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Musiques grecques en représentation (xixe et xxe siècles)

1911: Estudiantina Oriental on the Road

1911 : Estudiantina Oriental sur la route
Nikos Ordoulidis

Résumés

Cet article a pour objet l’un des plus célèbres ensembles grecs actifs à Smyrne (aujourd’hui Izmir) et Constantinople (aujourd’hui Istanbul) ottomanes à la fin du xixe et au début du xxe siècle. L’ensemble musical nommé « estudiantina » s’inspirait de l’ensemble espagnol homonyme qui a effectué des tournées en divers endroits du monde, en commençant par Paris en 1878. L’introduction de l’article présente le cadre de la recherche sur la musique populaire urbaine de langue grecque de Smyrne, du xixe et du début du xxe siècle, menée jusqu’à présent. La seconde partie de l’introduction présente quant à elle le cadre historique non seulement de Smyrne, mais aussi de l’ensemble musical, dans la période que nous examinons.
Le corps de l’article suit les débuts de l’ensemble à Paris durant les trois premiers mois de 1911, puis à Londres et ailleurs au Royaume-Uni, au cours de cette même année. L’article examine également le rôle des intermédiaires et des organisateurs de la tournée, le répertoire de l’ensemble et le cadre idéologique dans lequel l’orchestre a créé son art musical.
L’article couvre les réseaux musicaux complexes en Europe durant cette période précise et examine la manière dont l’Europe percevait la musique venant de l’Est. Il se concentre aussi sur des questions telles que les répertoires et les musiciens itinérants, et l’humeur cosmopolite qui caractérisait les traditions musicales de styles différents des centres urbains historiques, au cours d’une période très particulière : la fin de l’Empire ottoman et la naissance des États-nations.

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Dédicace

In memory of Charles Howard

Notes de l’auteur

Warm thanks to the following people, for allowing access to their archives and for making the original historical documentation available; for the advice and suggestions: Panagiotis and Leonardos Kounadis and the Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (www.vmrebetiko.gr). Melanie Yap and Leiden University Libraries; Konstantina Georgiadi and the Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Theatre Department; Kostas Vlisidis, Manolis Seiragakis, Tony Klein.

Texte intégral

Τhe Greek Music of Smyrna: Dipoles, Stereotypes and Neglections

  • 1 For Smyrna see for example: Solomonidis 1957; Kalyviotis 2002; Chatzigeorgiou (ed.) 2002; Georgeli (...)

1The beginning of the 20th century constitutes a period of great upheaval and change. The cosmopolitan city of Smyrna, to the east of the Aegean Sea, made an extremely interesting case for the rapprochement of heterogeneities.1 The city was then ruled by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Its port was an important trade hub. Its society, in turn, was a cultural nexus, which obviously concerned the Eastern Mediterranean, but also the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Egypt, Italy, Switzerland, France, Spain, the USA, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire and the surrounding areas of the Black Sea. This article will not concern itself with the communication networks that brought the above-mentioned places into contact with/in Smyrna, neither will it deal with the dynamic presence of the various communities there. Both issues have been covered by many historical, sociological, political and anthropological studies. Despite this, it is worth mentioning the importance of recent discoveries in the field of historical discography.

  • 2 “The Kounadis Archive was initially established in the early 1960s by Panagiotis Kounadis, a resea (...)
  • 3 In all these places we find Greek-speaking recordings.
  • 4 “Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography” at Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum: https://bit. (...)

2The Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum2 now has a new virtual room called “Cosmopolitanism in Greek historical discography”. The results of this research constitute a singular examination and illumination tool of the cosmopolitanism in music over a wide geographical area, offering access not only to audio but also to visual data. Crucial findings have resulted from this research, regarding the relationships amongst various “ethnic” repertoires. More specifically, dozens of music tunes have been detected and documented, which were recorded in Greek historical discography. The same tunes were recorded also in other repertoires (in some cases earlier and in others later than that of the Greek recording). A large part of these recordings was made in Smyrna and Constantinople by Smyrnean musicians between 1904 and 1920. In essence, these are the first recordings ever made, as the phenomenon of discography took its first steps at the turn of the century in the areas under examination. Historical recording companies/labels, such as Gramophone, Odeon and Pathé, sent mobile workshops all over the world, and at the beginning of the century they recorded in Constantinople, Smyrna, but also Thessaloniki, Athens, Alexandria and Cairo.3 Researching and documenting the relationships between the Greek-speaking and other repertoires, we can see several pairs emerge: the Greek-Russian, Greek-Neapolitan, French, Austrian, German, Serbian, Croatian, American, Jewish (Ashkenazi and Sephardic), Romanian, Turkish, Armenian, Spanish and Italian interactions.4

3Cultures and their products, mannerisms and customs, tended to spread much more easily than in the past, as the constantly evolving industrial revolution promoted the exchange of goods and services, as well as cultural offerings; music was spread and shared by musicians who travelled to other countries performing the “local” music of their respective countries and cultures.

  • 5 The central goal of the Great Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα, megali idea) was the integration of the unredeeme (...)
  • 6 Although the two cities were culturally in constant communication, recent research and, especially (...)
  • 7 The following are a few examples of this public discourse: Petropoulos 1996 [1968]; Holst 2006 [19 (...)

4Research into the musical reality of Smyrna, up until the 1922 defeat of the Greek army in Anatolia and the subsequent Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, is still at an embryonic stage. The collective national trauma caused by the abandonment of the plan of the Great Idea5 played a catalytic role in the position Smyrna was given in public discourse. In contemporary relative Greek (written and oral) literature (and given the absence of an official archive of historical discography, but also the extended procrastination exhibited by the musicological community with regard to research into urban folk-popular music), which comes mainly from amateur researchers, journalists and musicians, Smyrna is depicted as a cosmopolitan location, with the Greek-speaking community playing a catalytic role in the cultural shaping of the city. Moreover, Smyrna is often seen to be inseparably entwined with Constantinople.6 Public opinion was radically shaped by the few Greek texts written about the music of Smyrna and mainly public oral discourse, as is evident from televised or radio broadcasts, in Greek cinema, in school books, on the music stage by musicians, in theatrical and musical shows and concerts, in newspapers and journals of varied content and within the community of rebetiko fans.7 Various stereotypes were established, which have been reproduced religiously since. Strangely enough, these stereotypes often come in direct contrast to the general context mentioned, that is, the cosmopolitan nature of the city.

  • 8 “A lacuna remains regarding the examination of the recording corpus with aesthetical rules, in ord (...)
  • 9 “In the event that we accept discography as a reference point, according to Stathis Gauntlett the (...)

5These stereotypes give rise to many problematic issues; this article is directly concerned with two of these: on the one hand, we observe the biased promotion of an easternized aesthetic in the musical creation of leading Greek-speaking musicians. Over time, this promotion has been facilitated by the spearhead term “santuroviolins” (σαντουροβιόλια, santouroviolia, from the words santur and violin). In the literature in question, the santuroviolins appear either as a predecessor of the rebetiko song—that is, the most popular urban-folk popular music formulation of the Greek state—or its first stage: the “Smyrnean rebetiko”, with the santuroviolins as its trademark,8 and the “Pirean rebetiko”, with the bouzouki as its hegemonic leader, a trademark of the musical experience of Athens.9

  • 10 On the issue of Greekness and nationalism in Greek music, see for example: Kokkonis 2008; Kallimop (...)
  • 11 The case of Vassilis Tsitsanis is often mentioned in public discourse, who with his work is suppos (...)

6The term “santuroviolins” was ideologically charged, as it meets two serious specifications, introduced early on by the pro-East ideological camp in the contemporary Greek state. And it is the ideology of the historical continuity of Hellenism (Ancient Greece–Greek Byzantine–contemporary Greek state), which these specifications derive from.10 These specifications concern “traditionality” and “eastern-ness”, fundamental characteristics of “pure” and “authentic” “Greek music”, which are hostile to the other pole: “modernity” and “westernness”. In fact, the latter concepts are usually expressed more as actions and processes, that is, as “modernization” and as “westernization”, thus overemphasizing the supposed alteration that occurs after the actions of some personas (musicians, composers, lyricists, and the music industry), actions which transformed Greek music from something (pure) to something else (impure).11

  • 12 “At this point, Dafni Tragaki’s chapter in Rebetiko Worlds (2007, pp. 270–271) comes to the forefr (...)
  • 13 Λαϊκή μουσική, laiki music, people’s music.

7Throughout time, traditionality has been represented by folk music, which is regarded to be the creation of the “unknown composer from the flesh and blood of the people”, which in the context of historical continuity was inextricably linked to Greek Orthodox ecclesiastical music, considered the most authentic (ancient) Greek music tradition.12 After the 1980s, the term “folk music” was replaced by the ideologically charged term of “traditional music”. On the other hand, modernity is represented by so-called “laiki music”13 (describing the urban folk-popular creation), which is broadly accepted as a creation of the music industry. Obviously, urban folk-popular music represents the exact opposite of what folk music represents.

  • 14 The fact that discography is often used as a synonym for “the music industry” and “music business” (...)
  • 15 Obviously, the equal-tempered tuning of the santur is degraded, for the sake of its traditionality (...)
  • 16 Kokkonis 2017b.

8On the one hand, traditionality is served by both instruments (the santur and the violin), as over time, they serve repertoires that were neither born out of nor directly associated with the discography (and therefore with the music industry as a whole). On the contrary, they were associated with (“pure”, according to the historical triptych) rural musical traditions. The negative connotations of the connection with discography were to be borne only by urban folk-popular music.14 Ostensibly, the two instruments meet the second specification too, that is, easternness.15 The promotion of this easternized aesthetic is carried out systematically against both the westernized reality, and the (more pragmatic) one that George Kokkonis described as à la gréca.16

9The second problematic issue concerning the relevant literature is the following: with few exceptions, this rhetoric was seldom accompanied by the citation of sources and documentation. The book by Aristomenis Kalyviotis, published in 2002, titled Smyrna –The Music Life 1900-1922– The Entertainment, the Music Venues, the Recordings (Music Corner and Tinella) is the most important exception to this rule, as it features extremely interesting historical documentation and serious discographic validation, which crystallize the image of Smyrna, in terms of music.

10The fact that in this relevant literature, references to the Greek estudiantinas are almost completely absent is quite impressive. In other words, the relevant literature left out a very important part of historical discography and (according to the sources, which we will see below) of the musical experience of Smyrna. The mandolin and the guitar dominated the experience with the former apparently giving way to the bouzouki, in Athens after the 1930s. The guitar is even more slighted, and this is because it has always played a crucial role in Greek music: from the beginning of historical discography until today, it features in almost every urban folk-popular music genre and idiom of the Greek-speaking world and, in any case, is a leading instrument in both the Smyrnean and the Pirean rebetiko.

11Even today, not much is known about the chapter of the Greek estudiantinas to a large extent. Either way, as we mentioned before, the relevant research took an interest in urban folk-popular music far too late. And when it did, the topic of choice was, as a rule, the post-WWII sound and less so the inter-war period. For the period before WWI, however, research is almost non-existent; much more so regarding the travels of Greek musicians abroad.

12Through an examination of the sources, which will be analyzed below, we are able to understand more about the movement which begins from the “East” towards the “West”—the inverted commas purposefully highlight the imaginary entrenchment of both entities—, and the role Greek cosmopolitanism played, at the peak of its golden age, just before the 1922 defeat of the Greek Army in Anatolia, which is known in Greek as Katastrofi (καταστροφή, catastrophe).

The Greek Estudiantinas – “Genesis”

  • 17 Ordoulidis 2021a, pp. 89–90. This specific chapter of the book in question presents the history of (...)

On 7 March 1878, during the celebration of the Paris carnival, an estudiantina orchestra, comprised of sixty-four Spanish students, astounded the crowds with its performance. This orchestra had been formed earlier in Madrid, in order to participate, in traditional attire, in local customs, playing bandurria in the streets. An international tour commences, which takes them as far as the opposite side of the Atlantic Ocean, where this particular musical trend becomes the vogue in 1880. […] Eight years after Paris, it is still in vogue, and in the Greek capital the newspaper Acropolis, on 21 July 1887, announces that the estudiantina orchestra had been in Athens and was preparing to go to Patras, with only six members in its orchestra. […] An article in the Spanish newspaper Diario de Cordoba, on 28 February 1886, mentions that an estudiantina was in Constantinople to present their programme to the court of the Sultan Abdulhamid (Conejero 2008, p. 102). It seems that the orchestra stayed for quite some time in Constantinople and Smyrna, where it was a catalytic influence on the musicians there.17

13The Spanish estudiantina was the main inspiration for the creation of similar orchestras around the world. These are orchestras featuring string instruments, mainly mandolins and guitars, whose aesthetics, performance practices and repertoires continue to inspire. A predominantly folk-popular sound of “the city”, which the musicians appropriated and “translated” into their own aesthetical dialect, in several parts of the world. Before talking about the Greek ensemble that we are interested in, we will run through some brief data from historical discography and the historical press, which concern these early stages of activity of the Greek estudiantinas.

  • 18 For Greek-speaking recordings made by Gramophone, see the recent work of Aristomenis Kalyviotis (K(...)

14An analysis of the database that came from Allan Kelly’s research (http://www.kellydatabase.org) and the one by the AHRC Research Center for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music (CHARM, www.charm.kcl.ac.uk), tell us that Gramophone recording sessions took place in Constantinople in 1904.18 The lists of these sessions include the names: Estudiantina Athénienne (fig. 1) and Estudiantina Grecque (fig. 2).

Fig. 1. A recording by the Estudiantina Athénienne. Tounte, Psichokori (Τούντε, Ψυχοκόρη), Gramophone 2505h – 14644, in Constantinople, October–November 1904.

Fig. 1. A recording by the Estudiantina Athénienne. Tounte, Psichokori (Τούντε, Ψυχοκόρη), Gramophone 2505h – 14644, in Constantinople, October–November 1904.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/​item?id=4340).

  • 19 In the Greek newspaper of Alexandria Tachydromos-Omonoia, on 26/4/1913, on 2/7/1913 and on 14/7/19 (...)

15The Estudiantina Grecque recorded from 1904 to 1907, in 1909 (in Smyrna), in 1910, 1912, and 1914. In 1911, Gramophone recorded the Smyrnaiki Estudiantina Vassilaki in Smyrna: this is the orchestra we are interested in and the one we will focus on in this article. In 1914, it recorded in Alexandria, Egypt, the Estudiantina Alexandria.19

16The Lindström company (Odeon) also recorded in Constantinople in 1906–1907: the Estudiantina Grèque, the Estudiantina Sideri (again the ensemble we are interested in), the Estudiantina Christodoulidi, the Estudiantina Zounaraki, the Estudiantina Kotsou Vlachou.

Fig. 2. A recording by the Estudiantina Grèque. Helmess (Χελμές), Odeon C 468 – 1703 in Constantinople, May 1906.

Fig. 2. A recording by the Estudiantina Grèque. Helmess (Χελμές), Odeon C 468 – 1703 in Constantinople, May 1906.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/​item/​?id=11103).

17In 1908 it recorded the Estudiantina Nikos Kokkinos in Athens. This name will come up again, further on in this article. In 1908 and 1909, it recorded in Constantinople again: the Estudiantina Smyrniote and the Estudiantina Grèque. Other companies/labels, such as Orfeon and Favorite, also recorded Greek orchestras in Constantinople with the term “estudiantina” in their title.

18Therefore, based on a very important part of the discography, the term “estudiantina”, referring to a Greek orchestra, appears from 1904, in Constantinople. From what it seems so far, the first Greek estudiantina orchestra has a paradoxical name: Estudiantina Athénienne. Was the band based in Athens and just travelled to Constantinople for the recording? Or was it a Constantinopolitan band that used this name, possibly with political overtones and meanings?

19Research in the historical press, which, as far as Greek popular music is concerned, remains in complete oblivion, only serves to prolong the mystery: many historical newspapers and/or their issues have not yet been digitized, found or indexed. In addition, the digital repository of the Hellenic Parliament, where one can search the digitized material, does not offer a search tool. In other words, one has to study the large volume sheet by sheet.20

  • 21 Lailios Karakasis, too, agrees on Sideris place of birth: “The director of the ensemble was the Co (...)

20The oldest article that we identified so far comes from the newspaper Konstantinoupolis, in 1899 (24/12/1899). In this issue, we learn that the “famous Athenian Estudiantina with a varied and new programme” is staging concerts at the “Eptalofos” brewery, in Constantinople. The same newspaper, about 20 days later, on 15/1/1900, informs us that “the famous Athenian Estudiantina under the direction of the great mandolinist Mr. Vassilis Sideris, who has just arrived from Athens, will be singing tonight and tomorrow Sunday in Phanar at the Kil Vournou café. This is a unique opportunity for the people of Phanar to listen and admire the excellent mandolin player, who happens to also be from their homeland”. At this point we learn that both the Athenian Estudiantina and Vassilis Sideris, the central figure of the current research, arrived from Athens. But what does the author mean? That they both live in Athens, or that they are returning from concerts there? In addition, the second piece of important and problematic information, as we will see later in the article, concerns the origin of Sideris. The author is clear on this issue: Sideris comes from the famous and historic area “Phanar”, Constantinople.21 Was he the permanent conductor of the orchestra, before he founded the orchestra that we will see later?

21About two months later, on 17/3/1900, the same newspaper informs us that “the artistic group, which is the famous Estudiantina Eptalofos, presents new pleasant surprises for all music lovers, who visit the fine Peran daily until midnight. Recently, the well-known baritone of the disbanded Athenian, the sweet-singer Demosthenes Pappagiannis, was hired”. The famous Athenian Estudiantina has disbanded… Was there some tension amongst the members and did Sideris choose to leave the orchestra and found another, which he named the Estudiantina Sideri, as we shall see later?

22Three months later, on 3/6/1900, the same newspaper announced that “it considers it its duty to notify the numerous fans of the Greek Estudiantina, which made a great impression, that tonight and tomorrow Sunday it will give its last concerts”.

23On 2/6/1901, again the newspaper Konstantinoupolis, informs us that the “'New Athenian Estudiantina', which consists of seven people, now exists, and that it will give concerts under the direction of Spyros Zervos”. Therefore, yet again we see the former Athenian Estudiantina, under another direction now, and referred to as the New Athenian Estudiantina.

24In the magazine Panathinaia, which was published in Athens, on 31/3/1903 we read the following:

The members of the happy family, which the Athenian Mandolinata for the first time created in such a wide range of variety throughout the East, amount to 40 instruments. An estudiantina with 40 instruments is not uncommon in Italy, but of course the performances of the Athenian Estudiantina would be envied. […] The technical details of the performances are so impeccable that they remind us of the unforgettable orchestra of Spanish mandolinists which once passed through Athens. Mr. Laudas, the conductor of the orchestra, accomplished a really difficult job. Before he became the leader of this multitude of mandolins, there was no mandolinata in Greece […] There has been a lot of commotion lately about the mandolin […] If it conquers Greece too, this will be exclusively due to the Athenian Mandolinata.22

  • 23 Lailios Karakasis mentions: “Politakia, a musical ensemble, a type of mandolinata”, as well as, a (...)
  • 24 The Ionian Islands were already dynamic and traditional vectors of Italianness. They were annexed (...)

25This is an extremely interesting article that raises a variety of questions and of course, concerns the musical reality of Athens in the early 20th century before the start of commercial recordings. First of all, it should be noted that the article gives the impression that the terms “mandolinata” and “estudiantina” are loosely used as synonyms.23 From what our research shows so far, although the mandolin had been present in the Greek-speaking world since the 19th century, it does not seem to have established a term used to describe such ensembles. Possibly, at this time we are before the process of domination of one of the two terms: “mandolinata” and “estudiantina”. One might even be tempted to think that behind this tug-of-war lies a deeper cultural “battle”, that between Italianness24 and Spanishness. In addition, the article recalls the huge success of the performances of the Spaniards a few years previously and clarifies that this particular orchestra of Athens is the reason for the popularity of the mandolin in Greece.

26In another issue of the newspaper Konstantinoupolis, on 20/9/1905 we read that “a concert is going to be given by the sixteen-member Athenian Estudiantina, who have just arrived from Greece, under the direction of the chief musician Mr. Christodoulidis”. It is probable that the Athenian Estudiantina was reconstituted, this time by Christodoulidis, whose name, as we saw earlier, is found in historical discography in the name of another orchestra: the Estudiantina Christodoulidi.

27The Greek newspaper of Smyrna, Imerisia-Smyrni, on 6/5/1908 published the great news that the famous Café de Paris had installed electrical light bulbs, which would now light up the night, and that the “Estudiantina of the famous Vassilakis” would play music. This is the band we are interested in.

  • 25 The above press articles were indexed by the Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum. For the Greek estudi (...)

28The above examples from references in the press and discography illustrate the dynamics of this new experience under the name “Estudiantina”. Undoubtedly, before the beginning of the 20th century, such orchestras played a leading part in the musical reality of Smyrna and Constantinople and, possibly, of Athens.25

  • 26 Ordoulidis 2021a, pp. 95–96.

29In essence, the estudiantina sound is what has prevailed today as fusion. The sound products are dominated by certain characteristic traits:
1. The utilized instrumentation does not follow a particular “traditional” prototype. Consequently, it is multi-selection and miscellaneous. Participation of instruments not only connected to laiko traditions, such as the mandolin, the folk clarinet, the lute and the santur, but also others with important tradition in high-status music, such as the horn, the violin and the violoncello.
2. Some of the protagonists are musically literate, able to read and write, while others function in the framework of orality.
3. Recordings take place with different guests every time (musicians and singers). Many of whom come from the opera house, while others from the “stage” of a rural setting.
4. A motley amalgam of elements related to performance practices is observed, such as a congruous and incongruous coalescence of sound and/or instruments, voices and others. This fusion is confirmed by the record labels containing terms such as “folk”, “folk-like”, “laiko”, “traditional”, “manes”, “rebetiko” and so on.
5. Composition form does not follow a certain prototype that could identify with some certain tradition of high-status music. It is, however, inextricably linked with the recording technology of the time.
6. Freedom in performance practices is observed, which in essence is equal to non-existent musical notation, even though certain estudiantinas function as singular music schools.
7. Second recordings, often more than second, have been found of the same musical pieces which differentiate themselves on diverse levels.26

  • 27 Karakasis 1948, p. 305, and Solomonidis 1957, p. 62, n. 3.

30During this period, that is, the beginning of 20th century, the orchestra this article will now focus on was set up. It is still not clear if this group was initially created in Constantinople and then moved to Smyrna, or if the group was created in Smyrna. There are two people who appear as the founders of this group. One is Vassileios (or Vassilis) Sideris (fig. 3), also known as Vassilakis. Lailios Karakasis and Christos Solomonidis (both offspring of Smyrnean families and leading figures in the scholarly world there) inform us that Sideris is from Constantinople,27 something that seems to be confirmed also by the article above, from the newspaper Konstantinoupolis of 1899.

Fig. 3. Vassilis Sideris in 1924. A photograph sent to Panagiotis Vaindirlis.

Fig. 3. Vassilis Sideris in 1924. A photograph sent to Panagiotis Vaindirlis.

Panagiotis Vaindirlis was Vassilis Sideris’ best man and a member of the orchestra we are interested in.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum.

31In two documents from the election catalogues of Athens from 1916 and 1922, we can see the following (fig. 4):

Fig. 4. The election catalogues of Athens of 1916 and 1922, where the name of Vassileios Sideris appears.

Fig. 4. The election catalogues of Athens of 1916 and 1922, where the name of Vassileios Sideris appears.

myheritage.com.

32In these catalogues the name of Vassileios Sideris is registered as a musician and his father’s name is Dimitrios. In both documents the age stated is 54 years. In the first, from 1916, the voter number is 2 652, the electoral card number is 2 597 and the registration number is 19 946. In the second document, from 1922 (specifically dated November 18, that is, about two months after the great fire of Smyrna), the voter number is 4 028 and the electoral card number is 142. In the column titled “registration number” we read: “naturalization 3 049”. Until our research bears further fruit, we can speculate that either they are two different people, which is rather unlikely, as the stated age and the profession coincide. The other option is that Sideris had been in Athens since 1916, he voted there and, for some unknown reason, declared his age incorrectly (after all, one of the above publications informed us that he had relations with Athens at least since January 1900). At the time, false ages were often given deliberately due to issues related to compulsory military service (both of the Greek state and of the Ottoman Empire), as this was a period of frequent military conflicts.

33It is shocking that on 18/5/1922, that is, about four months before the Katastrofi, the Smyrna newspaper Amaltheia informs us that Sideris participates as a double bassist in the orchestra that is going to start playing in the garden of the Café de Paris, for the summer season. Possibly, Sideris was constantly on the move between Athens–Constantinople–Smyrna, a phenomenon common for this period and especially for the profession of musician. After all, from August 1920, when the Treaty of Sèvres was signed, Smyrna was ceded by the Entente to Greece, with the provision that full annexation would be completed after five years, following a referendum.

  • 28 Based on our sources, there is a strong connection between Naxos, Smyrna and Vourla (Urla, a town (...)

34In another election catalogue, this time from the island of Naxos from 1875 (fig. 5), found again in “myheritage”, we see the name Dimitrios Sideris, father’s name Vassileios (full form of the name Vassilis), born circa 1815. Assuming this is the father of Vassilis, the founder of the band, then, maybe, Vassilis was also born in Naxos and later went to Athens or Constantinople or Smyrna.28

Fig. 5. Election catalogues, Naxos, 1875: the name Dimitrios Sideris appears.

Fig. 5. Election catalogues, Naxos, 1875: the name Dimitrios Sideris appears.

myheritage.com.

  • 29 Ordoulidis 2021b.

35The second founder of the group was Aristeidis Peristeris, born in Corfu in 1855 (fig. 6). The name Peristeris is key for the course of the Greek-speaking urban folk-popular music. Before the Katastrofi, the son of Peristeris, Spyros, became a member of the orchestra. Spyros played a leading role as far as music in Athens was concerned, both on the music stages and in discography. In the latter, he held the position of a kind of artistic director of the folk-popular repertoire for the Greek branch of Odeon and Parlophone, both managed by Minos Matsas, a Greek Jew born in Preveza. In 1935, Spyros Peristeris reintroduced the historical orchestra of Smyrna for a short time and made recordings with it in New York.29

Fig. 6. The birth certificate of Aristeidis Peristeris.

Fig. 6. The birth certificate of Aristeidis Peristeris.

Corfu, General State Archives.

  • 30 Recommended bibliography for the early music industry: Gronow 1983 and Gronow 2014; Cook et al. 20 (...)
  • 31 See Kalyviotis 2002.
  • 32 Karakasis 1948, p. 305.

36At least two different names are used to refer to this orchestra in discography (which was itself in its infancy30): Estudiantina Sideri and Estudiantina Vassilaki (fig. 7). The orchestra made recordings in Constantinople by Odeon in 1906–1907 and in Smyrna by Gramophone in 1911.31 However, Lailios Karakasis informs us that “according to others, the ensemble was also called the Estudiantina of Aristeidis. Sideris, however, in a short time span managed not only to impose himself as an excellent artist and promoter of the genre, but also to become the core of the pure Smyrniote estudiantina”.32

Fig. 7. The record labels of the songs To oneiro (Το όνειρο), Gramophone 2359y – 14-12031, Smyrna, 15–18/12/1911 and Mi lismonis (Μη λησμονείς), Odeon CX 696 – No. 31961, Constantinople, 1906, which were recorded by the Estudiantina Vassilaki/Sideri.

Fig. 7. The record labels of the songs To oneiro (Το όνειρο), Gramophone 2359y – 14-12031, Smyrna, 15–18/12/1911 and Mi lismonis (Μη λησμονείς), Odeon CX 696 – No. 31961, Constantinople, 1906, which were recorded by the Estudiantina Vassilaki/Sideri.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=5023 and www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=5118).

37It should be noted that confusion prevails regarding the names of the estudiantinas, which very soon multiplied rapidly. Often, the same ensemble itself seems to use more than one name (like Sideri). The most problematic identification is often between Estudiantina Sideri and Estudiantina Smyrniote (fig. 8).

Fig. 8. Sample of the discography of the Estudiantina Smyrniote. Euzoniko tragoudi (Ευζωνικό τραγούδι), Odeon CX 1906 – No. 58585, Constantinople, 1908.

Fig. 8. Sample of the discography of the Estudiantina Smyrniote. Euzoniko tragoudi (Ευζωνικό τραγούδι), Odeon CX 1906 – No. 58585, Constantinople, 1908.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=4430).

  • 33 Karolina (Καρολίνα), Gramophone 2351y – 3-14709, Smyrna, 15–18 December 1911 and Hip Aidi (Χιπ Άϊδ (...)

38The fact that Sideris and his estudiantina were active in Smyrna prompted researchers to name it “Smyrniote” while in discography we see another estudiantina using this same name as its official name, printed on the labels, Estudiantina Smyrniote. Based on current evidence, two exceptions were recorded during the session in December 1911, when the Estudiantina Sideri was recorded by Gramophone. These two recordings of the group are labelled Smyrnaiki Estudiantina Vassilaki.33 The above concern the records and their labels. Primary sources, however, are the documents of the companies, too. For example, the Gramophone recording documents in Allan Kelly’s database add new information: in particular, it contains 17 entries where the field “Session Performer(s)” reads “Smyrneiki (Smyrnean) Estudiantina (Vasilaki)”. However, these 17 entries include some for which we have the actual record, on whose label the term “Smyrnean” (Smyrneiki) is absent. It is possible that the companies chose the word “Smyrnean” on the labels for only one of the two bands, in order to avoid confusion amongst buyers.

  • 34 See Kokkonis 2017b, p. 97.

39The sound of the two bands (Estudiantina Smyrniote and Estudiantina Sideri) present aesthetical differences that render their identification problematic. On the one hand, the sound of the Estudiantina Smyrniote corresponds to what George Kokkonis describes as the aesthetic world of à la gréca, which finds itself in the middle of the two large, and obviously quite fluid, poles of à la turka and à la franca.34 On the other hand, the Estudiantina Sideri seems to be a loyal follower of the à la franca road. Differences include the singers’ voice placement, the instrumentation, the recorded repertoire, and the performance practices. In fact, often each estudiantina is identified with its singers (for example, George Tsanakas with the Smyrniote, and George Savaris with the Vassilaki).

40In addition to the above reflection, there is another, much more complex conclusion to be drawn from the relevant literature. In several texts, the orchestra has been identified with the name “Ta Politakia” (τα Πολιτάκια), that is, the guys from the Poli [Greek word for the city. In Greek language, the word “Poli” (Πόλη) with a capital P (Π), is referring to Constantinople (tr.: City of Constantinos, that is, Constantine the Great)].

41First of all, it should be noted that the “Politakia” are never found in historical discography with this name, except when they were re‑established for a specific purpose in 1935, in Athens, by Spyros Peristeris. They worked as the “Politakia” on the ship “Byron”, which operated the route Haifa-Piraeus-New York. Upon arriving in America, they recorded songs and there, for the first and last time based on the evidence so far, the name “Politakia” was printed on the label (fig. 9). However, the term that accompanies some of these references is “mandolinata” and not “estudiantina”, which does not appear at all.

Fig. 9. Sample of recordings in America by the “Politakia”. Skliri kardia (Σκληρή καρδιά), RCA Victor CS-89811-1 – 38-3056-A, New York, 7 May 1935.

Fig. 9. Sample of recordings in America by the “Politakia”. Skliri kardia (Σκληρή καρδιά), RCA Victor CS-89811-1 – 38-3056-A, New York, 7 May 1935.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/​item/​?id=4877).

  • 35 It is important to note that the idiomatic Greek dialect of Smyrna included several words (Greek a (...)
  • 36 The same is true for Greek literature. For example, Dido Sotiriou in her book Farewell Anatolia (t (...)

42Although the term “Politakia” is absent from historical discography, except in the case of New York, we find it in the relatively small historical bibliography, which largely came from the pen of Greek-speaking Smyrneans, from descendants of Greek-speaking Smyrneans or from foreign residents and/or travellers, who published articles and books in Greece and abroad, either before or after the Catastrophe (see the relevant appendix at the end of the article). These sources are of great interest and brilliantly present both the à la franca and the à la gréca aesthetics in the musical creation of the Greek Smyrneans. In this bibliography, references to the Politakia are made in two ways: either it becomes clear that the term means the orchestra of Vassilis Sideris, that is, the Estudiantina Sideri, or it means any such orchestra.35 It may also mean that, to a certain degree, the term became a synonym for the term “folk-popular instrument player”, “folk-popular orchestra”, or “folk-popular musician”.36

  • 37 Edgelow 1912, p. 84.

43For example, Thomas Edgelow informs us that, “The politakia are bands of Greek singers, whose voices are always good, and sometimes superb, and who accompany themselves on stringed instruments”.37 George Horton, the American Consul in Smyrna during the period of the Catastrophe, describes the orchestra in the same manner:

  • 38 Horton 1926, p. 105.

One of the chief institutions of Smyrna about which naval men always inquire, was the Politakia or orchestras of stringed instruments, guitars, mandolins and zither. The players added great zest to the performance by singing to their own accompaniment native songs and improvisations. The various companies gave nightly concerts in the principal cafes and were often called upon for entertainments in private houses.38

44The reference to the zither and the term “improvisations” add to the belief that many groups were named “Politakia”, as we can deduce from the discography that these two terms (zither and improvisations) are not connected to the Estudiantina Sideri.

  • 39 Karakasis 1948, p. 305.
  • 40 Solomonidis 1954, pp. 131–132.
  • 41 Solomonidis 1957, p. 62, n. 3.

45Lailios Karakasis mentions that “the main, systematic cultivators and propagators of the folk-popular song in Smyrna were the so-called Politakia, a musical ensemble, a type of mandolinata with singers”. In other words, he is talking about a specific orchestra, once again using the term “mandolinata”. Quoting, in fact, the names of the musicians, he clarifies that he is speaking about the orchestra of Sideris: “This estudiantina was composed of the following: V. Sideris, G. Paschalis or Tsangaris, G. Savaris, P. Vaindirlis, G. Elisaios (Smyrnean), A. Voilas, Ch. Meringlis and I. Chalakos (Athenian), Aristeidis Peristeris, (Constantinopolitan)”.39 Christos Solomonidis informs us that, “the ‘Politakia’ were a renowned mandolinata with singers”.40 Once again, on the one hand we notice that we are talking about a specific orchestra and, on the other hand, that the word “mandolinata” is chosen to accompany the name of the orchestra. But in his next book, Solomonidis again mentions that “the Politakia were a musical ensemble, a type of mandolinata. The director of the group was the Constantinopolitan (Vassileios Sideris)”.41 If we look carefully at this 1957 text from Solomonidis and the 1948 text from Karakasis, we find that Solomonidis almost literally copies Karakasis.

  • 42 Papazoglou 1994, p. 112.
  • 43 The interview of Angela Papazoglou to Panagiotis and Elisavet Kounadis can be accessed at: https:/ (...)

46Stella Epifaniou-Petraki informs us that, “the ‘Politakia’ were a famous mandolinata”, also referring to a specific orchestra. In her 1994 autobiography, Angela Papazoglou, wife of Vangelis Papazoglou, a musician who was involved in the music scene not only in Smyrna but also, subsequently, in Athens, informs us that “there at the ‘politakia’ in the venue, two orchestras played. One on this side and one on that side. On this side was for folk music and Smyrna music. The ‘politakia’ were for European music”.42 One could argue that the above reference by Papazoglou can be interpreted in both ways. In 1974, Papazoglou gave an interview to Panagiotis and Elisavet Kounadis which was published in the Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum.43 George Papazoglou, adopted son of Angela and Vangelis Papazoglou, also participated in this interview. At one point, they mention:

George Papazoglou: Those who played guitar and such and sang these operettas, etc.
Angela Papazoglou: They were called the Politakia
George Papazoglou: Not that they were from Poli (Constantinople)

47The historical press is equally interesting. On 19/4/1898, the Smyrna newspaper Nea Smyrni published the following: “Café Paradeisos (Tzourou): The management announces that with the steamship Hatzi‑Daout a new music group, of the Politakia kind, arrived today, it will sing and play at the café”. Based on the data so far, this is the oldest reference to the term “Politakia” that has been identified in the historical press. In this post, the word is used to describe a new type of orchestra. In the Cypriot newspaper Eleutheron Vima dated 5/6/1904, we read: “The Politakia who […] sing and play at the Exochikon Kentron [an open-air restaurant] [and] attract a lot of people in the afternoons and in the evenings. They sing with great skill and grace… And they play quite well on their mandolins and guitars”.44 It is not clear from this article whether the term is used to describe an orchestra type in general, or whether it refers specifically to an orchestra. One concludes the same by reading the article in the magazine Panathinaia, on 31/5/1907: “When you meet an Athenian on the streets, you can be sure that he is going to watch something. He is going to watch the fireworks, the cinema, the theater, Karagiozi, the tarantella, the Zyp, the Politakia, the music”.45 Since the Estudiantina Sideri was mainly active in Constantinople and Smyrna, the last quote may use the term to describe the type of orchestra.

48Another interesting article in the newspaper Amaltheia of Smyrna, on October 11, 1913, states:

At the opening of the winter season during which the audience of Smyrna will have the double pleasure, without the increase of prices, to admire the beautiful films of the Cinema and at the same time to enjoy the melody of the Estudiantina of Smyrna or the Politakia, under the direction of Mr. Vassilakis Sideris, who will perform various fine pieces during the evening performances at “Irida” every Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday.

49In this article, the term “Politakia” is clearly used as the name of the Estudiantina Sideri. Apart from the rest of the extremely interesting background information during the movie screening, we notice that the surname is misspelled: Sidéri, instead of Siderí. It could have been just a typo. However, it could also indicate that Sideris is a “foreigner” in Smyrna, as a result, local journalists accent his last name incorrectly.

  • 46 Akropolis, 8/9/1932.

50In the newspaper of Athens Astir, dated 17/10/1915, we read: “Theatres – Omonoias. (opposite the rail station A – P). – Beginning of the popular Konitsiotou with the beloved ‘Politakia’”. In an extensive article in the newspaper Akropolis entitled, “Central Athens is swallowed up in an ocean of districts – How Athenians enjoy themselves near their homes”, in 1932, the reference to an orchestra that performs at the music hall Paradeisos is particularly notable: “At ‘Paradeisos’ an orchestra consisting of Politakia, on a makeshift stage, performs the latest Greek hits”.46 In this publication, of 1932, that is, about 30 years after the founding of the first Greek estudiantinas, it now seems that the term is used to refer to musicians in general, or perhaps to musicians with specific characteristics.

51In the appendix, at the end of the article, we have collected several references to the Politakia in the historical bibliography. Both these references and those of the press, as well as the documentation of historical discography, compose a fascinating historiography of the urban folk-popular music orchestras that played a decisive role in the evolution of Greek-speaking music.

“On the big stage of the world”47

  • 47 From a text that looks like a poem, from the memoirs of Angela Papazoglou: “Doum-Doum the big drum (...)
  • 48 Cited in Kalyviotis 2002, pp. 82–84.

52After the founding of the Estudiantina Sideri, something remarkable happened. Remarkable, if one is to take into account its relatively few years of activity, its poorly-orchestrated sound in discography, and ultimately the dynamic that a Greek-speaking orchestra would have had at that time. The correspondence of Gramophone representative’s in 1911, reveals a tale, which remained for years a “mystery” in the Greek-speaking musical world. In one of these letters dated December 19th, 1911, the engineer Arthur S. Clarke, who had just recorded the orchestra in Smyrna, wrote to William Conrad Gaisberg at the offices of Gramophone in England: “They seem to have had considerable success in London in the past year”.48

53In 1911, a music group that dressed in traditional costumes (maybe from Crete) and played the mandolin and the guitar left Smyrna and went on tour in Europe. The group had a great success in Paris and London, performing for about three months in the first and three in the latter (see below). Although sources are minimal, we have managed to clear some things up through internet searches and digital media.49 Up until the indexing of the French and English Press, three sources seemed to refer to the event (see Prokopiou, Karakasis, Solomonidis in the Appendix), but with several problematic issues including incorrect dates, no reference to Paris, and incorrect information regarding London.

  • 50 In Figaro from 9/1/1911 to 4/2/1911; Gil Blas from 9/1/1911 to 11/2/1911; Le Temps only on 10/1/19 (...)
  • 51 In Le xixe siècle only on 11/1/1911 and in Le Rappel only on 11/1/1911.
  • 52 Comoedia on 9/1/1911 and Variety on 11/2/1911.

54Three categories of publication can be found in the French Press: a) publications that are a simple announcement/advertisement for the concert in the entertainment column50 (fig. 10); b) publications similar to the first category but with a brief additional description51 (fig. 11); and c) publications with a description of the profile of the group52 (fig. 12).

Fig. 10. Le Pays, 23/2/1911.

Fig. 10. Le Pays, 23/2/1911.

Fig. 11. Le xixe siècle, 11/1/1911.

Fig. 11. Le xixe siècle, 11/1/1911.

Fig. 12. Publication in the French Comoedia, on 9/1/1911.

Fig. 12. Publication in the French Comoedia, on 9/1/1911.

55The majority of these publications do not contain much crucial musicological information. Despite this, if we examine various terms we can get a better understanding of the career of this historical group from Smyrna.

56First of all, the orchestra’s title: For the first and only time this orchestra appeared as Estudiantina d’Orient. As we can see in the following postcard (fig. 13), which is the only tangible documentation available, the orchestra is associated with the Estudiantina Sideri.

Fig. 13. A postcard featuring the Estudiantina d’Orient, with Vassilis Sideris as the maestro.

Fig. 13. A postcard featuring the Estudiantina d’Orient, with Vassilis Sideris as the maestro.

According to Panagiotis Kounadis, it shows, from the left, standing: A. Voilas or Voelis, George Paschalis, Panagiotis Vaindirlis, Ch. Meringlis, I. Chalakos. Seated: Aristeidis Peristeris, Vassileios Sideris, George Savaris. Next to the orchestra’s name, we also see the name of the director, Vassilis [Basile] Sideris.

Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum.

  • 53 Variety 21.10, 11/2/1911, p. 15.

57In Variety, the American magazine for art and entertainment, in its French edition,53 a second piece of documentation appeared, linking the identification of the Estudiantina d’Orient with Vassilis Sideris (fig. 14).

Fig. 14. Publication in the magazine Variety on 11 February 1911, with reference to the Estudiantina Sideri.

Fig. 14. Publication in the magazine Variety on 11 February 1911, with reference to the Estudiantina Sideri.
  • 54 For Marinelli see Grau 1914, pp. 357–358. Marinelli was born in Germany and was initially given th (...)
  • 55 Gutsche-Miller 2015, p. 30.

58What do these publications reveal? The Estudiantina premiered on Monday, January 9th, 1911 and found itself in Paris playing for the first time in the now legendary Olympia theatre, which first opened in 1888. Victor de Cottens (1862–1956) and H.B. Marinelli (1864–1924),54 who were the managers of Olympia from 1908 to 1911,55 were responsible for this trip. De Cottens was a French stage director, dramatist, librettist and theatre critic. Marinelli started off as a contortionist and later opened his own booking agency, with branches in New York, Berlin, Paris and London. Eventually these men discovered the Estudiantina Sideri and managed the group in 1911 in France.

59These publications also indicate that the group performed both Turkish and Greek songs, and that the orchestra was made up of guitars and mandolins. In addition, apparently in the Paris concerts, the group performed another repertoire, different from the one recorded in historical discography. Did the group indeed perform a Turkish repertoire? Or did the French perceive it as Turkish? And, did they perform it with à la franca practices or with à la turca?

  • 56 Hip aidi (Χιπ Άϊδι), Gramophone 2353y – 3-14711, Smyrna, 15-19 December, 1911. See also Yip-i-Addy (...)

60The orchestra’s programme lasted twenty minutes and the musical colour must have been obvious. It is assumed that Europeans perceived this music as exotic, that the performance of such an orchestra dressed in unfamiliar folkloric costumes and playing in foreign linguistic idioms must have made quite an impression on audiences. As is apparent from listening to the discography and from studying the bibliographical sources, the sound of Smyrna was the definition of fusion for the time, as it featured truly original combinations of instrumentation, orchestration, repertoire, performance practices, rhythmology, modality, and linguistic idioms. The specific reference, in the same publication, to the big hit of the time, Yip-I-Addy-I-Ay, is enough to validate the musical syncretism observed in Smyrna. What is more, Estudiantina Sideri recorded the specific piece in Smyrna in December, 1911 (that is, after its European tour), as Hip Aidi.56 Finally, from these two publications, we have proof of the dynamic presence of the Estudiantina Sideri in Smyrna—the same music group played in the cafés found on the waterfront of the city, the famous Quai.

61A puzzling question arises when comparing the publication dates listed for the Estudiantina performances in Paris. Out of the nine newspapers in the first category of publications, three advertised the concerts in March (9, 19 and 22) and one even advertised April (9/4). As seen in the English Press, the estudiantina performed at the London Coliseum on February 20th (fig. 15). Either the dates published in the French newspaper were incorrect, or the Estudiantina performed later at the London Coliseum. Of course, one might consider the scenario of the group being divided into two smaller performance groups—the one staying in Paris due to the extension of the performances and the other going to London in order not to lose business there.

Fig. 15. Publication in the newspaper, Music Hall and Theatre Review, on 16/2/1911 announcing the rehearsal of the Estudiantina d’Orient on 20/2/1911 at the London Coliseum.

Fig. 15. Publication in the newspaper, Music Hall and Theatre Review, on 16/2/1911 announcing the rehearsal of the Estudiantina d’Orient on 20/2/1911 at the London Coliseum.

A similar publication is also featured the following week (23/2) in the same newspaper announcing a rehearsal for 27/2/1911.

62After inquiries to two known archives in the United Kingdom, the University of Bristol Theatre Collection and the Theatres Trust, it was not possible to find any evidence connected to these appearances of the estudiantina in London. Like the Olympia in Paris, the London Coliseum where they performed is now a historical theatre, which opened for the first time in 1904.

63Another mystery, however, emerges after reviewing the two publications concerning the Estudiantina d’Orient in the Music Hall and Theatre Review. From February 27th and up October 27–28th, dozens of publications appear in the English newspapers, which advertise or talk about the appearances of some musicians, who are presented either as “Greek singers” or as “Greek singers and players”. There are three “package” periods with the appearances of the Greek singers: a) from around March up to May 16th; b) on June 28th; and c) from October 7th to around the 20th. We see two large time gaps, without appearances: for a little more than a month (17/5–27/6) and for around three whole months (29/6–7/10).

64There are two crucial elements that indicate, at least for the first appearance package, that we are dealing with the same musical ensemble—the Estudiantina Sideri. One of the publications, The Referee, on Sunday, April 9th, 1911, mentions “eight Greek singers”. There are also eight on the postcard of the Estudiantina d’Orient, but also in Prokopiou’s poem (see Appendix). Additionally, the few but vivid descriptions of the London appearances from the English Press seem to describe the sound exactly as it appears in the historical commercial discography—as recorded in Constantinople and Smyrna.

  • 57 It is not possible to cover the fundamental issue of Orientalism in the context of this article.

65This begs the question: Why has the “Orient” been discarded? Logically, the term would seem appropriate and/or appealing in Europe at the time. It was a period of intense romanticism, which was often accompanied by exoticism.57 So, the word “Orient” should have been a powerful selling point for the group. Instead, the group name is replaced by the simplistic “Greek singers and players”. Perhaps the managers, de Cottens and Marinelli, had exclusive rights for the term, Estudiantina d’Orient, which did not exist earlier in the discography of the same orchestra, in Smyrna and Constantinople. This also backs up the first publication/advertisement for the appearance of the orchestra in the United Kingdom, as seen in the London Standard, on 11/1/1911 (fig. 16), where it is reported that Ashton & Mitchell’s Royal Agency is the agent for the orchestra in the United Kingdom and has booked the orchestra for the festivities for the crowning of the new King of England (coronation of George V on June 22nd, 1911).

Fig. 16. London Standard, 11/1/1911, Ashton & Mitchell’s Royal Agency.

Fig. 16. London Standard, 11/1/1911, Ashton & Mitchell’s Royal Agency.

66This specific evidence allows us to speculate that the group also remained for the second period (as examined above and further below).

67The London census of 1911, however, provides another piece of contradictory evidence. In this census, which took place on Monday April 3rd, eight names appeared as boarders in the residence of Donald Wallder, a furniture porter, at 66 Old Compton Street at Westminster, Civil Parish of Westminster St. Anne, St. James and St. Anne Sub-registration District (fig. 17).

Fig. 17. Sideris’s name found in London census 1911.

Fig. 17. Sideris’s name found in London census 1911.

myheritage.com.

68In this interesting document, we can read the following names:

  1. George Savary (30 years old, artist)
  2. Basile Sideris (49 years old, artist)
  3. Dimitri Angilakos (30 years old, artist)
  4. Panagasti Banderli (32 years old, artist)
  5. George Pasquale (29 years old, artist)
  6. Antoine Voilas (37 years old, artist)
  7. Alfred Solaro (26 years old, artist)
  8. Emilio Vinas (35 years old, brass finisher)

69We note again the names, as mentioned by Panagiotis Kounadis, of the musicians who appear in the French postcard:

  1. George Savaris
  2. Vassileios Sideris
  3. I. Chalakos
  4. Panagiotis Vaindirlis
  5. George Paschalis
  6. Voilas or Voelis
  7. Ch. Meringlis
  8. Aristeidis Peristeris
  • 58 “Almost all the classical composers of the rebetiko and folk-popular, more often than not prove to (...)
  • 59 See Kalyviotis 2002.

70Note that Sideris was born in or around 1862. So, the fact that in 1916 he gives his age to be 54 in the electoral list above seems valid. If we assume that the eight names are those of the musicians who participated in the orchestra and the concerts, we can see that the name of Aristeidis Peristeris, the other co-founder of the band, is missing. Since the searches in the 1911 census did not yield results for Peristeris’s name, we can speculate that he did not follow the orchestra from Paris to England. All eight are listed as single, which supports the lack of reference to any Sideris offspring in the relevant literature. The six declare their nationality as Greek, and place of birth Smyrna (with an added note stating “residence”). The last two are foreigners (Italian and Spanish). It is not clear if the Spaniard, whose occupation is stated as brass finisher, is also a member of the orchestra, or just happens to live in the same house. The slight alterations to certain names are also worth noting—evidence, perhaps, of folk-popular musicians' tendency toward tzoum.58 We see Panagiotis Vaindirlis become Panagasti Banderli, Lakos or Chalakos to actually be Angilakos and George Paschalis to become George Pasquale! Furthermore, Alfred Solaro certainly recorded for a time in the place he declares as his birthplace, that is Smyrna.59

  • 60 The interview of Michalis Vaindirlis to Panagiotis Kounadis (Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum) can (...)

71Panagiotis Vaindirlis’s son, Michalis Vaindirlis, gave an interview to Panagiotis Kounadis in 1998.60 In this interview we learn why Tsangaris, who is supposed to be a member of the orchestra, is not on the postcard (and obviously also not on the 1911 census). Also, according to Michalis Vaindirlis, a member of the orchestra was George Vitalis (Vidalis), also from Smyrna in origin with a rich discography in a large repertoire range:

MV: […] There were two tenors, Tsangaris and Vitalis. They then went with this company.
MV: […] They went to London. And in fact, then Tsangaris made a, as the Smyrneans said at the time, boutzouxoulia.
MV: […] He was angry, I do not know. And they were left with one tenor.
PK: To look like eight.
MV: […] he got up and left, that is, hours before the concert.

Interlude for the Intermediaries (Lambelet has the key?)

72It should be noted that this is not the first time the title “Greek singers” appears in the press. Specifically, on March 21st, 1902 through July 25th, 1902, that is, approximately nine years before the Estudiantina Sideri tour, in the newspapers the Morning Post and The Times, the following advertisement appears:

THE GREEK SINGERS and PLAYERS, for afternoon and evening parties and garden parties. Picturesque costume, attractive and varied programme. Apply Ashton’s Royal Agency, 38, Old Bond-street, W., and Branches.

73In an English publication, The Referee, on June 15th, 1902, George Ashton is listed as the manager of the group. In 1902 and 1903 the group is again described as dressed in Greek folklore costumes. Also, the term “estudiantina” (meaning Greek ensemble) appears again in the The Referee, on May 4th, 1902:

Mr. George Ashton, the King’s own musical agent, has (per Mr. Napoleon Lambelet) engaged the Greek Estudiantina troupe of instrumentalists and singers to appear in their national costumes at all sorts of high-class concerts and social gatherings. The troupe arrives in London next Friday.

74The article implies that the ensemble is travelling to perform in the United Kingdom. However, the articles do not clarify if the Greek singers is an active band in Greece, or if they are a band created by Lambelet who resides permanently in London. There is a possibility that Lambelet created this band only on paper and had Ashton to manage it. Every time someone wanted to book this band, Lambelet used the connections he had in Athens and invited Greek musicians from there to come and play in England.

75Things become clearer with the discovery of an article published in the Greek newspaper Skrip, on April 11th, 1902. According to this article, Lambelet did travel to Athens in order to create a new orchestra, comprised of local Greek musicians, who, dressed in folklore costumes, were “under the orders of the multi-faceted Englishman Chatkon (perhaps it means Ashton?), who has about twenty similar foreign orchestras of all nationalities in his businesses. Usually, these orchestras undertake to play in the matinee socials of the Lords of the English metropolis”:

The Greek musician Mr. Napoleon Lambelet, who stayed with us for a few weeks, departed yesterday in order to return to London […] Before departing from Athens, with English peculiarity he created something new for the Greek musicians who usually live a sedentary life. He organized a small Greek orchestra, which will depart for London after Easter.
This orchestra will have a Greek character, with traditional costumes, worn by its members […] Regarding the entertainment, from next summer the great Lords will have something new when socializing in London. This orchestra consists of two first mandolins, two second, a violoncello, three guitars and a lute.
Amongst these musicians there are also four who have quite a good voice and will be able to sing Greek kleftic and Eastern songs. Apart from these, Mr. Lambelet will write a few more Greek songs for the sake of the musicians […] Usually these orchestras undertake to play in the matinee socials of the Lords of the English metropolis, and they are well paid. If I am not mistaken, this is the first time that a group of Greek musicians in fustanellas travels to Europe.

  • 61 Regarding the biography of Lambelet, see Seiragakis 2014.

76Although it is not the purpose of this article to elaborate on the biography of Napoleon Lambelet,61 the following information published in the newspaper, Kairoi, is cited (August 11, 1911, that is, the period that the orchestra of Sideris appeared in England) to provide some familiarity with Lambelet, his persona and role. It should be noted that Lambelet and Peristeris (who according to the 1911 London census did not accompany the orchestra) have a common birthplace, Corfu.

  • 62 Regarding the use of the term “Politakia” that the article deals with in its first part, in this p (...)

So, this time Lambelet comes along and exports the Greek song to England. In Manchester, the current exhibition takes place, which was incorporated into the general Greek products exhibition, with a re‑enactment of a Greek village, with fustanellas (pleated skirt-like garment) and young peasant girls.
In this re-enactment of a Greek village, something would be missing if there were no Greek songs. Besides, in England we have a precedent that the Greek song is much liked. The “Politakia”,62 who went there with Sideris in charge, drove people crazy, they refused to leave if they were not overtaken by the special nostalgia, of which only a Greek understands.
Now, the Greek song will be represented by Kokkinos, with an ensemble of singers who will sing their own songs. Kokkinos, our most popular composer, a representative of the per se folk-popular inspiration. The inspiration of the street song, innocent, passive and lovely, is now preparing his notes to leave next Friday. Napoleon Lambelet accomplishes yet another of his feats: the export of the Greek song.
This is how a small piece of Greece is transported now to England, and how a form of Greek art travels in order to be displayed. Certainly, the new singing troupe of Kokkinos will not be less impressive than the Politakia. Most assuredly the song of the Greek popular composer will be more appealing. Firstly, his art is more organized, and secondly, there is Napoleon Lambelet, who of course will also give his songs. So here we have an export whose success we must not doubt.

  • 63 For the relationship between the scholarly and the popular, see Kokkonis 2017a and Ordoulidis 2021 (...)

77It is worth mentioning that, according to the sources, both names with which the orchestra tours (d’Orient and Greek singers) were inspired (and to some degree imposed?) by external and higher echelons, that is, managers and intermediaries. Marinelli (born German, a career as an Italian but also in charge of the French Olympia) chose the Estudiantina d’Orient; but George Ashton (English) and Napoleon Lambelet choose the simple but straightforward, “Greek singers”. Undoubtedly, such choices can be seen to be an interesting example of the way scholarly and the popular were blended, revealing the tendencies and the dynamics cultivated between them.63

“They heard lordly bravos princely clapping”64

  • 64 From the poem by Prokopiou (see Appendix).
  • 65 London Daily News, 27/2/1911; Westminster Gazette, 27–28/2/1911; London Evening and Westminster Ga (...)

78Getting back to the tour of the Sideris orchestra, and the chronological order, the facts and the events in London, the first venue in which the orchestra performed music was the London Coliseum. They performed twice daily, at 2:30 p.m. and at 8 p.m. The advertisement for the performances was found in several newspapers.65

79On March 16th, 1911, the group appeared at another historical venue, the Connaught Rooms, which opened in 1775, and in 1911 was a hotel. The orchestra performed at the seventh annual concert organized by Ashton and Mitchell’s Royal Agency, alongside other artists managed by the agency.

80The next performance was at Steinway Hall on April 6th and 11th. On April 4th the London Evening News published an announcement for a concert by Maurice Farkoa (born in Smyrna) and Hayden Coffin, with an appearance by the “Estudiantina d’Orient, the celebrated troupe of Greek singers and players from Athens” (fig. 18).

Fig. 18. London Evening News, 4/4/1911.

Fig. 18. London Evening News, 4/4/1911.

81This publication is unique in that it is the only time that both names of the group are written; that is, Estudiantina d’Orient, which earlier seemed to have been replaced, and Greek singers and players. Additionally, it reports incorrectly that the estudiantina in question comes from Athens. Is this in fact the same group we read about in The Referee in 1902 as Greek Estudiantina with Napoleon Lambelet, at least on paper? Was Lambelet “involved” in the events of 1911 in London, and therefore “involved” with Ashton and Mitchell’s Royal Agency as well? On April 9th The Referee published the following comment:

Messrs. Maurice Farkoa and Hayden Coffin gave another of their pleasing entertainments at Steinway Hall on Thursday afternoon, when both artists obviously delighted their listeners by their rendering of songs grave and gay. The names of Mr. Farkoa’s songs were not all printed in the programme, bur as I entered he was announcing “by request” “You’re In Love,” which seemed to give the large majority of the audience—who were ladies—great satisfaction. Miss Lawson-Johnston also sang, and a very pleasing novelty was the appearance of eight Greek singers who rendered Greek folk-songs in a naïve and pleasing manner. The fourth recital takes place on the 20th instant.

82The day after the second performance on April 11th, The Times published the longest commentary seen so far in the foreign Press about the Greek singers. The group appeared to be the featured act and in this second performance at Steinway Hall, the newspaper commentator appears to be happy with their performance (fig. 19).

Fig. 19. The Times, 12/4/1911.

Fig. 19. The Times, 12/4/1911.
  • 66 Tsombanopoulo (Τσομπανόπουλο), Odeon GX 163 – 58527, Athens, 1907–1908: www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id(...)
  • 67 “The term ‘modeness’ is used purposefully in order to include definitions usually consigned to the (...)
  • 68 See Mazaraki 1984 and Kokkonis 2017, p. 134–161. Sound examples: https://youtube.com/watch?v=_GQbv (...)
  • 69 Let us not forget that London constitutes a key city for the Russian Social Democratic Labour Part (...)

83The columnist seems to describe the group and its costumes as they appear in the postcard we have already seen, including eight musicians with mandolins and guitars. For the first time, the specific repertoire is also discussed. It seems that “The Little Shepherd” was one of their unrivalled successes. It is none other than the song To tsombanopoulo66 composed and recorded by Nikolaos Kokkinos in 1907–1908, which met with great success in Greece and also, as we can see, abroad. The writer seems to be troubled by the title given to the song; “An Eastern farmyard idyll”, as he contends that the animal sounds made by the musicians at the beginning of the song (let us imagine the “tzoum” of the moment) are not sounds that one hears only in the East, but also in England. Obviously, he is unaware that farm life and the rural world are constant themes in the Greek-speaking world, to such an extent that they created a very specific modeness67 regarding the instruments, mainly of those who are the leading ones of the rural repertoire (clarinet and violin).68 The writer goes on to make a very interesting comment regarding national distinctions.69

84The newspaper The London Standard also published a small text one day after the second performance at Steinway Hall, with a slightly more musicological comment (fig. 20):

Fig. 20. The London Standard, 12/4/1911.

Fig. 20. The London Standard, 12/4/1911.
  • 70 See Fabbri 2016. A reference to one of the most famous Smyrnean songs, De se thelo pia (Δε σε θέλω(...)

85The reporter states that before the Steinway Hall performance he attended, the Greek singers and players performed in a variety programme, obviously referring to the appearances at the London Coliseum. His comment and the parallels between the songs performed and Neapolitan popular songs are thought-provoking; it is true that the network formed between Naples and Smyrna is extremely interesting and merits further study.70

86On April 16th, The Referee published a brief comment on the April 11th performance at Steinway Hall (fig. 21). The writer refers to an ensemble that lacked precision, alluding to the quality of the voices of the singers, mainly regarding their unprepared tone but also their inaccuracy at the beginning of the songs.

Fig. 21. The Referee, 16/04/1911.

Fig. 21. The Referee, 16/04/1911.

87In the April 15th edition of the newspaper Wakefield and West Riding Herald, it is reported that the orchestra played as an added extra in the two performances at the Steinway Hall. It was presented with a programme at the event for the Independence Day of Greece (March 25), organized by the Greek Community Headquarters of London on April 8th.

88In a volume-journal, which seems to have been created from newspaper clippings by the American columnist Philip Hale (1854–1934), there is another comment about the performance at Steinway Hall (fig. 22):

Fig. 22. Clipping found in the journal of Philip Hale.

Fig. 22. Clipping found in the journal of Philip Hale.

www.archive.org.

89In this publication we see, yet again, that the repertoire of the orchestra was not composed of only Greek songs. There was a special reference again to the song Tsombanakos, but also to group’s talent for adaptation to diverse national styles (as the columnist points out).

90After Steinway Hall they moved on to The Pier Eastbourne, which is about 130 km / 80 miles south of London. The Eastbourne Gazette, April 12th, reported that on April 14th, Good Friday, the Greek singers were to give two performances at the famous Pier of the area, at 3:15 p.m. and 8:15 p.m.

91The April 15th Globe reported that the Greek singers were to play at The Little Sunday Club, without mentioning the exact date. Georg Lukács, a Hungarian Marxist, was amongst the founders of the club.

92The months of May and June seemed to be especially productive for the orchestra. The newspaper, The Observer, on May 7th, reported that “an octette of Greek singers” would perform at the Empire on May 8th, alongside to Miss Claire Waldoff, a young actress holding “an exceptional position on what is known as the cabaret stage of Berlin”.

93On May 16th, the group took part in the celebrated (as ascertained in Greek historical bibliography) Londesborough garden party. The May 17th newspapers Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer and Sheffield Daily Telegraph (carbon copy article) described the garden party of the previous day. The party was organized by the Earl and Countess of Londesborough at St. Dunstan’s Lodge in Regent’s Park, in honour of the German Emperor, Wilhelm II. For the second time, the orchestra’s work was compared to Neapolitan music: “They spent some little time in the splendid grounds listening to the performances of the band and to the singing of a picturesque group of Neapolitan glee singers in native costume”.

94A more interesting angle came from an apparently sarcastic article in the Sporting Times, published on May 20th (see fig. 23), where the account of the events of May 16th are described, when the Kaiser’s carriages drove through London towards St. Dunstan’s. At the end of his text the columnist talks about the Greek singers, who performed their programme, somewhere in St. Dunstan’s meadow:

Fig. 23. Sporting Times, 20/5/1911.

Fig. 23. Sporting Times, 20/5/1911.

95At the same time, news of the orchestra’s success had arrived in Athens and in Smyrna. The April 30th edition of the newspaper Estia published an extensive article dedicated to the Sideris orchestra, and referred to their huge success in London, indeed mentioning selected comments from the Press there as well:

The Greek Singers
THE TRIUMPH OF THOSE IN ENGLAND
REVIEWS IN THE ENGLISH PRESS
EXTREME HONOUR
LONDON, April 1911

96Their title is official, as reported by the English newspapers: “Greek singers and players”. From the moment that they were presented a few days ago, these bright singers directed by V. Sideris, and not in just one public concert in London, their title is all over the broadsheets, which the very next day of the concert published flattering reviews. The concert was given at “Steinway Hall”, instead of a description, we shall convey a few of what was written in the major English papers. […]

We are omitting other reviews in specialized magazines and newspapers in order to be brief. It is enough though, in order for the Greek readers to get an idea and be convinced, that the enthusiasm of some Greeks here, including the author, was not such a hyperbole in comparison with the lyricism and cordial expressions of the cool and difficult to move English critics. Who, indeed, transcended the boundaries of a critic, affecting with their reviews and their explosion of honesty and the commercial of the issue, with their proposal to the Lords and Ladies, to hire the Greek singers for their receptions and celebrations. The insiders know that a proposal by the “Flag”, which was so spontaneous and unprovoked, could not be paid with even the hundreds of pounds or guineas (English gold coins) of Mr. Spandonis…
And if we are to judge from the present events, the Greek singers will have a lot of business during the coronation period.
A few days ago they were called to Eastbourne, the famous seaside resort, for a concert; they caused a frenzy of enthusiasm and got tired repeating every song due to the insistent demands of the audience. The day before yesterday they participated in a concert in London, constituting one of the best acts in the programme and highly approved. Slowly they are becoming highly sought after for aristocratic celebrations and dinners.
On May 16 they are invited to a Lord’s reception, whose name evades us—a reception in honour of Kings. The Greek singers will have the honour of singing for the first time in front of the King and Queen of England. Later, similar and superior engagements are expected.

  • 71 It is highly likely that this is also the excerpt that Solomonidis included in his book Tis Smyrni (...)

97The illustrated magazine Kosmos, published in Smyrna, in issue 61 (1/7/1911),71 featured the famous postcard together with selected comments from the English Press (fig. 24).

Fig. 24. Magazine Kosmos, issue 61, 1/7/1911.

Fig. 24. Magazine Kosmos, issue 61, 1/7/1911.
  • 72 In this article in Smyrna it is clear that the term “politakia” is used to refer to Sideris’ orche (...)

“The Politakia72 of Smyrna in London”. A reproduction of an advertisement written in English, which contains the opinions of various English newspapers, which expressed with enthusiasm the success of the Greek singers, together with their photo.

  • 73 Irish Independent, 29/6/1911; Birmingham Mail, 29/6/1911; Dundee Evening Telegraph, 29/6/1911; The (...)

98The obvious question is: has the orchestra returned to Smyrna or are they still in the United Kingdom? Did they participate at the Bohemian Gathering of the “Small Jolly” Society? The Bohemian Gathering took place on June 28th, and we have detected six publications which mention that the Greek singers played at the Gathering (for example fig. 25).73

Fig. 25. Birmingham Mail, 29/6/1911.

Fig. 25. Birmingham Mail, 29/6/1911.
  • 74 It is worth mentioning that both the publications which concern the Manchester Exhibition, and the (...)

99Finally, regarding the last references of 1911 in the English Press, concerning the exhibition of the United Kingdom and Greece in Rusholme, Manchester, the exhibition opened its doors on October 7th and ended around October 30th. As seen earlier in the newspaper article in the August 11th, 1911 edition in Kairoi, Lambelet was in charge of bookings of Greek groups in England. The same applies to the Manchester Exhibition, as we can confirm from two articles published in the newspaper Athinai.74

  • 75 Athinai, 10/08/1911.

Greek musicians in England
– And your agreement with our composer here Mr. Kokkinos?
– I hope to book the engagement for the orchestra for the Greek currant etc. Exhibition in Manchester around October with Mr. Kokkinos. The Smyrnean group of Vassilakis Sideris had great success in England. There were eight people a double singing quartet and mandolins. They performed and sang songs of Mr. Kokkinos and one of mine, which I wrote for them. Also, I arranged for them a lot of Viennese operettas, which are now very popular in England. Their last engagement was in the magnificent Whitham Chateaux, the niece of the great Gladstone, who held a garden party for all the villagers of the surrounding villages. She was extremely hospitable to the Smyrnean musicians and at the end of the concert she sent each one a separate bouquet of roses to their carriage.75

Mr. Venizelos in England
– I am thinking, continued Mr. Venizelos, of following Mr. Kokkinos who is preparing an important engagement. We are going to represent, together with our famous musician, our Nation in England. An instrument quartet (mandolins) and a quartet for voices, six-eight people was created.

  • 76 Athinai, 15/08/1911.

The first quartet is comprised of me as first tenor, Mr. Karagiannopoulos as second, Mr. Voltsis as baritone and Mr. N. Michalopoulos as bass. The instrument quartet is comprised of Mr. Nestoras Vlachos as first mandolin, Mr. Dim. Kallinikos as second, Mr. N. Kokkinos mandola and Mr. Th. Theodorakis guitar. We are to depart together with Mr. Napoleon Lambelet for Manchester soon and we will play and sing Greek melodies at the famous currant exhibition in Manchester in October. The Neo-Greek songs will be accompanied by mandolins. When folksongs are performed, the first mandolin will play the violin, the second the cimbalom, Mr. Kokkonis the lute and Mr. Theodorakis the guitar. We have ordered first class nice gold Greek fustanellas, with which we will perform in the concerts of the exhibition.
Mr. Venizelos continues to speak with true enthusiasm regarding this mission to England; he also observed that this work is equal to that of the Apostles.76

Epilogue

100The aim of this article was to check a somewhat vague reference, which appears from time to time in the few historical texts mentioning Smyrna and the music ensembles called “estudiantinas”. The reference concerned the appearances of the celebrated Estudiantina Sideri in England. Some sources mention 1906, while others mention 1911. We used several online databases to locate details about this reference and the search results from the Greek, French and English press were indeed impressive. Estudiantina Sideri did a grand tour in 1911, in France and England, starting the year in Paris and spending February–March until May in London. They performed in historical theatres, often beside other popular artists. They dressed in Cretan folklore costumes, played guitars and mandolins, and performed the translocal repertoire of Smyrna, something which the relevant press understood as Eastern, except for one very interesting exception, when it found parallels with the repertoire and aesthetic of Naples; a comparison that proved to be completely factual, based on the relevant findings from historical discography. Various Greek and foreign intermediaries played a decisive role in the programming of this tour, promoting, in a different way each time, the cultural “product” they were managing: the name change alone is enough, from Estudiantina d’Orient, in France, to the Greek singers, in England.

101As we mentioned before, the musical reality of the interwar period and, above all, just before WWI, remains an almost completely unexplored field, in terms of the urban folk-popular music of the Greek-speaking world. The fact that most of the historical newspapers of the main cities, which presented intense musical activity (Constantinople, Smyrna, Athens, Thessaloniki, Alexandria, Cairo, New York), have not been indexed, in combination with the absence of an official historical discography archive resulted in our having a fictitious image. If we take into account factors such as: the consolidation of stereotypes, such as those mentioned in the introduction, the delay shown by the Greek musicological community in research on urban folk-popular genres, and the fact that, to this day, urban folk-popular music culture is considered the “lesser other”, we understand that the information that has been collected so far and the findings that have emerged from the meagre scientific literature available, fall short of providing a clear picture on a number of topics. For example, the network for the distribution of music and musicians to and from the Greek-speaking world; where Greek musicians performed and how they were received by the public there; the role of record companies and intermediaries in the music activity of the areas under consideration; how the public living in the Greek state perceived the musical performances of the Greek-speaking citizens of the Ottoman Empire; the dynamic between the cosmopolitanism of Smyrna and Constantinople, in terms of musical developments, and when this extroversion ended: was it after the Catastrophe of 1922 or maybe after WWI? Was the selection process for the repertoire to be recorded made on the same terms in each of these periods?

102The case of the Greek estudiantinas can be seen as an essential chapter when looking for answers to the above questions. It reflects the appropriation, extroversion, constant movement and the polystylism of performances and recordings that are ultimately characteristic of the true cosmopolitanism of places like Smyrna, during the 19th and early 20th century.

Postlude: The Sequel “Politakia – The Return”

103In the December 28th, 1930 edition of the newspaper, Eleutheros Anthropos (fig. 26), we found a small article and a revealing photograph that prove that the seed sown by the Politakia (some members continue to be present: Vidalis, Savaris, Voilas) was inspiring, and a sure recipe for success. By 1930, the headquarters had moved to Athens and the position of Aristeides Peristeris had been taken by his son, Spyros. The national foustanela is from now on the costume symbol, instead of the local Cretan costume and the name of the band had changed to include the term “national” in a dominant position (National Greek Choir). Nonetheless, the band continued to tour abroad extensively. In other words, Greek musicians were still travelling the world. However, the national circumstances under it took place were greatly different. Clearly, in 1930, the trauma of the Catastrophe was still intense and the official state may have been looking for ways to heal and raise morale, while, at the same time, attempting to nationalize cultural products. In any case, musicians kept playing and searching for ways to work, in order to secure their livelihood.

Fig. 26. Eleutheros anthropos, 28/12/1930.

Fig. 26. Eleutheros anthropos, 28/12/1930.

“The Greek Choir of Today : The National Greek Choir will leave for an extensive tour abroad on January 10th. Tonight at the Theatre “Olympia” the choir will give the previously announced farewell honorary performance with the participation of Greek vocal artists Messrs G. Vidalis (tenor), G. Savaris (mezzo-tone), N. Toumbakaris (baritone), Dim. Filippopoulos (tenor), St. Makris (bass), Sp. Kontogiorgis (tenor), Chr. Potamianos, Sp. Peristeris and A. Voilas.
The programme includes performances of popular folk songs, Athenian cantadas and national performances of youth groups with local and national costumes. The singers, during their performance of folk songs, will be wearing the fustanellas. The National Greek Choir will first go to Egypt, Cyprus and Constantinople, and then on to tour Europe and America.

The National Greek Choir has decided to donate 30% of the proceedings to the Greek pilot who is to soon fly across the Atlantic”.

Appendix

104“Mrs Sayers, wrapped in her sables, was on her balcony, looking over the gulf, sparkling in the moonlight. From the cafe underneath floated up the voices of the politakia. The politakia are bands of Greek singers, whose voices are always good, and sometimes superb, and who accompany themselves on stringed instruments. A magnificent tenor voice was singing the Love Song from "Carmen"” (Edgelow 1912, p. 84).

105“Reference has already been made to the gaiety of the natives. One of the chief institutions of Smyrna about which naval men always inquire, was the Politakia or orchestras of stringed instruments, guitars, mandolins and zither. The players added great zest to the performance by singing to their own accompaniment native songs and improvisations. The various companies gave nightly concerts in the principal cafes and were often called upon for entertainments in private houses” (Horton 1926, p. 105).

106“The main, systematic cultivators and propagators of the popular song in Smyrna were the so-called politakia, a musical ensemble, a type of mandolinata with singers. The director of the ensemble was the Constantinopolitan from Fanari, Vassileios Sideris, who came to Smyrna for the first time in 1898 with an ensemble which cannot be called of course a mandolinata. That is, composed of 2 harmonicas, 1 mandolin and 1 guitar. According to others, the ensemble was also called the Estudiantina of Aristeidis. Sideris, however, in a short time span managed not only to impose himself as an excellent artist and promoter of the genre, but also to become the core of the pure Smyrniote Estudiantina. This Estudiantina was composed of the following: V. Sideris, G. Paschalis or Tsagaris, G. Savaris, P. Vaindirlis, G. Elisaios (Smyrnean), A. Voilas, Ch. Meringlis and I. Chalakos (Athenian), Aristeidis Peristeris, (Constantinopolitan). They played for the first time at the music hall "Gratz", subsequently in the music hall Klonaridis. This Estudiantina was established in 1906 and survived up until the eve of the Catastrophe. In 1906, this group also toured artistically as the "Smyrniote Estudiantina" in France and in England, where it performed in traditional Greek costumes to great success. The group even participated in the festivities for the coronation of King Edward of England” (Karakasis 1948, p. 305).

  • 77 Here, the name was purposely misspelled, following the misspelling of the Greek text.

107“At the "Pausilypon" again, the Politakia perform every night, for "the delight of its clients" the management of the music hall lights fireworks every Saturday and Sunday. The Politakia were a renowned mandolinata with singers. Their reputation was also great in England; in 1906 when Wilhelm of Germany visited London, the mandolinata was invited by Lord Lovespiroung77 and performed at a garden party in honour of the German Emperor” (Solomonidis 1954, pp. 131–132).

108“The Politakia were a musical ensemble, a type of mandolinata. The director of the group was the Constantinopolitan Vassileios Sideris. He came to Smyrna for the first time, in 1898, with a musical group composed of two harmonicas, a mandolin and a guitar. Sideris in a very short time span imposed himself as an excellent artist and became the core of a Smyrniote estudiantina. He played for the first time in the music hall "Gratz", in 1900, subsequently at Klonaridis’s, and later at the "Café de Paris". In 1906 with the Smyrniote Estudiantina he conducted an artistic "tour" of France and England, with amazing success. He participated, in 1911, in the festivities for the coronation of Edward, King of England. The London newspapers gave most favourable reviews” (Solomonidis 1957, p. 62, n. 3).

109“Almost every night, after midnight, four or five carriages passed through Alani all together. In the first carriage, the Politakia with their mandolins and guitars, and behind it the others followed. […] And Sideris, the first of the Politakia, a crazy old man, sitting next to the coachman, in the fun, would sing the Jewish amanes: "Avagar avagar antarmos paraki"” (Politis 1993, p. 169).

110“"Patinades" (cantadas, serenades) that the young people of the time would sing under the window of their beloved with guitars and mandolins. Written, or rather rearranged from Italian canzonettas, most of them, by the Politakia. The Politakia were a famous mandolinata. In 1906 they were invited to London to play in a gathering in honour of the German emperor. They would take them to all the rich houses of Smyrna for their parties. Many of the popular songs were theirs” (Epifaniou-Petraki 1972, p. 69).

111“So these were the "patinades", taken from the Italian canzonettas, rearranged by the Politakia, the great mandolinata of Smyrna, where every afternoon and evening I would enjoy them, eating at the club of Strati at Quai of the unforgettable Smyrna” (Moumtzis 1981, p. 65).

112“There at the politakia in the venue, two orchestras played. One on this side and one on that side. On this side was for folk music and Smyrna music. The politakia were for European music. When one stopped on this side, the other started on the other side" (Papazoglou 1994, p. 112).

  • 78 It should be mentioned that Prokopiou adds this piece about the Politakia to the second edition of (...)

“George Savaris was a Smyrnean too, the top in cantadas,
in the "Politakia" the leader, powerful with the patinades.
The "Politakia" the Smyrneans of George Savaris,
were invited to parties by serious people.
With its "ace" Sideris who plays the mandolin,
this group was invited to play in London.
And here are the names: Vassilis Sideris,
Tsangaris, Lakos, Meringlis, Voilas, Savaris,
together with Vaindirlis and G. Elisaios,
(the one born in Constantinople and the other in Athens).
All dressed as Cretans and full of gallantry,
they went there and played in a lordly palace,
at the coronation of the King of England the songs of Smyrna.
They heard lordly "bravo", princely clapping,
even from the Kaiser—who was also there—
cordial words for the sweet music of Smyrna…
On the road to there, they stayed in Paris too
and the people who saw them went mad for them
getting their fill of the cheerful, playful choir,
a new, sweetened by Melis, melody” (Prokopiou, in Kalyviotis 2002, p. 86).78

  • 79 A very interesting and useful software map is presented by George Poulimenos on his webpage, that (...)

113“There were many entertainment venues at the peak of the Greek element in cosmopolitan Smyrna, what G. Katramopoulos remembers more than anything was at the waterfront […] at the "Café de Paris" with the famous orchestra the Politakia” (Petrocheilos 2005, p. 40, n. 5).79

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Bibliographie

Andrikos 2018
Nikos Andrikos, Οι λαϊκοί δρόμοι στο μεσοπολεμικό αστικό τραγούδιΣχεδίασμα λαϊκής τροπικής θεωρίας [The folk-popular modes in interwar urban songs – Design of a folk-popular modal theory], Athens, Topos, 2018.

Chatzigeorgiou (ed.) 2002
Nikos Chatzigeorgiou (ed.), Σμύρνη: Η μητρόπολη του μικρασιατικού ελληνισμού [Smyrna: The metropolis of Asia-Minor hellenism], Athens, Efessos, 2002.

Chatzipantazis 1986
Theodoros Chatzipantazis, Της ασιάτιδος μούσης ερασταίΗ ακμή του αθηναϊκού καφέ αμάν στα χρόνια της βασιλείας του Γεωργίου Α΄. Συμβολή στη μελέτη της προϊστορίας του ρεμπέτικου [The lovers of the Asian muse… The heyday of the Athenian café aman in the years of the reign of George I. A contribution to the study of the prehistory of rebetiko], Athens, Stigmi, 1986.

Chouzouris 2020
Giorgis Chouzouris, Νάξος και Βουρλά [Naxos and Vourla], 2nd ed., Athens, Tsoukatou, 2020 (1st ed. 2017).

Christoforidis 2017
Michael Christoforidis, “Serenading Spanish Students on the Streets of Paris: The International Projection of Estudiantinas in the 1870s”, Nineteenth-Century Music Review 15.1, 2017, pp. 23–36.

Conejero 2008
Alberto Conejero, Carmina Urbana Orientalium Graecorum. Poéticas de la identidad en la canción urbana greco-oriental, Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2008.

Cook et al. 2009
Nicholas Cook et al., The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music, Cambridge, UP, 2009.

Edgelow 1912
Thomas Edgelow, It Happened in Smyrna, London, Methuen, 1912.

Epifaniou-Petraki 1972
Stella Epifaniou-Petraki, Λαογραφικά της Σμύρνης [Folklore of Smyrna], vol. 5, 2nd ed., Athens, To Elliniko Vivlio, 1972 (1st ed. 1964).

Erol 2015
Merih Erol, Greek Orthodox Music in Ottoman Istanbul, Bloomington, Indiana UP, 2015.

Fabbri 2016
Franco Fabbri, “Mediterranean Triangle: Naples, Smyrna, Athens”, in Goffredo Plastino, Joseph Sciorra (eds.), Neapolitan Postcards: The Canzone Napoletana as Transnational Subject, Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2016, pp. 29–44.

Gauntlett 2001
Stathis Gauntlett, Ρεμπέτικο τραγούδι. Συμβολή στην επιστημονική του προσέγγιση [Rebetiko song. A contribution to its scientific approach], Translated by Kostas Vlisidis (original title: Rebetiko Tragoudi as a Generic Term, 1982), Athens, Ekdoseis tou Eikostou Protou, 2001.

Gekas 2018
Giorgos Gekas, Το μουσικό πορτραίτο του Παναγιώτη Τούντα [The musical portrait of Panagiotis Tountas], Bachelor thesis, TEI of Epirus, 2018.

Georgelin 2007
Hervé Georgelin, Από τον κοσμοπολιτισμό έως του εθνικισμούς [From cosmopolitanism to nationalisms], translated by Maria Malafeka, Athens, Kedros, 2007.

Grau 1914
Robert Grau, The Theatre of Science: A Volume of Progress and Achievement in the Motion Picture Industry, New York, Broadway Publishing Company, 1914.

Gronow 1983
Pekka Gronow, “The Record Industry: The Growth of a Mass Medium”, Popular Music 3, 1983, pp. 53–75.

Gronow 2014
Pekka Gronow, “The World’s Greatest Sound Archive – 78 rpm Records as a Source for Musicological Research”, Traditiones 43.2, 2014, pp. 31–49.

Gutsche-Miller 2015
Sarah Gutsche-Miller, Parisian Music-Hall Balet, 1871–1913, Rochester, UP, 2015.

Hasikou 2015
Anastasia Hasikou, “The Emergence of European Music”, in Jim Samson, Nicoletta Demetriou (eds.), Music in Cyprus, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015, pp. 103–127.

Holst 2006
Gail Holst, Road to Rembetika, Music of a Greek Sub-Culture. Songs of Love, Sorrow and Hashish, 4th ed., Limni, Evia, Denise Harvey, 2006 (1st ed. 1975).

Horton 1926
George Horton, The Blight of Asia, Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Company Publishers, 1926.

Jackson 2012
Maureen Jackson, “‘Cosmopolitan’ Smyrna: Illuminating or Obscuring Cultural Histories?”, The Geographical Review 102.3, 2012, pp. 337–349.

Kallimopoulou 2009
Eleni Kallimopoulou, Paradosiaká: Music, Meaning and Identity in Modern Greece, Bodmin, Cornwall, Ashgate, 2009.

Kalyviotis 2002
Aristomenis Kalyviotis, Σμύρνη – Η μουσική ζωή 1900–1922. Η διασκέδαση, τα μουσικά καταστήματα, οι ηχογραφήσεις δίσκων [Smyrna – The musical life 1900—1922. Entertainment, music shops, recordings], Athens, Music Corner and Tinela, 2002.

Kalyviotis 2019
Aristomenis Kalyviotis, The Gramophone Co Ltd – Οι ελληνόφωνες ηχογραφήσεις της (1900–1960) [The Greek-speaking recordings (1900–1960)], Karditsa, Self-Publishing, 2019.

Karakasis 1948
Lailos Karakasis, “Λαϊκά τραγούδια και χοροί της Σμύρνης” [Folk-popular songs and dances of Smyrna], Μικρασιατικά Χρονικά [Asia Minor Chronicles] 4, 1948, pp. 301–316.

Kokkonis 2005
Georges Kokkonis, “Η κατά Δαμιανάκο χρονολόγηση και περιοδολόγηση του ρεμπέτικου: μια νέα ανάγνωση υπό το πρίσμα της μουσικολογίας” [The dating and periodization of rebetiko by Damianakos: a new reading under the musicological prism], Paper presented at Αγροτική κοινωνία και λαϊκός πολιτισμός. Επιστημονικό συνέδριο στη μνήμη του Στάθη Δαμιανάκου [Rural society and popular culture. Scientific conference in Stathis Damianakos’s memory], Athens, 2005.

Kokkonis 2008
Georges Kokkonis, La question de la grécité dans la musique néohellénique, Paris, Association Pierre Belon, De Boccard, 2008.

Kokkonis 2017a
Georges Kokkonis, Λαϊκές μουσικές παραδόσεις: Λόγιες αναγνώσειςΛαϊκές πραγματώσεις [Folk-popular music traditions: Scholarly understandings – Folk-popular realisations], Athens, Fagottobooks, 2017.

Kokkonis 2017b
Georges Kokkonis, “Αλατούρκα αλαφράγκα και καφέ-αμάν” [A la turca à la franca and cafe-aman], in Kokkonis 2017a, pp. 97–131.

Kotaridis 2007
Nikos Kotaridis, “Εισαγωγή”, in Nikos Kotaridis (ed.), Ρεμπέτες και ρεμπέτικο τραγούδι, Athens, Plethron, 2007, pp. 9–32, (1st ed. 1996).

Kounadis 2003
Panagiotis Kounadis, Εις ανάμνησιν στιγμών ελκυστικών [In memory of enticing moments], vol. 1, Athens, Katarti, 2003.

Kourousis 2013
Stauros Kourousis, Από τον ταμπουρά στο μπουζούκι: Η ιστορία και η εξέλιξη του μπουζουκιού και οι πρώτες του ηχογραφήσεις (1926–1932) [From tambouras to bouzouki: The history and evolution of the bouzouki and its first recordings (1926–1932)], Athens, Orpheumphonograph, 2013.

Manuel 1990
Peter Manuel, Popular Musics of the Non-Western World, New York, OUP, 1990.

Martland 2013
Peter Martland, Recording History – The British Record Industry, 1888–1931, Plymouth, The Scarecrow Press, 2013.

Mazaraki 1984
Despoina Mazaraki, Το λαϊκό κλαρίνο [The folk-popular clarinet], 2nd ed., Athens, Kedros, 1984 (1st ed. 1959).

Moumtzis 1981
Tasos Moumtzis, Τραγούδια που τραγούδησα στα νιάτα μου [Songs that I sang in my youth], Thessaloniki, n. s., 1981.

Murray 2013
Kenneth James Murray, Spanish Music and its Representations in London (1878–1930): From the Exotic to the Modern, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, 2013.

Ordoulidis 2021a
Nikos Ordoulidis, Musical Nationalism, Despotism and Scholarly Interventions in Greek Popular Music, New York, Bloomsbury Academic, 2021.

Ordoulidis 2021b
Nikos Ordoulidis, “Athens: Tatavliano / New York: Beykos”, in Kostas Chardas, Giorgos Sakalieros, Ioannis Foulias (eds.), Conference Proceedings (Thessaloniki, 1–3 December 2017), Thessaloniki, Hellenic Musicological Society, 2021, pp. 418–423.

Papazoglou 1994
Giorgis Papazoglou, Αγγέλα Παπάζογλου – Τα χαΐρια μας εδώ [Aggela Papazoglou - Our sorrows here], Athens, Tameion Thrakis, 1994.

Pennanen 1999
Risto Pekka Pennanen, Westernisation and Modernisation in Greek Popular Music, PhD thesis, University of Tampere, 1999.

Pennanen 2004
Risto Pekka Pennanen, “The Nationalization of Ottoman Popular Music in Greece”, Ethnomusicology 48.1, 2004, pp. 1–25.

Petrocheilos 2005
Petrocheilos, Vassilis, Σταύρος Παντελίδης (1891–1956) – Ένας Σμυρνιός συνθέτης του ρεμπέτικου [Stavros Pantelidis (1891–1956) – A Smyrnean composer of rebetiko], Athens, Tropos Zois, 2005.

Petropoulos 1996
Ilias Petropoulos, Ρεμπέτικα τραγούδια [Rebetika songs], 8th ed., Athens, Kedros, 1996 (1st ed. 1968).

Politis 1993
Kosmas Politis, Στου Χατζηφράγκου [At Chatzifrangos’], Athens, Estia, 1993 (1st ed. 1963).

Poulimenos, Chatzikonstantinou 2018
Giorgos Poulimenos, Achilleas Chatzikonstantinou, Η προκυμαία της Σμύρνης – Ανιχνεύοντας ένα σύμβολο προόδου και μεγαλείου [The Smyrna quay: Tracing a symbol of progress and splendour], 2 vol., Athens, Kapon, 2018.

Prokopiou 1941
Sokratis Prokopiou, Σεργάνι στην παλιά Σμύρνη [Walking in old Smyrna], Athens, n. s., 1941.

Sarris 2018
Haris Sarris, “Εθνογραφικά σχόλια” [Ethnographic comments], In Maria Zoubouli, Pierrina Koriatopoulou-Angeli (eds.), Η δίκη των ρεμπετών [The rebetes trial], Arta, Department of Popular and Traditional Music and Law School of Athens, 2018, pp. 199–212.

Schorelis 1977–1981
Taso Schorelis, Ρεμπέτικη ανθολογία [Rebetiko anthology], 4 vols, Athens, Plethron, 1977–1981.

Seiragakis 2014
Manolis Seiragakis, Ναπολέων ΛαμπελέτΈνας ανέστιος κοσμοπολίτης – Συμβολή στην καταγραφή της θεατρικής του δράσης [Napoleon Lambelet – A homeless cosmopolitan – A contribution to the record of his theatrical activity], Athens, Hellenic Music Centre, 2014.

Smith 1991
Ole Smith, “The Chronology of Rebetiko – A Reconsideration of the Evidence”, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 15, 1991, pp. 318–324.

Smyrneli (ed.) 2008
Maria-Karmen Smyrneli (ed.), Σμύρνη, η λησμονημένη πόλη; 18301930: Μνήμες ενός μεγάλου μεσογειακού λιμανιού [Smyrna, a forgotten city? 1830–1930: Memories of a great Mediterranean port], Athens, Metaichmio, 2008.

Solomonidis 1954
Christos Solomonidis, Το θέατρο στη Σμύρνη (16571922) [Theatre in Smyrna (1657–1922)], Athens, n. s., 1954.

Solomonidis 1957
Christos Solomonidis, Της Σμύρνης [Of Smyrna], Athens, Typografeio Mavridi, 1957.

Sotiriou 2020
Dido Sotiriou, Ματωμένα χώματα [Bloody earth], Athens, To Vima, 2020 (1st ed. 1962).

Tsetsos 2011
Markos Tsetsos, Εθνικισμός και λαϊκισμός στην νεοελληνική μουσική – Πολιτικές όψεις μιας πολιτισμικής απόκλισης [Nationalism and populism in Greek music – Political aspects of a cultural divergence], Athens, Idryma Saki Karagiorga, 2011.

Zoubouli, Ordoulidis 2018
Maria Zoubouli, Nikos Ordoulidis, “‘Για τον τεχνίτη και το δάνεισμα είν’ έν’ από τα όργανα της πρωτοτυπίας του’ (Κ. Παλαμάς)” [‘For the craftsman, borrowing is one of his tools of originality’ (K. Palamas)], in Maria Zoubouli, Pierrina Koriatopoulou-Angeli (eds.), Η δίκη των ρεμπετών [The rebetes trial], Athens, Department of Popular and Traditional Music and Law School of Athens, 2018, pp. 45–51.

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Notes

1 For Smyrna see for example: Solomonidis 1957; Kalyviotis 2002; Chatzigeorgiou (ed.) 2002; Georgelin 2007; Smyrneli (ed.) 2008; Jackson 2012; Fabbri 2016; Poulimenos, Chatzikonstantinou 2018.

2 “The Kounadis Archive was initially established in the early 1960s by Panagiotis Kounadis, a researcher and scholar of Greek music and songs, and since 2008 has been run as a civic non-profit organization. It is the most comprehensive and organized Center for the Research & Study of Greek 78 rpm Discography. It aims to collect, classify, research, record, study, rescue and disseminate Greek songs and music, as well as any other relevant information. It is comprised of material that has mainly been recorded during the period between 1900 and 1960 in various ways and different fields, with a central focus on music” (home page of the archive’s website: www.vmrebetiko.gr). In the last few years, part of the archive was digitized, creating the Virtual Museum of the Kounadis Archive.

3 In all these places we find Greek-speaking recordings.

4 “Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography” at Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum: https://bit.ly/3tLGkE9.

5 The central goal of the Great Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα, megali idea) was the integration of the unredeemed regions of the Hellenism of Asia Minor, together with Constantinople.

6 Although the two cities were culturally in constant communication, recent research and, especially, the examination of historical discography and of the local press clearly show that they were two distinct entities, each with its own musical identity, both as a whole and in terms of the Greek creations.

7 The following are a few examples of this public discourse: Petropoulos 1996 [1968]; Holst 2006 [1975]; Schorelis 1977–1981; “To minore tis augis”: TV series ERT (Greek National Radio and Television), 1983–1984, production: Fotis Mesthenaios, screenplay: Vangelis Goufas, Fotis Mesthenaios (https://bit.ly/3MJH3OO); “Rembetiko”: Film, 1983, production: Costas Ferris, Giorgos Zarvoulakos, Kostas Sakkaris, direction: Costas Ferris, screenplay: Costas Ferris, Sotiria Leonardou (https://youtu.be/5Nm20EmLly8); Rembetiko Forum (www.rembetiko.gr).

8 “A lacuna remains regarding the examination of the recording corpus with aesthetical rules, in order for the periodization of the rebetiko to be actualized on musicological terms as well. The literature on periodization of the rebetiko has already been commented on adequately (Smith 1991; Pennanen 1999; Gauntlett 2001; Kokkonis 2005). The term ‘Smyrna-style’ itself is quite problematic, as a good part of the repertoire does not come from Smyrna. Even what was recorded or flourished there is more a product of the cosmopolitism of the area and cultural convergence, rather than Smyrna-style, at least in geographical terms. Additionally, in stereotypical periodization and genre classification of the rebetiko, the term ‘Smyrna-style’ is usually identified with santurs and violins, something else which is problematic. Σαντουροβιόλια (santuroviólia, santuroviolins), as it is often called in Greece, constitute only one part of this repertoire” (Ordoulidis 2021a, p. xx, n. 1). Moreover, regarding the claim that the santuroviolins arrive in Greece due to the mass arrival of refugees after 1923, just a glance at the important publication of Theodoros Chatzipantazis is enough to ascertain that musicians from the eastern side of the Aegean sea give concerts and/or work on the music stages of Greece from much earlier (Chatzipantazis 1986). Finally, as Andrikos observes, “many representatives of this generation in question who will be active after ‘22 in Greece, originate from various parts of the Ottoman territory—of course also from Constantinople—, while ethnically often belong to the two other large—apart from the Rum—non-Muslim communities of the empire, namely the Armenian and the Jewish. Finally, many of them before their arrival in Greece had already shown significant activity both in the field of performance and in that of discography not only in Smyrna but also in the Ottoman capital” (Andrikos 2018, pp. 15–16, n. 2).

9 “In the event that we accept discography as a reference point, according to Stathis Gauntlett the term ‘rebetiko’ appears circa 1913 printed on gramophone record labels of England and America (Gauntlett 2001). Additionally, Gauntlett justifiably assumes that ‘the commercial use of the term requires at the very least its widespread recognition’ (2001, pp. 31–32). The rebetiko of Piraeus, which is based on the bouzouki, as proposed by Peter Manuel (Manuel 1990) and Risto Pekka Pennanen (Pennanen 1999 and Pennanen 2004), and in the event that the beginning of the discography of Vamvakaris is considered as a reference point, then this dates back to approximately 1933. If we take into account the recordings conducted in America beginning in 1926 (see Kourousis 2013, p. 84) and the piece ‘Τα δίστιχα του μάγκα’ (Ta dísticha tou mánga, the couplets of a toughie; Columbia, WG 233–DG 147), recorded in Athens in 1931 with Giorgos Manetas on the bouzouki, also notably the notorious recording of ‘Μινόρε του τεκέ’ (Minóre tou teké; the minor of the opium den; Columbia, W 206584–CO 56294F) by Ioannis Chalikias in America, recorded in 1932 or perhaps even 1933, the appearance of the bouzouki in discography is dated earlier. Recently, in his bachelor thesis, Giorgos Gekas (2018) called attention to the recording of a song under the name of Panagiotis Tountas (the other ‘orchestrator’ of the urban sound, together with Peristeris), in which the bouzouki is the protagonist. The song is called ‘Πειραιώτισσα γλυκιά’ (Peiraiótissa glykiá, sweet girl from Piraeus), and seems to have been recorded in 1931 (HMV OW 330–AO 2043, 1931, https://youtu.be/V8A-WC5zzKw)” (Ordoulidis 2021a, p. 101, n. 4).

10 On the issue of Greekness and nationalism in Greek music, see for example: Kokkonis 2008; Kallimopoulou 2009; Tsetsos 2011; Erol 2015; Ordoulidis 2021a.

11 The case of Vassilis Tsitsanis is often mentioned in public discourse, who with his work is supposed to have westernized easternized Greek music (see in detail Ordoulidis 2021a, ch. 14). This article, and the activity of the Greek estudiantinas in general, illuminate the coexistence of Eastern and Western musical actualizations, at least half a century before the activity of Tsitsanis.

12 “At this point, Dafni Tragaki’s chapter in Rebetiko Worlds (2007, pp. 270–271) comes to the forefront, where a significant bulk of trite expressions concerning the descent of laiki music (occasionally Ottoman, too) from the Byzantine is presented” (Ordoulidis 2021a, p. 35, n. 30).

13 Λαϊκή μουσική, laiki music, people’s music.

14 The fact that discography is often used as a synonym for “the music industry” and “music business”, and that its products are equivalent to “mass music” and/or “commercialized music”, is of course not a Greek original. The negative connotations of the word “mass” tends to predetermine aesthetical size and artistic value.

15 Obviously, the equal-tempered tuning of the santur is degraded, for the sake of its traditionality. And of course, the cultural paths (geographical areas, ethno-cultural groups, repertoires) through which the two instruments emerged in the Greek-speaking world, are not part of the discussion, so that the central narrative is better served. Or, in even more extreme cases, long periods of these cultural paths are bypassed, and an “ancestor” of these instruments is directly mentioned, who apparently comes from the “Greek” world, millennia ago. “Nice exercises of nationalistic complacency” (Kotaridis 2007, p. 15). In any case, the extent of the appropriation of both instruments by Greek musicians turned them, in a way, into “Greek”. Both the volume of the discography that emerged, and the schools of performance that were born and continue to evolve justify the literature which talks about the “Greek” violin and santur. Undoubtedly, their à la gréca identity is a reality.

16 Kokkonis 2017b.

17 Ordoulidis 2021a, pp. 89–90. This specific chapter of the book in question presents the history of the first stages of the Greek estudiantinas in detail, following on from the Spanish influence. From the time of the writing of the book until today the research has progressed and many of the facts have been updated. See in detail: Conejero 2008; Murray 2013; Christoforidis 2017; Ordoulidis 2021a, ch. 13. Additionally, for Spanish estudiantinas see the Museo Internacional del Estudiante: www.museodelestudiante.com.

18 For Greek-speaking recordings made by Gramophone, see the recent work of Aristomenis Kalyviotis (Kalyviotis 2019).

19 In the Greek newspaper of Alexandria Tachydromos-Omonoia, on 26/4/1913, on 2/7/1913 and on 14/7/1913, we read that Panagiotis Tountas with his orchestra “Greek Smyrnean Estudiantina” is going to give a series of concerts. Tountas, born in Smyrna between 1884–1886, played a leading part in the musical life both there and after 1922, in the musical experience of Athens (for Tountas, see Gekas 2018).

20 The Digital Press Repository of the Greek Parliament can be accessed at: https://library.parliament.gr/Portals/6/doc/microfilms_catalog2022.pdf.

21 Lailios Karakasis, too, agrees on Sideris place of birth: “The director of the ensemble was the Constantinopolitan from Phanar, Vassileios Sideris, who came to Smyrna for the first time in 1898” (Karakasis 1948, p. 305).

22 Panathinaia, 3rd year, 31/3/1903, pp. 381–382: https://www.lit.auth.gr/panathinaia/panathin_issue60_31MART1903.pdf. A website dedicated to the Athenian Mandolinata can be accessed at: www.athenianmandolinata.com.

23 Lailios Karakasis mentions: “Politakia, a musical ensemble, a type of mandolinata”, as well as, a little further down: “an ensemble which cannot be called of course a ‘mandolinata’. That is, composed of 2 harmonicas, 1 mandolin and 1 guitar” (Karakasis 1948, p. 305).

24 The Ionian Islands were already dynamic and traditional vectors of Italianness. They were annexed by the Greek state in 1864.

25 The above press articles were indexed by the Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum. For the Greek estudiantinas and their recordings, see also Kounadis 2003, pp. 294–304.

26 Ordoulidis 2021a, pp. 95–96.

27 Karakasis 1948, p. 305, and Solomonidis 1957, p. 62, n. 3.

28 Based on our sources, there is a strong connection between Naxos, Smyrna and Vourla (Urla, a town close to Smyrna), which dates back at least to the 18th century (see Chouzouris 2020).

29 Ordoulidis 2021b.

30 Recommended bibliography for the early music industry: Gronow 1983 and Gronow 2014; Cook et al. 2009; Martland 2013.

31 See Kalyviotis 2002.

32 Karakasis 1948, p. 305.

33 Karolina (Καρολίνα), Gramophone 2351y – 3-14709, Smyrna, 15–18 December 1911 and Hip Aidi (Χιπ Άϊδι), 2353y – 3-14711. See Kalyviotis 2002 and www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=5022.

34 See Kokkonis 2017b, p. 97.

35 It is important to note that the idiomatic Greek dialect of Smyrna included several words (Greek and foreign, in our case we are interested in the Greek), which were used with different meanings than that of the established Greek language of the Modern Greek state. Two such musical examples are the word “paichnidia/toys” and “paichnidiatores/toyplayers”, which in the Smyrnean dialect mean “music instruments” and “instrument players”; and the word “minore/minor”, for which the data show that it was used to refer to a couplet from the famous Smyrna Minor manes: “In the bands of Smyrna and with the ‘toys’ we would express our sorrow in Minor, with violoncellos, pianos, harps, santurs, mandolins, guitars and violins. No matter how many Minors we sang, we never got bored, ever… Everybody would request their own Minor, and they would all yearn to hear it” (Papazoglou 1994, p. 9).

36 The same is true for Greek literature. For example, Dido Sotiriou in her book Farewell Anatolia (title of the English translation of Mατωμένα χώματα, Matomena chomata), originally published in 1962, writes: “In the coffee shops musics were played, Politakia were singing” (Sotiriou 2020, p. 54). The following year, in 1963, Kosmas Politis publishes the book-novel titled Stou Chatzifrangou, in which he states: “Almost every night, after midnight, four or five carriages passed through Alani all together. In the first carriage, the Politakia with their mandolins and guitars, and behind it the others followed. […] And Sideris, the first of the politakia, a crazy old man, sitting next to the coachman, in the fun, would sing a Jewish amanes: ‘Avagar avagar antarmos paraki’” (Politis 1993, p. 169). It should be noted that, according to available sources, this is the only time the term “amanes” (that is, manes) refers to a Jewish music creation.

37 Edgelow 1912, p. 84.

38 Horton 1926, p. 105.

39 Karakasis 1948, p. 305.

40 Solomonidis 1954, pp. 131–132.

41 Solomonidis 1957, p. 62, n. 3.

42 Papazoglou 1994, p. 112.

43 The interview of Angela Papazoglou to Panagiotis and Elisavet Kounadis can be accessed at: https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=11252.

44 Eleutheron Vima, 5/6/1904, cited in Hasikou 2015, p. 111.

45 Panathinaia, 7th year, 31/5/1907, p. 123: https://lekythos.library.ucy.ac.cy/bitstream/handle/10797/23016/pan_issue160.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y.

46 Akropolis, 8/9/1932.

47 From a text that looks like a poem, from the memoirs of Angela Papazoglou: “Doum-Doum the big drums. In the big band of joy. On the big stage of the world. Doum-Doum the big drums I finally got a job in freedom. And my voice buried, centuries of silence writhing at my feet. Thousands of santurs… Doum-Doum the big drums. Thousands of pianos… thousands of guitars… Thousands of harps… Doum-Doum the drums” (Papazoglou 1994, pp. 28–29).

48 Cited in Kalyviotis 2002, pp. 82–84.

49 www.gallica.bnf.fr; www.newspapers.com; www.newspaperarchive.com.

50 In Figaro from 9/1/1911 to 4/2/1911; Gil Blas from 9/1/1911 to 11/2/1911; Le Temps only on 10/1/1911; L’Aurore from 12/1/1911 to 22/3/1911; La Presse from 14/1/1911 to 30/1/1911; L’Événement from 1/2/1911 to 9/4/1911; La Petite presse from 4/2/1911 to 9/3/1911; Le Libéral on 8/2/1911 and on 18/2/1911 and Le Pays from 23/2/1911 to 10/3/1911.

51 In Le xixe siècle only on 11/1/1911 and in Le Rappel only on 11/1/1911.

52 Comoedia on 9/1/1911 and Variety on 11/2/1911.

53 Variety 21.10, 11/2/1911, p. 15.

54 For Marinelli see Grau 1914, pp. 357–358. Marinelli was born in Germany and was initially given the name Hermann Büttner.

55 Gutsche-Miller 2015, p. 30.

56 Hip aidi (Χιπ Άϊδι), Gramophone 2353y – 3-14711, Smyrna, 15-19 December, 1911. See also Yip-i-Addy-i-Ay (cylinder) Edison Standard Record 10094, 1909, Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan: https://youtu.be/r0q1FBbWxys.

57 It is not possible to cover the fundamental issue of Orientalism in the context of this article.

58 “Almost all the classical composers of the rebetiko and folk-popular, more often than not prove to be ‘tzoumers’, prone to joking around with their counterparts, always ready with sarcastic musical meta-comments” (Zoubouli, Ordoulidis 2018, p. 49). See also Sarris 2018, p. 206.

59 See Kalyviotis 2002.

60 The interview of Michalis Vaindirlis to Panagiotis Kounadis (Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum) can be accessed at: https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en/?id=11248.

61 Regarding the biography of Lambelet, see Seiragakis 2014.

62 Regarding the use of the term “Politakia” that the article deals with in its first part, in this post it seems that the term is used to describe Sideris’s orchestra.

63 For the relationship between the scholarly and the popular, see Kokkonis 2017a and Ordoulidis 2021a.

64 From the poem by Prokopiou (see Appendix).

65 London Daily News, 27/2/1911; Westminster Gazette, 27–28/2/1911; London Evening and Westminster Gazette, 1/3/1911; Westminster Gazette, 2/3/1911; London Daily News, 2–3/3/1911; Westminster Gazette, 3/3/1911 and London Daily News, 4/3/1911.

66 Tsombanopoulo (Τσομπανόπουλο), Odeon GX 163 – 58527, Athens, 1907–1908: www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=5133. The song was also released in commercial sheet music: www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=1311. It seems to have been recorded earlier, too, in Constantinople by the Greek Estudiantina: Zonophone 895r – X-104507, 1905–1906. Nikolaos Kokkinos and M. Cokkinos seen on the Odeon label will be analysed further on. It is worth mentioning Lagiarni (Λαγιαρνί), too, which also follows the tradition of animal sounds: https://vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=9533.

67 “The term ‘modeness’ is used purposefully in order to include definitions usually consigned to the words ‘popular’, ‘East’ and ‘modality’” (Ordoulidis 2021a, pp. x–xi).

68 See Mazaraki 1984 and Kokkonis 2017, p. 134–161. Sound examples: https://youtube.com/watch?v=_GQbv_8VdDM; https://youtu.be/3sOyEFJ8keU; https://youtube.com/watch?v=MMNvJn0QqQE; https://youtu.be/0Szc_eWuwxY.

69 Let us not forget that London constitutes a key city for the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. The newspaper Iskra had been in operation since 1900, and a little before the appearances of the Estudiantina, Lenin, Trotsky and Martov had passed through London. Also, the second (1903), third (1905), and fifth (1907) Party Congress took place in London.

70 See Fabbri 2016. A reference to one of the most famous Smyrnean songs, De se thelo pia (Δε σε θέλω πια), is enough, Gramophone 1552y – 3-14586, Smyrna, 1910 (Greek Estudiantina): https://youtu.be/dn0qeKXWO78; and Favorite 3950-t – 1-59031, Constantinople, 5 July 1910: www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=4410. The song is an adaptation of the Neapolitan Mbraccia a me, by Vincenzo Di Chiara and Antonio Barbieri, and seems to have been created earlier than the Greek version (https://bit.ly/3jBdSyd; https://adp.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/2000021220/38415-Mbraccia_a_me). The cover of a piece of Greek sheet music is impressive, it mentions Sideris as the composer of the work. Also remarkable is the presence of the letter “D” between the name and the surname of Sideris, something which probably goes to confirm what we mentioned in the beginning about his father’s name (Dimitrios Sideris) (https://digital.mmb.org.gr/digma/bitstream/123456789/56626/2/document.pdf). On the Neapolitan influences in the Greek historical discography, see Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum accessed at: https://bit.ly/3qdsM38.

71 It is highly likely that this is also the excerpt that Solomonidis included in his book Tis Smyrnis (of Smyrna) (Solomonidis 1957, p. 63).

72 In this article in Smyrna it is clear that the term “politakia” is used to refer to Sideris’ orchestra. However, one could also reasonably claim that the term means “Smyrnean musicians in London”.

73 Irish Independent, 29/6/1911; Birmingham Mail, 29/6/1911; Dundee Evening Telegraph, 29/6/1911; The Guardian, 29/6/1911; Shepton Mallet Journal, 30/6/1911; Evening Mail, 30/6/1911.

74 It is worth mentioning that both the publications which concern the Manchester Exhibition, and the historical recordings labels printed abroad, wrongly mention “M. Cokkinos” and not “N. Cokkinos” (Nikolaos Kokkinos). Unless, of course, this stands for M. as in Monsieur.

75 Athinai, 10/08/1911.

76 Athinai, 15/08/1911.

77 Here, the name was purposely misspelled, following the misspelling of the Greek text.

78 It should be mentioned that Prokopiou adds this piece about the Politakia to the second edition of his considerable scansion, in 1949. The first edition of 1941 includes only the first couplet: “George Savaris was a Smyrnean too, the top in cantadas, in the ‘Politakia’ the leader, powerful with the patinades” (Prokopiou 1941).

79 A very interesting and useful software map is presented by George Poulimenos on his webpage, that shows the different historical locations based on his extensive research regarding Smyrna: www.gpoulimenos.info/el/yliko/diadrastikos-xartis.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. A recording by the Estudiantina Athénienne. Tounte, Psichokori (Τούντε, Ψυχοκόρη), Gramophone 2505h – 14644, in Constantinople, October–November 1904.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/​item?id=4340).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 264k
Titre Fig. 2. A recording by the Estudiantina Grèque. Helmess (Χελμές), Odeon C 468 – 1703 in Constantinople, May 1906.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/​item/​?id=11103).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 288k
Titre Fig. 3. Vassilis Sideris in 1924. A photograph sent to Panagiotis Vaindirlis.
Légende Panagiotis Vaindirlis was Vassilis Sideris’ best man and a member of the orchestra we are interested in.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 389k
Titre Fig. 4. The election catalogues of Athens of 1916 and 1922, where the name of Vassileios Sideris appears.
Crédits myheritage.com.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 538k
Titre Fig. 5. Election catalogues, Naxos, 1875: the name Dimitrios Sideris appears.
Crédits myheritage.com.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 430k
Titre Fig. 6. The birth certificate of Aristeidis Peristeris.
Crédits Corfu, General State Archives.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 485k
Titre Fig. 7. The record labels of the songs To oneiro (Το όνειρο), Gramophone 2359y – 14-12031, Smyrna, 15–18/12/1911 and Mi lismonis (Μη λησμονείς), Odeon CX 696 – No. 31961, Constantinople, 1906, which were recorded by the Estudiantina Vassilaki/Sideri.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=5023 and www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=5118).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 431k
Titre Fig. 8. Sample of the discography of the Estudiantina Smyrniote. Euzoniko tragoudi (Ευζωνικό τραγούδι), Odeon CX 1906 – No. 58585, Constantinople, 1908.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (www.vmrebetiko.gr/item/?id=4430).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 286k
Titre Fig. 9. Sample of recordings in America by the “Politakia”. Skliri kardia (Σκληρή καρδιά), RCA Victor CS-89811-1 – 38-3056-A, New York, 7 May 1935.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum (https://www.vmrebetiko.gr/​item/​?id=4877).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 328k
Titre Fig. 10. Le Pays, 23/2/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 330k
Titre Fig. 11. Le xixe siècle, 11/1/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 226k
Titre Fig. 12. Publication in the French Comoedia, on 9/1/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 477k
Titre Fig. 13. A postcard featuring the Estudiantina d’Orient, with Vassilis Sideris as the maestro.
Légende According to Panagiotis Kounadis, it shows, from the left, standing: A. Voilas or Voelis, George Paschalis, Panagiotis Vaindirlis, Ch. Meringlis, I. Chalakos. Seated: Aristeidis Peristeris, Vassileios Sideris, George Savaris. Next to the orchestra’s name, we also see the name of the director, Vassilis [Basile] Sideris.
Crédits Kounadis Archive Virtual Museum.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 448k
Titre Fig. 14. Publication in the magazine Variety on 11 February 1911, with reference to the Estudiantina Sideri.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 314k
Titre Fig. 15. Publication in the newspaper, Music Hall and Theatre Review, on 16/2/1911 announcing the rehearsal of the Estudiantina d’Orient on 20/2/1911 at the London Coliseum.
Légende A similar publication is also featured the following week (23/2) in the same newspaper announcing a rehearsal for 27/2/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 387k
Titre Fig. 16. London Standard, 11/1/1911, Ashton & Mitchell’s Royal Agency.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 782k
Titre Fig. 17. Sideris’s name found in London census 1911.
Crédits myheritage.com.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 849k
Titre Fig. 18. London Evening News, 4/4/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 313k
Titre Fig. 19. The Times, 12/4/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 487k
Titre Fig. 20. The London Standard, 12/4/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 474k
Titre Fig. 21. The Referee, 16/04/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 478k
Titre Fig. 22. Clipping found in the journal of Philip Hale.
Crédits www.archive.org.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 383k
Titre Fig. 23. Sporting Times, 20/5/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 357k
Titre Fig. 24. Magazine Kosmos, issue 61, 1/7/1911.
Légende “The Politakia72 of Smyrna in London”. A reproduction of an advertisement written in English, which contains the opinions of various English newspapers, which expressed with enthusiasm the success of the Greek singers, together with their photo.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 486k
Titre Fig. 25. Birmingham Mail, 29/6/1911.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 339k
Titre Fig. 26. Eleutheros anthropos, 28/12/1930.
Légende “The Greek Choir of Today : The National Greek Choir will leave for an extensive tour abroad on January 10th. Tonight at the Theatre “Olympia” the choir will give the previously announced farewell honorary performance with the participation of Greek vocal artists Messrs G. Vidalis (tenor), G. Savaris (mezzo-tone), N. Toumbakaris (baritone), Dim. Filippopoulos (tenor), St. Makris (bass), Sp. Kontogiorgis (tenor), Chr. Potamianos, Sp. Peristeris and A. Voilas.The programme includes performances of popular folk songs, Athenian cantadas and national performances of youth groups with local and national costumes. The singers, during their performance of folk songs, will be wearing the fustanellas. The National Greek Choir will first go to Egypt, Cyprus and Constantinople, and then on to tour Europe and America.
Crédits The National Greek Choir has decided to donate 30% of the proceedings to the Greek pilot who is to soon fly across the Atlantic”.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/docannexe/image/949/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 427k
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Nikos Ordoulidis, « 1911: Estudiantina Oriental on the Road »Bulletin de correspondance hellénique moderne et contemporain [En ligne], 5 | 2021, mis en ligne le 27 décembre 2022, consulté le 12 avril 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/bchmc/949 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/bchmc.949

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Nikos Ordoulidis

Academic Scholar and Lecturer, Department of Music Studies, University of Ioannina

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