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No 98 - Latin America and the possibility for a new cycle after the pink tide

no98 - América Latina: ¿se inaugura un nuevo ciclo luego de la marea rosa?
no98 -L’Amérique Latine et l’après cycle des commodities : une évaluation critique
Traduction de Blanca Gilhome

Special issue coordinated by Vera Chiodi (IHEAL – Sorbonne Nouvelle) & José Miguel Ahumada (Instituto de Estudios Internacionales de la Univesidad de Chile)

Deadline for receipt of articles: November 30th 2020
Publication scheduled for November 2021

full articles wanted, no abstracts

Context

At the end of the nineties, Latin America started a decade of economic stagnation after the impact due to the Asian crisis in the region. Such an exogenous crisis took place in a region that already had structural difficulties. Firstly, the inequalities and labour informality were too high compared with other regions and even increased in some cases [Acosta & Montes Rojas, 2014]. Secondly, the exports-based model was still intensive in natural resources and manufactures, while most of the region was suffering a very intense des-industrialization.

The Asian crisis intensified those mechanisms which were already unfolding during the so called “Washington consensus”, therefore opening a critical moment when different strategies of development made way. Changes in government in Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil and Argentina modify essentially the regional political structure; in fact, the region lost its old homogeneity regarding models of development: some governments implemented national-popular organizations in parallel to others that kept the neo-liberal strategy. [Kingston 2011].

Such a context arrived together with a new exogenous shock, in this case advantageous to the region: the commodities boom driven by Chinese demand. The fast-Chinese industrialization based in the diversification of its exports and the rapid promotion in the value chains required inputs and natural resources that were available in Latin America: the oil in Venezuela and Ecuador, soya in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, copper in Chile and Peru, saw increase of prices thanks “to the boom of demand”. This situation gave the region the possibility of overcoming the previous stagnation, to grow economically and thanks to new public resources to reduce endemic inequalities [Bertola & Ocampo 2012, Ariza & Montes Rojas 2019] and poverty [Chiodi, 2012] with mayor or lesser success.

However, this new growth as a result of the increasing demand of natural resources meant to deepen the tensions of the previous period. The exports-base pattern led to a new extractivist expansion from which there were many local and indigenous protests in pursuit of to de-commercialize land and to support the cultures threatened by that expansion [Gudynas, 2009].

The trade with China at the same time also deepened the regional des-industrialization while several governments increased their expenditure in the hope that the terms of trade would remain advantageous.  Although the social outcomes of the region improved a great deal compared to the previous period, their sustainability began to be increasingly questioned [Gallagher 2016].

Issue’s main goals

Therefore, the end of the boom of commodities prices around 2014 together with the Asian crisis and the Washington Consensus during the nineties arrived within the context in a region with a fragile social and economic situation. There is then a new period of regional uncertainty where old paradigms of development have been discussed and new regional tensions have emerged. In this sense, many questions arise:

- How has the region reacted to this new scenario commodities post-boom? What was the result of the des-acceleration or fall of the prices of commodities with regard to the growth, inequality or informality in Latin America?

- Which new issues have emerged?  How is it related to the worsening of the terms of trade and the rise of governments with a different orientation than the previous decade?

- Which old issues have deepened?

- Which limits appear to the regional development in terms of an extractivist exports-based model?

- How to design a very good model to go forward bearing in mind macroprudential politics and the minimalism of risks related to the prices of commodities?

- What type of industrial, commercial and financial politics could be applied in order to modify the productive structure? Are there any cases to be learnt by the region?

With the above thoughts we would like to offer some answers to those questions and to cover the numerous impacts that the exogenous shock had on the region. Those impacts are social, political and economical and include different analysis (local/national/supranational). Therefore, it implies a multidisciplinary perspective of the present regional context and it opens the door to critically evaluate the current scenario and to analyze possible solutions for a way out.

Submission Instructions

Contributions will be based on unpublished fieldwork. Articles can be submitted in French, Spanish or English. They must contain the following information:

Last name, name;
— University or laboratory of affiliation;
— Brief presentation of a CV (between 3–4 lines), including email
— Paper title in 3 languages (fr, en, es or pt).
— The paper, 50,000 characters’ maximum (including spaces, footnotes, and bibliography)
— Summary and 5 keywords in 3 languages (fr, en, es or pt).

The Committee of Cahiers des Amériques Latines will notify you as soon as possible whether or not the proposal was accepted.

The contributions (full articles wanted, no abstracts) must be sent to the following address: cal98commodities@gmail.com no later than November 30th. They will be subject to a double-blind evaluation. The publication of the special issue is scheduled for November 2021. Please refer to the instructions to the authors: https://journals.openedition.org/cal/2324. Papers that do not follow these guidelines will not be reviewed.

The issue is scheduled for publication in November 2021.
Please consult the instructions to the authors:
https://journals.openedition.org/cal/3726
Papers that do not comply with these instructions may not be considered.

full articles wanted, no abstracts

Bibliographie

Acosta Paolo. & Gabriel Montes-Rojas (2014), « Informal jobs and trade liberalisation in Argentina », Journal of Development Studies, 50 (8), p. 1104-1118.

Ariza John & Gabriel Montes-Rojas (2019), « Decomposition methods for analyzing inequality changes in Latin America 2002-2014 », Empirical Economics, 57 (6), p. 2043-2078.

Bértola Luis & José Antonio Ocampo (2012), The economic development of Latin America since the independence, Oxford, NY, Oxford University Press.

Chiodi Vera, Montes Rojas Gabriel & Esteban Jaimovich, (2012), « Migration and capital accumulation : Evidence from rural Mexico », Journal of Development Studies, 48 (8), p. 1139-1155.

Ffrench-Davis Ricardo (2005), Reforming Latin America’s economies, London, UK, Palgrave Macmillan.

Gallagher Kevin (2016), The China triangle : Latin America’s China boom and the fate of the Washington Consensus, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.

Gudynas Eduardo (2009), « Diez tesis urgentes sobre el nuevo extractivismo », dans, VV. AA, Extractivismo, política y sociedad, CAAP-CLAES, Ecuador, p. 187-225.

Kingstone Peter (2011), The political economy of Latin America : Some reflections on neoliberalism and development, London, UK, Routledge.

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