Appendix I. Fig. 1: Sample excerpt from Help! showing modifications in bold
Fichier image/png, 65k
Titre Appendix I. Fig. 2: Sample excerpt from The Lost World showing modifications in bold
Fichier image/png, 58k
Titre Appendix II. Fig. 1: Sample activities for « Into the Comet » by Arthur. C. Clarke
Fichier image/png, 68k
Titre Appendix II. Fig. 2: Sample activity for The Lost World
Fichier image/png, 53k
Titre Appendix II. Fig. 3: Sample activity for Jurassic Park
Fichier image/png, 42k
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María Cristina Boiero de Angelo, Gabriela Jure, Lía Fernandez et Luciana Remondino, « Creating spaces for improving reading competence: science-fiction in ESP courses », Cahiers de l’APLIUT, Vol. XXVII N° 3 | 2008, 33-47.

Référence électronique

María Cristina Boiero de Angelo, Gabriela Jure, Lía Fernandez et Luciana Remondino, « Creating spaces for improving reading competence: science-fiction in ESP courses », Cahiers de l’APLIUT [En ligne], Vol. XXVII N° 3 | 2008, mis en ligne le 18 août 2011, consulté le 15 septembre 2019. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/apliut.1301

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María Cristina Boiero de Angelo

María Cristina Boiero de Angelo is Associate Professor at the Rio Cuarto National University where she teaches ESP for students of Natural and Exact Sciences. She also lectures on Metafiction for post graduate students of English. Her research interests lie primarily in Literature and developing appropriate materials for Reading Comprehension courses. Other areas of interest include Ethics and Bioethics.

Gabriela Jure

Gabriela Jure teaches ESP, 20th Century English Literature, Children’s and Adolescent’s Literature, a Workshop Seminar on the Production of Literary Texts as well as Language and Literature for the BA. in English at the Rio Cuarto National University. She has recently submitted her dissertation on “Voices of the Victorian Discourse in The Novel Possession : A Romance by A.S. Byatt : Constructions of Gender Identities” to obtain an MA in Angloamerican Literature.

Lía Fernandez

Lía Fernández teaches ESP at the Rio Cuarto National University. She has recently submitted her Master’s dissertation to obtain an MA in Linguistics. The thesis title is: “Learning Styles and Reading Strategies of ESP students”.

Luciana Remondino

Luciana Remondino is Assistant Professor of ESP at the Rio Cuarto National University. She has attended several postgraduate courses on Linguistics and English Language Teaching. As a member of research teams, she has presented papers at national and international conferences, and co-authored articles in refereed journals.

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Droits d’auteur

Association des Professeurs de Langues des Instituts Universitaires de Technologie

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