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Silver jar from the bosporan sanctuary of Demeter and Kore: results of neutron tomography and XRF investigations

Cruche en argent provenant d’un sanctuaire de bosphore de Déméter et Koré (péninsule de Taman, Russie) : résultats d’examen de la croûte de surface par les méthodes XRF et tomographie neutronique
Alexey Zavoikin, Irina Saprykina, Lubov Pelgunova, Sergey Kichanov et Denis Kozlenko
p. 55-67

Résumés

L’article présente les résultats d’une étude d’un film d’halogénure formé à la surface d’une cruche en argent trouvée en 2002 dans le sanctuaire de Déméter et Kore sur la péninsule de Taman (Région de Krasnodar, Russie). Le sanctuaire étudié est situé dans la colonie de Beregovoye 4 et est associé aux cultes éleusiniens qui existent déjà sur le territoire du Bosphore Cimmérien. La cruche d’argent a été placée dans un hydriskos en céramique spécialement préparé hermétiquement fermé avec une corde en herbe de mer. Un côté de la cruche était recouvert d’une croûte d’une substance, qui a été initialement interprétée comme les restes de sel marin. Dans notre cas, cette supposition peut être exclue, puisque l’endroit où la cruche a été trouvée est situé au-dessus du niveau de la mer (12,60 m). Le sanctuaire est situé au pied d’un volcan de boue (Mont Gorelaia), dont la dernière éruption a eu lieu en 1794. La composition chimique de la boue volcanique de Taman a montré la présence de Cl et de Br. Nous supposons que la présence d’un film d’halogénure à la surface d’une cruche en argent peut s’expliquer par des péloïdes ou de la boue volcanique, qui étaient utilisés pour des rituels et des pratiques médicales ou cultuelles dans le sanctuaire de Déméter et Koré.

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Texte intégral

This study was carried out with the support of State assignments: № АААА-А18-118011790092-5; № АААА-А18-118011790093-2; № 04-4-1142-2021/2025; № 0109-2019-0008.

1. Introduction

1The sanctuary of Demeter and Kore is located on the west coast of the Fontalovsky Peninsula (northern part of the Taman Peninsula, Krasnodar, Russia), on the coast of the Kerch strait (Cimmerian Bosporus) (Fig. 1). The altitude of the sanctuary is about 12.6 meters above the sea level (Fig. 2). It is located on the promontory which extends from the east to the north, isolated from the rest part of the continent by deep ravines (dried-water flows) (Fig. 3). To the north and south from these ravines lie remains of a big settlement Beregovoy 4 (middle VI – middle I century BC). To the east from the sanctuary, there is a mud volcano Mount Gorelaya (Kuku-Oba, 103.5 m), which vent is 2330 m far from the sanctuary. This cult site was discovered by B. Peters in 1987-1988, its excavations were continued in 1999-2002 and 2004 years. As a result, the sanctuary was completely excavated on the area of 500 m2 (Zavoikin, 2006; Zavoikin & Sudarev, 2009; Zavoikin & Zhuravlev, 2013).

Figure 1. Location of the settlement “Beregovoy 4” on the Taman Peninsula with approaching (satellite imagery) (a, b, c) / Figure 1. Localisation de la colonie “Beregovoy 4” sur la péninsule de Taman avec grossissement (imagerie satellite) (a, b, c)

Figure 1. Location of the settlement “Beregovoy 4” on the Taman Peninsula with approaching (satellite imagery) (a, b, c) / Figure 1. Localisation de la colonie “Beregovoy 4” sur la péninsule de Taman avec grossissement (imagerie satellite) (a, b, c)

Figure 2: Location of the settlement “Beregovoy 4” / Figure 2 : Localisation de la colonie « Beregovoy 4 »

Figure 2: Location of the settlement “Beregovoy 4” / Figure 2 : Localisation de la colonie « Beregovoy 4 »

1) View from Taman galf. 2) View from the southern gully. 3) View from the sanctuary to the northern ravine and Mount Kuku-Oba, the top is marked with an arrow
1) Vue depuis Taman galf. 2) Vue depuis le ravin sud. 3) Vue depuis le sanctuaire vers le ravin nordern et le mont Kuku-Oba, le sommet est marqué avec une flèche

Figure 3 : Location the sanctuary and the territory of the settlement / Figure 3: Localisation du sanctuaire et du territoire de la colonie

Figure 3 : Location the sanctuary and the territory of the settlement / Figure 3: Localisation du sanctuaire et du territoire de la colonie

1) Settlement “Beregovoy 4”. 2) The sanctuary of Demeter and Kore
1) De la colonie « Beregovoy 4 ». 2) Le sanctuaire de Déméter et Kore

2This article is dedicated to the one specific object from a number of various items related with the cult of Eleusinian Goddesses worshipped on this territory from the end of the VI to the middle of the I century BC. This object was found in a peculiar cult complex (#18.9). The complex was discovered in 2002 to the north-west from the corner of the mud bricks fence of the temenos built not earlier than the IV century BC. This district is only one that has some specific features, such as pits filled with the products of burning (coals and ashes). One of the most exciting complexes is located in the center of one of these pits (#18.17). It is a small (0,28 × 0,26 × 0,15 m) single stone and in some deepening (from the level of the stone foot) at its northern edge, a curious hidden cache was found (Fig. 4.1). This cache consists of two parts and in its east one, there was a vertically placed red clay hydriskos under the flat ceramic fragment (Fig. 4.2), the neck and all three handles of which had been accurately chipped off. Hydriskos dated in wide limits from the IV BC to II AD. The neck was closed by sea herbs (algae) rolled into a tight rope, which after drying out had fallen down inside the jar (Fig. 4.3). There was some amount of soil inside the hydriskos, and even more, there was a tiny (3.1 × 3.1 cm) silver jar (Fig. 4.4) with a round body and thick heavy bottom. There are tracks of leakage of some substance on the surface of the jar.

3There was another amphora fragment close to the hydriskos in the west part of the hidden cache (Fig. 4.1). Another broken red clay hydriskos was found after removing the abovementioned item (Fig. 5.1). Silver plates with relief images and a golden sign (indication) with the image of the Satyr’s head (fragments of necklace; Fig. 5.2, Fig. 7) were found among its broken fragments (Zavoikin, 2015). These silver plates were marked with patterns (eyes, wrists of the hands, human figures) correlating with the scenes of Eleusinian Mysteries. It should be noted, that such sacral aspect of the Demeter and Kore cult is underrepresented in the literature, especially in the recent publications. Thus, in this article we are trying to recover some of the interrelations between cults of Demeter and Asclepios (see: Πινγιάτογλου, 2003; 2010), which were related with “medical” or healing aspects of this sanctuary.

Figure 4: The complex 18.9 / Figure 4 : Le complexe 18.9

Figure 4: The complex 18.9 / Figure 4 : Le complexe 18.9

1) General look of the complex. 2) The clay hydriskos. 3) Covering made from the sea herbs. 4) The silver jar with zone of the crust (arrow) and traces of tin (rectangle)
1) Vue générale du complexe. 2) Gidriskos en céramique. 3) Bouchon d’herbes marines. 4) Cruche en argent avec zone de la croûte (flèche) et traces d’étain (rectangle)

Figure 5: The complex 18.9 / Figure 5 : Le complexe 18.9

Figure 5: The complex 18.9 / Figure 5 : Le complexe 18.9

1) Clay hydriskos (after reconstruction). 2) General look of the items from the hydriskos. 3) Golden sign. 4) to 7) The plates of the necklace
1) Gidriskos en céramique (après la restauration). 2) Vue générale des objets provenant du gidriskos. 3) Signe d’or. 4) à 7) Plaques du collier

2. Materials and Methods

4The silver jar found in the red clay hydriskos is the main object of our study. It was produced by forging of a sheet of metal. The bottom of the jar was manufactured by hand forging process such as setting down. The optical microscope study revealed a side welding joint (Fig. 4.4D). The surface of the jar is black (probably, due to the presence of sulfides in the corrosion layer; Angelini et al., 2013), and covered by crust of dark purple with yellow spots. This covering crust area is strictly localized, occupying about 1/3 of the jar surface. Its greater number falls on the neck and body of the jar. The crust area sharply ends without reaching the bottom part of the jar (Fig. 4.4A-D); it is also presented on the inner side of the jar as well.

5The neutron radiography and tomography were used to study definite determination of the area and the depth of the crust on the internal and external walls of the jar (Kozlenko et al., 2015; Kozlenko et al., 2016). The research facility is located on the 14-th beamline of the IBR-2 high-flux pulsed reactor at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. It should be noted, that the neutron tomography method does not allow elemental composition determination, but provides detailed spatial distribution of different elements inside a given volume with a relatively high spatial resolution. When using neutron radiography and tomography, signal output from pure silver and silver halides cannot be separated. The attenuation of the neutron beam corresponds with the scattering and absorption losses inside the matter. It is explained by rather close coefficients of the neutron beam attenuation for silver Ag (∑Ag=0.493 cm-1) and its halides: AgBr (∑AgBr=0.505 cm-1) and AgCl (∑AgCl=0.954 cm-1) (Searf, 1992).

6Each of the tree-dimension volume elements (voxels) is characterized by spatial coordinates in the reconstructed 3D volume and a special shade of grayscale, which describes the spatial distribution of values of the neutron absorption coefficients inside volume of the jar. A data set containing a volume distribution of 3D pixels (voxels) was obtained. The size of one voxel in our studies is 525252 µm. A set of neutron radiography images has been collected by the detector system based on the HAMAMATSU CCD chip and the scintillation screen 6LiF/ZnS. The neutron beam dimension was 20 cm, the characteristic parameter L/D was 200. The exposure time for one projection was 10 s. The tomography experiments were performed with a rotation step of 0.5º by means of the HUBER goniometers system. The obtained imaging data was corrected by the dark current image of digital camera and normalized to the image of the incident neutron beam by means of the ImageJ software (Schneider et al., 2012). The tomographic reconstruction from separate angular neutron projections was performed using the H-PITRE software (Chen et al., 2012). VGStudio MAX 2.2 software of Volume Graphics (Heidelberg, Germany) was used for visualization and analysis of reconstructed 3D data. Special plugin Local Thickness (Dougherty & Kunzelmann, 2007) for the ImageJ software was used for the spatial distribution of the wall thickness of the jar.

7Standardless XRF method was applied to determine the chemical composition of the silver jar and crust on its surface using M4 Tornado (Bruker, Germany) spectrometer (tube: voltage 50 kW, current 600 µA). Determination of elemental composition of crust was carried out under vacuum of 20 mBar. Local zones were analyzed on the surface (diameter 0.3-0.5 cm), for each of which from 5 to 10 points were taken (MultiPoint with manual choice of points for analysis). Calculations of spectra were performed in the identification mode (Interactive); the obtained results are shown in Tables.

8Additionally, we studied the chemical composition of the surface of four triangle silver plates of the necklace showing human figures: a man’s figure turned to the right, a man’s figure dressed in chiton; or images of hands found in another hydriskos in the west part of same complex. The reverse side of the necklace silver plates found in another hydriskos was of typical dark-grey color, which differs from corrosion or, as an example, from “horn silver”. The crusts, as on the walls of the vessel, were not fixed on them.

3. Results

9An analysis of metal composition of both crust covered and crust free areas of the jar was performed. The data obtained has shown that the jar was made of silver, its content varies from 97.78% to 98.15% (mean values). Observed concentrations of Au, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and As are characteristic for impurities (Table 1). One of the areas inside the neck of the jar has white color and its analysis has shown high concentration of tin (Table 2).

10The analysis of the crust composition of both internal and external walls of the jar (as the one side of investigated silver plates) has shown the presence of such elements as Cl and Br (Table 3). Even higher concentrations of these elements were detected for the surfaces of the necklace’s silver plates that were found in the broken hydriskos that was in contact with the soil in the pit 18.17: the content of Br ranged from 1.43% to 17.76% and of Cl from 2.16 to 21.01% (Table 4) (Fig. 6). We suppose, that these elements (Br, Cl) are absent in the surrounding the hydriskos’es environment and nearby found items (Scott, 1990; Gore & Davis, 2016). On the contrary, these elements indicate the presence of sparingly soluble halide layer (AgCl+AgBr) on the surface of both silver plates and the jar, that probably formed as a result of interaction of silver with Cl and Br aqueous solutions. Thus, on the surfaces of the silver jar and necklace plates we have found the presence of halide films or crust indicating areas of the corrosion processes (North & MacLeod, 1987; Schindelholz, 2001; Vassiliou & Gouda, 2013; Marchand et al., 2014; etc.).

Table 1: The chemical composition of silver jar (areas free of the crust) / Tableau 1 : La composition chimique d’une cruche en argent (zones sans croûte)

Table 1: The chemical composition of silver jar (areas free of the crust) / Tableau 1 : La composition chimique d’une cruche en argent (zones sans croûte)

Table 2: The chemical composition of white area in the throat of silver jar / Tableau 2 : La composition chimique de la zone blanche dans la gorge d’une cruche en argent

Table 2: The chemical composition of white area in the throat of silver jar / Tableau 2 : La composition chimique de la zone blanche dans la gorge d’une cruche en argent

Table 3: The chemical composition of the crust on the silver jar / Tableau 3 : La composition chimique de la croûte sur une cruche en argent

Table 3: The chemical composition of the crust on the silver jar / Tableau 3 : La composition chimique de la croûte sur une cruche en argent

11

Table 4: The chemical composition of surface of silver plates of necklace / Tableau 4 : La composition chimique de la surface des plaques d’argent du collier

Table 4: The chemical composition of surface of silver plates of necklace / Tableau 4 : La composition chimique de la surface des plaques d’argent du collier

12The second goal of our study was to determine the area and the depth of the crust on the both internal and external sides of the silver jar. To get the result, we have investigated it by the means of the neutron tomography which has shown that the area covered by halides film on the external part of the jar corresponds rather well with its internal spread. Fig. 7.1-3 demonstrate slices of 3D models of the jar obtained by means of tomographic reconstruction, which correspond to its lower, middle parts, and its neck. The areas relevant to the crust can be clearly seen on the slice images corresponding to the neck and middle part of the jar. The general look of the 3D model of the jar is shown in Fig. 7.4. The virtual slice of this 3D model (Fig. 7.5) proves the uneven surface of the crust inside the studied jar.

13The obtained 3D data was analyzed using Local Thickness algorithm to estimate the variation of the silver jar’s wall thickness caused by the presence of the crust. (Dougherty & Kunzelmann, 2007). As a result of these calculations, 3D models showing variations in the mean thickness of the jar walls were obtained. 3D models of the silver jar with corresponding wall thickness calculations are shown in Fig. 8.1-5. Corresponding 3D models of the silver jar with according wall thickness calculations are shown in Fig. 8.1-3. It can be seen that the crust on the jar’s surface represents a rather anisotropic non-homogeneous structure consisting of big bunches and clusters with linear characteristic sizes of 1-2 mm. Between the bunches a rather thick film with significantly increasing thickness of the jar walls is noticed. The corresponding 3D models of variation of the wall thickness of the silver jar are shown for internal (Fig. 8.4) and external (8.5) parts of the jar. The quantitative calculations on the variations of the thickness of the jar walls have also been performed. The minimal thickness of the wall (or the minimal thickness of the halide crust) is 0.4(1) mm. The average size of the bunches is 2.3(1) mm. The average thickness of the wall of the bunches is in range of 1.2(1)–1.5(1) mm. If we assume that the volumes of silver and of halide crust are the same in the thin part, then the thickness of the jar wall will be equal to the thickness of the silver part (estimated to be 0.2(1) mm) sum the external and internal layer of halides. In this case, the thickness of the halides crust on one side of the jar will be about ~1 mm.

Figure 6: The spectrum of the surface of the one necklace’s silver plate / Figure 6 : Le spectre de la surface de la plaque d’argent du collier

Figure 6: The spectrum of the surface of the one necklace’s silver plate / Figure 6 : Le spectre de la surface de la plaque d’argent du collier

Figure 7: The results of investigations of the silver jar using the neutron tomography method / Figure 7 : Résultats de l’étude d’une cruche en argent par tomographie neutronique

Figure 7: The results of investigations of the silver jar using the neutron tomography method / Figure 7 : Résultats de l’étude d’une cruche en argent par tomographie neutronique

1) Virtual slice of the reconstructed model of the silver jar corresponding to its lower part near the bottom. 2) Virtual slice of the reconstructed jar model corresponding to its middle part. 3) Virtual slice of the reconstructed jar model corresponding to its middle part. 4) The 3D model of the silver jar reconstructed from the neutron tomography data. Color schema corresponds to the neutron attenuation coefficient of the studied jar. The scale is presented. 5) Virtual slice of the 3D model of the jar, where marked the rough crust of the halides on the inner wall of the jar. The 3D model of the vessel shows the positions of the corresponding slices of the bottom (1), middle (2) and upper part (3) of the vessel
1) Coupe virtuelle du modèle reconstruit d’une cruche en argent, correspondant à sa partie inférieure en bas. 2) Coupe virtuelle du modèle de la cruche reconstruite, correspondant à sa partie médiane. 3) Une coupe virtuelle du modèle de la cruche reconstruite, correspondant à sa partie médiane. 4) Modèle 3D d’une cruche en argent, reconstruite à partir des données de tomographie neutronique. La palette de couleurs correspond au coefficient d’atténuation neutronique du vaisseau étudié. L’échelle est présentée. 5) Tranche virtuelle d’un modèle 3D d’une cruche montrant une croûte d’halogénure rugueuse sur la paroi intérieure de la cruche. Le modèle 3D du récipient montre les positions des tranches correspondantes du fond (1), du milieu (2) et de la partie supérieure (3) du récipient

Figure 8: The results of the analysis of the neutron tomography 3D data of the silver jar / Figure 8 : Résultats de l’analyse des données de tomographie 3D neutronique de la cruche en argent

Figure 8: The results of the analysis of the neutron tomography 3D data of the silver jar / Figure 8 : Résultats de l’analyse des données de tomographie 3D neutronique de la cruche en argent

1) Virtual slice of the reconstructed model of the silver jar, which analyzed by the Local Thickness algorithm. It is the lower parts of the jar, near its bottom. 2) Virtual slice of the obtained model, corresponding the middle part of the jar. 3) Virtual slice of the obtained model, corresponding the middle part of the jar. 4) The 3D model of the internal part of the silver jar as a result of the analysis by the Local Thickness algorithm. 5) The 3D model of the external part of the silver jar. The color scheme corresponding to the variations of the thickness of the silver jar walls from the minimal 0.43(3) mm (dark blue color) to the maximal value - 2.15(3) mm (red color) is used for all the figures
1) Coupe virtuelle du modèle reconstruit de la cruche en argent, analysé à l’aide de l’algorithme d’épaisseur locale. C’est la partie inférieure de la cruche, près du fond. 2) Coupe virtuelle du modèle résultant, correspondant à la partie médiane de la cruche. 3) Coupe virtuelle du modèle résultant, correspondant à la partie médiane de la cruche. 4) Modèle 3D de l’intérieur d’une cruche en argent suite à une analyse par l’algorithme d’épaisseur locale. 5) Modèle 3D de la partie extérieure de la cruche en argent. Toutes les photos utilisent une palette de couleurs correspondant aux variations de l’épaisseur de la paroi de la cruche en argent d’un minimum de 0,43 (3) mm (bleu foncé) à une valeur maximale de 2,15 (3) mm (rouge).

4. Discussion

14The XRF obtained data have shown that the silver jar was in contact with specific solutions, containing such elements as Br, Cl. As a result of reaction between Ag (the material of jar) and some Br,Cl-solutions was created the sparingly soluble halide layer (AgCl+AgBr) on the surface. It is known that in the presence of a salt water, silver forms a semi-protective corrosion layer of silver chloride (AgCl) and silver bromide (AgBr), accompanied by formation of various quantities of silver sulfide (Angelini et al., 2013). A characteristic deep purple crust (Schindelholz, 2001) on the walls of the jar is an indirect proof of interaction of silver, particularly of the jar, with highly saturated bromides and chlorides of the salt medium.

15This crust were detected also in the inner part of the jar; the traces of a pewter lid location was identified on the neck, which are lost by now. The 3D data obtained by means of neutron tomography have proved indirectly, that the surface of the silver jar had endured a long contact with the saturated salt environment. This salt environment, as known from another research, can be a seawater (North & MacLeod, 1987; Angelini et al., 2013; etc.). However, in our opinion, the location itself of coastal sanctuary of buried the silver jar and the necklace plates on the high ground (12.60 m above sea) exclude the possibility of their prolonged contact with seawater.

16The location of the sanctuary, where the silver jar and necklace plates were found, lies in the area characterized by high saturation of soil with chloride salts. This kastanozem is spread all over the Taman Peninsula and content of chloride salts in its lower layers (horizon C) can reach 0.025% (Kirichenko, 1953). The so called “mud salt solutions”, which accompany oil, gas, K-salts, etc. is another well-known source of Cl and Br. The Taman Peninsula is famous for its oil fields, including Anastasiyevsko – Troitse area, where volcanic mud serves as natural oil seeps (Yershov et al., 2015). Researchers have counted about 40 mud volcanoes on the territory of the Taman Peninsula, most of which are still active by now and adjoining underground waters are crucial for their activity. The chemical composition of water-mud mixtures includes such elements and compounds, as: HCO3, Cl, Na, SO4, K, Ca, Mg, B, Al, Si and Br (Popova, 2018, p. 47, add. 3). These salt solutions soften clays lying in the lower layers of volcanic cone, and the chemical composition of the water-mud mixture (peloids) is also characterized by the presence of halides and sulfides (Kirichenko, 1953; Shnykov et al., 1986; Solonenko, 2012; etc.).

17The site where the silver jar was found is located in an anticlinal zone of the Taman Peninsula – the Fontalovsky Tectonic Zone. The area of the Beregovoy 4 sanctuary near the Mount Gorelaya is located in the central hydrodynamic zone. The chemical composition of the volcanic mud of this area is characterized by the prevalence of chloride in comparison with hydrocarbons, Id, Br, and B found in the mud-waters, of which Br is the most abundant. Probably, it is because this area belongs to the Azov-Black Sea Basin of the underground waters, which are dominated by bromine-chloride and bromine-iodine salts. The concentration of Br in the upper layers of salt waters reaches 800–2500 mg\l, the iodine salt – 2–25 mg\l.

5. Conclusions

18The characteristic deep purple layer (the area of the crust) on the surface of the jar and dark-gray layer on the necklace plates from the cult complex of the IV century BC contains large amounts of bromine and chloride. This crust was formed as the result of contact with a water-mud mixture containing halides (compounds with Cl and Br). The presence of these elements characterizes the chemical composition of volcanic mud, typical of mud volcanoes on the Taman Peninsula.

19The 3D neutron tomography data provides a distinct localization of the area of silver corrosion on the jar that seems look like a crust. Most likely, here we fixed traces of a liquid containing chlorine and bromine. Traces of the same substance were recorded on silver necklace plates from the second vessel. This substance could had been peloids (volcanic muds), rich with minerals, salts and colloids, and etc. The heating could catalyzed the reaction of these solutions with the silver of the jar and necklace plates (Stepin, 1999).

20Nowadays, it is impossible to explain why the insides of the silver jar contained a water solution of the volcanic origin, rich in Br and Cl salts. However, the fact of the presence of this solution is indisputable. The thoroughness of the concealment of this tiny silver jar and its contents, evidently demonstrates a specific value of this object. Obviously, we do not mean material value, but its high sacred value. Among other things, the value could be connected to the healing properties of peloids, which could be used in the cult of Asclepius related with sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.

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Zavoikin, A. A., 2015. Ἀνάθημα 18.9 in sanctuary of Demetr and Kore (“Beregovoy 4”). Kratkiye soobscheniya Instituta archeologii, 240 : 201-214 (in Russian).

Zavoikin, A. A., Sudarev, N. I., 2009. Settlement and sanctuary “Beregovoy 4”. Research results in 1999-2004. In Archaeological discoveries 1991-2004. European Part of Russia. M: IA RAS, 174-189 (in Russian).

Πινγιάτογλου Σ., 2003. Το ιερό της Δήμετρας στο Δίον. 2002-2003. Αρχαιολογικό έργο στη Μακεδονία και Θράκ, 17 : 429-432.

Πινγιάτογλου Σ., 2010. Cults of Female Deities at Dion. Kernos, 23 : 179-192.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1. Location of the settlement “Beregovoy 4” on the Taman Peninsula with approaching (satellite imagery) (a, b, c) / Figure 1. Localisation de la colonie “Beregovoy 4” sur la péninsule de Taman avec grossissement (imagerie satellite) (a, b, c)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-1.jpg
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Titre Figure 2: Location of the settlement “Beregovoy 4” / Figure 2 : Localisation de la colonie « Beregovoy 4 »
Légende 1) View from Taman galf. 2) View from the southern gully. 3) View from the sanctuary to the northern ravine and Mount Kuku-Oba, the top is marked with an arrow1) Vue depuis Taman galf. 2) Vue depuis le ravin sud. 3) Vue depuis le sanctuaire vers le ravin nordern et le mont Kuku-Oba, le sommet est marqué avec une flèche
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-2.jpg
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Titre Figure 3 : Location the sanctuary and the territory of the settlement / Figure 3: Localisation du sanctuaire et du territoire de la colonie
Légende 1) Settlement “Beregovoy 4”. 2) The sanctuary of Demeter and Kore1) De la colonie « Beregovoy 4 ». 2) Le sanctuaire de Déméter et Kore
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-3.jpg
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Titre Figure 4: The complex 18.9 / Figure 4 : Le complexe 18.9
Légende 1) General look of the complex. 2) The clay hydriskos. 3) Covering made from the sea herbs. 4) The silver jar with zone of the crust (arrow) and traces of tin (rectangle)1) Vue générale du complexe. 2) Gidriskos en céramique. 3) Bouchon d’herbes marines. 4) Cruche en argent avec zone de la croûte (flèche) et traces d’étain (rectangle)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-4.jpg
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Titre Figure 5: The complex 18.9 / Figure 5 : Le complexe 18.9
Légende 1) Clay hydriskos (after reconstruction). 2) General look of the items from the hydriskos. 3) Golden sign. 4) to 7) The plates of the necklace1) Gidriskos en céramique (après la restauration). 2) Vue générale des objets provenant du gidriskos. 3) Signe d’or. 4) à 7) Plaques du collier
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-5.jpg
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Titre Table 1: The chemical composition of silver jar (areas free of the crust) / Tableau 1 : La composition chimique d’une cruche en argent (zones sans croûte)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 452k
Titre Table 2: The chemical composition of white area in the throat of silver jar / Tableau 2 : La composition chimique de la zone blanche dans la gorge d’une cruche en argent
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 198k
Titre Table 3: The chemical composition of the crust on the silver jar / Tableau 3 : La composition chimique de la croûte sur une cruche en argent
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 502k
Titre Table 4: The chemical composition of surface of silver plates of necklace / Tableau 4 : La composition chimique de la surface des plaques d’argent du collier
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 290k
Titre Figure 6: The spectrum of the surface of the one necklace’s silver plate / Figure 6 : Le spectre de la surface de la plaque d’argent du collier
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 333k
Titre Figure 7: The results of investigations of the silver jar using the neutron tomography method / Figure 7 : Résultats de l’étude d’une cruche en argent par tomographie neutronique
Légende 1) Virtual slice of the reconstructed model of the silver jar corresponding to its lower part near the bottom. 2) Virtual slice of the reconstructed jar model corresponding to its middle part. 3) Virtual slice of the reconstructed jar model corresponding to its middle part. 4) The 3D model of the silver jar reconstructed from the neutron tomography data. Color schema corresponds to the neutron attenuation coefficient of the studied jar. The scale is presented. 5) Virtual slice of the 3D model of the jar, where marked the rough crust of the halides on the inner wall of the jar. The 3D model of the vessel shows the positions of the corresponding slices of the bottom (1), middle (2) and upper part (3) of the vessel1) Coupe virtuelle du modèle reconstruit d’une cruche en argent, correspondant à sa partie inférieure en bas. 2) Coupe virtuelle du modèle de la cruche reconstruite, correspondant à sa partie médiane. 3) Une coupe virtuelle du modèle de la cruche reconstruite, correspondant à sa partie médiane. 4) Modèle 3D d’une cruche en argent, reconstruite à partir des données de tomographie neutronique. La palette de couleurs correspond au coefficient d’atténuation neutronique du vaisseau étudié. L’échelle est présentée. 5) Tranche virtuelle d’un modèle 3D d’une cruche montrant une croûte d’halogénure rugueuse sur la paroi intérieure de la cruche. Le modèle 3D du récipient montre les positions des tranches correspondantes du fond (1), du milieu (2) et de la partie supérieure (3) du récipient
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-11.jpg
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Titre Figure 8: The results of the analysis of the neutron tomography 3D data of the silver jar / Figure 8 : Résultats de l’analyse des données de tomographie 3D neutronique de la cruche en argent
Légende 1) Virtual slice of the reconstructed model of the silver jar, which analyzed by the Local Thickness algorithm. It is the lower parts of the jar, near its bottom. 2) Virtual slice of the obtained model, corresponding the middle part of the jar. 3) Virtual slice of the obtained model, corresponding the middle part of the jar. 4) The 3D model of the internal part of the silver jar as a result of the analysis by the Local Thickness algorithm. 5) The 3D model of the external part of the silver jar. The color scheme corresponding to the variations of the thickness of the silver jar walls from the minimal 0.43(3) mm (dark blue color) to the maximal value - 2.15(3) mm (red color) is used for all the figures1) Coupe virtuelle du modèle reconstruit de la cruche en argent, analysé à l’aide de l’algorithme d’épaisseur locale. C’est la partie inférieure de la cruche, près du fond. 2) Coupe virtuelle du modèle résultant, correspondant à la partie médiane de la cruche. 3) Coupe virtuelle du modèle résultant, correspondant à la partie médiane de la cruche. 4) Modèle 3D de l’intérieur d’une cruche en argent suite à une analyse par l’algorithme d’épaisseur locale. 5) Modèle 3D de la partie extérieure de la cruche en argent. Toutes les photos utilisent une palette de couleurs correspondant aux variations de l’épaisseur de la paroi de la cruche en argent d’un minimum de 0,43 (3) mm (bleu foncé) à une valeur maximale de 2,15 (3) mm (rouge).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/docannexe/image/10397/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Alexey Zavoikin, Irina Saprykina, Lubov Pelgunova, Sergey Kichanov et Denis Kozlenko, « Silver jar from the bosporan sanctuary of Demeter and Kore: results of neutron tomography and XRF investigations »ArcheoSciences, 45-2 | 2021, 55-67.

Référence électronique

Alexey Zavoikin, Irina Saprykina, Lubov Pelgunova, Sergey Kichanov et Denis Kozlenko, « Silver jar from the bosporan sanctuary of Demeter and Kore: results of neutron tomography and XRF investigations »ArcheoSciences [En ligne], 45-2 | 2021, mis en ligne le 04 janvier 2023, consulté le 01 février 2023. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/archeosciences/10397 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/archeosciences.10397

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Auteurs

Alexey Zavoikin

Institute of Archaeology Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Classical Archaeology, Dm. Ulyanova street, 19, Moscow, Russia, 117036 (bospor@inbox.ru)

Irina Saprykina

Institute of Archaeology Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Archaeological Heritage Preservation, Dm. Ulyanova street, 19, Moscow, Russia, 117036 (dolmen200@mail.ru)

Lubov Pelgunova

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Laborotary of ecology and bioindication, Leninsky avenue, 33, Moscow, Russia, 119071 (lubo4ka007@bk.ru)

Sergey Kichanov

Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot-Curie str., Dubna, Russia, 141980 (ekich@nf.jinr.ru)

Denis Kozlenko

Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot-Curie str., Dubna, Russia, 141980 (denk@nf.jinr.ru)

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