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The “House of Pithoi”: An early Middle Helladic (MH) household in the South Quarter of Argos (Argolid, Peloponnese)

La « Maison aux pithoi » : un assemblage domestique mésohelladique du Quartier Sud d’Argos (Argolide, Péloponnèse)
Η «Οικία των Πίθων»: Ένα πρώιµο Μεσοελλαδικό (ΜΕ) νοικοκυριό στη Νότια Συνοικία του Άργους (Αργολίδα, Πελοπόννησος)
Anthi Balitsari
p. 455-544

Résumés

Cet article présente les résultats du réexamen systématique d’un assemblage domestique mésohelladique du Quartier Sud d’Argos fouillé par Francis Croissant en 1966 et baptisé « Maison aux pithoi ». L’étude a pour but : a) d’établir la séquence architecturale du bâtiment, qui présente quatre états couvrant les phases de l’HM I et de l’HM II initial ; b) de mettre en lumière l’usage funéraire occasionnel de l’espace, aussi bien pendant son occupation que peu après son abandon ; c) de présenter en détail la céramique des premières phases de l’HM ; d) de s’interroger sur les pratiques de stockage dont témoigne la Maison aux pithoi, en les comparant avec les données d’autres sites et en les replaçant plus largement dans le contexte socio-économique de l’Argolide mésohelladique, qui s’avère être plus dynamique qu’on ne le pensait habituellement, et cela dès le début de la période.

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Notes de l’auteur

This paper is the final version of the study I conducted for my PhD thesis. I am particularly grateful for the precious advice and assistance provided over the last years by my former supervisor Prof. Gilles Touchais, who also read the manuscript thoroughly, commented on it, and made all the necessary adjustments so as to bring it to its final form. All shortcomings though that remain are my own. I would also like to thank the École française d’Athènes and its members, especially former and present directors Prof. Alexandre Farnoux and Prof. Véronique Chankowski respectively, Anna Philippa-Touchais, Kalliopi Christophi, Marie Stahl and Elpida Chairi for providing me with all the necessary permits and assisting me in the various stages of my study. Many thanks should also be expressed to the A. G. Leventis Foundation and the Vronwy Hankey Memorial Fund for the financial assistance, while I was studying and preparing the manuscript. Finally, this paper is dedicated to the memory of the late Prof. Francis Croissant who willingly allowed me to study his excavation record and material, and cordially supported my research at Argos.

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 Pariente, Touchais 1998.
  • 2 For the MH tumuli excavated at the foothills of Aspis, see in particular Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980 (...)
  • 3 For an overview of the MH habitation at Argos, see G. Touchais, “Argos à l’époque mésohelladique: u (...)
  • 4 For the very first excavations conducted by Vollgraff on Aspis, see BCH 30 (1906), p. 5-45; 31 (190 (...)
  • 5 Touchais 1998 (n. 3), p. 73, 77-78, with full references; Papadimitriou et al. 2015 (n. 3), p. 165, (...)

1Argos is one of the most important sites in its plain (the Argolid) in the northeastern Peloponnese, continuously inhabited through prehistory and history.1 The Middle Helladic period (hereafter MH) witnesses the first large extension of the prehistoric habitation with different nuclei existing inside the borders of the modern city: namely the Aspis settlement on Profitis Ilias’ hilltop, the immediate area on its south-eastern foothills,2 the Larisa hill, the Deiras ravine lying between the two hills of Larisa and Profitis Ilias, and the settlement in the so-called South Quarter (Quartier Sud   ), on the south-eastern foothills of Larisa (fig. 1).3 Undoubtedly, Aspis is the most significant establishment, continuously inhabited through MH to the very beginning of the Late Helladic period (hereafter LH).4 For MH I-II, the second most important area is the South Quarter, as shown by the preliminary overview of the available evidence and the most recent systematic examination conducted by the author, as part of her doctoral research.5

Fig. 1 — Distribution of MH remains in Argos.

Fig. 1 — Distribution of MH remains in Argos.

After Pariente, Touchais 1998, pl. VII; reformatted and inked by A. Balitsari.

  • 6 Croissant 1966a.
  • 7 BCH 91 (1967), p. 817-820.

2The present paper conducts a systematic presentation of the remains of an early MH establishment, the so-called “House of the Pithoi” (hereafter HP) in the South Quarter, now completely vanished under modern occupation (fig. 2). HP was first located in a trial trench by Y. Garlan in 1965,6 who unearthed only its southeastern corner, including part of the hearth of the later phase; it was then systematically explored in 1966 and preliminarily published in the following year by Fr. Croissant7 (fig. 3), under the auspices of the French School at Athens.

Fig. 2 — The House of Pithoi and other significant MH assemblages in the South Quarter.

Fig. 2 — The House of Pithoi and other significant MH assemblages in the South Quarter.

After BCH 95.2 [1971], fig. 16 [p. 746]; reformatted by A. Balitsari.

Fig. 3 — Plan of the House of Pithoi depicting all phases and burials.

Fig. 3 — Plan of the House of Pithoi depicting all phases and burials.

After BCH 91.2 [1967], fig. 1; reformatted by A. Balitsari.

3Despite the small dimensions of this free-standing building (a single-roomed space), it is significant because of the successive floor deposits found there, largely intact. The combined examination of the stratigraphy and the pottery allows us to reconstruct four phases of remodeling (HP 1-4), all dated to MH I-MH II early: with HP 1 (MH I) being the most prominent because of the relatively large storage capacities that the building could accommodate, and whence the conventional name for the whole assemblage derives. According to the stratigraphical evidence, burials were also performed while the living area was still in use, as well as after its final abandonment.

  • 8 At Aspis, Phase II (MH I-II) is only poorly represented by settlement remains (Touchais 2007, p. 83 (...)

4Given the limited evidence we have for the MH I-II settlement at Argos, either because of scanty preservation or from a lack of detailed publications,8 the HP in the South Quarter contributes significantly to the understanding of an early MH household. Moreover, its storage capacities that will be discussed in the last part of the paper and in conjunction with other similar assemblages from the Argolid, are anticipated to shed more light on the surplus achieved, and the storage and consumption practices in the early MH period.

Excavation and stratigraphy

The 1965 season

5As already noted previously, the southeastern corner of the HP was first uncovered by Y. Garlan in a small trench, only 1.40 m long (E-W) and 0.70 m wide (N-S). According to his short excavation report, he identified six distinct layers (couches):

6(a) Layers A-B contained pottery from the historical period,

7(b) Layer C contained mixed pottery, both historic and prehistoric times (mainly MH),

8(c) Layers D-F had only MH pottery.

9Unfortunately, the report failed both to state the depths of the soils and to make explicit the exact association of most layers with the building remains of the HP.

10Layers E-F clearly correspond to the level with the hearth, and most probably with its substratum (foyer et sous le foyer). This specific conclusion is arrived at from the short descriptions made by Garlan in the preliminary catalogue of pottery, held at the Museum of Argos, in which only Layer F is mentioned as the provenance for all entries related to the pottery from the “Layers E-F” find group. The depth of Layer F is unspecified, but it must correspond more or less to the substratum of the latest floor (see below for HP 4).

11It is also easy to believe that Layers A-B were found over the MH debris, since they exclusively contained pottery of historic times. The same must be the case for Layer C, which most probably should be correlated with Croissant’s Layer 5 (see below), given its red-colored soil and the mixed character of ceramics.

12The exact association of Layer D with the HP is more obscure. Given that it was found on top of Layers E-F, it is easy to think that Layer D could correspond to the destruction layer of the HP. However, as Layer D was found to contain a significant amount of non-MH pottery (table 1), there are reasons to assume that Garlan may have not distinguished between the yellowish destruction layer (Croissant’s Layer 7a) and the also yellowish superimposed stratum (Croissant’s Layer 6), which presumably accumulated after the final abandonment of the building (see below).

Table 1 — Total count and weight of sherds per deposit.

Table 1 — Total count and weight of sherds per deposit.

13To conclude, and with regard to Garlan’s excavation, the problems encountered in demonstrating what stratigraphic evidence goes where in the HP forces us to focus exclusively on the small MH deposit, which is securely derived from beneath the hearth of the HP (i.e. Layers E-F).

The 1966 season

  • 9 Croissant 1966b, c.
  • 10 Croissant 1966a.
  • 11 BCH 91 (1967), p. 802-810.
  • 12 Croissant did not keep a systematic record of the related depths, making it thus difficult to test (...)

14In 1966, the excavations were resumed by Croissant. The analysis presented here combines evidence from the detailed examination of the excavation logbooks,9 his final report10 and its slightly summarized version published in the following year,11 the available drawings and sketches, and last but not least the thorough examination of the collected pottery. Of great importance is Croissant’s interest in defining the association of the floor deposits with specific features, particularly walls and tombs. Even though such an approach is a prerequisite for excavation techniques in the present state of research, back in the 1960s its need was far from self-evident. There are of course some problems with his documentation,12 but these cannot in any way obscure the value of his remarks.

15The HP is located west of a necropolis, with tombs dating from Geometric to Hellenistic times. It occupies the contiguous parts of four (5 × 5 m) squares (BE 7, BE 8, BF 7 and BF 8). Here the excavation reached the natural bedrock, revealing ten superimposed strata/layers (couches), slightly sloping from north to south. For the purposes of this paper we will concentrate only on Layer 7 and its subdivisions, since it is the only one exclusively and securely related to HP. Unfortunately, Croissant failed to locate any exterior level to demonstrate the positioning and use of the ground outside the HP, therefore our examination will be focused on the interior of the building.

16Here, we will give a ‘bottoms-up’ and short description of the layers excavated (figs. 4-5). Their numbering is the same as that initially given by Croissant.

Fig. 4 — Stratigraphic section (ΑΑ΄) of BF 7-8.

Fig. 4 — Stratigraphic section (ΑΑ΄) of BF 7-8.

Originally published in BCH 91.2 [1967], p. 813, fig. 2.

Fig. 5 — Stratigraphic section (BΒ΄) of BF-BG 8.

Fig. 5 — Stratigraphic section (BΒ΄) of BF-BG 8.

Initial drawing by Fr. Croissant; reformatted and inked by A. Balitsari.

  • 13Couche 9: Il s’agit d’une couche bien caractérisée, mais très partiellement conservée […]. A premi (...)
  • 14La couche 10, elle, est certainement une couche d’occupation, dont, à certains endroits, le sol es (...)
  • 15 BCH 91 (1967), p. 818-820. For the time being no systematic study of the Neolithic pottery has been (...)

17(a) Layers 913-1014 are clearly associated with the Late Neolithic habitation.15 The walls of the HP’s first building phase (HP 1) rested on Layer 10’s surface and the pithos-pits of the same phase (see below) were also opened within it. Layer 10 was found all over the western sector of the excavation, immediate above bedrock. Layer 9, a thin ashy stratum, was only partially preserved above Layer 10 and then only outside the HP.

  • 16Couche 8: […] Un cailloutis noirâtre nettement distinct, par sa couleur et sa consistance, des cou (...)
  • 17 The fill at the east was originally considered as part of Layer 7 (couche 7, remblai). See also, BC (...)
  • 18 See n. 16, for Layer 8.
  • 19 This is Dark Burnished basin with a fluted shoulder (C.9612 & C.9221).

18(c) Layer 8 is a distinct stratum found only outside of the HP, to the west and south (hereafter Layer 8a),16 as well as north and east (hereafter Layer 8b).17 It does not present the same features everywhere, and according to Croissant Layer 8b is probably artificial, made to support the east wall of the HP. His hypothesis cannot be tested further, but given the height differences observed between the first two habitation levels of the interior and the surface level of Layer 8, the HP may have been originally a semi-underground structure. However, Croissant mentions explicitly that he could not recognize any exterior surface level that could be associated with domestic activities conducted in and from the building.18 With regard to the date of Layer 8, unfortunately the pottery offers little help, since it appears mixed. It is worth mentioning though that Neolithic pottery is more abundant and represented by larger fragments compared to MH and post-MH pottery (see table 1). However, the joining of two sherds from a MH II pot19 found in Layer 8 and the superimposed Layer 6 possibly suggest later interventions, the physical extent of which in area and depth is relatively unknown, because of limitations in the records. Therefore, we cannot reach any safer conclusions either for the date or the formation process of Layer 8, or for its exact relationship with the HP.

  • 20Couche 7a: Cette couche est parfois, en surface, assez difficile à distinguer de la couche 6 […]. (...)

19(d) Layer 7 is the building and destruction layer of the HP. It resembles Layer 620 and was found exclusively within the walls of the house and on top of four successive floors (Floors 7a-d), numbering from top to bottom. Each floor is associated with a different building phase. A significant amount of pottery, with many characteristic fragments (1-102), was collected from the interior of the HP, with most sherds (1-97) being clearly associated with distinct building phases. The floors and the destruction layer will be presented in more detail below.

  • 21Couche 6: Au-dessous de la couche rouge-brique [i.e. Layer 5], sur la quasi-totalité du secteur fo (...)

20(e) Layer 621 lies above Layer 7: it covers almost the entire area of the western sector of the excavation. The only architectural remains related to Layer 6 are a fragmentary curved wall (mur courbe) preserved for its first course, with a supporting row of smaller stones on its north side. The date of the wall remains obscure due to the lack of associated finds. However, according to the available depth values, the curved wall is set at the same level as are the southern and uppermost parts of the eastern wall of the HP, so it certainly post-dates the MH establishment. It is also worth mentioning that Layer 6 is associated with three burials (T.268, T.269 and T.284). Because of the lack of offerings, the exact date of the burials remains obscure; however, the possibility of their being dated to MH certainly remains open, especially if we allow for the typical MH coarse jar (103), in which the infant burial (T.268) was placed. Layer 6 contained large amounts of pottery of both historic and prehistoric dates, especially MH; it is therefore easy to assume that its formation resulted from the gradual and possibly lengthy accumulation of earth and deposits in the area after the complete abandonment of the HP. As Layer 6 clearly post-dates the HP, the systematic presentation of its related features is outside the scope of this paper.

  • 22 BCH 91 (1967), p. 814-817.

21(f) Layers 1-5 are clearly associated with various phases of the historical times, including the Archaic, the Hellenistic and the Byzantine periods.22

The phases (Summarized in Table 2)

Phase 1/ House of Pithoi 1 (HP 1)

  • 23 Deshayes 1966, p. 18-21.
  • 24 Diam. 0.15 m., depth 0.10 m.

22During the first building phase (figs. 6-7), the HP has a rectangular layout (3.5 × 3.5 m) with slightly rounded corners and carelessly built walls. As mentioned above, the walls of the first building phase lay on top of Neolithic Layer 10. The base-course of the walls consists of one row of medium-sized stones, with a few larger stones set at the corners. The possibility of a semi-underground structure, similar to Installation P1 at Deiras,23 cannot be excluded, especially if we consider the difference in elevation between the top surface of Layer 8 on the exterior, and the floor surface (see below) in the interior, as well as the eastern facade of the eastern wall, which appears less well aligned, probably because it was buried and invisible. A circular hole24 found close to the middle of the building is probably to be associated with a central pillar that would have supported the roof. A few fragments of mudbricks found within Pits 1 and 8 provide evidence for such a superstructure of the walls (fig. 8).

Table 2 — Summary of building phases of House of Pithoi with related burials and associated pottery.

Building phase Main features Pottery associated Related burials Date
Abandonment

T.279

Possibly T.264
& T.291

uncertain
HP 4

Elevated interior

Reduced space; establishment of North Wall b
(3.5 × 2.8 m)

Floor level: 7a

Varied household activities-establishment of hearth

Uncertain entrance

Nos. 62-97

Possibly T.264, T.290
& T.291

MH I late-
MH II
early

HP 3

Elevated interior

Rectangular layout
(3.5 × 3.5 m.)

Bench along eastern wall

Floor level: 7b

Varied household activities

Entrance at south and west

Nos. 23-61

T.299

Possibly T.290

MH I late-
MH II
early

HP 2

Semi-underground structure

Rectangular layout
(3.5 × 3.5 m.)

Floor level: 7c

Uncertain use

Entrance at south

Unidentified

MH I

HP 1

Semi-underground structure

Rectangular layout
(3.5 × 3.5 m.)

Floor lever: surface of Neolithic Layer 10

Central pillar for the support of roof

Extensive storage use

Entrance at north and south or with a ladder (?)

Nos. 8-22

MH I

Fig. 6 — Phase 1 (HP 1) of the House of Pithoi.

Fig. 6 — Phase 1 (HP 1) of the House of Pithoi.

Initial drawing by Fr. Croissant; inked by A. Balitsari.

Fig. 7 — Phase 1 (HP 1) of the House of Pithoi, view from southwest.

Fig. 7 — Phase 1 (HP 1) of the House of Pithoi, view from southwest.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57058.

Fig. 8 — Mudbrick found in Pit 1 (HP 1), view from north. The white coating is also visible on the southern side of the pit.

Fig. 8 — Mudbrick found in Pit 1 (HP 1), view from north. The white coating is also visible on the southern side of the pit.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57202.

23According to the excavator, the top surface of Neolithic Layer 10 was used as a floor for the building (hereafter Floor 7d), with eight pits being opened, radially arranged, for the positioning presumably of storage pithoi. The pithoi have not been preserved, besides a few fragments found in situ, stuck to the sides of Pit 1 (C.9777, uncatalogued). Both the floor and the pits may have been coated with a white substance, partially preserved within the pits and the NE corner of the house.

  • 25 See also the discussion below, for the exact relation of the pits with the next phase (Phase 2).
  • 26 The animal remains have not been studied yet, therefore it is not possible to give more data for th (...)

24The pits are ca. 0.25-0.5 m deep and their maximum diameter ranges from 0.7 to 1 m. Their shape is mostly conical or semi-globular, except for Pit 4, which is of rectangular section and shallower –obviously it was used for a different purpose than to support a pithos– and Pit 2, the bottom of which also has a small circular hole (diam. 0.21 m) dug into it. Given the re-working of Pit 3 and the overlapping lines of Pits 2 and 3, it is reasonable to assume that at least those two were not used simultaneously, or at least not opened together. Moreover, the arrangement of pits themselves creates certain difficulties in accessing the interior of the house, which may have been through the openings preserved in the north and/or south walls, even though they appear carelessly formed. Bearing this in mind, we assume that Pits 2 and 7 may have also not been simultaneously used.25 Another option would be a short ladder if the entry was opened through the upper courses of one of the walls. Moreover, a few animal bones26 retrieved from the interior of Pit 7 and from the substratum of the subsequent Floor 7c indicate that there was some space left for food preparation in the interior of the building.

25The extensive storage attested in the HP, which will be further discussed in the final part of this paper, inevitably leads to the conclusion that it was not itself a complete domestic structure, but belonged to a larger complex –if not shared by different households, the location of which is presumably to be found at the north, given the negative evidence for house remains to the south. Unfortunately, the location of the modern road did not allow the excavation to extend further north.

26The terminus ante quem for Phase 1 should be placed in MH I, based on the few pottery pieces collected from the interior of the pits (1-7) and the substratum of Floor 7c (8-22), which was laid during the remodeling of Phase 2.

Phase 2/ House of Pithoi 2 (HP 2)

  • 27 The opening in the north wall must have been closed after Phase 1, since it is not depicted in the (...)

27During Phase 2 (fig. 9), the former opening in the north wall was closed with a blocking built of small and roughly rounded stones,27 and a new floor (Floor 7c) made of yellowish hard-packed soil (δωµατόχωµα) was laid. Floor 7c was partially preserved in the middle and the NE corner of the building. According to the available sections, Floor 7c covered the previous pits; however, it is not clear whether it was all or only some, in which latter case what pits were involved. Another possibility is that whilst some of the pits were filled and covered over, new ones were opened during Phase 2. This second possibility would require that the opening of such pits would go with the surface level of Floor 7c rather than the surface level of Neolithic Layer 10 (namely Floor 7d). This hypothesis though cannot be tested further given the limited evidence we have for the depths of the related features.

Fig. 9 — Phase 2 (HP 2) of the House of Pithoi.

Fig. 9 — Phase 2 (HP 2) of the House of Pithoi.

Created and inked by A. Balitsari.

28The exact date and use of Phase 2 remains obscure, because no pottery can clearly be associated with the period of use of Floor 7c. However, given the date proposed for the earlier and the later phases of the building, it is self-evident that Phase 2 falls into the MH I-MH II early period. During Phase 2, the HP might have retained its previous use, including storage, although no safe conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the available evidence.

Phase 3/ House of Pithoi 3 (HP 3)

  • 28À l’O de la tombe 291, le mur s’interrompt sur env. 0.80 m et le sol b semble conservé à cet endro (...)
  • 29Le sol b, bien reconnaissable dans la moitié E de la maison, présentait en de nombreux endroits de (...)

29During Phase 3 (fig. 10), a new opening 0.8 m wide was created in the western wall28 –the exact location of which however is not depicted in any plan, a double row of stones was added to the face of the northern half of the eastern wall, probably functioning as a bench (fig. 11), and a new floor, Floor 7b, was laid. Floor 7b –better preserved than previous floors and clearly associated with all four walls of the building– is made from hard-packed soil mixed with charcoal and ashes, coated in places with a white substance.29 With the establishment of the Floor 7b, the interior space became even more elevated, compared to the exterior, and so the internal space may have stopped being partly below the exterior ground level.

Fig. 10 — Phase 3 (HP 3) of the House of Pithoi.

Fig. 10 — Phase 3 (HP 3) of the House of Pithoi.

Created and inked by A. Balitsari.

Fig. 11 — Bench along the north half of eastern wall, view from north.

Fig. 11 — Bench along the north half of eastern wall, view from north.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57208.

30A shallow circular cavity (bassin) (of a top diam. 0.5 m, but only 0.05 m deep) coated with the same whitish substance as the floor was found near the southern end of the bench (fig. 12). Evidence for a second similar feature was also located close to the northwestern corner of the building. The use of these features though remains unknown.

Fig. 12 — Circular white-coated cavity found south of bench, view from southwest.

Fig. 12 — Circular white-coated cavity found south of bench, view from southwest.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57251.

  • 30 Preparation of food is further supported by the discovery of some animal bones.

31The new architectural features and the variety of pottery shapes discovered within the building suggest that from Phase 3 the interior was used possibly for multiple purposes compared to previous phases, particularly Phase 1. These actions included such as small-scale storage, keeping the household equipment, and possibly cooking,30 as indicated by the presence of wide-mouthed jars, fragments of pithoi, and tableware (table 3). Other household activities might have also taken place here, like spinning, if not weaving, given the discovery of a discoid spindle-whorl (C.8910).

Table 3 — Minimum number of individual pots per phase, associated to a specific use.

Phase

Storage vessels

(pithoi & large-sized wide-mouthed jars of various wares)

Cooking vessels

(medium-sized wide mouthed jars of Coarse Ware)

Transport vessels (necked jars of various wares)

Tableware

(jugs, cups, bowls & basins of various wares)

HP 1

≥ 8 (max. 13, mainly pithoi)

≥ 1

≥ 2

≥ 14

HP 3

≥ 9

≥ 1-2

≥ 1

≥ 28

HP 4

≥ 4

≥ 1

≥ 5

≥ 23

32Pottery found packed on the surface of Floor 7b (23-31), as well as in the substratum of the superimposed Floor 7a (32-54), including Garlan’s Layers E-F (55-61), is associated with Phase 3 and dated to the MH I late-MH II early.

Phase 4/ House of Pithoi 4 (HP 4)

  • 31 More evidence, which also suggests that this potential entrance stopped being used, is the establis (...)

33Phase 4 represents the last building phase of the HP, during which major changes took place (figs. 13-15). First and foremost, the size of the interior space shrank (to 3.5 × 2.8 m.), because a new wall (hereafter North Wall b) replaced the former northern line. North Wall b was carefully built with a double row of stones infilled with smaller ones, all set in a yellowish-clayish mortar (δωµατόχωµα). According to the available drawings, the three remaining walls were also reconstructed and the entrance to the interior modified, albeit it remains somewhat obscure how access was afterwards effected. In the south wall, a double row of small-sized stones possibly closed the former opening.31 This seems to be the case also for the opening in the western wall.

Fig. 13 — Phase 4 (HP 4) of the House of Pithoi.

Fig. 13 — Phase 4 (HP 4) of the House of Pithoi.

After BCH 91.2 [1967], fig. 1 [p. 812]; reformatted and inked by A. Balitsari.

Fig. 14 — Phase 4 (HP 4) of the House of Pithoi with North Wall b, view from northeast.

Fig. 14 — Phase 4 (HP 4) of the House of Pithoi with North Wall b, view from northeast.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57077.

Fig. 15 — Detail of northwestern corner depicting the different levels of the bottom course of North Wall b and western wall.

Fig. 15 — Detail of northwestern corner depicting the different levels of the bottom course of North Wall b and western wall.

View from southeast.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57215.

  • 32Peut-être cependant le foyer était-il composé de deux cavités distinctes. La plus petite, dont la (...)

34A new floor of hard-packed soil was laid (Floor 7a), clearly associated with North Wall b, as well as a hearth, partly investigated by Garlan in 1965. Croissant describes the hearth as consisting of two distinct cavities: one shallow (0.06-0.08 m deep) and oval-shaped (0.80 m long), made of hard-baked clay with distinct borders projecting a few centimeters above floor level, and the other totally sunk in the floor, of irregular shape and less well coated with clay.32 Because of the differences observed, it is not easy to conclude whether the second cavity represents a different functional feature of the hearth or just the less well preserved half of the structure. Since there are no available photos of the structure, only a rough outline of the feature in plan, of these hypotheses can be tested further. However, its presence signifies that possibly food preparation was one of the main activities performed in the interior. Evidence for other craft activities that might have included heat processing were not preserved.

35Small-scale storage is also indicated, but a significant difference is observed now in the type of vessels associated (table 3); during Phase 4 the number of transport jars is significantly higher compared to wide-mouthed jars, which are more appropriate for local storage. If not a random circumstance, this situation might indicate changes in the basic usage of the space. Perhaps there was a concentration on liquids for exchange, since the specific shapes recovered were those that guarantee safe transfer of their contents.

  • 33 “[…] une couche de terre argileuse, d’un jaune-brun très caractéristique, semée de particules jaune (...)

36Above the surface of Floor 7a the destruction layer (Layer 7) was preserved. It consisted of stones and large fragments of pottery, all mixed with the same typical yellowish soil (δωµατόχωµα),33 which presumably accumulated gradually after the abandonment of the HP and the decomposition of the building materials.

37The pottery collected from the destruction layer (62-97) should be associated with the last habitation phase of the HP (HP 4).

The burials

  • 34 The determination of sex and age follows P. Charlier, “Aspects anthropologiques et paléopathologiqu (...)

38Five pit graves were discovered inside the HP: an infant (T.290), a child (T.264) and three adolescent or young adult burials (T.279, T.291, T.299). All of them seem to have been performed during the habitation of the structure or shortly after its abandonment, for reasons we will reveal below. The details34 of each are summarized in table 4. Here we will concentrate on the relation between the burials and the living space of the HP.

Table 4 — Details of graves excavated in the House of Pithoi.

The grave

The dead

Special

features

Type

Special features

Sex

Age in years

(after Charlier 2007)

Position

Orientation

(cranium marked)

T.299

Pit

F

16-19

Contracted on left side, both hands bent over the pelvis.

N-S

Stones were placed over the body and one fragment of LW jar (no. 10) was found under the cranium.

T.264

Pit

?

7-12

Contracted on right side, left hand bent in front of the face.

NW-SE

T.290

Pit

?

Infant

Contracted on the left side.

E-W

T.291

Pit

F

25-45

The upper part of the skeleton lies on its back, both legs contracted and both hands bent in front of the face.

N-S

One fragment of a fine GBW bowl (no. 101) was found under the cranium.

T.279

Pit

The pit is roughly rectangular, placed exactly at the NW corner of the HP. A mudbrick limits the SE side of the tomb.

F

˃25

Contracted on the left side. The left hand is extended and the right one bent over the pelvis.

N-S

T.268

Jar

?

Presumably infant

Unknown

Unknown

  • 35 “[…] sous le sol a (qui, au moins au S était conservé) trois tombes ont été découvertes: T.264, T.2 (...)
  • 36La tombe [i.e. T.279] est donc au plus tôt contemporaine du dernier état de la maison. Bien que le (...)

39(a) T.264. T.291 and T.279 were found under Floor 7a.35 But it remains unclear whether the tomb opening corresponds to the surface level of Floor 7a or whether Floor 7a was actually found running above the graves. The second case would mean that the floor was restored after the interments, so the interior space obviously continued to be used for everyday activities. Only T.279 was clearly opened after the abandonment of the building, since there was no evidence at all for Floor 7a at the specific area.36 Moreover stones from North Wall b were apparently removed to facilitate the placing of the grave and such a modification could have hardly taken place if North Wall b was still functional (fig. 16). However, given the fact that all graves were found under the destruction layer of the HP and strictly within its four walls, it is reasonable to assume that –if not opened while the HP was used– the interments were performed in the interior of an abandoned but still standing building and not dug through some mass of ruins.

  • 37 “[…] mais une autre tombe T.299, de même type, située en partie sous la T.264, avait été creusée da (...)

40(b) T.299 was found partly below T.264, so it clearly predates the latter. According to the excavator, the opening of the grave corresponds to the surface level of Floor 7b.37 His remark gives strength to the association of T.299 with Phase 3 of the HP, meaning that the burial was probably performed when the HP was still in use.

Fig. 16 — Detail of T.279 and North Wall b with stones having been removed for the establishment of the grave.

Fig. 16 — Detail of T.279 and North Wall b with stones having been removed for the establishment of the grave.

View from southwest.

Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57187.

  • 38Une tombe de bébé (T.290) trouvée dans la couche b [i.e. the substratum of Floor 7b], près du mur  (...)

41(c) T.290 was found in the substratum of Floor 7b, with only Floor 7a being recognized over the grave.38 So, either the burial was dug deep enough during Phase 4, with Floor 7a being immediately restored after the inhumation, or T.290 was opened from the surface level of Floor 7b (Phase 3), shortly before the remodeling of Phase 4 took place.

42To sum up, T.290 was certainly opened while the HP was still in use. The same seems also plausible for T.299 and cannot be excluded for T.291 and T.264. However, in the case of T.279 it is indisputable that the opening of the grave took place after the abandonment of the building, but possibly while the remains of it were largely visible before the final collapse.

  • 39 BCH 82 (1958), p. 268-275.
  • 40 Philippa-Touchais 2003.
  • 41 E. Milka, “Lerna. The analysis of the archaeological data”, in S. Voutsaki, S. Triantaphyllou, A. I (...)
  • 42 S. Voutsaki, E. Milka, “Social change in Middle Helladic Lerna”, in C. Wiersma, S. Voutsaki (eds), (...)
  • 43 E. Milka, “Burials upon the ruins of abandoned houses in the Middle Helladic Argolid”, in Mesohella (...)
  • 44 Balitsari 2017, p. 249, 262-263.

43A significant number of MH burials have been also unearthed in other parts of the South Quarter, but many details are still unknown, including the date, their exact location and relationship with adjacent house remains.39 In Aspis, a number of intramural graves have been discovered, especially in SE Sector. TA 7-8 constitute a double burial, which is at its earliest to be dated to MH I late-MH II early; it is associated with young females and might have been performed within the earliest architectural phase of Building MC.40 The placement of the bodies, so close to each other, recalls T.264 and T.299 of the HP. In Lerna, where the largest intramural MH cemetery has been discovered, the situation is slightly different; from the transitional EH III/MH I to the MH I late, only infants and neonates were buried inside the living spaces.41 Adult burials are also present but as a rule they are never placed in houses still in use; they are either located between the houses or on top of house ruins,42 with the latter response being introduced from MH II onwards.43 In Asine, the association of the earliest MH burials of adults and neonates with the building remains on both Kastraki and the Lower Town is not easy to establish.44

  • 45 Contra to Sarri, who actually denies the opening of intramural burials, particularly inside houses (...)

44Generally, the data gained from the HP and also Aspis are very limited and cannot be used to generalize about the burial customs of Argos at the beginning of the MH period. Small variations though distinguished, compared to Lerna, namely the placement of at least one (sub)adult burial (T.299) inside a house, which continued in use, indicates that caution is needed when evidence from one site is put forward as the norm for the rest of mainland Greece.45

The pottery

  • 46 A comparative petrographic study of pottery from Aspis, South Quarter and Deiras is currently being (...)

45The study of the pottery from the floor deposits of the HP (figs. 17-30) combines the detailed analysis of surface treatment and decoration with fabric –as classified by visually distinct macroscopic fabric groups, technology of manufacture, firing and shapes. Here is set forth a detailed presentation of the macroscopic fabric groups,46 followed by the discussion of the pottery as organised in wares/classes.

  • 47 For a related term (“Argive Light Ware”), see S. Dietz, The Argolid at the Transition to the Mycena (...)
  • 48 J. B. Rutter, Lerna. A Preclassical Site in the Argolid, III. The pottery of Lerna IV (1995), p. 23 (...)
  • 49 E. J. Forsdyke, “The pottery called Minyan Ware”, JHS 34 (1914), p. 129; K. Sarri, “Minyan and Miny (...)
  • 50 Forsdyke 1914 (n. 49), p. 129-130; A. J. B. Wace, C. W. Blegen, “The Pre-Mycenaean pottery of the M (...)
  • 51 Wace, Blegen 1916-1918 (n. 50), p. 181; Nordquist 1987, p. 49.
  • 52 For Ayios Stephanos in southern Laconia, see Zerner 2008, p. 189-193.
  • 53 Gray Minyan of Central Greece has been characterized as ‘true’ (Zerner 1993, p. 43), but such a cha (...)

46For reasons of consistency, each class is named after the most distinct features, mainly the color, the surface treatment or the coarseness of the clay paste. Consequently, terms, such as Mattpainted and Minyan, which are strongly related to the MH pottery traditions, are excluded, either because they are not definitely applicable or because they are misleading as they refer to a group of features considered archetypal for a specific ceramic repertoire. For example, only the upper half of the pots usually bears the mattpainted decoration, with the other half being left unpainted. Given the fragmented character of the material, a distinction between mattpainted and unpainted/plain pottery would be readily skewed. Therefore, the term Light Ware47 is preferred and includes all sherds with light fired surfaces, which may bear or not painted decoration. The term Gray Burnished is substituted for that of Gray Minyan. This is done firstly because it has a direct link with the earlier pottery traditions of the Early Helladic III phase.48 Secondly, and most importantly, the term is thus made neutral and leaves enough ‘space’ for the regional characteristics of related wares to be explored. Gray Minyan usually is associated automatically with central Greece, mostly Boeotia,49 and with specific features like the color and the soapy-texture of the surface, as well as the use of fine clays and the potter’s wheel.50 Further, the term Argive Minyan, assigned to describe the coarser burnished variety with dark/black surfaces,51 is equally misleading, because it premises the production of the Dark Burnished Ware in the Argive plain, which hypothesis can no longer necessarily stand, since the same ware is found in abundance in other regions as well, such as the southern Peloponnese.52 Because of the continuous circulation of misleading data, scholars have tended to reach vague and arbitrary conclusions about the provenance or the degree of originality of the Minyan Ware;53 such an approach dooms any attempt to make a satisfactory description of the special characteristics of the Burnished wares by site and region.

Macroscopic Fabric Groups (MFG)

MFG 1 (coarse)

  • 54 Percentages are estimated according to Munsell Soil Color Charts.
  • 55 In this fabric group, it is not easy to estimate the precise color hues, even using the Munsell Soi (...)

47The fabric is coarse, rich (30-40%)54 in medium-sized (0.002-0.006 m), (sub)angular stone inclusions of gray, black, brown-red and white color, of which the last could be possibly related to carbonates and/or quartz. Small pits are visible on the surface, which is mottled, ranging from red to brown and black/gray,55 with a black core, known as the ‘biscuit’ effect. The varied color of the surfaces may have been caused by uneven initial firing conditions, or by the use of the vessels for cooking, even though their bases do not appear consistently charred and blackened. This lack can occur either because the pots were not only used for cooking but also for storage, or because they were not placed directly upon the fire. Taking into consideration the biscuit effect and the fabric, which becomes particularly friable during cleaning with water, it becomes evident that the pottery made of MFG 1 was fired to only a low temperature and in uneven firing conditions.

48MFG 1 fabrics appear in the Coarse Ware (see below).

MFG 2 (coarse)

  • 56 Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, p. 218.

49MFG 2 is coarse and grainy, harder than MFG 1, but also rich (30-40%) in medium-sized (0.002-0.004 m), well-sorted, (sub)rounded stone inclusions of whitish-grayish color, with small golden and/or shiny platy ones being the most prominent, the presence of which allows us to securely identify the MFG 2 as belonging to the Aeginetan production. Surfaces are red (10R 5/6-5/8 or 2.5YR 4/6) or mottled ranging from red to brown and black/gray. Recent analysis has shown that the same fabric from MH Kolonna on Aegina was consistently fired in relatively high temperatures (750o-950oC).56

50MFG 2 fabrics appear in Aeginetan Coarse Ware (see below).

MFG 3a-b (semi-fine/coarse - coarse)

51MFG 3 is subdivided in the semi-fine/coarse (MFG 3a) and the coarse variety (MFG 3b), with the distinction based solely on the size of the lithic inclusions.

52Generally, MFG 3 consists of a rather fine and hard-fired clay matrix with many (15-20%) angular and oblong lithic inclusions, mainly of reddish-brown to black color, the size of which ranges from 0.002-0.005 m in MFG 3a, and from 0.006-0.01 m in MFG 3b. The color of the fabric is usually light red (5YR 7/6, 2.5YR 6/8), pink (5 YR 7/4) or reddish (7.5 YR 7/8, 5 YR 7/6), with a gray core observed in thick-walled fragments, especially in MFG 3b. Light gray (2.5 YR N6) or light brownish-gray (2.5 Y 6/2) hues are rarely found and only associated with a limited number of sherds of the Gray Burnished class.

53MFG 3a-b appear regularly in Light and Pithos Wares, respectively (see below). Judging from the good sorting of the grains in the fraction and the bimodal grain size distribution, it is possible that a fine clay base was prepared and then tempered with crushed rock fragments. MFG 3a is also found in Gray Burnished Ware as well (see below), but in these occasions, the fabric may not be exactly the same, because even though the inclusions seem comparable, they are less densely packed.

MFG 4 (semi-fine/coarse)

  • 57 M. Lindblom, Marks and Makers. Appearance, Distribution and Function of Middle and Late Helladic Ma (...)

54In this group the fabric is semi-fine/coarse, grainy and porous-looking, with many (20-30%) small-sized (0.001-0.002 m), (sub)rounded lithic inclusions of white, gray and reddish-brown color, and few golden or shiny black and platy ones, the latter indicative of an Aeginetan origin. The color of the fabric is homogenous throughout and ranges from very pale brown (10YR 8/3) to reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) or light red (2.5 YR 7/6), depending on the temperature of the initial firing.57

55MFG 4 fabrics appear in the Aeginetan Light and Red Slipped and Burnished Ware (see below).

MFG 5 (semi-fine/coarse)

56MFG 5 is semi-fine/coarse, sandy and hard-fired, with many (20-30%) small-sized (0.001-0.002 m), well-sorted, (sub)rounded lithic inclusions of various colors, mainly white, gray/black and reddish-brown. The color of the fabric is light red (2.5 YR 6/6) or pink (7.5 YR 7/4) with biscuit effect (light gray core) occasionally observed.

57MFG 5 is very characteristic, easily distinguishable, and associated with the so-called Minoanizing Lustrous Decorated Ware (see below).

MFG 6a-b (semi-fine/coarse)

58MFG 6 was subdivided in two varieties, the one roughly gray throughout (MFG 6a) and the other roughly black with a red core (MFG 6b). The variation in color may be associated with compositional differences and/or different firing process. Within each subgroup, though, there are further textural, compositional and color variations to be noticed, which make MFG 6 less homogenous than other fabric groups.

59MFG 6 is grainy, hard-fired, with many (10-20%), small- to medium-sized (0.001-0.002 m, rarely 0.004 m) stones fragments of subangular to (sub)rounded shape, the color of which is usually gray/black, reddish-brown and white. Silver mica is frequent but not always present. On the one hand, the color in MFG 6a usually ranges in (dark) gray (2.5 YR N 4-6) to light brownish hues (2.5 Y 6/2), and on the other, in MFG 6b the surfaces are usually very dark gray (7.5 YR N/3), less frequently reddish-brown (2.5 YR 5/4), yellowish-red (5 YR 5/6), (light) brown (7.5 YR 6/4, 5/2), rarely red (10 R 4/8), and the fraction always red (2.5 YR 5/8, 4/6-8). Occasionally there is a gray core. Both varieties are obviously fired in reducing atmosphere conditions.

60MFG 6a-b fabrics appear in Burnished Wares, the Gray and the Dark Burnished respectively (see below).

MFG 7a-c (fine)

61The fabric of this group is always fine, hard-fired and compact looking. Few (˂2%), rounded, small-sized (˂0.002 m) and whitish lithic inclusions are rarely visible, mostly in MFG 7a. Based on the color, three subgroups were distinguished, the relation of which needs to be further explored via the application of analytical methods.

62MFG 7a is always light gray or gray (7.5 YR N7, N6, N5), because of reducing firing conditions, with occasionally light reddish-brown (5 YR 6/4) core. It attests in Gray Burnished Ware.

63MFG 7b is very pale brown (10 YR 8/2) with a light red (2.5 YR 6/6) core, and it is represented by only one jug of the Light Ware.

64MFG 7c is pink (7.5 YR 7/4) throughout and it is associated with the finest version of the Lustrous Decorated Ware.

Wares

Light Ware (LW) and Pithos Ware (PW)

Fabric

65Light Ware is attested in three varieties, depending on fabric: fine (MFG 7b), semi-fine/coarse (MFG 3a) and coarse (MFG 3b). Coarse Light Ware is also called Pithos Ware, because it is exclusively associated with large pithoi. MFG 3a is far more common than the other fabric groups, and, unless otherwise stated, it should be considered as exclusive to the majority of shapes discussed here. MFG 7b, on the other hand, is represented by only one specimen (98).

Details of manufacture

66LW is totally handmade, but only few observations on this can be made, because of its fragmentary character as recovered. In closed vessels of the semi-fine/coarse variety, the neck was separately formed and then attached to body (1). The incision occasionally observed on the edge of the rim of jars (32) most probably corresponds to the attachment of subsequent clay slabs used in its manufacture. The same observation may also apply for the groove observed on top of the rims of some basins (37, 63-64). Vertical (11, 55, 71, 98) and horizontal handles (63) were simply set on the exterior of the body, with clay paste covering the contact zone (63). In vertical handles the upper part is either attached to the rim so that the rim itself is hardly visible (11, 26), or it is placed against the exterior side of the rim (55).

Surface treatment

67Both surfaces in open shapes or just the exterior in closed ones are usually wiped and self-washed or coated (10 YR 8/2-4, very pale brown). However, it is not always easy to tell whether a coat has been applied or the surfaces are self-washed. Sometimes surfaces (mostly exterior) are nicely smoothed, although not burnished shiny as in the case of the Gray Burnished. The interior surfaces of PW are occasionally left rough and uneven.

Decoration

  • 58 M. Farnsworth, I. Simmons, “Coloring agents for Greek glazes”, AJA 67 (1963), p. 395-396.
  • 59 Even though it is traditionally believed that the appearance of mattpainted decoration marks the be (...)
  • 60 Zerner 1978, p. 151; also for the Dull Painted on the islet of Mitrou, see C. Hale, “Middle Helladi (...)
  • 61 For some typical mattpainted pottery of MH I early-middle, see Zerner 2004, figs. 10, 12; for the s (...)

68Painted decoration is common, especially on the upper half of the vessels, but it also attested on the lower half (33, 69, 99). Plain vases (11) are present as well. In most cases, paint is usually matt and of a uniform black/dark gray color, due to being rich presumably in manganese.58 There are though few instances (33, 69-70, 99) in which the paint is possibly iron-based, as it is closer to brown in hue.59 Only one wall-fragment exhibits bichrome decoration (65) consisting of black and red paint. Bichrome decoration is relatively more common during the transitional EH III/MH I at Lerna.60 Patterns are mainly rectilinear, expanding on the shoulder-zone. In the case of 10 and 98, motifs are executed with rather thick lines, and this trend is considered typical for the mattpainted pottery at the beginning of the MH period.61

Shapes

  • Pithos
    Pithoi are exclusively fashioned from MFG 3b. The shape, however, is not satisfactorily represented. Only few wall fragments have survived, which provide no firm evidence for the full shape or other specific morphological characteristics of it, therefore they remain uncatalogued. Related vases are far better known from MH I-II settlement and burial contexts in Aspis,62 as well as the tumuli cemetery at its foot63.
  • Jar
    Nos. 8-10, 32-34, 62
    Jars are usually wide-mouthed with flaring rim (8-9, 32, 62) of roughly rectangular section, and occasionally incised on top (32). Horizontal handles of triangular section are placed on the belly (62). According to the best preserved comparanda,64 wide-mouthed jars usually have ovoid body and flat bases (33-34).65 In rare instances, the maximum diameter is not in the middle but high on the shoulder (8) or has dropped to the lower half, giving them thus a baggy appearance (10), like barrel-jars.66 Given their openings estimated at 0.30-0.40 m, the wide-mouthed jars of the HP should be considered medium- to large-sized vessels. In terms of decoration, the specimens from the HP are either plain (8, 62) or decorated with horizontal painted bands (9, 32) around the neck and rim. Only few joining wall-fragments (10) preserve more elaborate decoration consisting of horizontal bands and cross-hatched triangles, which recalls the same sort of decoration applied on Aeginetan barrel jars of City VII/ transitional EH III/MH I-MH I early (see catalogue).
  • Narrow necked jar with flaring rim (?)
    No. 1
    The shape is hesitantly recognized in only one neck fragment. Related vases with ovoid body are commonly known from the Lustrous Decorated Ware (see below), and the Aeginetan Mattpainted.67
  • Necked jar
    Nos. 36, 69-70, 99
    The identification of the shape is mostly based on the characteristic decoration of the belly and the lower half (69-70, 99), which consists of vertical and horizontal broad bands crossing each other on the belly (70), and to a much less extent by preserved dagnostic sherds (36). According to some better preserved parallels from Aspis, Deiras and the Argos tumuli cemetery (see catalogue), necked jars of the LW have cylindrical necks, with distinct/everted rims usually of rounded section (36), an ovoid or globular body, flat base and two horizontal handles of triangular section placed at the point of maximum diameter.
  • Jug
    Nos. 2, 11, 23-24, 35,68 66-68, 98
    The shape is commonly found in MFG 3b, with only one largely intact vase being related to the finer variety of MFG 7a (98). Besides the fragments 23-24, 67-68 and the almost intact specimen 98, the remaining ones (2, 11, 66) clearly belong to the type of the cut-away necked jug. Rims are straight (11, 67) or everted (2, 24, 66), of rounded section (2, 11, 24, 66) or gradually thin towards the lip (67). According to the best preserved examples, including 11, related vases will have either a globular or ovoid body, with a flat base (35) and one vertical strap handle running from shoulder to rim (23). Except for 11, which is plain, the rest bear mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal bands around neck and on top of the rim (2, 24, 66-67). A horizontal band is also found on the belly of 24, which may represent the largest example of the specific type, while a star fills an empty space in the case of 68. Jug 98 bears the most elaborate decoration of horizontal bands, and cross-hatched triangles inside larger triangles with rows of short bars attached.
  • Carinated one-handled bowl/cup
    Nos. 55, 71
    Both specimens differ significantly from each other. 55 has an everted rim of rounded section and straight shoulder, which argues for a rather angular body, with the attachment of a vertical and presumably high-swung handle being partially preserved. On the other hand, 71, which is much better preserved, has a straight shoulder with no distinct rim, and a carinated body as well, with a flat base and a high-swung, strap handle vertically placed from shoulder to rim. Because of its small size, it could also be viewed as a cup. The shape of 71 is rather unusual; however the closest parallels for its decoration (horizontal bands, groups of vertical lines) are located in both Aspis and Lerna (see catalogue).
  • Basin with in-turned rim
    Nos. 37, 63-64
    All the fragments belong to the type of basin with an in-turned rim, grooved on top. Compared to their larger Aeginetan counterparts, these ones are medium-sized, with a rim diameter estimated at 0.20-0.24 m. Despite the overall similarities, there are significant differences in the layout of the shoulder. The latter aspect is either curved (63) or slightly angular and gradually thickening towards rim (64), which is usually provided with two horizontal handles of triangular section (63). According to better preserved examples,69 the bases are flat. In the case of 37, the shoulder is slightly flaring, giving thus an “S-profile” to the specimen. The mattpainted decoration is located on the shoulder, the handle and on top of the rim, and consists of horizontal bands (37, 63-64), as well as groups of diagonals (37) in alternating directions (64).
  • Lid/shallow basin
    No. 56
    The shape is uncommon, and its function remains unknown, given the absence of close parallels. It is most definitely a shallow vessel with curving sides, a rounded rim, grooved on the inside and out. The interior groove may have facilitated its use as a close-fitting lid for large-sized containers, presumably pithoi.

Discussion

  • 70 Philippa-Touchais 2002, p. 5, for PM 1 and PM 3.
  • 71 Zerner 1978, p. 152-156, especially for the black-tempered variety.
  • 72 Nordquist 1987, p. 48.
  • 73 Lindblom 2011, p. 78-84.
  • 74 G. C. Nordquist, “Who made the pots? Production in the Middle Helladic Society”, in R. Laffineur, W (...)

69LW of the HP is very much linked to the MFG 3a; it exhibits similar features in terms of manufacture, shape and decoration with related wares found in various Argive sites, such as Aspis,70 Lerna,71 Asine72 and Mastos.73 Therefore it can be safely associated with the local mattpainted tradition of the Argolid. For the time being, we lack clear evidence for identifying specific producing centers, although it is generally viewed as a household-based production of limited specialization, as is also believed for all the other pottery classes considered to be local.74 Parallels with painted wares of sites beyond the Argolid are limited, which observation gives support to the idea of a considerable degree of regionality that characterizes the early MH potting traditions.

70In terms of dating, the LW of the HP fits well into the MH I-II horizon, according to stratified comparanda from other sites. Even though the phases of the HP are clearly physically distinguishable, we are hardly able to trace any development of the LW from one phase to the other, given its limited number and its fragmented character.

Aeginetan Light Ware (ALW)

Fabric

Details of manufacture

  • 75 Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, p. 35.

71ALW is completely handmade, as already known from the thorough examination of the same ware found at Kolonna.75 Because of its limited representation within the material of the HP, no further observations can be made.

Surface treatment

72Exterior surfaces are well smoothed, and the same treatment may have been applied for the interior of basins (38, 39), though the interior of jar 100 bears intense evidence of scraping. This observation, though, i.e. the differentiated treatment of the interior in open and closed vessels, is not categorical, given the small amount of ALW retrieved from the HP.

Decoration

73All fragments of the catalogue bear linear mattpainted decoration (horizontal and vertical bands, opposed diagonals, groups of vertical lines, X-pattern) usually arranged in panels (39, 100).

Shapes

  • Wide-mouthed jar
    No. 100
    The shape is similar to its LW equivalent (see above), although, judging from its parallels the specific type is more standardized, namely the rim is commonly rounded and sharply articulated from the rest of the body, which is always ovoid.76
  • Basin with in-turned rim
    Nos. 38-39
    These specific basins are far larger compared to their LW equivalents, with their mouths ranging between 0.34-0.40 m. 38 is quite angular with no distinct rim of rectangular section, while 39 is more globular with a thickening rim. Similar pots are either provided with a flat base77 or a cylindrical foot,78 and two handles of triangular section horizontally placed on the shoulder. The mattpainted decoration is strictly limited on the shoulder and it is either continuous (38) or arranged in panels (39).

Discussion

  • 79 For the most recent analysis of the same ware from Kolonna, see Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, esp. p. 49-50 (...)
  • 80 For Aspis, see Philippa-Touchais 2007; for Lerna, see Zerner 1978, p. 156; 1988, figs. 4-17; for As (...)

74The ALW has all the typical characteristics of the same ware as identified on Aegina79 and various other sites across the Argosaronikos Gulf, including the Argive plain.80 Its presence in the HP is rather limited. With the best comparanda in the material of City IX (MH II) at Kolonna, its presence is helpful for establishing the date of the last two phases of the HP, namely during the transitional MH I late – MH II early period.

Lustrous Decorated Ware (LDW)

Fabric

75LDW appears in two varieties depending on shape: MFG 5 (semi-fine/coarse) is attested in transport/storage and pouring vessels, while MFG 7c (fine) is only observed in tableware, namely cups.

Details of manufacture

76Handmade. However, because of its fragmented character no further observations can be made.

Surface treatment

77Exterior surfaces are smoothed and either left plain, or may bear a pinkish-white (7.5YR 8/2) coat (90-91) or a dark slip (89). The interior surface of 6 exhibits evidence of scraping.

Decoration

78In most cases painted decoration of black-brown or red color, commonly crackled, is applied on the exterior surfaces, resulting in a dark-on-light effect. The color of the paint implies the use of an iron-based substance. Only, in 89 is the decoration reversed with the white paint –nearly faded away– being applied on a dark-slipped surface (light-on-dark). Patterns, when preserved, are exclusively rectilinear, consisting of horizontal or oblique bands and lines.

Shapes

  • Narrow-necked jar with flaring rim
    Nos. 6, 91
    The shape is the most typical of the transport jars of LDW, and even body fragments can safely be recognized because of its standardized decoration, at least when attested in the dark-on-light version. Based on better preserved parallels from other sites,81 the body is ovoid with a flat base and two horizontal handles of rounded section attached on the belly. The decoration is organized in multiple horizontal zones expanding on the upper half of the vessel.
  • Jug
    Nos. 59, 90
    Both fragments belong to jugs with a ridged shoulder. According to best preserved parallels, the type has a cut-away neck, ovoid body, flat base and one cylindrical handle vertically attached from shoulder to rim, with projections created at both ends.82
  • Spouted cup
    No. 89
    89 has a slightly in-turned rim, gradually thinning towards lip, which is pulled out to form a spout. Similar cups are usually provided with a flat handle attached to the middle of the body, below the rim, and a distinguished flat or ring base.83

Discussion

  • 84 Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2019, p. 131, n. 16.
  • 85 Zerner 1978, p. 159.
  • 86 For Ayios Stephanos, see Zerner 2008, p. 205.

79The LDW of the HP is similar to the ware, also termed as Minoanizing, recognized in different parts of southern Mainland, mainly the Peloponnese, and including the Argolid.84 However, the material retrieved from the interior of the building is very fragmented and too limited in number to establish any development of its repertoire. It is important though to mention that the LDW is present from the very first phase of the HP, and this fits with the general picture of its appearance right from the beginning of the MH period not only in Argos and Lerna,85 but also in other MBA sites86.

Gray Burnished Ware (GBW)

Fabric

80GBW is mainly related to three varieties of fabric; the fine MFG 7a (typical Gray Minyan) and the semi-fine MFG 6a are more common, while only few examples appear in the gray version of MFG 3a, which, as described previously, is characteristic of the LW. We cannot exclude the possibility of an overlapping in the use of similar clays for the manufacture of those two distinctly different wares, but without the aid of analytical methods we cannot reach any firm conclusion.

Details of manufacture

  • 87 For a detail analysis of the wheel-fashioned technique, as evidenced in Lerna IV, see M. Choleva, “(...)

81GBW, including its finest version, is mostly handmade, namely coil/slab-built. This is particularly obvious in the uneven wall thickness, the incisions on the shoulder, which are frequently irregular, the lack of well-balanced shapes, with the clay slabs commonly visible in the fractured edge of the sherds, but also evidenced as a slight incision on top of the rim (12), and the lack of spiraliform/horseshoe-shaped cut-off marks on the bottom of the bases. Only two cases (26, 78) of fine fabric (MFG 7a) seem wheelmade because of the parallel striations on the internal surfaces, but the careful examination reveals that the particular pots were wheel-fashioned rather than properly wheel-thrown, i.e. they were initially coil-build and then wheel-finished. The criteria for the discrimination made between wheelmade and wheel-fashioned87 pots are based on the co-existence of wheel-marks with evidence of coils, the latter witnessed by the uneven wall thickness, which is incompatible with the wheel-thrown technique, and the surface discontinuities resulting from the uneven pressure exercised by the potter in joining and evening out the coils.

82With regard to other manufacturing details, observations can be made apropos the handle-attachments. Vertical handles are set against the exterior of the body (27, 57, 77, 79-82), with the upper part of the high-swung ones attached to the exterior side of the rim so that the latter remains fully visible (45, 77, 82). In few cases (12, 46) small strips of clay were also used in order to strengthen the connection of the rim with the handle. Only in 102 has the upper handle-attachment has been worked so as to obscure the rim completely at the site of attachment.

Surface treatment

  • 88 Zerner 1978, p. 135-13; Spencer 2007 (n. 74), p. 95-96.

83Both surfaces are commonly burnished resulting in a high sheen, with the tool marks (crossing oblique lines) only slightly evident. It has been suggested that a cloth served as the burnishing tool, when the clay is approaching leather hard.88 Only 79 preserves more pronounced marks, especially close to handle, probably because the burnishing took place while the clay was less dry. In cases of 44 and 46, the surfaces of which are relatively rough, it is hard to say whether this is because of poor preservation or due to lack of intense burnishing.

Decoration

  • 89 For a complete vessel of this type, see Nordquist 1987, p. 170, fig. 44.

84The commonest decorative treatment consists of horizontal incisions on top of the shoulder (4, 12, 27, 44, 72). Only 57 preserves more elaborate decoration in the form of an incised festoon/garland located under the handle. The pattern is typical for Dark Burnished basins with grooved shoulder.89

Shapes

  • Bowl and kantharos
    Nos. 3-5, 12-17, 25-27, 40-45, 57, 72-76, 78-81, 83-84, 101-102
    Both these shapes are described together because of the common features they share. The distinction made between the two is based on the number and position of the handles, when preserved. Kantharoi are provided with two high-swung handles vertically attached from shoulder to rim. Bowls, on the other hand, usually have two strap handles vertically set on the shoulder (shoulder-handled bowls),90 or one high-swung handle from shoulder to rim (one-handled bowls).91 Due to poor preservation, it is not easy to distinguish between kantharos and one-handled bowl, even though the latter tend to be smaller.
    With regard to body shape, bowls and kantharoi can be rounded (3, 12, 16, 27, 72-74, 101) carinated (26, 44, 57, 78-79, 102) or pear-shaped with baggy appearance (4, 42, 73, 80). The last form appears exclusively as bowls. Rims (ca. 0.14-0.20 m.) are everted and usually of rounded section (12, 16, 17, 25, 27, 57, 72, 79-81, 83-84, 101-102), although considerable variation is observed related to length and thickness, as well as in their articulation with the shoulder. Other variants on the rim, less commonly found, include those gradually thinning towards lip (5, 27), rectangular (44) or drop-shaped (78). In few cases the interior of the rim is hollowed (26, 57). Bases are always flat (13-14, 40, 43, 80, 102), with a single exception of a ring-base (76), which is most probably related to a carinated bowl with a drop-shaped rim, similar to 78, judging from best preserved comparanda in other sites (see catalogue). Handles are always strap (45, 78-79), with upraised ends on a few occasions (80-81, 102). No specific correlation can be established between particular morphological features and distinct fabrics.
    The significant amount of Gray Burnished bowls and kantharoi retrieved from the HP allow us to establish a sequence in their development, which seems compatible with what we know from other Argive sites. Rounded and pear-shaped bowls coexist during all phases of the HP. During the first habitation phase (HP 1), rounded bowls with their maximum diameter placed high on the shoulder, like 3 and 12 of the HP 1, found their best parallels within the MH I early pottery of Lerna (see catalogue). The elongated rims of 3 and 5 resemble a few transitional EH III/MH I examples from Lerna (see catalogue), consequently they may originate from the EH III potting traditions.92 Their co-existence though with pear-shaped bowls like 4 indicates a slightly later date, during the MH I early-middle. In Lerna, pear-shaped bowls seem to disappear during MH I late, while in Argos they survive until MH II-III early (see catalogue).
  • Cup
    Nos. 46, 77, 82
    Cup is a generic term, used to describe all small drinking vessels, the rim diameter of which does not exceed ca. 0.10-0.12 m. Bodies are more or less angular, rims are everted, of rounded section, rarely hollowed in the interior (46) and there is evidence for at least one presumably high-swung handle attached from shoulder to rim. 46 is additionally decorated with parallel incisions on shoulder.
  • Basin with in-turned rim
    No. 41
    The shape is quite close to the basins in Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished (see below), as well as to some Cycladic counterparts.93 It has a rounded shoulder slightly thinning towards rim, which too is of rounded section. According to the best preserved comparanda, bases are flat and handles are lug-shaped, pierced through (see catalogue).

Discussion

85The GBW of the HP exhibits morphological features and development in common with the Gray Minyan found in other Argive sites, and therefore it should be considered locally produced in the wider sense of the term. The only possible exceptions may be 26, 76 and 78, the best preserved comparanda of which are to be found in central Greece. Moreover, since two of specimens are the only ones definitely exhibiting wheel-marks, compared with the rest of fragments which are clearly handmade, this is an extra indication that the specific pots were linked to a different, and most probably non-Argive, pottery tradition.

  • 94 BCH 139-140 (2014-2015), p. 802-803.
  • 95 Zerner 1978, p. 135-137.
  • 96 Nordquist 1987, p. 48.
  • 97 Personal inspection.
  • 98 Possible correlations are exclusively based on the available descriptions of macro-fabrics.
  • 99 R. E. Jones, “Provenance studies of Aegean Middle Bronze Age pottery”, in R. E. Jones (ed.), Greek (...)
  • 100 Kilikoglou et al. 2003 (n. 74), p. 133.

86As far as the variation of fabrics is concerned, the same range has also been observed in Aspis,94 Lerna,95 and Asine.96 A certain degree of correspondence can be seen between the material of the HP and the Gray Minyan of Aspis,97 and possibly Lerna and Asine.98 The variation in the clay recipes or clay resources used for the manufacture of the GBW has been further reinforced by petrographic and chemical analyses conducted on samples of MH pottery from Lerna99 and Aspis,100 although more information for the shapes analyzed are certainly needed, in order to make meaningful comparisons. Besides fabric variation, if we also take into account the lack of clear standardization in some morphological features attested in the GBW, especially in bowls, which are most represented form, then it is quite possible that the production of the GBW was de-centralized, and organised in a number of different production units across the Argolid.

Dark Burnished Ware (DBW)

Fabric

87DBW occurs in MFG 6b.

Details of manufacture

88DBW is exclusively handmade. However, the use of a slow turntable cannot be excluded given the symmetry of the parallel incisions on the shoulder of 85. Vertical handles preserved only on 85 are set against the exterior surface of the shoulder.

Surface treatment

89Both surfaces are nicely burnished, as in the case of GBW. In the case of 28 though, dense horizontal lines, less than 0.002 wide, occasionally overlapping each other may have been produced from the burnishing tool, resulting in a sophisticated decoration.

Decoration

90Groups of parallel incisions were observed on the shoulder of 85, while in 28 the dense lines produced by the burnishing tool were combined with multiple series of leaf-shaped dots on the shoulder and possibly the lower half.

Shapes

  • Bowl
    Nos. 58, 85
    The shape is represented by only two specimens, from which only 85 can be safely correlated with the shape of bowl, given the location of two vertical handles on the shoulder. They are of rounded/ovoid shape, presumably both with flat bases, but they exhibit significant variation in the rim, as well as in the color of the surfaces, which is typically dark grey/black in 85, and red in 58 (see catalogue). 58 has an everted rim, slightly thinning towards lip, and profoundly articulated with shoulder in the interior. 85, on the other hand, is provided with an out-turned ‘stepped’ rim, which is standard for basins with a grooved shoulder. The latter shape is considered typical for the MH II pottery of the Argolid,101 with this fusion observed in the morphological features shared by bowls and basins being mostly seen in MH I late –MH II early.102
  • Cup
    Nos. 28, 47, 87
    Cups are also represented by a small number of securely identified fragments. 28 and 47 are roughly angular, while 87 seems more rounded. Rims are everted, gradually thinning but a considerable variation is observed in the length or the manner of conjunction with shoulder, as in the case of 47, where the interior face of the articulation with the shoulder is prominently flattened. Bases should be flat (e.g. 47), but there is no evidence for the position and number of handles.
  • Strainer
    Nos. 18, 86
    Fragments of two strainers where recognized during study. 18 has a pronounced shoulder, while 86 may be more globular. Rims are missing but in 18, this may have been everted. Both specimens are provided with at least two rows of rounded holes made before firing, and a low foot, hollowed underneath in 86.

Discussion

  • 103 In Lerna, the petrographic examination of the DBW confirmed the presence of few imports from the so (...)
  • 104 Personal inspection.
  • 105 See Zerner 1978, p. 142-143.
  • 106 For Aspis, see Kilikoglou et al. 2003 (n. 74), p. 133-134; for Lerna, see Zerner 1993, p. 43-44; I. (...)

91The amount of DBW retrieved from the interior of the HP was rather too limited to establish firm conclusions for its production and the development of shapes. The possibility of a few DBW imports cannot be excluded, because of some common features shared with regions beyond Argolid, especially the southern Peloponnese.103 However, in terms of fabric, similarities can be traced with the equivalent wares found in Aspis,104 and possibly Lerna,105 where the petrographic analyses reinforce the possibility of the DBW being locally produced106 and confirm its variation –but less so than the Gray Minyan. Although fabric variation could not be established macroscopically while examining the material from the HP, considerable variations in the surface color and morphological features support the idea of the DBW being the product of possibly more than one unit.

Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished Ware (ARSBW)

Fabric

92As described for MFG 4.

Details of manufacture

  • 107 See n. 75 for ALW.

93Handmade, as with all MH Aeginetan pottery.107 More details cannot be established, given its limited presence within the material under study.

Surface treatment

94As evidenced by its name, both surfaces are red slipped (2.5 YR 5/8) and highly burnished, with no visible burnishing marks. Only in 88 does the interior surface preserve traces of a darker slip (2.5 YR 3/2 dusky red).

Shapes

  • Basin
    No. 88
    88 most probably belongs to a basin with in-turned rim, from which only the flat base has been preserved. Similar vessels are better known from other sites, including Aspis (see catalogue).
  • Goblet
    No. 29
    29 can be related to a goblet, a few examples of which with an angular body and everted rim or concave-convex profile are mainly known from Lerna (see catalogue).

Discussion

95The ARSBW of the HP is extremely sparse and too fragmented to allow us any meaningful discussion. Its presence though within the pottery from the interior of the building confirms the wide distribution of Aeginetan wares in the Argolid from the early phases of the MBA.

Coarse Ware

Fabric

96As described for MFG 1.

Details of manufacture

97Handmade. The material is too fragmented for detailed observations. Only in 93 it is clear that the neck was built separately and then merged into the rest of the body, as evidenced by the uneven wall thickness on the interior of its bottom.

Surface treatment and decoration

98Both surfaces are usually wiped or well-smoothed to burnished. Incised decoration is rare and the fragments too small for any substantial observation.

Shapes

  • Wide-mouthed jar
    Nos. 7, 19-20, 30-31, 48-51, 94-97, 103
    By the maximum diameter of the rim, two groups can be distinguished: a large-sized (0.24-0.30 m, rarely 0.40 m) and a medium-sized (0.15-0.18 m.). The first group may be more closely related to storage vessels, since they are quite large, compared to the second group which may have been used not only for storing but also cooking.108
    Wide-mouthed jars have flaring (7, 19, 30, 48-50, 94) or short everted rims (20, 31, 51, 96), gradually thinning (e.g. 31), and of rounded (e.g. 19) or rectangular section (e.g. 95), rarely grooved on top of the interior (e.g. 94). Only once (20) the rim preserves successive cavities (‘pie-crusted’) indicating its early date (see catalogue). Bodies are ovoid (7, 103) and bases are, as expected, flat (103). No evidence of the handles is preserved, but in 7 four pairs of horn-shaped lugs are set on the shoulder.
  • Cup
    Nos. 22, 52-53, 60
    Although limited in number, the cups of the CW display a considerable degree of variation in terms of shape. 22 has a short everted rim, sharply articulated at the shoulder, and its body may be globular or ovoid, 52 has an upright rim and a more baggy appearance, while 60 is bell-shaped. Evidence of handles are missing. A fragment of a flat base (53) is hesitantly associated with a cup, because of its small size.
  • Necked-jar
    No. 93
    The shape is represented by only one fragment of a cylindrical neck with flaring rim, gradually thinning towards lip. Closed shapes in CW seem rather uncommon, in keeping with their limited presence within the MH pottery of other sites, especially in the Argolid (see catalogue).
  • Basin with in-turned rim
    No. 21
    The shape is cautiously recognized by only a small piece of a rim. It seems similar to the form attested in the burnished wares, especially the GBW (see above), although in this case the lip is thinning. According to the available evidence, related vases have been recognized mainly in Argos (see catalogue).

Aeginetan Coarse Ware (ACW)

Fabric

99As described for MFG 2.

Details of manufacture

  • 109 See also related comments for ALW and ARSBW.

100Handmade.109

Surface treatment

101Exterior surfaces are smoothed. Interior preserves evidence of scraping.

Shapes

  • Wide-mouthed jar
    Nos. 54, 61
    According to the rim diameter (0.24-0.26 m), both specimens could be considered large-sized. The type has a short everted rim, which is either thinning (61) or is rounded in section and slightly grooved on top (54). In both cases the inner surface of the rim forms a sharper angle, which is considered characteristic of the ACW.110 Bodies are as expected ovoid with a splaying and flattened base. If provided with handles, as during the early part of the MH period, there is usually one of rounded section, vertically attached from shoulder to rim.111 54 bears also a clay knob on the shoulder with a short incision running from it: this combination is considered as a potter’s mark (see catalogue).

General remarks on consumption and production patterns

102Some comments are worth making now on the distribution of macro-fabrics and wares per phase, related to consumption choices, especially as concerns tableware. First, however, it is important to stress that although the discarding of some ceramic material was very commonly practiced in the 1960s, the fortunate discovery of a significant number of ‘less interesting’ undecorated body sherds kept at the Museum of Argos gives a degree of credibility to the quantification data, presented in table 5. Although the intention at this point in the article is to reveal patterns in consumption practices, caution is needed because the HP cannot be considered representative of either Argos or the Argolid. Several factors come into play to account for this caveat: besides the possibility of material having been discarded by the excavators, the continuous changes in the use of the HP, let alone the undeterminable preferences and the discarding practices of the original household, will all certainly have affected the range of pottery available to be retrieved from its interior.

Table 5 — Distribution of wares and fabrics per phase (in absolute numbers).

Table 5 — Distribution of wares and fabrics per phase (in absolute numbers).
  • 112 Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 2.

103(a) In terms of tableware, Gray and Dark Burnished wares outnumber Light wares, both local and Aeginetan, throughout MH I-MH II early. Such a preference strongly contrasts with Deposit 641 at Aspis, where a preference for Light ware (e.g. Mattpainted) is strongly exhibited.112 This observation helps demonstrate the existence of different social networks with possible distinct preferences in the pots obtained and consumed.

104(b) The above observation is also supported by the fact that the imported pottery is far more limited in all phases of HP when compared to the imports –especially Aeginetan Mattpainted– found in Aspis, including Deposit 641. The steady preference of the HP for burnished wares rather than painted ones might have also played some role in this.

105(c) Pottery is almost exclusively handmade, including the fine Gray ‘Minyan’, which traditionally would be expected to have been wheelmade. The absence of the wheel is further emphasized by the extensive preference for coarse and semi-coarse fabrics, and is probably to be associated with the de-centralized and household-based mode of production here visible in the physical diversity to be observed in a pot-class.

106(d) According to the available evidence, at the beginning of MH I, fine pottery, namely Gray Burnished, is generally limited in its presence, especially when compared to the rest of the burnished wares, including the semi-fine/coarse counterpart and the semi-fine/coarse Dark Burnished. It is interesting to note that fine Gray Burnished increases at the same period (MH I late-MH II early), when possible wheel-fashioned imports of fine Gray Burnished arrive from Central Greece. It seems plausible to conclude that contacts and familiarization with potting traditions of Central Greece might have encouraged the use of fine clay pastes. It should be stressed though that neither techniques nor shapes related to pottery traditions of Central Greece seem to have been replicated locally, so even if the potential influences were substantial, they yet fell well short of causing a potting ‘koine’ to emerge. This observation further reinforces the strongly regional character obtaining in pottery production within mainland Greece during the Middle Bronze Age.

Surplus, storage and consumption practices at the beginning of the MH period

107The storage facilities of HP 1 indicate the existence of potential surplus, from the beginning of the MH period. This is not though in itself a unique event, since similar installations and situations have also been recognized at other Argive sites:

  • In Mastos, House F-G provides the earliest comparable assemblage dated to EH III or possibly to the transitional EH III/MH I phase. Eight pits were found in Room F, presumably for the placing of large pithoi. According to the excavator the opening of the pits preceded the erection of the building:113 this is partly justified by the fact that the pit in the SW corner was cut across by the walls. However, pithos fragments and stone slabs (potential lids or pot-stands) were found in the fill of the room; they did occur under its floor level or as debris thrown away outside the building, as might normally have been expected if the pits and the pithoi were not in simultaneous use with Room F.
  • In Asine, House T, dated to MH I, was a two-storey building, with the ground floor being used for storage. Pithos fragments were found in both rooms, and it is assumed that the pithoi originally stood on stone pavements.114
  • In Lerna, House Complex 98A, dated to MH I late, comprised an apsidal building and a rectangular room (Room 45), within an enclosed courtyard. Room 45 was exclusively used for storage with two pithoi and two storage pits being found in its interior.115
  • In Aspis, evidence for storage is provided by Deposit 641 (Eastern Sector), dated to the MH I late–MH II early. At least six large pithoi could be partially restored, part of a rich pottery assemblage that seems to have been discarded after the fire destruction of a nearby household.116
  • 117 A. L. Balbo, D. Cabanes, J. J. García-Granero, A. Bonet, P. Ajithprasad, X. Terradas, “A microarcha (...)
  • 118 I. Kuijt, “The Neolithic refrigerator on a Friday night: How many people are coming to dinner and j (...)

108Even though the above evidence of storage and the implied surplus seem to challenge the traditional notion that the MH communities could barely scrape a living, a number of limitations yet prevent us from exploring various important aspects of the subject. On the one hand –given the constraints imposed by the facts that the excavation was conducted in the mid 1960s, and that the House of Pithoi was subsequently back-filled– it is impossible to study how effective the storage practices were by investigating a number of factors, such as the (micro)climatic conditions, the sort of food being stored, the bioturbation agents, the longevity of storage, the location, and the technological knowledge of the creating structures.117 Neither can we estimate the number of people potentially benefiting from the surplus, since its manner of consumption is basically unknown. Was it strictly intended only for members of a family or a kin-group, or was it also shared during communal gatherings? In general, what purpose(s) did surpluses serve at this specific period of time? These are fundamental questions for reconstructing past economies, as a surplus is basically what remains after all normal anticipated needs are satisfied.118

The more, the better

  • 119 C. Renfrew, “Polity and power: interaction, intensification and exploitation”, in C. Renfrew, M. Wa (...)
  • 120 P. Halstead, “The economy has a normal surplus: Economic stability and social change among early fa (...)
  • 121 Nordquist 1995 (n. 74); C. W. Wiersma, “Building the Bronze Age. Architectural and Social Change on (...)
  • 122 H. W. Pearson, “The economy has no surplus: critique of a theory development” in K. Polanyi, C. M. (...)
  • 123 C. A. Hastorf, L. Foxhall, “The social and political aspects of food surplus”, WorldA 49 (2017), p. (...)
  • 124 Margomenou 2008 (n. 119), p. 198.
  • 125 Halstead 1989 (n. 120), p. 79.

109In Aegean archaeology, surplus has been widely discussed in conjunction with the emergence of socio-political complexity.119 From this perspective, any discussion of surplus in the early MH period –a period clearly lacking evident signs of complex social structures– seems rather pointless. However, given the emphasis placed upon the concept of a ‘normal surplus’, namely the level of overproduction undertaken by a household to ensure its survival during bad years of poor harvest,120 surplus production need not now be considered to be driven solely by elites, but rather is a likely widespread and long-lived strategy of sedentary people anywhere to minimize the risk of starvation. In this sense, surplus production is not incompatible with the MH economy, in which the prevailing economic model is based on the household.121 Moreover, as it has been stressed, surplus is a ‘relative’ term, because subsistence needs may vary in time and space.122 Although such a statement seems to obviate the study of surplus in past societies –because in the archaeological record surplus is materially restricted mainly to storage facilities, and in most cases these are very fragmentarily preserved, Pearson’s notion of ‘relative surplus’ sounds sensible as a socially constructed concept of surplus. In a recent paper, Hastorf and Foxhall return to this idea, by pointing out that ‘surplus is a state of mind, manifest in the sense of security (or insecurity) that results from the answer to how much is enough? and the psychological level at which a group believes they have more than enough’.123 Last but not least, people are also motivated to overproduce and store the excess to implement practicalities such as the provision of seed for next year’s crops, to have animal feed, but also to show off through conspicuous consumption.124 The last incentive could be seen as an adjunct to ‘social storage’ – involving the offering of food in exchange for future reciprocity and favors.125

The social dimensions of surplus and storage

110To gain an idea of the socio-economic significance of surplus and storage during the early phases of the MH period in the Argolid, contextualizing the evidence, especially by comparing the storage facilities of different households and different settlements, is of utmost importance. An appreciation of the dynamics of agriculture production and animal husbandry per site would be also prove invaluable. Unfortunately, due to poor preservation, lack of detailed publications, including studies on production strategies and levels of achievement, this is a rather difficult task. However, some observations are worth making. They are certainly not final, but they indicate the potential use of normal surplus and related storage facilities.

  • 126 Wiersma 2013 (n. 121), p. 121.
  • 127 E. Yiannouli, “Reason in Architecture: The Component of Space. A Study of Domestic and Palatial Bui (...)
  • 128 M. T. Bale, “An examination of surplus and storage in prehistoric complex societies using two settl (...)

111(a) In Asine and Lerna, spaces used exclusively for storage are all located indoors, within households that so controlled the access to food supplies; in Asine, storage vessels were kept on the ground floor, in places that might have been accessible only from the upper storey, via an interior staircase;126 in Lerna, Room 45 was separate from the main habitation unit but enclosed and protected within the same courtyard; in Mastos, we do not have a clear picture for the entrances of House F-G, but Room F is thought to communicate only with Room G. The isolation of the storage facilities from the rest of the habitation areas, and most importantly retaining the same within the household, is not something new: it is known already in the EH III phase, when storage started to be arranged mainly in the apse, at the back of the apsidal buildings.127 This practice definitely indicates a household-based economy. Furthermore, storage in protected domestic spaces might have been a strategy to avoid sharing with non-family members.128

  • 129 A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, A. Balitsari, “The social dynamics of Argos in a constantly chan (...)
  • 130 M. Dietler, B. Hayden, “Digesting the Feast: Good to eat, good to drink, good to think. An introduc (...)
  • 131 S. Voutsaki, “From reciprocity to centricity: The Middle Bronze Age in the Greek Mainland”, JMedA 2 (...)
  • 132 Balitsari 2017, esp. p. 313-317.
  • 133 A. Philippa-Touchais, “Death in the early Middle Helladic period (MH I-II): Diversity in the constr (...)
  • 134 Additionally, during the MH I phase, there are indications that in Argos some extramural graves wer (...)

112(b) In Aspis, a rich pottery assemblage found in the SE Sector of the settlement, dated also to MH I late-MH II early, provides evidence for eating and drinking practices, in which more participants might have been involved beyond the occupants of a single household. This deduction is indicated by the number and variety of the eating and serving vessels, including a large-sized footed basin with elaborate mattpainted decoration.129 Although no direct association can be established between the ‘feasting equipment’ of the SE Sector and Deposit 641 –not to mention their location in entirely different places, shared eating and drinking would have involved the participants providing –equally or otherwise– contributions in food, presumably taken from the ‘normal surplus’ of their own production. Gatherings at such events can either promote communal cohesion or indeed social inequalities.130 According to Voutsaki, one major characteristic of the early MH societies, which are considered as largely egalitarian, was sharing and reciprocity rather than accumulation and display.131 Recent re-evaluation though of the burial record in early MH Argos132 and the rest of mainland Greece133 stresses the dual existence of intramural and extramural burials,134 the latter usually organised in tumuli, as an indication of social differentiation. Although no straightforward association can be established between burial and settlement practices, it is not entirely impossible that shared eating and drinking might have also been developed as a sphere of social confrontation, even as soon as the early MH period. Hypothetically speaking, the ability to contribute to shared meals would probably go with the excess of food available for each household, and this behavior might have created and sustained further social debts and inequalities. Broadly speaking, Argos is the only site which seems to provide evidence for communal-oriented practices. Possibly, the organisation of the settlement in distinct nuclei might have compelled the adoption of integrative actions, in order to bring together the members of a spatially dispersed community and help social affiliations to be maintained and/or renegotiated. However, the lack of similar data from Lerna and Asine is not conclusive, and it remains highly possible that the existing picture merely corresponds to the state of research and/or publication now available.

  • 135 S. Voutsaki, E. Milka, S. Triantaphyllou, C. Zerner, “Middle Helladic Lerna. Diet, economy, society (...)
  • 136 Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2019, p. 137-138.
  • 137 Philippa-Touchais 2007, p. 99.
  • 138 Balitsari 2017, p. 152.

113(c) Although the evidence is extremely limited as to allow a comparative approach between different households, let alone different sites, it is stressed here that House Complex 98A at Lerna stands apart from the rest of contemporary houses, not only in its layout but also for the significant amount of Minoan pottery.135 Thus it would not be entirely unreasonable to assume that the existence of surplus lay behind the development and sustenance of social networks that expanded not only within the Argive plain but also into other regions reaching, if not Crete itself, at least Aegina.136 Aspis Deposit 641 also exhibits a significant amount of imports especially of Aeginetan origin. However, this is a general tendency observed at the site, since Aeginetan pottery, especially Mattpainted, reached its highest peak of appearance at Aspis during the same period.137 Interestingly enough though, imports, especially Aeginetan, are rather limited not only at the House of Pithoi (table 6), which at this point in its history lacks its exclusive storage use, but generally within the South Quarter.138 Even if no safe link can be forged between this observation and the storage practices developed by the two districts, the striking contrast observed between Aspis and the South Quarter strengthens the hypothesis of the potential existence of social differentiation, probably resulting from their participating in different networks of communication.

Table 6 — Distribution of imports per household dated to MH I late-MH II early (in absolute numbers).

Imported pottery

Deposit 641 (Aspis)*

House of Pithos 1

House of Pithos 3

House of Pithos 4

Aeginetan Light Ware (ALW)

111

1

9

10

Aeginetan Coarse Ware (ACW)

35

0

3

1

Aeginetan Red Slipped and

Burnished (ARSBW)

0

0

2

1

Lustrous Decorated Ware (LDW)

22

4

10

7

Other (?)

0

0

1

2

* The absolute numbers were based on the inspection of pottery by the author.

Conclusions

114The HP constitutes a significant part of a household assemblage, adding to our knowledge of the early MH habitation in Argos and the Argolid, and whose importance is much increased by the careful excavation and exemplary marks of Fr. Croissant. The preservation of succeeding floor deposits and the distinction of the associated architectural phases within the building enables us to reconstruct different phases of use, and track the gradual development of pottery, which largely corresponds to the earliest known MH I and MH II early pottery from Aspis (Phase II), Lerna (Phase VA) and Kolonna on Aegina (Cities VIII-IX/Phases H-I). Moreover, the detailed examination and contextualization of pottery has enabled further observations on the use of space, the production patterns and consumption choices of the inhabitants, the last further underlined by the comparative study on a contemporaneous and similar assemblage in nearby Aspis. Further, the discovery of human burials within the building challenges recent notions of intramural graves (especially of adults) being opened mainly within ruins or in empty spaces between contemporary houses, but never inside the house itself. Special emphasis was placed on how the important storage capacities attested in conjunction with HP 1 signify the potential for surplus production: this is even more interesting if we consider the early date involved and its close association with a culture traditionally described in terms of material poverty. In particular, the contextualization of the evidence from the HP 1 and other similar assemblages at nearby sites allow us to reconstruct potential strategies related to the production and consumption of surpluses. Although specific patterns cannot be easily established, because of the limited nature of the available evidence, it is proposed that the management of surplus is strongly linked to kin-based social structures, but at the same time encompasses communal eating and drinking practices. Further, the external contacts developed within and beyond Argolid may offer interesting ways of reaping benefits of increased social status, as is evidenced more clearly in the case of Argos.

Catalogue of pottery

1.

Narrow-necked jar with flaring rim? (C.8958) Fig. 17
Single neck fragment.
Neck diam. ca. 0.13; p.H. 0.05; p.W. 0.068; Th. (wall) 0.01 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), solidly painted on the exterior.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 1/ HP 1.
Date: transitional EH III/MH I (Lerna: Zerner 2004, figs. 4:P51, 8:P82).

2.

Cut-away necked jug (C.8954) Fig. 17
Single spout fragment.
Rim diam. ca. 0.07; p.H. 0.045; p.W. 0.058; Th. (wall) 0.005-6 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal and vertical bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 1/ HP 1
Date: MH I (Asine: Nordquist 1987, p. 167, fig. 34); MH I late – MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, p. 206, fig. 12:6).

Fig. 17 — Pottery of HP 1.

Fig. 17 — Pottery of HP 1.

1-2: Light Ware; 3-5: Gray Burnished; 6: Lustrous Decorated; 7: Coarse Ware.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

3.

Rounded bowl or kantharos (C.8961) Fig. 17
Two joining fragments of shoulder with small portion of rim.
Rim diam. undetermined; p.H. 0.034; p.W. 0.078; Th. (wall) 0.006 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 1/ HP 1
Date: transitional EH III/MH I, although the examples of the HP are not incised in the interior, like the ones at Lerna (Zerner 1978, fig. 1: esp. D563:2; 2004, fig. 1:P7, P9).

4.

Pear-shaped bowl (C.8971) Fig. 17
Single body-shoulder fragment.
Opening diam. ca. 0.16; p.H. 0.068; p.W. 0.056; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse), with three parallel incisions on top of shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 4/ HP 1.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 12:BD155/2).

5.

Bowl or kantharos (C.8962) Fig. 17
Four joining rim fragments.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.032; p.W. 0.072; Th. 0.004 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 6/ HP 1.
Date: transitional EH III/MH I – MH I although the examples of the HP are not incised in the interior, like few ones from Lerna (Zerner 1978, figs. 1: esp. D563/4, 7:D BS General/2; 2004, fig. 7:P62).

6.

Narrow-necked jar with flaring rim (C.8956) Fig. 17
Single wall fragment from the belly.
p.H. 0.062; p.W. 0.042; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Lustrous Decorated (semi-fine/coarse), with painted decoration consisting of one horizontal band, group of oblique thin lines, and two curvilinear bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 5.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 1/ HP 1.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig15:4; 1988, figs. 35:43-45, 36:48); MH I-II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2003, fig. 10:19-20; Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 10:20; Tumulus Γ: Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, table Γ49).

7.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8991) Fig. 17
13 joining fragments of the upper part of the vessel, including body-shoulder and rim. Two pairs of knobs are preserved on the shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.145; Th. (wall) 0.009-0.011 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7d, interior of Pit 6/ HP 1.
Date: EH III/MH I (Lerna: Zerner 2004, fig. 6:58); MH I (Olympia: Rambach 2010, fig. 7); MH I (Nichoria: Howell 1992, fig. 3-8: P2136); similar jars with single horn-shaped lugs are also known from Aspis (Touchais 2007, fig. 3: bottom) and Asine (Frödin, Persson 1938, figs. 193: 9-10).

8.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8926) Fig. 18
Three joining and non-joining fragments of shoulder with small portion of rim. A shallow groove on top of shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.078; p.W. 0.15; Th. (wall) 0.01-0.013 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), plain.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: MH I, based on context.

Fig. 18 — Pottery of HP 1.

Fig. 18 — Pottery of HP 1.

8-11: Light Ware.

Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.

9.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8952) Fig. 18
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30 m; p.H. 0.03; p.W. 0.034; Th. 0.008 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of one horizontal band around the rim.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 9:D589/6; 2004, fig. 16:P268); related vases have also been found during survey at Mastos-Berbati (Lindblom 2011, p. 80, fig. 67:139).

10.

Jar (C.8941, C.8999, C.8867, C.8868, C.8928, C.8919) Fig. 18
Nine joining and non-joining fragment of belly.
Max. diam. (belly) 0.40; Th. (wall) 0.01-0.015 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal bands, and cross-hatched triangles.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Many large fragments were located in Floor 7c (substratum) /HP 1.
Date: Kolonna City VII, namely transitional EH III/MH I – MH I early (Siedentopf 1991, pl. 1:2).

11.

Cut-away necked jug (C.8945) Fig. 18
13 joining and non-joining fragments from spout, belly and handle. Largely restored with plaster.
Rim diam. 0.07; H. 0.195; Th. (wall) 0.006 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), plain.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: MH I (Vranas-Marathon: Pantelidou et al. 2014, p. 49-50, fig. 6:MM1).

12.

One handled rounded bowl or kantharos (C.8951) Fig. 19
Two joining fragments from rounded shoulder and rim. The attachment of a handle is partially preserved against the exterior of rim. A slight incision on top of the rim probably corresponds to the attachment of two clay slabs.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.05; p.W. 0.051; Th. (wall) 0.004-0.007 m.
Gray Burnished (fine), with four horizontal incisions on top of shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 7:D BS General/esp.5-6)

Fig. 19 — Pottery of HP 1.

Fig. 19 — Pottery of HP 1.

12-17: Gray Burnished; 18: Dark Burnished; 19-22: Coarse Ware.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

13.

Bowl or kantharos (C.8955, C.8978, C.8936) Fig. 19
Three joining fragments from the convex lower half with small portion of flat base.
Base diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.047; p.W. 0.032; Th. (wall) 0.004; Th. (bottom) 0.005 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: EH III/MH I-MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 1:D607/1, D563/1, 3, 3:D602/1, 11:BD410/4).

14.

Bowl or kantharos (C.8983) Fig. 19
Single flat base fragment.
Base diam. 0.06; p.H. 0.022; p.W. 0.056; Th. (wall) 0.008; Th. (bottom) 0.005 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: MH I early (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 3:D596/1).

15.

Bowl or kantharos (C.8976) Fig. 19
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.018; p.W. 0.058; Th. 0.005 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: EH III/MH I – MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 7:D BS General/5,11, 19; 2004, fig. 1:P9, 10:P122, 14:P216; Asine: Nordquist 1987, fig. 38:4).

16.

Rounded bowl or kantharos (C.8944) Fig. 19
Single fragment of shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.034; p.W. 0.07; Th. (wall) 0.006 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 2004, figs. 10:P122, 14:P204).

17.

Bowl or kantharos (66/700.18) Fig. 19
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.022; p.W. 0.036; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Gray-Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: EH III/MH I – MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 7:D BS General/5, 11, 19; 2004, fig. 1:P9, 10:P122, 14:P216; Asine: Nordquist 1987, fig. 38:4).

18.

Strainer (C.8894, C.8959, C.8975, C.8911) Fig. 19
Ten joining and non-joining fragments from body and foot. Pierced-through wall fragments.
Opening diam. ca. 0.14; p.H. 0.16; Th. (wall): 0.006 m.
Dark Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6b, in its coarsest version.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: no exact parallels, but possibly close to MH I specimens from Nichoria (Howell 1992, fig. 3-17:P2236) and Kirrha (Dor et al. 1960, pl. XLVIII:6238).

19.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8949) Fig. 19
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.07; p.W. 0.15; Th.: 0.015 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: MH (Aspis: Touchais 2007, fig. 3); MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 5:D594/24).

20.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8996) Fig. 19
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. undetermined; p.H. 0.028; p.W. 0.032; Th. 0.008 m.
Coarse Ware, with pie crust decoration on rim.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: EH III/MH I-MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, 186-187; 2004, fig. 6:P59); MH I (Nichoria: Howell 1992, figs. 3-2:P2042, 3-24:P2335).

21.

Basin with in-turned rim? (C.8973) Fig. 19
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. undetermined; p.H. 0.035 m; p.W. 0.038 m; Th. 0.005-0.009 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/HP 1.
Date: MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, Pl. XVIII: 14); open bowls have been also recognized in Argos (Aspis: Touchais 2007, fig. 10; Tumulus Γ: Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, table Γ45:5-6), and Nichoria (Howell 1992, fig. 3-64:P2693).

22.

Cup (66/700.19) Fig. 19
Rim fragment with small portion of shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.12; p.H. 0.023; p.W. 0.027; Th. 0.005 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7c (substratum)/ HP 1.
Date: MH I, based on context.

23.

Jug? (C.8907) Fig. 20
Two joining fragments from the belly. The attachment of a vertical strap handle is partially preserved.
p.H. 0.11; p.W. 0.15; Th. (wall) 0.009; W. (handle) 0.05; Th. (handle) 0.012 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of a horizontal band around the belly.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

Fig. 20 — Pottery of HP 3.

Fig. 20 — Pottery of HP 3.

23-24: Light Ware; 25-27: Gray Burnished; 28: Dark Burnished; 29: Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished; 30-31: Coarse Ware.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

24.

Jug (66/700.16) Fig. 20
Single rim fragment with small portion of neck.
Rim diam. 0.07; p.H. 0.016; p.W. 0.029; Th. (wall) 0.004-5 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal bands around neck and rim.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/HP 3.
Date: MH I-MH II early (Asine: Nordquist 1987, fig. 34); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:6).

25.

Bowl or kantharos (66/700.15) Fig. 20
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.18; p.H. 0.018; p.W. 0.044; Th. (wall) 0.004 m.
Gray Burnished (fine)
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 2004, figs. 10:P122, 14:P204).

26.

Carinated bowl or kantharos (C.8924) Fig. 20
Three joining fragments of body-shoulder and rim.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.064; p.W. 0.06; Th. (wall) 0.004 m.
Gray Burnished (fine)
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/HP 3.
Date: MH I middle-late (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 5:D594/1, 18:BE429/5; 2004, figs. 12:P170, 20:P356, 364); MH I late (Pevkakia: Maran 1992, pl. 5:4); MH II late (Mitrou: Hale 2016, fig. 13:25). See also Orchomenos (Sarri 2010, pl. 5:9).

27.

Rounded bowl (C.8331) Fig. 20
Three joining fragments of body and rim. The attachment of a vertical strap handle is preserved on the shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.18; p.H. 0.13; p.W. 0.138; Th. (wall) 0.003-6 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine), with horizontal incisions around shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Evidence for burning on the exterior surface.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late (Asine: Nordquist 1987, figs. 37:1, 38:2-3).

28.

Carinated cup (C.8917) Fig. 20
Single fragment of body-shoulder and rim.
Rim diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.042; p.W. 0.058; Th. (wall) 0.004 m.
Dark Burnished (semi-fine/coarse), with elaborate incised decoration around body and rim, consisting of shallow horizontal incisions (resembling burnishing marks) combined with series of niches.
Fabric as described for MFG 6b.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 9:D589/2; 2004, fig. 116:P259); MH I (Nichoria: Howell 1992, fig. 3-16:P2220); MH early (Ayios Stephanos: Zerner 2008, fig. 5.51:2206-2207, 2210).

29.

Carinated goblet (C.8897) Fig. 20
Single foot fragment.
Foot diam. ca. 0.045; Th. (foot wall) 0.012 m.
Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 4.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I-II (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 6:D431/1; 1988, fig. 2:13-15); compare also with Kolonna Phase H, namely MH I (Gauss, Smetana 2007, fig. 4:XXVIII-22).

30.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8925) Fig. 20
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.045; p.W. 0.053; Th. (wall) 0.008-0.01 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 5:D594/24); MH (Aspis: Touchais 2007, fig. 3).

31.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8900) Fig. 20
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.046; p.W. 0.072; Th. (wall) 0.011 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7b (surface)/HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

32.

Wide-mouthed jar (66/700.7) Fig. 21
Single rim fragment with small portion of shoulder. A slight incision on top of the rim probably corresponds to the attachment of two clay slabs
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.13; p.W. 0.15; Th. (wall) 0.007-0.01 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal bands around rim and junction of rim with shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:10); related vases have also been found during survey at Mastos (Mastos-Berbati: Lindblom 2011, fig. 67:139).

Fig. 21 — Pottery of HP 3.

Fig. 21 — Pottery of HP 3.

32-37: Light Ware; 38-39: Aeginetan Light Ware.

Drawings and photos by Anthi Balitsari.

33.

Jar? (66/700.8) Fig. 21
Single flat base fragment.
Base diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.023; p.W. 0.076; Th. (wall) 0.01; Th. (bottom) 0.01 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted (light brown) decoration on the exterior.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

34.

Jar or basin? (C.8846) Fig. 21
Single fragment from the lower half with small portion of flat base.
Diam. base 0.09; p.H. 0.062; p.W. 0.072; Th. (wall) 0.005 m; Th. (bottom) 0.008 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), plain.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

35.

Small-sized closed jar/jug? (66/700.11) Fig. 21
Single flat base fragment with uneven bottom.
Base diam. 0.07; p.H. 0.019; p.W. 0.04; Th. (wall) 0.006; Th. (bottom) 0.004-7 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), plain.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:8).

36.

Necked jar (66/700.9) Fig. 21
Single rim fragment with small portion of neck.
Rim diam. 0.15; p.H. 0.019; p.W. 0.051; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal bands on top of rim and vertical short bars in the interior.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:3-4); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XV:7-8, 11).

37.

Basin with slightly in-turned rim (C.8844) Fig. 21
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.026; p.W. 0.031; Th. (wall) 0.007-9 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal and oblique bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/HP 3.
Date: MH I late (Lerna: Zerner 2008, fig. 5.39:1860); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:1).

38.

Basin with in-turned rim (C.8837) Fig. 21
Single fragment of body-shoulder and rim.
Rim diam. 0.40; p.H. 0.067; p.W. 0.062; Th. (wall) 0.018 m.
Aeginetan Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal band combined with groups of parallel opposed diagonals.
Fabric as described for MFG 4.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: Kolonna Cities VII-VIII, namely transitional EH III/MH I-MH I early (Siedentopf 1991, pls. 79-80:420, 425-428); MH I-II (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2007, fig. 1:6).

39.

Basin with in-turned rim (C.8871) Fig. 21
Single fragment of body-shoulder and rim.
Rim diam. 0.34; p.H. 0.06; p.W. 0.084; Th. (wall) 0.013 m.
Aeginetan Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal bands combined with groups of vertical lines and double X-pattern. Groups of short bars on top of rim.
Fabric as described for MFG 4.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I early-late (Lerna: Zerner 1988, fig. 6:16); MH I-II (Philippa-Touchais 2002, fig. 2; 2007, fig. 1:4-5); Kolonna City IX, namely MH II (Siedentopf 1991, pls. 81-83:433-449, 453); MH I early (Aphidna: Forsén 2010, fig. 2:11); a similar vase has also been found at Magoula-Troezenia (Konsolaki-Yiannopoulou 2010, fig. 9).

40.

Bowl or kantharos? (C.8840) Fig. 22
Single flat base fragment.
Base diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.02; p.W. 0.048; Th. (wall) 0.008; Th. (bottom) 0.008 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 5:D594/1, 11:BD410/4); MH I late-early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13.37).

Fig. 22 — Pottery of HP 3.

Fig. 22 — Pottery of HP 3.

40-46: Gray Burnished; 47: Dark Burnished.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

41.

Basin with in-turned rim (C.8876) Fig. 22
Single body-shoulder fragment with rim.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.05; p.W. 0.053; Th. (wall) 0.006 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 7:D BS General/9, 9:D598/1); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XII:14); MH II-III early (Aspis: BCH 138 [2014], p. 740, fig. 10:12); similar vases have also been found during survey in Mastos-Berbati (Lindblom 2011, fig. 70:163).

42.

Pear-shaped bowl (C.8838) Fig. 22
Single shoulder fragment.
Rim diam. undetermined; p.H. 0.072; p.W. 0.062; Th. (wall) 0.007-8 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 7:D BS General/3-4; 2004, fig. 18:P256).

43.

Bowl or kantharos? (C.8858) Fig. 22
Single flat base fragment.
Base diam. 0.07 m; p.H. 0.031; p.W. 0.048; Th. (wall) 0.00; Th. (bottom) 0.008 m. 
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 3a?
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 5:D594/1, 11:BD410/4); MH I late-II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13.37).

44.

Carinated bowl (C.8853) Fig. 22
Single shoulder fragment with rim.
Rim diam. 0.16; p.H. 0.061; p.W. 0.069; Th. (wall) 0.003-8 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse), parallel incisions on shoulder and on the junction of shoulder with rim.
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13.31); the incisions on the lower part of the shoulder are also found in MH I late-II carinated bowls at Pevkakia (Maran 1992, pls. 55:6, 93:8) and Mitrou (Hale 2016, fig. 11:6).

45.

One-handled bowl or kantharos (C.8848) Fig. 22
Single rim fragment with small portion of shoulder. A vertical strap handle attached on the exterior side of the rim is partially preserved.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. (with handle) 0.069; Th. (wall) 0.003 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 7:D BS General/7, 18:BE429/2, 19:BE45/1).

46.

Carinated cup (C.8841) Fig. 22
Single fragment of body-shoulder with rim. The attachment of a vertical handle on the exterior side of the rim is partially preserved.
Rim diam. 0.08; p.H. 0.044; p.W. 0.042; Th. (wall) 0.004 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse), with three parallel incisions on shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 3:D596/1, 13:BD409/1); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:16).

47.

Carinated cup (C.8869) Fig. 22
Four non-joining fragments of shoulder, rim and flat base.
Rim diam. 0.10; base diam. 0.04; H. 0.073; Th. (wall) 0.004; Th. (bottom) 0.004 m.
Dark Burnished
Fabric as described for MFG 6b.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

48.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8856) Fig. 23
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.40; p.H. 0.082; p.W. 0.081; Th. 0.017 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Nichoria: Howell 1992, fig. 3-24:P2338).

Fig. 23 — Pottery of HP 3.

Fig. 23 — Pottery of HP 3.

48-53: Coarse Ware; 54: Aeginetan Coarse Ware.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

49.

Wide-mouthed jar (66/700.4) Fig. 23
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.04; p.W. 0.047; Th. 0.008 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 2:D563/16, 14:B1487/10); MH I (Nichoria: Howell 1992, figs. 3-24:P2333, P2338, 3-25:P2341); MH (Aspis: Touchais 2007, fig. 3: middle).

50.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8865) Fig. 23
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.18; p.H. 0.037; p.W. 0.051; Th. 0.007-0.01 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

51.

Wide-mouthed jar (66/700.5) Fig. 23
Single rim fragment with small portion of rim.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.026; p.W. 0.05; Th. (rim) 0.008 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on comparanda.

52.

Cup (C.8850) Fig. 23
Single body-shoulder and rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.11; p.H. 0.054; p.W. 0.043; Th. (wall) 0.006-0.01 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: close to few EH III/MH I-MH I specimens from Lerna (Zerner 1978, figs. 2: D563/15, 16:BE426/14, 18:BE429/9).

53.

Cup (66/700.6) Fig. 23
Single flat base fragment.
Base diam. 0.05; p.H. 0.025; p.W. 0.072; Th. (wall) 0.01; Th. (bottom) 0.01 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: see no.52.

54.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8882) Fig. 23
Single shoulder fragment with rim. A rounded knob combined with a short incision is placed on top of the shoulder (potter’s mark).
Rim diam. 0.24; p.H. 0.071; p.W. 0.094; Th. (wall) 0.01 m.
Aeginetan Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 2.
Find group: Floor 7a (substratum)/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late (for the potter’s mark, see Lindblom 2001, p. 81-82: H1; for the appearance of related vases in the Argolid, see Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2018, p. 248, with full references for Aspis and Lerna).

55.

Carinated one-handled bowl (C.7326) Fig. 24
Single shoulder fragment with rim. The attachment of a vertical handle on the exterior side of the rim is partially preserved.
Rim diam. 0.12; p.H. 0.032; p.W. 0.074; Th. (wall) 0.007 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Layers E-F/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 6:D591/6, 9:D589/4, 13:BD399/1, 14:B1247/1, 19:BE45/3); MH I-II (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2002, figs. 17-18, 21:56-57); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XVII:11-12).

Fig. 24 — Pottery of HP 3.

Fig. 24 — Pottery of HP 3.

55-56: Light Ware; 57: Gray Burnished; 58: Dark Burnished; 59: Lustrous Decorated; 60: Coarse Ware; 61: Aeginetan Coarse Ware.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

56.

Lid? (C.7305) Fig. 24
Single fragment of body with rim, shallow groove on the exterior, close to rim.
Rim diam. 0.40; p.H. 0.092; p.W. 0.053; Th. (wall) 0.016 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), plain.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: Layers E-F/HP 3.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

57.

Carinated bowl (C.7320) Fig. 24
Single body-shoulder fragment with rim. Both attachments of a vertical handle are partially preserved on the shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.14; p.H. 0.06; p.W. 0.07; Th. (wall) 0.005-6 m.
Gray Burnished (fine), incised festoon under the lower part of the handle attachment.
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Layers E-F/ HP 3.
Date: there are no exact parallels, but the same decoration under the handles appears for the first time in basins with grooved shoulder, during MH I late-II early in Lerna and Ayios Stephanos (see respectively Zerner 1978, fig. 27:P476; 2008, fig. 5.7:1102-1103).

58.

Rounded bowl or kantharos (C.7311) Fig. 24
Seven joining fragments of shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.18; p.H. 0.079; p.W. 0.077; Th. (wall) 0.007 m.
Dark Burnished (semi-fine/coarse)
Fabric as described for MFG 6b, surfaces red (10R 4/8).
Find group: Layers E-F/ HP 3.
Date: no exact parallels, possibly close to a MH I early burnished (?) bowl from Lerna (Zerner 2004, fig. 10:P123).

59.

Jug (C.7306) Fig. 24
Single shoulder fragment with horizontal groove.
p.H. 0.043; p.W. 0.027; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Lustrous Decorated (semi-fine/coarse), with red band on the exterior.
Fabric as described for MFG 5.
Find group: Layers E-F/ HP 3.
Date: MH I (Zerner 1988, fig. 31:25); MH I late-II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2003, fig. 8; Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:19); MH I (Kastroulia: Rambach 2007, fig. 32); transitional MH I/II (Nichoria: Howell 1992, fig. 3-32:P2410); MH I late (Ayios Stephanos: Zerner 2008, fig. 5.40:1872).

60.

Cup (C.7315) Fig. 24
Single fragment of body-shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.046; p.W. 0.046; Th. (wall) 0.009 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: Layers E-F/ HP 3.
Date: the closest parallels are found in Argos (Aspis: Touchais 2007, fig. 8; Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XVIII:16).

61.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.7300) Fig. 24
Single body-shoulder fragment with rim.
Rim diam. 0.26; p.H. 0.06; p.W. 0.12; Th. (wall) 0.008 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 2.
Find group: Layers E-F/ HP 3.
Date: MH I late; see no. 54.

62.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8888) Fig. 25
Eleven joining and non-joining fragments of rim and body. The attachment of a horizontal handle, of roughly triangular section is partially preserved on the shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.24; Th. (rim) 0.008-0.016; Th. (wall) 0.015-0.017 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), plain.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

Fig. 25 — Pottery of HP 4.

Fig. 25 — Pottery of HP 4.

62-71: Light Ware.

Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.

63.

Basin with in-turned rim (C.8879) Fig. 25
Single fragment of body-shoulder with rim, grooved on top. A horizontal handle of triangular section is preserved on the shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.28; p.H. 0.065; p.W. 0.098; Th. (wall) 0.008 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal and oblique bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 6:D591/8, 10:D595/1; 2004, figs. 10:P133, 16:P262); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:2); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pls. XVI:7-8, XVII:7).

64.

Basin with in-turned rim (C.8814) Fig. 25
Single body-shoulder fragment with rim, grooved on top.
Rim diam. 0.24; p.H. 0.053; p.W. 0.076; Th. (wall) 0.005-9 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal band and groups of diagonals in alternating directions.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 6, 10:D591/8, D595/; 2004, figs. 10: P133, 16:P262); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:2); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pls. XVI:7-8, XVII:7).

65.

Undetermined shape (C.8823) Fig. 25
Single body fragment.
p.H. 0.05; p.W. 0.062; Th. (wall) 0.009 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with bichrome mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal bands and group of parallel diagonals.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

66.

Cut-away necked jug (C.8810) Fig. 25
Single spout fragment.
Rim diam. 0.04; p.H. 0.04; p.W. 0.045; Th. (wall) 0.005-7 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-MH II early (Asine: Nordquist 1987, fig. 34); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 12:6).

67.

Jug (C.8786) Fig. 25
Single neck fragment with rim.
Rim diam. 0.07; p.H. 0.049; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal bands, and one thick, short bar in the interior of rim. The imprint of a third band, now completely worn out, is evident on the exterior of neck.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I early (Lerna: Zerner 2004, figs. 9:P117, 10:P140).

68.

Jug? (C.8883) Fig. 25
Single body (belly?) fragment. Uneven interior with cavities corresponding to potter’s fingerprints.
p.H. 0.07; p.W. 0.04; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse) with mattpainted decoration consisting of a star, which obviously fills an empty space between two larger motifs.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: Kolonna Cities VII-VIII, namely transitional EH III/MH I-MH I (Siedentopf 1991, pls. 61-62:286-287, 293-294).

69.

Necked jar (C.8828) Fig. 25
Single fragment from the lower half with small portion of flat base.
Base diam. 0.08; p.H. 0.055; p.W. 0.062; Th. (wall) 0.009; Th. (bottom) 0.007 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of a thick vertical band.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-II early? (Argos-Tumuli: Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, figs. Γ46, Γ48:4-6).

70.

Jar (C.8832, C.8834) Fig. 25
Four joining fragments from the belly.
p.H. 0.13; p.W. 0.165; Th. (wall) 0.008-9 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration of brownish colour, consisting of a horizontal crossed with vertical band.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-II early? (Argos-Tumuli: Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, figs. Γ46, Γ48:4-6).

71.

Carinated one-handled bowl/cup (C.8328) Fig. 25
Eight joining fragments. The whole profile is preserved, but the vase is largely restored with plaster.
Rim diam. 0.09; base diam. 0.045; p.H. (with handle) 0.118 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal bands and groups of slightly oblique lines.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 14:B1247/1); MH I-II (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2002, figs. 17, 21:56).

72.

Rounded (?) bowl (C.8809, C.7313) Fig. 26
Two joining fragments of shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.15; p.H. 0.06; p.W. 0.069; Th. (wall) 0.009-0.011 m.
Gray Burnished (fine), with parallel incisions on shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 7:D BS General/10, 12:BD155/2).

Fig. 26 — Pottery of HP 4.

Fig. 26 — Pottery of HP 4.

72-77: Gray Burnished.

Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.

73.

Pear-shaped bowl (C.8808) Fig. 26
Single fragment of upper half (body-shoulder) with the beginning of rim.
Opening diam. ca. 0.15-6; p.H. 0.062; p.W. 0.049; Th. (wall) 0.007 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 7:D BS General/4; 2004, fig. 14:P201); MH II-III early (Aspis: BCH 138 [2014], p. 740, fig. 10:9).

74.

Rounded bowl or kantharos (66/700.3) Fig. 26
Single shoulder fragment with the beginning of rim.
Opening diam. ca. 0.16-7; p.H. 0.036; p.W. 0.052; Th. (wall) 0.006 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: EH III/MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 16:BE 448/1); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:20).

75.

Bowl or kantharos (C.8892) Fig. 26
Single fragment from the lower half with small portion of flat base.
Base diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.051; p.W. 0.062; Th. (wall) 0.008 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early [Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13:37).

76.

Carinated? bowl (C.8829) Fig. 26
Single fragment from the lower half with small portion of ring base.
Base diam. 0.07; p.H. 0.018; p.W. 0.037; Th. (bottom) 0.004 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early [Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13:31); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XXXVII:5); MH II early-late (Lerna: Zerner 2004, figs. 25:P473, 26:P506); in Pevkakia and Mitrou, similar bases (‘raised ring’) appear in MH II (Maran 1992, Beil. 12:8; Hale 2016, table 6).

77.

Carinated cup (C.8785) Fig. 26
Two joining fragments from the upper half of the vessel with shoulder and rim. The attachment of a vertical strap handle from shoulder to rim is partially preserved.
Rim diam. 0.085; p.H. 0.05; p.W. 0.065; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13:32-33); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:15).

78.

Carinated bowl (C.8831) Fig. 27
18 joining and non-joining fragments from the upper half of the vessel with shoulder and rim. A vertically strap handle is placed on the shoulder, which also bears a thin incision on top, at junction with rim.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.08; Th. (wall) 0.004-6 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pls. XIV:6-7, XV:1-2, XXXVII:5); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, figs. 6, 12:25); MH II early-late (Lerna: Zerner 2004, figs. 20:P360-P361, 24:P470-2, 26:P506); in Pevkakia related bowls with drop-shaped rims appear in MH I late contexts (Maran 1992, p. 85); for full discussion of bowls and goblets with drop-shaped rims, see also Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2018, p. 234-238, fig. 13.

Fig. 27 — Pottery of HP 4.

Fig. 27 — Pottery of HP 4.

78-81: Gray Burnished.

Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.

79.

Carinated bowl (C.8784) Fig. 27
Eight joining fragments from the upper half of the vessel with shoulder and rim. A vertical strap handle placed on the shoulder is partially preserved.
Rim diam. 0.195; p.H. 0.092; p.W. 0.133; Th. (wall) 0.008 m.
Gray? Burnished (fine)
Fabric as described for MFG 7a, with dark gray surfaces and light reddish brown section.
Burnishing marks particularly evident on both surfaces.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:18).

80.

Pear-shaped bowl (C.8491) Fig. 27
24 joining and non-joining fragments. The whole profile is preserved, including one vertical strap handle on shoulder. Largely restored with plaster.
Rim diam. 0.165; base diam. 0.05; p.H. 0.15 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 7:D BS General/8; MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, figs. 7, 13:26-27; BCH 138 [2014], p. 740, fig. 10:8-9); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:6, 10).

81.

Rounded bowl (C.8406) Fig. 27
Ten joining fragments from the upper half, including shoulder, rim and a vertical strap handle placed on shoulder. Partly restored with plaster.
Rim diam. 0.215; p.H. 0.11; Th. (wall) 0.011 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 3a?
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 12:BD155/3).

82.

Carinated cup (C.8807, C.8885) Fig. 28
Two joining fragments from the upper half, including shoulder, rim and the attachment of a partially preserved strap handle, vertically placed on the shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.12; p.H. 0.045; p.W. 0.059; Th. (wall) 0.004 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:19).

Fig. 28 — Pottery of HP 4.

Fig. 28 — Pottery of HP 4.

82-84: Gray Burnished; 85-87: Dark Burnished; 88: Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished; 89-92: Lustrous Decorated.

Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.

83.

Rounded bowl or kantharos (C.8329) Fig. 28
Two joining fragments of shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.13; p.H. 0.043; p.W. 0.078; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 8:D BS General/15).

84.

Bowl or kantharos (C.8806) Fig. 28
Single rim fragment with the beginning of shoulder.
Rim diam. undetermined; p.H. 0.032; p.W. 0.05 m.
Gray Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6a.
A rounded, shallow cavity at junction of rim with shoulder (potter’s fingerprint?).
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 18:BE429/1); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIV:17).

85.

Rounded bowl (C.7797) Fig. 28
45 joining fragments. The complete profile is preserved including a vertical strap handle placed on shoulder. Partly restored with plaster.
Rim diam. 0.20; base diam. 0.085; p.H. 0.17 m.
Dark Burnished (semi-fine/coarse), with horizontal incisions around shoulder.
Fabric as described for MFG 6b.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late (Lerna: Zerner 2004, fig. 20:P368); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13:34); MH I-II (Deiras: Deshayes 1966, pl. XIII:25-26).

86.

Strainer (C.8804, C.8811) Fig. 28
Two non-joining fragments of body (belly) and foot. The body fragment is pierced-through.
Base diam. 0.065; Th. (wall) 0.008-0.01; Th. (bottom) 0.015 m.
Dark Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6b.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: no exact parallels, but possibly close to a MH I specimen from Nichoria (Howell 1992, fig. 3-1:P2033).

87.

Rounded cup (66/700.12) Fig. 28
Two joining fragments of shoulder and rim.
Rim diam. 0.07; p.H. 0.027; p.W. 0.035; Th. (wall) 0.003-5 m.
Dark Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 6b.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late (Ayios Stephanos: Zerner 2008, fig. 5.14:1238).

88.

Basin with in-turned rim (C.8835) Fig. 28
Single fragment from the lower half with small portion of flat base.
Base diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.044; p.W. 0.069; Th. (wall) 0.01; Th. (bottom) 0.011 m.
Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished (semi-fine/coarse).
Fabric as described for MFG 4.
A white substance is preserved on the interior.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I-II (Lerna: Zerner 1988, fig. 1:2-7); MH II-III early (BCH 139-140 [2015-2016], p. 801, fig. 1:a, c; for the date of House MI, see BCH 138 [2014], p. 738-739).

89.

Cup (66/700.13) Fig. 28
Single fragment of shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.10; p.H. 0.025; p.W. 0.037; Th. (wall) 0.003 m.
Lustrous Decorated Ware (fine), with painted light-on-dark decoration, consisting of horizontal and oblique bands, combined with groups of oblique short diagonals.
Fabric as described for MFG 7c.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1988, fig. 24:4-6); MH I-II (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2003, fig. 3:4).

90.

Jug (C.8889) Fig. 28
Single shoulder fragment with two grooves on top.
p.H. 0.059; p.W. 0.074; Th. (wall) 0.005 m.
Lustrous Decorated (semi-fine/coarse), with partly painted surfaces.
Fabric as described for MFG 5.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: see no. 59.

91.

Narrow-necked jar with flaring rim (C.8887) Fig. 28
Single fragment from the junction of shoulder with neck.
p.H. 0.036; p.W. 0.03; Th. (wall) 0.007 m.
Lustrous Decorated Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with painted dark-on-light decoration consisting of horizontal bands and group of oblique lines.
Fabric as described for MFG 5.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: Kolonna Phase G, namely EH III/MH I (Gauss, Smetana 2007, fig. 2:19/23-79), MH I early (Ayios Stephanos: Zerner 2008, fig. 5.6:1079); see also no. 6.

92.

Jar (C.8826) Fig. 28
Single body fragment.
p.H. 0.036; p.W. 0.052; Th. (wall) 0.006 m.
Lustrous Decorated Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with painted dark-on-light decoration consisting of horizontal band and groups of oblique lines.
Fabric as described for MFG 5.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

93.

Necked jar (C.8836) Fig. 29
Three joining fragments of neck with rim and beginning of shoulder.
Rim diam. 0.16; p.H. 0.09; Th. (wall) 0.007-9 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Nichoria: Howell 1992, fig. 3-3:P2063); related jars have also been found in Deiras (MH I-II, see Deshayes 1966, pl. XVIII:11) and Aspis (MH III, see Touchais 2007, p. 88).

94.

Wide mouthed jar (C.8881) Fig. 29
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.036; p.W. 0.083; Th. (wall) 0.01-0.015 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: see nos. 19 and 48.

Fig. 29 — Pottery of HP 4.

Fig. 29 — Pottery of HP 4.

93-97: Coarse Ware.

Drawings by A. Balitsari.

95.

Wide-mouthed jar (66/700.1) Fig. 29
Single rim fragment.
Rim diam. 0.30; p.H. 0.025; p.W. 0.044; Th. (wall) 0.006-9 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early (Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13:46).

96.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8783) Fig. 29
Single shoulder fragment with rim.
Rim diam. 0.22; p.H. 0.065; p.W. 0.14; Th. (wall) 0.01 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I late-MH II early, based on context.

97.

Jar (C.8854, C.8818) Fig. 29
Three joining fragments from the lower half with flat base.
Base diam. 0.07; p.H. 0.047; Th. (wall) 0.005; Th. (bottom) 0.005 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: destruction layer on Floor 7a/ HP 4.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 16:BE426/15); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 13:39, 44); MH II (Nichoria: Howell 1992, fig. 3-62:P2686).

98.

Jug (C.8339) Fig. 30
22 joining fragments. The vase is almost intact preserved, with only the handle missing, as well as few fragments from rim and body.
Rim diam. ca. 0.06; base diam. 0.05; H. 0.12 m.
Light Ware (fine), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of horizontal bands, cross-hatched triangles and bands bearing rows of short bars.
Fabric as described for MFG 7b.
Find group: fragments were discovered in the destruction layer on Floor 7a and in the fill of T.279.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 12:BD155/5); EH III?-MH I (Frödin, Persson 1938, figs. 160:5, 167:2; Nordquist 1987, fig. 34); MH II early? (Lerna: Caskey 1954, pl. 9:b; for the establishment of House D after Phase VA [MH I], see Zerner 1978, p. 46); MH I? (Argos-tumuli: Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, p. 480, fig. A8:1-4); See also Kirrha (Dor et al. 1960, pl. XLI).

Fig. 30 — Pottery from uncertain contexts.

Fig. 30 — Pottery from uncertain contexts.

98-99: Light Ware; 100: Aeginetan Light Ware; 101-102: Gray Burnished; Infant burial T.268. 103: Coarse Ware.

Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.

99.

Necked jar (C.8997) Fig. 30
Two joining fragments of lower half with flat base.
Base diam. 0.08; p.H. 0.06; Th. (wall) 0.01; Th. (bottom) 0.013 m.
Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration, consisting of vertical bands.
Fabric as described for MFG 3a.
Find group: fragments were discovered in the destruction layer and in the fill of T.299.
Date: MH I-II early? (Argos-tumuli: Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, figs. Γ46, Γ48:4-6).

100.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.8782) Fig. 30
61 joining and non-joining fragments of the upper half, preserving body-shoulder and rim.
Rim diam. 0.33; p.H. ca. 0.18; Th. (wall) 0.009 m.
Aeginetan Light Ware (semi-fine/coarse), with mattpainted decoration consisting of horizontal and vertical bands, combined with groups of opposed diagonals. Groups of short, thick bars on the interior of rim.
Fabric as described for MFG 4.
Find group: many fragments of the jar were found in various levels, including Layers 6 and D (Garlan’s excavation), the destruction layer on Floor 7a, as well as the substratum of Floor 7a. Presumably the graves opened within the HP disturbed the original position of the jar.
Date: MH I late (Lerna: Zerner 1988, fig. 10:28); MH I late-MH II early (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, p. 206, fig. 12:12); MH I-II (Aspis: Philippa-Touchais 2002, fig. 23:75).

101.

Rounded bowl or kantharos (C.8332) Fig. 30
Single fragment of shoulder with rim.
Rim diam. 0.20; p.H. 0.055; p.W. 0.136; Th. (wall) 0.008 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: Below the cranium of skeleton in T.291.
Date: MH I-II; not exact parallel for rim, but close to 74 as far as the rounded shoulder is concerned (see above).

102.

Carinated kantharos (C.7960) Fig. 30
Three joining fragments. Half of the vessel was completely preserved, including a vertical strap handle attached from shoulder (carination) to rim. The other half is restored with plaster.
Rim diam. 0.125; base diam. 0.06; H. (with handles) 0.144 m.
Gray Burnished (fine).
Fabric as described for MFG 7a.
Find group: two fragments were discovered on the surface of Floor 7a, while the third one came from the fill of T.264.
Date: MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, fig. 18:1, 5).

103.

Wide-mouthed jar (C.26790) Fig. 30
18 joining fragments from the lower half with flat base. Partly restored with plaster.
Base diam. 0.08; p.H. 0.195; Th. (wall) 0.007; Th. (bottom) 0.01 m.
Coarse Ware.
Fabric as described for MFG 1.
Find group: jar-burial of T.268 (Layer 6).
Date: EH III/MH I-MH I (Lerna: Zerner 1978, figs. 2:D563/16, 14:B1487/10, 19:BE429/10).
Haut de page

Bibliographie

Balitsari 2017 = A. Balitsari, “Άργος. Οι Μεσοελλαδικές (ME) καταβολές ενός διαχρονικού αργολικού κέντρου. Νέα δεδοµένα για τη ΜΕ Ι-ΙΙ περίοδο από τη Νότια Συνοικία”, PhD Diss. Univ. of Athens (2017).

Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2018 = A. Balitsari, J. K. Papadopoulos, “A cist tomb on the south bank of the Eridanos in the Athenian Agora and the Middle Bronze Age in Athens”, Hesperia 87 (2018), p. 215-277.

Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2019 = A. Balitsari, J. K. Papadopoulos, “A Middle Helladic tomb in the Athenian Kerameikos and some thoughts on the early connections of Attica”, BSA 114 (2019), p. 119-143.

Caskey 1954 = J. L. Caskey, “Excavations at Lerna, 1952-1953”, Hesperia 23 (1954), p. 3-30.

Croissant 1966a = Fr. Croissant, Fouilles du secteur delta, Unpublished excavation report, available at the EFA Archives, nr. ARGOS 1–1965-1966.

Croissant 1966b = Fr. Croissant, Argos. Carnet Fouilles 1966. BF 7, BF 8, BE 7/8, Logbook, available at the EFA Archives, nr. ARGOS 2–C ARG 165.

Croissant 1966c = Fr. Croissant, Argos. Carnet Fouilles 1966. BG 6, BG 8+BE/F 7/8, Logbook, available at the EFA Archives, nr. ARGOS 2–C ARG 168.

Deshayes 1966 = J. Deshayes, Argos. Les fouilles de la Deiras, ÉtPélop IV (1966).

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Gauss, Smetana 2007 = W. Gauss, R. R. Smetana, “Aegina Kolonna, The ceramic sequence of the SCIEM 2000 project”, in MH Pottery & Synchronisms (2007), p. 57-80.

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Howell 1992 = R. Howell, “The Middle Helladic settlement: Pottery”, in W. A. McDonald, N. C. Wilkie (eds), Excavations at Nichoria in Southern Greece II. The Bronze Age Occupation (1992), p. 43-204.

Konsolaki-Yiannopoulou 2010 = E. Konsolaki-Yiannopoulou, “The Middle Helladic Establishment at Megali Magoula, Galatas (Troezenia)”, in Mesohelladika, p. 67-76.

Lindblom 2011 = M. Lindblom, “The Middle Helladic Period”, in M. Lindblom, B. Wells (eds), Mastos in the Berbati Valley. An intensive archaeological survey (2011), p. 77-96.

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Mesohelladika = A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, J. Wright (eds), Mesohelladika. La Grèce continentale au Bronze Moyen, BCH Suppl. 52 (2010).

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Pantelidou et al. 2014 = M. Pantelidou Gofa, G. Touchais, A. Philippa-Touchais, N. Papadimitriou, “Μελέτη ανασκαφής Βρανά Μαραθώνος”, PraktAE 2014 [2016], p. 29-69.

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Philippa-Touchais 2007 = A. Philippa-Touchais, “Aeginetan Matt-Painted Pottery at Middle Helladic Aspis, Argos”, in MH Pottery & Synchronisms, p. 97-113.

Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011 = A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, “Fragments of the pottery equipment of an early Middle Helladic household from Aspis, Argos”, in W. Gauss, M. Lindblom, R. A. K. Smith, J. C. Wright (eds), Our Cups are Full: Pottery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. Papers presented to Jeremy B. Rutter on the occasion of his 65th birthday (2011), p. 203-216.

Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980 = E. Protonotariou-Deilaki, “Οι Τύµβοι του Άργους”, PhD Diss., Univ. of Athens (1980).

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Zerner 1993 = C. Zerner, “New perspectives on trade in the Middle and early Late Helladic periods on the Mainland”, in C. Zerner, P. Zerner, J. Winder (eds), Wace and Blegen. Pottery as Evidence for Trade in the Aegean Bronze Age 1939-1989 (1993), p. 39-56.

Zerner 2004 = C. Zerner, Photocopied drafts distributed at the Middle Helladic Pottery and Synchronisms International Workshop, Salzburg, October 31st–November 2nd, 2004 (2004).

Zerner 2008 = C. Zerner, “The Middle Helladic pottery with the Middle Helladic wares from Late Helladic deposits and the potters’ marks”, in W. D Taylour, R. Janko (eds), Ayios Stephanos: Excavations at a Bronze Age and Medieval Settlement in Southern Laconia, BSA Suppl. 44 (2008), p. 177-298.

Haut de page

Notes

1 Pariente, Touchais 1998.

2 For the MH tumuli excavated at the foothills of Aspis, see in particular Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980. For some preliminary remarks from their re-investigation, see S. Voutsaki, K. Sarri, O. Dickinson, S. Triantaphyllou, E. Milka, “The Argos ‘tumuli’ project: A report on the 2006 and 2007 seasons”, Pharos 15 (2007), p. 152-192.

3 For an overview of the MH habitation at Argos, see G. Touchais, “Argos à l’époque mésohelladique: un habitat ou des habitats?”, in Pariente, Touchais 1998, p. 71-84; N. Papadimitriou, A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, “Argos in the late MBA and the LBA: A reassessment of the evidence”, in A.-L. Schallin, I. Tournavitou (eds), Mycenaeans up to Date: the Archaeology of North-Eastern Peloponnese. Current Concepts and New Directions (2015), p. 161-184.

4 For the very first excavations conducted by Vollgraff on Aspis, see BCH 30 (1906), p. 5-45; 31 (1907), p. 139-184; for the most recent preliminary remarks of the resumed excavations, see BCH 131 (2007), p. 960-971; 132 (2008), p. 766-785; 133 (2009), p. 567-580; 134 (2010), p. 551-566; 136-137 (2012-2013), p. 799-812; 138 (2014), p. 733-749; 139-140 (2015-2016), p. 799-807. For an overview of the MH Phases of Aspis (Phases II-IV), see A. Philippa-Touchais, “Settlement planning and social organisation in Middle Helladic Greece”, in Mesohelladika, p. 792-796, although some observations are now slightly modified in the light of recent evidence gained from the systematic study of both building remains and pottery. Particularly for the layout and the date of the fortification walls, see A. Philippa-Touchais, “The Middle Bronze Age fortifications on the Aspis hill at Argos”, in R. Frederiksen, S. Müth, P. I. Schneider, M. Schnelle (eds), Focus on Fortifications: New Research on Fortifications in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Near East (2016), p. 645-661.

5 Touchais 1998 (n. 3), p. 73, 77-78, with full references; Papadimitriou et al. 2015 (n. 3), p. 165, 169-170, with full references; Balitsari 2017. The MH remains at the southeastern foothills of Aspis are very dense, but these are mainly dated to MH III-LH I. During the same phase, the South Quarter was largely abandoned and the former habitation areas were used only for burials.

6 Croissant 1966a.

7 BCH 91 (1967), p. 817-820.

8 At Aspis, Phase II (MH I-II) is only poorly represented by settlement remains (Touchais 2007, p. 83). At Deiras, the so-called Installation P1 (Deshayes 1966, p. 18-21) is thought to be more or less contemporaneous with the HP (Balitsari 2017, p. 115-119). At the South Quarter, besides the HP, other settlement remains (mainly retaining walls), located close to the Sanctuary of Aphrodite (Aphrodision), were excavated by Fr. Croissant (see BCH 92 [1968], p. 1021-1039; 93 [1969], p. 986-1013; 95 [1971], 745-747), safely dated to the MH I-MH III early by the author (BCH 139-140 [2014-2015]; Balitsari 2017, p. 33-44). Other MH I-II assemblages are certainly present at the South Quarter and probably in the wider district of Aspis’ southeastern foothills, but the exact date and spatial distribution of them require the systematic investigation of largely unpublished evidence.

9 Croissant 1966b, c.

10 Croissant 1966a.

11 BCH 91 (1967), p. 802-810.

12 Croissant did not keep a systematic record of the related depths, making it thus difficult to test the validity of some of his observations. Moreover, according to his excavation logbooks, the find groups from both the interior and exterior of the HP were organized in terms of Square(s) and Layers or floor deposits. Because of this method of collecting and storing the material, it is impossible to attempt any more detailed spatial distribution of the finds.

13Couche 9: Il s’agit d’une couche bien caractérisée, mais très partiellement conservée […]. A première vue cette couche, qui ressemble fort à un incendie, paraît associée à la couche sous-jacente, dont elle représenterait la destruction” (Croissant 1966a, p. 17).

14La couche 10, elle, est certainement une couche d’occupation, dont, à certains endroits, le sol est conservé. Elle n’est séparée du rocher que par une mince couche (quelques cm) d’un cailloutis rougeâtre, qui constitue le sol vierge” (Croissant 1966a, p. 5).

15 BCH 91 (1967), p. 818-820. For the time being no systematic study of the Neolithic pottery has been undertaken, but a preliminary inspection supports its dating to the Late Neolithic period (G. Touchais, “La céramique néolithique de l’Aspis”, in Études Argiennes, BCH Suppl. 6 [1980], p. 30 et n. 145).

16Couche 8: […] Un cailloutis noirâtre nettement distinct, par sa couleur et sa consistance, des couches voisines, […]. Au N et à l’O de la maison, cette couche paraît en rapport avec la construction, puisque la limite entre la terre jaune et la terre noire coïncide strictement avec le côté extérieur des murs: ou la couche antérieure a été creusée lors de la construction de la maison, ou elle constitue la couche d’occupation correspondant à son utilisation, dont il serait étrange qu’elle ait totalement disparu” (Croissant 1966a, p. 16-17).

17 The fill at the east was originally considered as part of Layer 7 (couche 7, remblai). See also, BCH 91 (1967), p. 813, fig. 2. “[…] mur adossé à l’E. à un remblai massif de pierraille prise dans une terre rougeâtre […]. Le remblai de pierraille, qui appartient visiblement à cet état 7, est en grande partie détruit près de l’angle NE, par une fosse qui descend de la couche 6” (Croissant 1966a, p. 4).

18 See n. 16, for Layer 8.

19 This is Dark Burnished basin with a fluted shoulder (C.9612 & C.9221).

20Couche 7a: Cette couche est parfois, en surface, assez difficile à distinguer de la couche 6 […]. La terre jaune recouvrait, à l’E. et l’O. les ruines d’un petit bâtiment  […]” (Croissant 1966a, p. 10).

21Couche 6: Au-dessous de la couche rouge-brique [i.e. Layer 5], sur la quasi-totalité du secteur fouillé, on rencontre une couche de terre poudreuse, tantôt homogène, tantôt caillouteuse, de couleur gris-jaune” (Croissant 1966a, p. 8).

22 BCH 91 (1967), p. 814-817.

23 Deshayes 1966, p. 18-21.

24 Diam. 0.15 m., depth 0.10 m.

25 See also the discussion below, for the exact relation of the pits with the next phase (Phase 2).

26 The animal remains have not been studied yet, therefore it is not possible to give more data for the age and sort of species so as to gain some insight into the animal management and possibly the culinary practices related to meat.

27 The opening in the north wall must have been closed after Phase 1, since it is not depicted in the original drawing of the phase provided by Croissant. We assume that this event happened either at the beginning or during Phase 2, since the lower course of the added blocking wall evidently stands on the same level with the opening of the pits.

28À l’O de la tombe 291, le mur s’interrompt sur env. 0.80 m et le sol b semble conservé à cet endroit […]” (Croissant 1966a, p. 12).

29Le sol b, bien reconnaissable dans la moitié E de la maison, présentait en de nombreux endroits des traces du mortier blanchâtre déjà signalé, et il n’est pas impossible qu’il se soit agi, à l’origine, d’une sorte de revêtement” (Croissant 1966a, p. 13).

30 Preparation of food is further supported by the discovery of some animal bones.

31 More evidence, which also suggests that this potential entrance stopped being used, is the establishment of the hearth in the southeastern corner of the room (see below).

32Peut-être cependant le foyer était-il composé de deux cavités distinctes. La plus petite, dont la moitié N était encore en place, se présentait comme un bassin peu profond (6 à 8 cm), de forme ovale (long. 0.80), fait d’argile durcie par le feu, et à peine enfoncé dans le sol, dont les bords dépassaient de 4 à 5 cm. L’autre cavité, moins régulière, ne comportait pas ce revêtement systématique d’argile et s’enfonçait davantage dans le sol. Toutes deux étaient remplies de cendre, de charbon et de nombreux fragments mésohelladiques […]” (Croissant 1966a, p. 11).

33 “[…] une couche de terre argileuse, d’un jaune-brun très caractéristique, semée de particules jaune vif, provenant de la décomposition d’une sorte de craie. Cette terre connue encore aujourd’hui en Grèce et utilisée comme liant dans certaines constructions sous le nom de δωµατόχωµα, est compacte et assez homogène. [...] Pierres et tessons du début de la couche reposent sur ce sol [i.e. Floor 7a] et constituent apparemment une couche de destruction, qui recouvre le sommet des murs, mais ne se poursuit pas à l’extérieur” (Croissant 1966a, p. 10).

34 The determination of sex and age follows P. Charlier, “Aspects anthropologiques et paléopathologiques de la malnutrition à Argos (HA, HM)”, in C. Mee, J. Renard (eds), Cooking up the Past. Food and Culinary Practices in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean (2007), p. 297-312. A more recent examination of the skeletal remains from the MH tombs at the South Quarter, including those from the HP, was conducted by L. Hapiot, “Les tombes d’Argos de l’Helladique Moyen à l’époque ottomane. Étude bio-archéologique”, PhD Diss., Univ. of Paris 1 (2015).

35 “[…] sous le sol a (qui, au moins au S était conservé) trois tombes ont été découvertes: T.264, T.279, T.291” (Croissant 1966a, p. 11).

36La tombe [i.e. T.279] est donc au plus tôt contemporaine du dernier état de la maison. Bien que le sol a ne soit pas representé à cet endroit, il paraît impossible qu’elle appartienne à la couche 6, car elle était recouverte par la couche de destruction de l’état 7   ” (Croissant 1966a, p. 12).

37 “[…] mais une autre tombe T.299, de même type, située en partie sous la T.264, avait été creusée dans l’angle SO, sans doute à partir du sol b” (Croissant 1966a, p. 14).

38Une tombe de bébé (T.290) trouvée dans la couche b [i.e. the substratum of Floor 7b], près du mur E de la maison, doit cependant se rapporter à l’état a [i.e. Phase 4], car le sol b ne semblait pas conservé au-dessus” (Croissant 1966a, p. 12).

39 BCH 82 (1958), p. 268-275.

40 Philippa-Touchais 2003.

41 E. Milka, “Lerna. The analysis of the archaeological data”, in S. Voutsaki, S. Triantaphyllou, A. Ingvarsson-Sundström, S. Kouidou-Andreou, L. Kovatsi, A. Nijboer, D. Nikou, E. Milka, “Project on the Middle Helladic Argolid. A Report on the 2005 Season”, Pharos 13 (2005), p. 107.

42 S. Voutsaki, E. Milka, “Social change in Middle Helladic Lerna”, in C. Wiersma, S. Voutsaki (eds), Social Change in Aegean Prehistory (2017), p. 103-105.

43 E. Milka, “Burials upon the ruins of abandoned houses in the Middle Helladic Argolid”, in Mesohelladika, p. 350-352.

44 Balitsari 2017, p. 249, 262-263.

45 Contra to Sarri, who actually denies the opening of intramural burials, particularly inside houses still in use, as based on the evidence derived from a number of MH sites, including Lerna, which are mainly preliminarily published or lack sufficient documentation (K. Sarri, “Intra, extra, inferus and supra mural burials of the Middle Helladic period: Spatial diversity in practice”, in A. Dakouri-Hild, M. J. Boyd [eds], Staging Death: Funerary Performance, Architecture and Landscape in the Aegean [2016], p. 134).

46 A comparative petrographic study of pottery from Aspis, South Quarter and Deiras is currently being conducted by the author at the Fitch Laboratory of the British School at Athens, and in close collaboration with Dr. Evangelia Kiriatzi. Because of the preliminary state of research, the presentation of fabric groups here is strictly based on macroscopic observations.

47 For a related term (“Argive Light Ware”), see S. Dietz, The Argolid at the Transition to the Mycenaean Age: Studies in the Chronology and Cultural Development in the Shaft Grave Period (1991).

48 J. B. Rutter, Lerna. A Preclassical Site in the Argolid, III. The pottery of Lerna IV (1995), p. 23-24.

49 E. J. Forsdyke, “The pottery called Minyan Ware”, JHS 34 (1914), p. 129; K. Sarri, “Minyan and Minyanizing pottery. Myth and reality about a Middle Helladic type fossil”, in Mesohelladika, p. 609.

50 Forsdyke 1914 (n. 49), p. 129-130; A. J. B. Wace, C. W. Blegen, “The Pre-Mycenaean pottery of the Mainland”, BSA 22 (1916-1918), p. 180-181.

51 Wace, Blegen 1916-1918 (n. 50), p. 181; Nordquist 1987, p. 49.

52 For Ayios Stephanos in southern Laconia, see Zerner 2008, p. 189-193.

53 Gray Minyan of Central Greece has been characterized as ‘true’ (Zerner 1993, p. 43), but such a characterization implies the existence of an exemplary potting tradition, which could be more or less successfully copied by other regions.

54 Percentages are estimated according to Munsell Soil Color Charts.

55 In this fabric group, it is not easy to estimate the precise color hues, even using the Munsell Soil Color Charts.

56 Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, p. 218.

57 M. Lindblom, Marks and Makers. Appearance, Distribution and Function of Middle and Late Helladic Manufacturers’ Marks on Aeginetan Pottery (2001), p. 34; Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, p. 192.

58 M. Farnsworth, I. Simmons, “Coloring agents for Greek glazes”, AJA 67 (1963), p. 395-396.

59 Even though it is traditionally believed that the appearance of mattpainted decoration marks the beginning of the MH period, there is evidence from other sites, in which paints of different chemical composition continue to be used for at least during the whole MH I phase. For Nichoria, see Howell 1992, p. 70-71, 74, 77; for the Dull Painted ware at Ayios Stephanos, see Zerner 2008, p. 193-194.

60 Zerner 1978, p. 151; also for the Dull Painted on the islet of Mitrou, see C. Hale, “Middle Helladic Matt Painted and Dull Painted Pottery at Mitrou: an important distinction in Central Greece”, Melbourne Historical Journal 42 (2014), p. 45-46.

61 For some typical mattpainted pottery of MH I early-middle, see Zerner 2004, figs. 10, 12; for the same trend in Aeginetan mattpainted pottery, see Siedentopf 1991, p. 44-45, for der frühen Stil (Cities VII-VIII).

62 Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, p. 212-214, fig. 13:51-56.

63 Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, p. 43-44, 391, fig. A1 (right), for Tumulus A: pithos burial 121, and p. 110-117, 418, fig. Γ46, for Tumulus Γ: pithos burials 69-70; ArchDelt 56-59 (2001-2004), p. 67-69 for Thanou plot.

64 BCH 30 (1906), p. 20, fig. 23.

65 Both fragments are with difficulty correlated with jars. There are also open shapes, such as basins, which are provided with similar flat bases. However, 33 is more easily related to a relatively large-sized container, because of its rather wide diameter, which obviously improved the stability of the vessel.

66 For a non-Aeginetan mattpainted barrel jar, see Zerner 1978, p. 113. Barrel-jars, considered local, are also found in MH III-LH I Aspis (Philippa-Touchais 2007, p. 105).

67 Zerner 1988, figs. 13-14:37-39; Siedentopf 1991, pl. 35:158.

68 35 is hesitantly considered a jug, mainly because of the uneven interior surface, which is suited to a small-sized closed vessel.

69 Philippa-Touchais 2002, p. 8, fig. 3:4; Zerner 2008, p. 268, fig. 5.39:1860.

70 Philippa-Touchais 2002, p. 5, for PM 1 and PM 3.

71 Zerner 1978, p. 152-156, especially for the black-tempered variety.

72 Nordquist 1987, p. 48.

73 Lindblom 2011, p. 78-84.

74 G. C. Nordquist, “Who made the pots? Production in the Middle Helladic Society”, in R. Laffineur, W. D. Niemeier (eds), POLITEIA. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 5th International Aegean Conference. Aegaeum 12 (1995), p. 201-211; V. Kilikoglou, E. Kiriatzi, A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, I. Whitbread, “Pottery production and supply at MH Aspis, Argos: The evidence of chemical and petrographic analyses”, in K. Polinger Foster, R. Laffineur (eds), METRON. Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 9th International Aegean Conference. Aegaeum 24 (2003), p. 131-136, esp. p. 134-135; L. C. Spencer, “Pottery Technology and Socioeconomic Diversity on the Early Helladic III to Middle Helladic II Greek Mainland”, PhD Diss., Univ. of London (2007), p. 155.

75 Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, p. 35.

76 For similar vases from Kolonna, see Siedentopf 1991, pls. 25-27.

77 Forsén 2010, p. 234, fig. 2:8, which is presumably Aeginetan, given the description of the fabric.

78 Zerner 1988, fig. 6:16.

79 For the most recent analysis of the same ware from Kolonna, see Gauss, Kiriatzi 2011, esp. p. 49-50, 99-104.

80 For Aspis, see Philippa-Touchais 2007; for Lerna, see Zerner 1978, p. 156; 1988, figs. 4-17; for Asine, see Nordquist 1987, p. 49; for Mastos, see Lindblom 2011, p. 85.

81 For Argos, see Philippa-Touchais 2003, fig. 10:19; Protonotariou-Deilaki 1980, Table. Γ49; for Lerna, see Zerner 1978, fig. 15:2.

82 Zerner 1988, fig. 31:25.

83 Zerner 1988, fig. 24:3-16.

84 Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2019, p. 131, n. 16.

85 Zerner 1978, p. 159.

86 For Ayios Stephanos, see Zerner 2008, p. 205.

87 For a detail analysis of the wheel-fashioned technique, as evidenced in Lerna IV, see M. Choleva, “The first wheelmade pottery at Lerna: Wheel-thrown or wheel-fashioned?”, Hesperia 81 (2012), p. 343-381, esp. p. 356-357.

88 Zerner 1978, p. 135-13; Spencer 2007 (n. 74), p. 95-96.

89 For a complete vessel of this type, see Nordquist 1987, p. 170, fig. 44.

90 Zerner 1978, fig. 11:BD410/4.

91 Zerner 1978, fig. 14:B1487/1.

92 For some EH III burnished Bass bowls, see Rutter 1995 (n. 48), figs. 39:641, 41:655.

93 Zerner 1978, p. 141.

94 BCH 139-140 (2014-2015), p. 802-803.

95 Zerner 1978, p. 135-137.

96 Nordquist 1987, p. 48.

97 Personal inspection.

98 Possible correlations are exclusively based on the available descriptions of macro-fabrics.

99 R. E. Jones, “Provenance studies of Aegean Middle Bronze Age pottery”, in R. E. Jones (ed.), Greek and Cypriot Pottery. A review of Scientific Studies (1986), p. 417; Zerner 1993, p. 43.

100 Kilikoglou et al. 2003 (n. 74), p. 133.

101 Zerner 1978, p. 146; BCH 30 (1906), p. 13-15, figs. 9-10, 13; 138 (2004), p. 740, fig. 10:11.

102 For dated parallels, see catalogue 85.

103 In Lerna, the petrographic examination of the DBW confirmed the presence of few imports from the southern Peloponnese (Zerner 1993, p. 45).

104 Personal inspection.

105 See Zerner 1978, p. 142-143.

106 For Aspis, see Kilikoglou et al. 2003 (n. 74), p. 133-134; for Lerna, see Zerner 1993, p. 43-44; I. K. Whitbread, “Petrographic analysis of Middle Bronze Age pottery from Lerna, Argolid”, in Y. Bassiakos, E. Aloupi, Y. Facorellis (eds), Archaeometry Issues in Greek Prehistory and Antiquity (2001), p. 373.

107 See n. 75 for ALW.

108 However, given the fragmentary character of the material and the limited number of bases preserved, it is impossible to discriminate between the black surfaces created by cooking and those caused by uneven initial firing.

109 See also related comments for ALW and ARSBW.

110 Touchais 2007, p. 89.

111 For a full discussion of the shape, see Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2018, p. 246, with references.

112 Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, fig. 2.

113 G. Säflund, Excavations at Berbati 1936-1937 (1965), p. 115-116.

114 Nordquist 1987, p. 72-74.

115 Zerner 1978, p. 36-38.

116 Philippa-Touchais, Touchais 2011, p. 213-214.

117 A. L. Balbo, D. Cabanes, J. J. García-Granero, A. Bonet, P. Ajithprasad, X. Terradas, “A microarchaeological approach for the study of pits”, Environmental Archaeology 20 (2015), p. 390-391. For the necessity to explore related technology, see also F. Sigaut, Les réserves de grains à long terme. Techniques de conservation et fonctions sociales dans l’histoire (1978).

118 I. Kuijt, “The Neolithic refrigerator on a Friday night: How many people are coming to dinner and just what should I do with the slimy veggies in the back of the fridge?”, Environmental Archaeology 20 (2015), p. 323.

119 C. Renfrew, “Polity and power: interaction, intensification and exploitation”, in C. Renfrew, M. Wagstaff (eds), An Island Polity. The Archaeology of Exploitation in Melos (1982), p. 264-290; K. S. Christakis, “Pithoi and Food Storage in Neopalatial Crete: A Domestic Perspective”, WorldA 31 (1999), p. 1-20; D. Margomenou, “Food storage in Prehistoric Northern Greece: Interrogating complexity at the margins of the ‘Mycenaean world’”, JMedA 21 (2008), p. 191-212.

120 P. Halstead, “The economy has a normal surplus: Economic stability and social change among early farming communities of Thessaly, Greece”, in P. Halstead, J. O’Shea (eds), Bad Year Economics: Cultural Response to Risk and Uncertainty (1989), p. 68-80.

121 Nordquist 1995 (n. 74); C. W. Wiersma, “Building the Bronze Age. Architectural and Social Change on the Greek Mainland during Early Helladic III, Middle Helladic and Late Helladic I”, PhD Diss., Univ. of Gronigen (2013), p. 143; contra M. Sahlins, Stone Age Economics (1972), p. 41.

122 H. W. Pearson, “The economy has no surplus: critique of a theory development” in K. Polanyi, C. M. Arensberg, H. W. Pearson (eds), Trade and Market in the Early Empires: Economies in History and Theory (1957), p. 320-322.

123 C. A. Hastorf, L. Foxhall, “The social and political aspects of food surplus”, WorldA 49 (2017), p. 27.

124 Margomenou 2008 (n. 119), p. 198.

125 Halstead 1989 (n. 120), p. 79.

126 Wiersma 2013 (n. 121), p. 121.

127 E. Yiannouli, “Reason in Architecture: The Component of Space. A Study of Domestic and Palatial Buildings of Bronze Age Greece”, PhD diss., Univ. of Cambridge (1992), p. 84-89; O. Peperaki, “Models of relatedness and Early Helladic architecture: Unpacking the Early Helladic II hearth room”, JMedA 23 (2010), p. 258; Wiersma 2013 (n. 121), p. 152.

128 M. T. Bale, “An examination of surplus and storage in prehistoric complex societies using two settlements of the Korean peninsula”, WorldA 49 (2017), p. 92.

129 A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, A. Balitsari, “The social dynamics of Argos in a constantly changing landscape (MH II-LH II)” in B. Eder, M. Zavadil (eds), Social Place and Space in Early Mycenaean Greece, Athens, 05-08 October 2016, forthcoming.

130 M. Dietler, B. Hayden, “Digesting the Feast: Good to eat, good to drink, good to think. An introduction”, in M. Dietler, B. Hayden (eds), Feasts. Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics and Power (2001), p. 16.

131 S. Voutsaki, “From reciprocity to centricity: The Middle Bronze Age in the Greek Mainland”, JMedA 29 (2016), p. 70-78.

132 Balitsari 2017, esp. p. 313-317.

133 A. Philippa-Touchais, “Death in the early Middle Helladic period (MH I-II): Diversity in the construction of mnemonic landscapes”, in E. Borgna, I. Caloi, F. M. Carinci, R. Laffineur (eds), MNHMH/MNEME. Past and memory in the Aegean Bronze Age, Aegaeum 43 (2019), p. 221-231.

134 Additionally, during the MH I phase, there are indications that in Argos some extramural graves were organised in tumuli (Tumulus A) and some others in simple clusters. For the re-evaluation of the evidence with full bibliographic references, see Balitsari 2017, p. 246-249.

135 S. Voutsaki, E. Milka, S. Triantaphyllou, C. Zerner, “Middle Helladic Lerna. Diet, economy, society”, in S. Voutsaki, S. M. Valamoti (eds), Diet, Economy and Society in the Ancient Greek World: Towards a Better Integration of Archaeology and Science, Pharos Suppl. 1 (2013), p. 139.

136 Balitsari, Papadopoulos 2019, p. 137-138.

137 Philippa-Touchais 2007, p. 99.

138 Balitsari 2017, p. 152.

Haut de page

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 — Distribution of MH remains in Argos.
Crédits After Pariente, Touchais 1998, pl. VII; reformatted and inked by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 429k
Titre Fig. 2 — The House of Pithoi and other significant MH assemblages in the South Quarter.
Crédits After BCH 95.2 [1971], fig. 16 [p. 746]; reformatted by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 573k
Titre Fig. 3 — Plan of the House of Pithoi depicting all phases and burials.
Crédits After BCH 91.2 [1967], fig. 1; reformatted by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 461k
Titre Table 1 — Total count and weight of sherds per deposit.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 430k
Titre Fig. 4 — Stratigraphic section (ΑΑ΄) of BF 7-8.
Crédits Originally published in BCH 91.2 [1967], p. 813, fig. 2.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 637k
Titre Fig. 5 — Stratigraphic section (BΒ΄) of BF-BG 8.
Crédits Initial drawing by Fr. Croissant; reformatted and inked by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 503k
Titre Fig. 6 — Phase 1 (HP 1) of the House of Pithoi.
Crédits Initial drawing by Fr. Croissant; inked by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Titre Fig. 7 — Phase 1 (HP 1) of the House of Pithoi, view from southwest.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57058.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 416k
Titre Fig. 8 — Mudbrick found in Pit 1 (HP 1), view from north. The white coating is also visible on the southern side of the pit.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57202.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 411k
Titre Fig. 9 — Phase 2 (HP 2) of the House of Pithoi.
Crédits Created and inked by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 180k
Titre Fig. 10 — Phase 3 (HP 3) of the House of Pithoi.
Crédits Created and inked by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 176k
Titre Fig. 11 — Bench along the north half of eastern wall, view from north.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57208.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 408k
Titre Fig. 12 — Circular white-coated cavity found south of bench, view from southwest.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57251.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 375k
Titre Fig. 13 — Phase 4 (HP 4) of the House of Pithoi.
Crédits After BCH 91.2 [1967], fig. 1 [p. 812]; reformatted and inked by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 231k
Titre Fig. 14 — Phase 4 (HP 4) of the House of Pithoi with North Wall b, view from northeast.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57077.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 466k
Titre Fig. 15 — Detail of northwestern corner depicting the different levels of the bottom course of North Wall b and western wall.
Légende View from southeast.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57215.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 420k
Titre Fig. 16 — Detail of T.279 and North Wall b with stones having been removed for the establishment of the grave.
Légende View from southwest.
Crédits Photo by Fr. Croissant, EFA no. 57187.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 406k
Titre Table 5 — Distribution of wares and fabrics per phase (in absolute numbers).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Fig. 17 — Pottery of HP 1.
Légende 1-2: Light Ware; 3-5: Gray Burnished; 6: Lustrous Decorated; 7: Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 434k
Titre Fig. 18 — Pottery of HP 1.
Légende 8-11: Light Ware.
Crédits Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 582k
Titre Fig. 19 — Pottery of HP 1.
Légende 12-17: Gray Burnished; 18: Dark Burnished; 19-22: Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 582k
Titre Fig. 20 — Pottery of HP 3.
Légende 23-24: Light Ware; 25-27: Gray Burnished; 28: Dark Burnished; 29: Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished; 30-31: Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 449k
Titre Fig. 21 — Pottery of HP 3.
Légende 32-37: Light Ware; 38-39: Aeginetan Light Ware.
Crédits Drawings and photos by Anthi Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 258k
Titre Fig. 22 — Pottery of HP 3.
Légende 40-46: Gray Burnished; 47: Dark Burnished.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 363k
Titre Fig. 23 — Pottery of HP 3.
Légende 48-53: Coarse Ware; 54: Aeginetan Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 403k
Titre Fig. 24 — Pottery of HP 3.
Légende 55-56: Light Ware; 57: Gray Burnished; 58: Dark Burnished; 59: Lustrous Decorated; 60: Coarse Ware; 61: Aeginetan Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 268k
Titre Fig. 25 — Pottery of HP 4.
Légende 62-71: Light Ware.
Crédits Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 574k
Titre Fig. 26 — Pottery of HP 4.
Légende 72-77: Gray Burnished.
Crédits Drawings and photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 292k
Titre Fig. 27 — Pottery of HP 4.
Légende 78-81: Gray Burnished.
Crédits Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 450k
Titre Fig. 28 — Pottery of HP 4.
Légende 82-84: Gray Burnished; 85-87: Dark Burnished; 88: Aeginetan Red Slipped and Burnished; 89-92: Lustrous Decorated.
Crédits Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 430k
Titre Fig. 29 — Pottery of HP 4.
Légende 93-97: Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 289k
Titre Fig. 30 — Pottery from uncertain contexts.
Légende 98-99: Light Ware; 100: Aeginetan Light Ware; 101-102: Gray Burnished; Infant burial T.268. 103: Coarse Ware.
Crédits Drawings by A. Balitsari and G. Touchais, photos by A. Balitsari.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bch/docannexe/image/912/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 630k
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Référence papier

Anthi Balitsari, « The “House of Pithoi”: An early Middle Helladic (MH) household in the South Quarter of Argos (Argolid, Peloponnese) »Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, 143.2 | 2019, 455-544.

Référence électronique

Anthi Balitsari, « The “House of Pithoi”: An early Middle Helladic (MH) household in the South Quarter of Argos (Argolid, Peloponnese) »Bulletin de correspondance hellénique [En ligne], 143.2 | 2019, mis en ligne le 05 mars 2020, consulté le 15 août 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/bch/912 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/bch.912

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Auteur

Anthi Balitsari

FSR-Postdoctoral Researcher, Aegean Interdisciplinary Studies (AEGIS), UCLouvain (CEMA - INCAL).

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