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Human Skeletons from a Late Minoan IIIA2-B Chamber Tomb at Galia in the Messara

Squelettes humains provenant d’une tombe à chambre Minoen Récent IIIA2-B de Galia, Messara
Ανθρώπινοι σκελετοί σε Yστερομινωϊκό ΙΙΙ Α2-Β θαλαμωτό τάφο στη Γαλιά Μεσαράς
Photini J. P. McGeorge
p. 49-70

Résumés

Les enterrements dans cette tombe ont fourni une série d’indications sur l’adaptation physique à l’environnement dans lequel vivaient les personnes, la tuberculose ou brucellose probablement contractée par la consommation de produits provenant d’animaux infectés, les interventions professionnelles pour guérir un membre brisé, les conditions de vie en Crète meilleures peut-être que sur le continent reflétées par la stature, une stature diminuée et une hypoplasie dentaire de la femme (IV) reflet d’une société de plus en plus stratifiée, qui a également affecté négativement la femme.

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Texte intégral

My thanks to Alexandra Karetsou, whose perseverance finally brought this publication to fruition, to Mathew Haysom, the Curator at Knossos, for providing a study space and to Don Evely for many kindnesses.

Introduction

  • 1 . Four LMIII chamber tombs had already been excavated by Davaras in the same locality, see: CretChr (...)
  • 2 . See A. Karetsou’s reports in: Ergon 1975, p. 195; AD 30 B2 (1975), p. 342; PAAH 1975, B pp. 522-5 (...)
  • 3 . In the interval between 1975 and 2015, reorganization and renovation of Heraklion Museum necessit (...)

1The LM IIIA2-IIIB rock-cut chamber tomb excavated in 1975 at Stavros, east of the village of Galia and north of Moirès, was originally probably part of a cemetery.1 Burials I, II (Pl. 1-2) and III (Pl. 3) lay on wooden biers, fragments of which survived mingled with the bones and adhering to ribs (Pl. 2), on either side of burial IV, which was in a plain clay sarcophagus. The skeletal material was studied and written up in 1975 when preliminary reports on the tomb initially appeared.2 Efforts to locate the skeletons, to take digital photographs and check the 1975 report, were able to trace only one box of material from burial IV. Its condition had deteriorated significantly (Pl. 4-5).3

Pl. ia

Pl. ia

Skeleton I: anterior views of right and left patellae, showing alterations to the bone surface due to mechanical stresses, and the articular surface of the right patella with osteomyelitis.

Pl. ib

Pl. ib

Skeleton II: cranial fragments.

Pl. 2

Pl. 2

Skeletons I and II: a. Wood fragments from the biers mingled with the bones. b. A wood fragment and organic material adhering to ribs.

Pl. 3e

Pl. 3e

Cranium III: Right patella anterior aspect (left) and posterior aspect (right), with inflammatory changes to the articular surface, perhaps caused by over-reliance on the right leg owing to injury to the left tibia (Pl. 4a) that impaired his mobility.

Pl. 4a

Pl. 4a

Skeleton III: Left tibia, bone callus. Cranium IV (1975).

Individual I ♂

2The burial consists of fragments of a skull and incomplete post-cranial remains.

3Sex — No single criterion conclusively determined sex, but evaluation of several features: the large size of the acetabulum and femoral head, noticeable muscular development of the humerus and thickness of the cranial table, determined that this is a male.

  • 4 . F. E. Camps, J. M. Cameron, D. Lanham, Practical Forensic Medicine (1934).
  • 5 . D. R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones (1972), p. 59.

4Age — All the long bone epiphyses are fused indicating adulthood. Obliteration of the coronal and sagittal sutures on the endocranium, which usually begins after the age of 26, had not been initiated.4 The cusps of the first molar had been reduced by wear, but dentine exposure is negligible, whilst there is none at all on the second molar. Data standards that correlate the amount of tooth attrition with age, place this individual within the range of 17-25 years.5

5Pathology — Though not an unambiguous indicator of age, it is pertinent to take into account pathology that is to some extent age-related. Rough irregular spicules of bone or osteophytes, caused by repetitive trauma or overuse, appear on the posterior surface of the ulna olecranon (elbow joint) and on the anterior surfaces of the patellae (knees). There is also evidence of an inflammatory reaction on the posterior/articular surface of the right knee (Pl. 1a).

  • 6 . R. K. Garg, D. P. Somvanshi, “Spinal tuberculosis: A review”, The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine(...)

6Minor vertebral osteophytosis seen in the spinal column was probably asymptomatic. However, pain or other symptoms would certainly have been caused by the collapse of the first lumbar centrum, which had fused with the 12th thoracic, and by the peripheral exostoses that were formed on the lower lumbar vertebral bodies. Destruction of the intervertebral disc space between adjacent vertebral bodies (Th12/ L1) and the formation of an abscess (perhaps cold) around the lesion is a characteristic feature of spinal tuberculosis.6 The progress of spinal tuberculosis or brucellosis is slow and can last from months to years. Tuberculosis and brucellosis could have been contracted through eating infected food products from domestic animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be transmitted through air from humans living in poor conditions.

7Dental Pathology — A fragment of the left maxilla including the second and first molars, premolars and the socket of the canine, is preserved. There is no evidence of caries, abscesses or ante-mortem tooth loss. However, there are traces of calculus and enamel hypoplasia.

8Stature — All measurements are presented in Table 1. Stature was estimated as 163.416 cm.

  • 7 . L. H. D. Buxton, “Platymeria and Platycnemia”, Journal of Anatomy 73 (1938), pp. 31-36.
  • 8 . W. Townsley, “Platymeria”, The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 58 (1946), pp. 85-89; J. Cam (...)

9Variation — Indices calculated for the femur and tibia fall into the categories platymeric and platycnemic. There is no consensus of opinion to explain these phenomena. Some authorities suggest pathological factors: association with osteoarthritis or with calcium deficiency, implying a shortage of bone,7 others suggest muscular factors related to persistent squatting, or support of the body and gait adopted when walking in hilly country.8 It has been noted that platymeria and platycnemia are not necessarily always associated and that they occur more frequently in modern primitive groups and early man.

Individual II ?

10The existence of a second individual was proven by the duplication of parts of the anatomy mixed with burial I that were recovered by sieving. There are a few fragments of the cranium (Pl. 1b), which is very light, lacking density, has a smooth contour and lacks marked nuchal crest development. The absence of masculine traits warrants the suggestion that this could be a female, but the identification is tentative. The distal femoral epiphysis is fused, indicating a biologically mature individual. The coronal and lambdoid sutures are entirely open, suggesting a young adult. The remains were too damaged and incomplete to yield any metrical data.

Individual III ♂

  • 9 . K. Pearson, J. Bell, A study of the long bones of the English skeleton, pt. 1-pt. 1, section 2: T (...)
  • 10 . F. E. Camps, J. M. Cameron, D. Lanham (n. 4).

11Sex — The skeleton was incomplete and the pelvis too fragmentary to be of use diagnostically for determination of sex. The right temporal bone could not be restored to the rest of the skull (Pl. 3a-d), which is in a very friable condition, but the size of the mastoid process suggests it is male. This is corroborated by the robust appearance of the long bones, which are those of a stocky muscular individual. The pronounced development of the femur linea aspera, the popliteal line of the tibia and the humerus deltoid ridge are particularly noticeable. Finally, the measurement of the right femoral head (>49 mm) exceeds the means for males, 45.5 mm and 47 mm respectively, published by Pearson9 and Camps et al.10

  • 11 . Ibid.
  • 12 . H. V. Vallois, “La durée de la vie chez l’homme fossile”, L’  Anthropologie 47 (1937), pp. 499-53 (...)

12Age — Fusion of all the long bone epiphyses, normally achieved by the age of 25, had occurred. Synostosis of the cranial sutures on their inner aspect, a process normally believed to take place between the ages of 26 and 36, was complete.11 On the ectocranium, the section of the sagittal suture that is usually the first to be erased between the ages of 20-30 was obliterated.12 Despite reservations about cranial suture synostosis, which is susceptible to variation and thus not the most reliable method for determining age, in default of any other criterion, based on the condition of the sutures a tentative age estimate for this individual is 30 ±6 years.

13Pathology — Evidence of an inflammatory reaction on the articular surface of the right patella, or knee (Pl. 3e) may have been caused by a limping gait, owing to excessive weight bearing on the right leg due to the injury to the left tibia. Just below the mid-shaft of the tibia, there is definitive callus, extra bone tissue, on the medio-posterior surface (Pl. 4a). Bone callus to bridge and repair fractures typically requires about twelve weeks to form. This was probably not a displaced fracture but would nevertheless have required immobilization, which implies therapeutic care. The tibia healed apparently without further complications from infection, because there is no evidence of periostitis.

14Variation — The measurements for this skeleton appear in Table 1. The dimensions of the cranium are estimates. However the cranial index probably falls into the category bracycephalic/sub-bracycephalic. The femur is platymeric while the tibia is eurycnemic. There are no complete long bones from which stature could be calculated.

Individual IV ♀

  • 13 . H. Ullrich, “Estimation of fertility by means of pregnancy and childbirth alterations at the pubi (...)

15Sex — Sex was determined as female from the diagnostic characteristics of the skull (Pl. 4b-d, Pl. 5a-e) with smooth contours and small mastoid processes (Pl. 5f), from the pelvis with an auricular sulcus, usually associated with pregnancy and childbirth13 and the absence of muscular tuberosities in the post-cranial skeleton, which is remarkably petite.

Pl. 5

Pl. 5

Cranium IV (2015): a. Frontal view; b. Vertical view; c. Occipital view; d. Profile view; e. Base view; f. Mastoid processes.

  • 14 . T. W. McKern, T. D. Stewart, Skeletal Changes in Young American Males, Technical Report. Headquar (...)

16Age — Synostosis of the cranial sutures on the inner aspect of the skull had not been initiated, nor had sutures been obliterated from the ecto-cranium. The basi-occipital synchondrosis had fused prior to death; the line of fusion is faintly visible (Pl. 6a). Normally, this occurs between the ages of 17 and 23 years.14 Apart from incomplete fusion of the sternal ends of the clavicles (Pl. 6b-c), which usually takes place between the ages of 20-25 years, all other post-cranial epiphyses are fused. Also the fusion line of the femur proximal epiphysis was still visible (Pl. 6e). Minor dentine exposure on the occlusal surface of the first molar (Pl. 6f), places this individual within the 17-25-year age group. Overall, the criteria suggest an age estimate of about 23 years.

17Pathology — Bilateral occurrence of cribra orbitalia was observed. The lesions appear more severe in the left orbit (Pl. 6d), whereas bone remodeling had decreased the severity of the lesions in the right orbit. These lesions, believed to be caused by anaemia, which is common in menstruating and pregnant women, could also be caused by poor nutrition, parasites, or chronic diarrhea (coeliac disease caused by gluten intolerance). However, anaemia is also a symptom of a variety of diseases, including the haemolytic anaemias (thalassaemia, sickle cell anaemia or the enzyme deficiency G6PD, all conferring protection against malaria) that are common in Mediterranean populations. The remodeling of the orbital lesions in this case suggests that the cause was not a systemic disease but one acquired through living conditions.

18Dental Pathology — Only nine teeth from the whole mouth were available for examination. Six of them bore traces of calculus (Pl. 7a-b). Two of the molars, left upper M2 and right lower M2 had caries lesions on their occlusal surfaces (Pl. 6f, 7e). The lower right M1 and left M2 had been lost before death (Pl. 7e-f). Sponginess of the surrounding bone suggests an infection. Of orthodontic interest is the rotation of the upper left pm2 socket through an angle of 90° (Pl. 6f). This caused an unusual oval contact facet on the buccal surface of the tooth (Pl. 6g). Several teeth had traces of enamel hypoplasia in varying degrees of severity, affecting the second molars but most noticeably the upper left central incisor (Pl. 7c). The hypoplastic growth arrest lines in the enamel indicate that the formation of the enamel was interrupted periodically either by illness or nutritional stress in infancy or early childhood. The incisor crown develops between the ages of 3-4 months and 5 years.

Pl. 6a-c

Pl. 6a-c

Skeleton IV, age indicators: a. Basi-occipital synchondrosis fused. b. Left clavicle, medial end, incompletely fused epiphyseal cap. c. Right clavicle, medial end, incompletely fused epiphyseal cap.

Pl. 6d-e

Pl. 6d-e

Skeleton IV, age indicators: d. Left orbit, criba orbitalia. e. Left femur, capitis, epiphyseal fusion line still visible.

Pl. 6f-g

Pl. 6f-g

Skeleton IV, age indicators: f. Rotation of the premolar socket and dentine exposure on the adjacent 1st molar. g. Upper left pm2, flat oval contact facet on buccal surface.

Pl. 7

Pl. 7

Skeleton IV, teeth: a. Dental plaque on maxillary molars; b. Dental plaque over the cingulum; c. Severe enamel hypoplasia on upper left central incisor; d. Mandible; e. Mandible (right ramus): caries and partially healed alveolus after tooth loss, shortly before death; f. Mandible (left ramus): carious molar and partially healed alveolus after loss of the adjacent tooth.

  • 15 . For a similar lesion caused through injury sustained by a teenager running barefoot downstairs se (...)

19Post-cranial pathologyPlates 8-10 illustrate the long bones, shoulder and pelvic girdles, patellae, cervical vertebrae and extremities. A bone nodule that can be seen on the medial margin of the hallux distal phalange (Pl. 10 c-d) was probably caused by trauma to the foot tendons, from an accident sustained while running or walking barefoot.15 Such lesions are rarely seen today because footwear provides protection.

Pl. 9

Pl. 9

Skeleton IV, post-cranium: a. Right and left patellas, anterior and posterior views; b. 1st cervical vertebra, atlas; c. Cervical vertebrae, C2-6; d. Pelvis fragments: acetabulum and ischial tuberosity (left), sciatic notch, ilium border.

Pl. 10

Pl. 10

Skeleton IV, post-cranium: a. Left and right cuboids, right navicular, 1st and 3rd right cuneiforms; b. Metatarsals and pedal phalanges; c. Pedal phalange, ray 1 left foot, dorsal view with bone nodule; d. Ray1distal phalange, left foot enlarged plantar view of bone nodule on the medial surface.

20Variation — The skeleton from the sarcophagus was, for obvious reasons, the most fully represented anatomically, but because it was fragmentary only a few measurements presented in Table 1 could be taken. The cranial module provides a numerical value for the size of the skull that is smaller than average. The cranial index falls into the category mesocephalic. The indices expressing the ratio of cranial length: height and cranial breadth: height, fall into the categories orthocranic and metriocranic. The fronto-parietal index is metrometopic. The femurs are platymeric but the tibias are eurycnemic and the stature estimate 145.49 cm. Table 2 presents additional measurements of the tarsals, metatarsals and pedal phalanges.

Measurements/Indicesamm Skeleton I Skeleton III Skeleton IV
Cranial
Parietal Arc 129 118
Frontal Thicknessb 7
Parietal Thickness 6 6
Max. Horizontal Circumference 494
Max Cranial Length 182 175
Max. Cranial Breadth 147 135
Basion-Bregma Height 124.5
Min. Frontal Breadth 95
Biasterionic Breadth 94.5
Cranial Module 144.8
Cranial Index 77.14
Cranial Length-Height Index 71.14
Cranial Breadth-Height Index 92.22
Fronto-Parietal Index 67.77
Mandibular
Jaw Bicondylar Breadth 116.2
Condyle Length 18.1
Jowl Breadth Bigonial 89.5
Min Ramus Breadth 27.6
Height at 2nd Molar 23.1
Foramen Mentalia Breadth 42.1
Chin Height 27.6
Jaw Length Condyle-Symphysis 88
Ramus Projection Angle 117°
Post-Cranial Left Right Left Right Left Right
Clavicle Maximum Length [120] [115]
Humerus Vertical Head D. 43.5  36 36.6
Humerus Biepicondylar Bdth 46.1
Humerus Least Shaft Circum 53.5 60 60 48
Radius Maximum Length 225
Femur Maximum Length 426 418 370
Mid-Shaft A-P Diameter 27.5
Mid-Shaft Tranverse Diameter 25.2
Sub-tochanteric A-P Diameter 22.2 21.5 25 19.8 19
Sub-tochanteric Transverse D. 31 30.8 35.5 26.5 25.7
Maximum Femur Head Diameter 46.4 46 [49] 38.1
Tibia Nutrient Foramen A-P D. 37 32 33.6 25,5 27.2
Tibia Nutrient Foramen Trans D. 22 19.6 24.8 18.1 21.2
Platymeric Index 71.61 69.81 70.42 74.71 73.92
Cnemic Index 59.46 61.25 73.80 70.98 77.94
Stature Estimate cmc 163.416 145.49
a. R. Martin, K. Saller, Lehrbuch der Anthropologie (1959).
b. J. L. Angel, The People of Lerna (1971).
c. M. Trotter, G. C. Gleser, “A re-evaluation of estimation of stature based on measurements of stature taken during life and of long bones after death”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 16 (1958), pp. 79-123.

Cranial and post-cranial measurements of skeletons I, III & IV.

Skeleton IV (fig. 1)
Patellas Left Right
Patella Ht 34.4 34.0
Patella W 35.6 35.3
Tarsals
Calcaneus Ht [A] 62.2
Calcaneus W [A] 35.5
Talus Max. Length [B] 45.8
Cuboid Ht [C] 31.0 31.0
Navicular Ht [D] ×
1st Cuneiform Ht [G] 27.8
3rd Cuneiform [E] ×
Metatarsals Lengths*
1st 51.5 51.8
2nd × ×
3rd 57.8 58.0
4th 56.2 56.7
5th 16.2 ×
Pedal Phalanges Lengths*
Proximal ray 1 25.5
Proximal ray 2 22.2
Proximal ray 3 × 17.9
Proximal ray 4 18.9 16.9
Proximal ray 5 14.5
Distal ray 1 21.1
Distal ray 5 18.2
* Measurement along centre axis of bone.

Fig. i

Fig. i

Skeleton IV  ♀: shaded areas are preserved.

Environmental Adaptation – Morbidity – Healers – Wellbeing – Gender Roles

21Platymeria, believed to be a mechanical adaptation needed to support body weight on the inclined femur neck, was noted in all femurs. It correlates with the terrain of Galia
in the foothills of Mount Ida, on the periphery of the Messara plain. The young woman, burial IV, may have sustained her toe injury running or walking barefoot in this terrain.

22The case of tuberculosis or brucellosis of burial I was very likely contracted through consumption of infected foods such as milk, cheese and meat from domestic animals. Most households must have kept animals for subsistence, so contact with animals at a domestic level would have been inevitable. The risk of contagion within families would have been great, while denser human population clusters would have aided the spread of epidemic diseases like tuberculosis.

  • 16 . It was known to physicians in the classical era as phthisis meaning wasting; P. J. P. McGeorge, “ (...)
  • 17 . Ibid., pp. 123-4; P. J. P. McGeorge, “Έγκλημα στην Yστερομινωϊκή ΙΙΙ Περίοδο”, Αρχαιολογία 11 (19 (...)

23The disease must have been common and recognizable from the characteristic appearance of patients,16 although the source of contagion and the mechanism by which infectious diseases spread, would not have been understood in the 14th-13th centuries BC. Prevalence of tuberculosis or brucellosis was noted in a contemporary population at LMIIIA2-IIIB Armenoi, where loom weights and spindle whorls commonly placed in the tombs imp ly that the economy was centered on animal husbandry.17

24Immobilization of burial III’s tibia fracture, typically requiring twelve weeks, would have been imperative for the effective treatment of the fracture implying that the invalid had received the care of an expert healer. Moreover, impaired mobility would have made him dependent on others for several months.

  • 18 . J. L. Angel (n. 17), tables 6-7, pp. 86-88: averages for femurs and tibias combine left and right (...)

25The burials in the Galia tomb are probably a family group similar to the burials in LMIII A-B chamber tombs at Armenoi. Table 3 compares the mean lengths of femurs, tibias and stature data for male populations from LMIII Armenoi near Rethymnon, Middle Helladic Lerna, Shaft Grave Circle B and Late Helladic burials studied by Angel.18

Long bones Lerna MBA Sample Shaft Graves Sample LHIII Sample Armenoi LMIII Sample
Femur means 434.5 30 456.1 7 435.6 25 430.1 82
Tibia means 357.3 25 373.4 5 354.2 19 357.6 68
Stature means 166.8 38 171.5 14 161.1 49 167.6 107

Secular trends in stature data.

  • 19 . J. M. Tanner, “Growth in height as a mirror of the standard of living” in J. Komlos (ed.), Statur (...)

26These comparisons offer a perspective on social circumstances because stature mirrors the standard of living.19 Stature correlates directly with nutritional status, since the more calories and proteins available for physical growth, the more likely it is that peop le will be able to reach their genetic potential and also remain healthy. Stature is also affected by disease and factors such as population density, hygiene and medicine.

27The trends in the stature data reflect differences in living and social conditions, indicating shifts between the Middle and the Late Helladic periods. The population samples in both periods contrast appreciably with the tall Shaft Grave aristocrats, whose high social status ensured a high nutritional status, safeguarding their health and enabling them to realize their stature potential. Late Bronze Age Cretans were evidently taller than ordinary peop le on the mainland, where a reduction in stature between the Middle and the Late Bronze Age suggests a deterioration in wellbeing.

28Although Galia burial I’s 163.4 cm stature is 8.1 cm shorter than the Shaft Grave burials and 4.2 cm shorter than the stature average for the Late Minoan burials, it is, nonetheless, 2.3 cm taller than the average for the Late Helladic burials, from which it may be inferred that diet was better in resource-abundant Crete than on the mainland.

  • 20 . G. Stulp, B. Kuijper, A. P. Buunk, T. V. Pollet, S. Verhulst, “Intralocus sexual conflict over hu (...)
  • 21 . The stature difference at Galia is supported by data from elsewhere: B. P. Hallager, P. J. P. McG(...)

29The 11% (18 cm) difference in stature between male burial I (163.4 cm), and female burial IV (145.5 cm), exceeds the normal 8% difference between males and females in populations worldwide.20 This deviation from the norm has implications for social gender and the relative status of men and women at this period. Moreover, burial IV’s anaemia and enamel hypoplasia suggests that the woman was chronically less adequately nourished than her male companion in the tomb. The logical inference here is that the man habitually took priority over the woman where access to food was concerned, an inference that seems to be confirmed by data from other sites of this period.21

30The appearance of burials with weapons at Knossos in LMII heralds the rise of a warrior caste in Crete. This ostentatious behaviour was probably being mimicked at Galia, where burial I’s tutelary equipment (: bronze dagger, spear, knife, razor), followed this élite Knossos fashion, and was intended to declare either his status, loyalty, or ethnic origin. It is worth pondering on the woman’s status since her burial equipment (needle, small knife and fibula) seems very modest by comparison with the glamorous trappings of the warrior. Was a message being delivered by her burial equipment and undecorated clay coffin?

31Skeletal remains are artifacts of nature that store an impartial and enduring record of one’s life experiences. The woman’s small stature and health issues that began in early childhood reveal that growing up she was chronically undernourished. This fact suggests that her social status was less prestigious than the man’s. Moreover, when considered with male and female skeletal data from other sites such as Armenoi and Odos Palama, the human remains consistently furnish subtle clues that in Crete, Late Bronze Age society under Mycenaean influence was increasingly stratified and gender differentiated.

32In conclusion, human skeletons form a biological archive that stores a reservoir of information about past lives. The burials from this tomb provided indications of physical adaptation to the environment in which the peop le lived. Diseases such as tuberculosis or brucellosis were probably contracted through consumption of produce from infected animals. Medical treatment was indicated by the healing of a broken limb. Compared with other samples, the tall stature of the male burial suggested that living conditions on Crete may have been better than on the mainland. By contrast, the stunted growth and dental hypoplasia of the female burial suggested that the social status of this woman was adversely affected by an increasingly stratified society.

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Notes

1 . Four LMIII chamber tombs had already been excavated by Davaras in the same locality, see: CretChron 12 (1963), p. 405; AD 19 (1964), p. 441; AR 13 (1966-67), p. 20.

2 . See A. Karetsou’s reports in: Ergon 1975, p. 195; AD 30 B2 (1975), p. 342; PAAH 1975, B pp. 522-526, fig. 1-3 Pl. 335.

3 . In the interval between 1975 and 2015, reorganization and renovation of Heraklion Museum necessitated transfers of material to different storage areas. Digital photographs of skeleton IV have been taken, while the black and white photographs taken in 1975 have been included to show the original condition of the material and to illustrate the material that could not be found and re-photographed.

4 . F. E. Camps, J. M. Cameron, D. Lanham, Practical Forensic Medicine (1934).

5 . D. R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones (1972), p. 59.

6 . R. K. Garg, D. P. Somvanshi, “Spinal tuberculosis: A review”, The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 34 (2011), pp. 440-454.

7 . L. H. D. Buxton, “Platymeria and Platycnemia”, Journal of Anatomy 73 (1938), pp. 31-36.

8 . W. Townsley, “Platymeria”, The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 58 (1946), pp. 85-89; J. Cameron, The Skeleton of British Neolithic Man (1934).

9 . K. Pearson, J. Bell, A study of the long bones of the English skeleton, pt. 1-pt. 1, section 2: The femur of the Primates, Drapers’ Company Research Memoirs, Biometric Series X (1919).

10 . F. E. Camps, J. M. Cameron, D. Lanham (n. 4).

11 . Ibid.

12 . H. V. Vallois, “La durée de la vie chez l’homme fossile”, L’  Anthropologie 47 (1937), pp. 499-532.

13 . H. Ullrich, “Estimation of fertility by means of pregnancy and childbirth alterations at the pubis, the ilium and the sacrum”, Ossa 2 (1975), pp. 23-39.

14 . T. W. McKern, T. D. Stewart, Skeletal Changes in Young American Males, Technical Report. Headquarters Quartermaster Research and Development Command (1957).

15 . For a similar lesion caused through injury sustained by a teenager running barefoot downstairs see: M. J. R. Kent, C. Harding, S. Walsh, « Soft tissue ‘mallet’ injury to the hallux », Journal of Surgical Case Reports (2015).

16 . It was known to physicians in the classical era as phthisis meaning wasting; P. J. P. McGeorge, “Morbidity and Medical Practice in Minoan Crete”, in M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki, G. Rethemiotakis, N. Dimopoulou-Rethemiotaki, From the Land of the Labyrinth: Minoan Crete 3000-1100 B.C. (2008), chapter 15, pp. 118-127.

17 . Ibid., pp. 123-4; P. J. P. McGeorge, “Έγκλημα στην Yστερομινωϊκή ΙΙΙ Περίοδο”, Αρχαιολογία 11 (1984), pp. 12-16.

18 . J. L. Angel (n. 17), tables 6-7, pp. 86-88: averages for femurs and tibias combine left and right bones in table 6; J. L. Angel in G. E. Mylonas, Ταφικός Κύκλος Β των Μυκηνών (1973), p. 385 table 2; P. J P. McGeorge, The Minoans: Demography, physical variation and affinities, I (1983), Univ. London PhD, p. 138.

19 . J. M. Tanner, “Growth in height as a mirror of the standard of living” in J. Komlos (ed.), Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development: Essays in Anthropometric History (1994), pp.1-6.

20 . G. Stulp, B. Kuijper, A. P. Buunk, T. V. Pollet, S. Verhulst, “Intralocus sexual conflict over human height” (2012), Biology Letter.

21 . The stature difference at Galia is supported by data from elsewhere: B. P. Hallager, P. J. P. McGeorge, ‘Late Minoan III Burials at Khania’, SIMA XCIII (1992), p. 38; P. J. P. McGeorge, “Μυθικοί Πυγμαίοι και Γίγαντες Νέα στοιχεία για το ύψος των Μινωίτων”, Κρητική Εστία 2 (1988), pp. 9-18; P. J. P. McGeorge, “Health and Diet in Minoan Times” in R. E. Jones, H. W. Catling (eds), New Aspects of Archaeological Science in Greece, BSA Occ. Paper No 3 (1988), pp. 47-54; P. J. P. McGeorge, “Νέα Στοιχεία για το Μέσο όρο Ζωής στη Μινωική Κρήτη”, CretEstia 1 (1987), pp. 9-15.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Pl. ia
Légende Skeleton I: anterior views of right and left patellae, showing alterations to the bone surface due to mechanical stresses, and the articular surface of the right patella with osteomyelitis.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/, 187k
Titre Pl. ib
Légende Skeleton II: cranial fragments.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/, 201k
Titre Pl. 2
Légende Skeletons I and II: a. Wood fragments from the biers mingled with the bones. b. A wood fragment and organic material adhering to ribs.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/, 240k
Titre Pl. 3a
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/, 211k
Titre Pl. 3b
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/, 209k
Titre Pl. 3c
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-6.jpg
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Titre Pl. 3d
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/, 183k
Titre Pl. 3e
Légende Cranium III: Right patella anterior aspect (left) and posterior aspect (right), with inflammatory changes to the articular surface, perhaps caused by over-reliance on the right leg owing to injury to the left tibia (Pl. 4a) that impaired his mobility.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/, 51k
Titre Pl. 4a
Légende Skeleton III: Left tibia, bone callus. Cranium IV (1975).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-9.jpg
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Titre Pl. 4b
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/, 309k
Titre Pl. 4c
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/, 293k
Titre Pl. 4d
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/, 261k
Titre Pl. 5
Légende Cranium IV (2015): a. Frontal view; b. Vertical view; c. Occipital view; d. Profile view; e. Base view; f. Mastoid processes.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/, 396k
Titre Pl. 6a-c
Légende Skeleton IV, age indicators: a. Basi-occipital synchondrosis fused. b. Left clavicle, medial end, incompletely fused epiphyseal cap. c. Right clavicle, medial end, incompletely fused epiphyseal cap.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/, 74k
Titre Pl. 6d-e
Légende Skeleton IV, age indicators: d. Left orbit, criba orbitalia. e. Left femur, capitis, epiphyseal fusion line still visible.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/, 122k
Titre Pl. 6f-g
Légende Skeleton IV, age indicators: f. Rotation of the premolar socket and dentine exposure on the adjacent 1st molar. g. Upper left pm2, flat oval contact facet on buccal surface.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/, 29k
Titre Pl. 7
Légende Skeleton IV, teeth: a. Dental plaque on maxillary molars; b. Dental plaque over the cingulum; c. Severe enamel hypoplasia on upper left central incisor; d. Mandible; e. Mandible (right ramus): caries and partially healed alveolus after tooth loss, shortly before death; f. Mandible (left ramus): carious molar and partially healed alveolus after loss of the adjacent tooth.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/, 164k
Titre Pl. 8
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/, 187k
Titre Pl. 9
Légende Skeleton IV, post-cranium: a. Right and left patellas, anterior and posterior views; b. 1st cervical vertebra, atlas; c. Cervical vertebrae, C2-6; d. Pelvis fragments: acetabulum and ischial tuberosity (left), sciatic notch, ilium border.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/, 177k
Titre Pl. 10
Légende Skeleton IV, post-cranium: a. Left and right cuboids, right navicular, 1st and 3rd right cuneiforms; b. Metatarsals and pedal phalanges; c. Pedal phalange, ray 1 left foot, dorsal view with bone nodule; d. Ray1distal phalange, left foot enlarged plantar view of bone nodule on the medial surface.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/, 237k
Titre Fig. i
Légende Skeleton IV  ♀: shaded areas are preserved.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/286/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/, 91k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Photini J. P. McGeorge, « Human Skeletons from a Late Minoan IIIA2-B Chamber Tomb at Galia in the Messara », Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, 142.1 | 2018, 49-70.

Référence électronique

Photini J. P. McGeorge, « Human Skeletons from a Late Minoan IIIA2-B Chamber Tomb at Galia in the Messara », Bulletin de correspondance hellénique [En ligne], 142.1 | 2018, mis en ligne le 01 juin 2019, consulté le 19 août 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/bch/286 ; DOI : 10.4000/bch.286

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Auteur

Photini J. P. McGeorge

British School at Athens

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Droits d’auteur

Bulletin de correspondance hellénique

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