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B. Place and Nation

Photo I.D.: Landscape Iconography in Life Magazine in the Early Cold War Era

Heather Jane Bayly-Colin
p. 139-148

Abstract

A travers l’exemple du magazine Life, cet article examine le rapport tripartite existant entre le territoire, la photographie de presse et l’identité nationale: le rôle important de la photographie de presse dans la consolidation du sentiment national, la manière par laquelle les images du territoire américain participent à la création et au maintien d’un lien social au sein d'un peuple hétérogène habitant une vaste pays et finalement la dissimulation d’un message idéologique. Sans avoir l’impression de lire de la propagande américaine, les lecteurs absorbaient le message pro-américain dissimulé dans des codes photographiques qui paraissaient moins agressifs.

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  • 1 For advertising purposes, Life estimated its pass-a-long readership at around 25,000,000. Cf. Rober (...)

1In the 1940s, Life magazine was to Americans what the 8 o’clock news and the 24/7 news networks are today. As the leading newsmagazine with a circulation of over 5,000,000 in 1949 and an estimated pass-along readership of over 20,000,000 men and women, it provided visual context to national and international news nationwide.1 Other media such as radio, local newspapers, magazines, newsreels and television were available, but only Life provided the mixture of serious information and commentary with powerful photography in a tangible format that allowed the reader to contemplate an image or an idea at his own pace. However, only understanding Life as a source of diverse facts and information is to limit it. While providing millions of Americans with the latest news, Life’s photography served another purpose—it helped forge a national identity.

2Through the example of Life, this article focuses on the tripartite relation between landscape, press photography, and national identity in the early Cold War period. First, it demonstrates how Life’s photography helped the individual (reader) create and/or consolidate an image of national belonging. Second, it shows how Life’s landscape iconography was used to make the American territory national in both scope and character. It instilled pride in America’s past and united members in a political project for the future. Inevitably, a subjective image of the American national space resulted. This ideological presentation of landscape in a newsmagazine was able to encourage feelings of anticommunism and support for containment in the early Cold War era.

Nation, Press and Photography

3The nation could be considered as an "imagined" space. Multiple identities and roles (such as familial, territorial, socio-economical, religious, political, and ethnic or gender related) contribute to how an individual thinks about himself as a person and his relationship with those around him (Smith, National Identity, 3). While nations draw upon the various forms of collective identity (Hutchinson, 4), E. Renan demonstrated as early as 1882, in his famous essay "Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?," that these social classifications alone are insufficient to constitute the essence of national identity.

4Even though the existence of the nation is indisputable, in a way, it remains intangible. Despite real diversities among the members of the nation, individuals are able to conceive the abstract national entity and perpetuate a feeling of identity and unity with fellow countrymen who have become more numerous and remote. Benedict Anderson refers to this idea as the "Imagined community" (Anderson, 6).

5In this sense, the nation is, in part, a myth. Here, myth should be accepted as defined by Roland Barthes in Mythologies, in which the principle is to transform history into nature (Barthes, 215). Derived from the past, the myth renders the present "natural." Nobody questions the veracity of the nation.

6In the vast and complex environment of the modern nation, the press has become the primary source for transmitting national sentiment. Beyond its primary function of entertaining, informing and instructing in hopes of maintaining readers and attracting buyers, the press plays a key role in creating a common social bond and transmitting knowledge among the members of the nation. The press encourages the unification of the nation by enabling individuals living in the same defined territory to "imagine" their belonging to the abstract entity of the nation and to mutually recognize one and other as belonging to the same nation.

7As it will soon be demonstrated through the example of Life, the press helps establish a bond between the individual and the nation by reconstructing reality according to a simplified model or what Walter Lippman referred to as a "pseudo-environment" which binds the individual to the national environment (Lippman 15, 41). It is much easier for the individual to feel a sense of belonging to a town, or even a region, so this relationship functions as a sort of buffer between the individual and the impersonal, abstract forces of national life. In accepting one’s immediate environment as part of a national whole, and by incorporating other recognizable areas such as other towns and regions and their specificities into the individual’s definition of the nation, a national identity is created and maintained. This complex and distant world is apprehensible through "displacement," in which the absent object is represented; in this instance the world and more specifically the American nation. In this model of reality, signs—language (articles, captions...) and images (photographs, drawings, maps...) make the world more accessible and clear.

  • 2 The notion of print capitalism is introduced in chapter 3 of Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communiti (...)

8In much the same way text and print capitalism2 forged "imagined communities," photographs helped individuals conceive kinship. Up until the 1940s the photographic image was still accepted as providing a faithful and objective representation of its referent. In his article "L’ontologie de la photographie," written in 1945, Bazin qualified the photo as not only neutral, but natural (13). Similarly, Wilson Hicks, Life’s picture editor from 1937 to 1950 asserted that, "because the viewer has found he can accept [the photograph] as an accurate representation of people and things he has seen, he is just as willing to accept it as an accurate representation of those he has not seen." (140) The photograph was perceived as a mirror of reality—a record, not an interpretation.

9The photographic techniques used by the main photographers of the period reinforced this perspective. They saw themselves as "recorders" of facts. Even their search for a scoop or an original shot reflected their obligation to "tell the story." They placed the "readers" at their side so that they could see and experience the event themselves.

10The importance of photography in the confirmation of reality—and in this case, the national space—was underlined in the original objectives of Life that were defined as:

To see life; to see the world: to eyewitness great events...to see and to take pleasure in seeing;
To see and be amazed; to see and be instructed.
Thus to see, and to be shown, is now the will and new expectancy of half mankind.
To see, and to show, is the mission now undertaken by a new kind of publication...
(Elson 278).

11By insisting upon the necessity of the visual record of events, the magazine convinced its readers that to be able to apprehend the world, they had to see it. Thus, confirming the postulate of the founder and editor of Life, Henry R. Luce, that "not to see our time is not to know it" (Wainwright, 35). Concrete images of the nation, in all its facets, rendered it less elusive and facilitated the individual’s sense of national belonging.

Landscape Iconography and National Identity

12Territory defines the common space shared by the members of the national community and establishes boundaries of inclusion and exclusion. To the extent that territory is one of the criteria offering people an element of cohesion, the immensity and the diversity of the American territory could weaken this feeling of homogeneity. This territorial diversity is an element that increases the need, as well as the desire, for national cohesion.

13Life’s landscape imagery instructed Americans on their environment. The photographs made it easier for the individual to "imagine" his/her place in the national space and enabled members of the nation to consolidate the diversities into a single, united definition of "America." By reducing time and space, Life’s photographs created a social bond among Americans.

14To render the model proposed within the pages of Life more realistic, the magazine used a technique called temporal continuity. The press presented a world of temporal coincidences measured by the clock or the calendar, or what Walter Benjamin called "homogenous, empty time" (Benjamin, 263). According to this concept, as with a simple narrative, the readers of Life were able to simultaneously conceptualize the events affecting the "characters" within the magazine and their own personal lives. This link was based upon the chronological co-occurrence established by the calendar: the date on the cover acting as proof. For example, on the 29th of September 1947, the reader of Life was able to draw a parallel between the news announced in the article title "Hurricane Strikes Florida and Gulf Coast" (42) and his personal life at that precise moment. The article provided the facts, and the photos provided the visual proof of the destruction caused by the hurricane, allowing readers not directly affected by this catastrophe to understand it and arousing a feeling of solidarity towards their fellow-countrymen, even though their daily routine was not disrupted. This temporal coincidence fused the "pseudo-environment" of the world described in the magazine, the exterior world and that of the reader.

15The news photographs and photo essays also helped members of the nation recognize each other as fellow-countrymen by reducing the space that physically separated them. They further reduced the physical distance separating the members of the nation by informing the readers about different regions of America that perhaps remained, up to then, unknown. As complementary information or as the main topic, the American territory occupied an important part of Life’s photos. Often the territory was revealed as background information in articles totally unrelated to the national space. For example, on February 6, 1950, the photo essay "Linemen Battle Winter" presented a photograph of technicians working for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. In this image depicting heavily dressed men amongst snow covered pine trees the reader was able to realize the difficulties involved in their job, while at the same time he discovered that the climate in California was not always hot and sunny. In this indirect way, the various glimpses of the American territory anchored the subject of the article into the national space and simultaneously completed the reader’s knowledge of his country.

16At the same time, articles concentrating specifically on the territory invited the readers to discover different facets of the "true" face of America. In the introduction to an article on Kansas, the editors wrote: "Kansas is ... a kind of open window through which one can look and really see America. For a look through this window, turn page." ("Kansas," 87). In the following pages, the reader discovered pictures of farmers harvesting endless fields of wheat, cattle grazing lazily and portraits of "typical" (according to the Life iconography) Kansas families. The reader was thus able to imagine the state and its relation to the rest of the nation. Life enjoyed its role as informer and frequently published articles on the American territory—"A Look at America," "The Colorado: A Wild and Beautiful River," "Kentucky: Border State," "Harry Truman’s Missouri" or "Maine Winter," just to name a few. In articles such as these, readers discovered the more provincial and modest sites such as the rolling hills of Montana, the cliffs of Maine, or perhaps the marshes of Louisiana. Others concentrated on national sites possessing unique and grandiose geographical characteristics like the Yellowstone National Park, the Grand Canyon or Niagara Falls. In this way, Americans were able to gain a thorough visual knowledge of famous national sites that they might never see and Life was able to inculcate the reader a sense of national pride in his country and its natural wonders.

17The climate, seen through different photographs illustrating meteorological conditions, the flora and fauna, also defined America. In the Life article, "California Way of Life," published on October 22, 1945, the images of the California flora and countryside created an exotic atmosphere that differed greatly from that of other states. The reader could admire the great sequoia forests, the bougainvilleas and the lemon trees as well as the soft, rolling hills of the Pacific Ocean, that offered an attractive image of the Californian landscape. The readers assimilated these representations of America to their already existing definition and felt a bond with the different regions. Readers in Florida, for example, were able to recognize in the landscape and the quasi-tropical flora of California a resemblance with their environment located at the opposite end of the national territory. Photos such as these allowed the reader to "imagine" Kansas, California or elsewhere, its place in the nation and its relation to the readers’ immediate surroundings. As foreground or background information, Life’s images helped create a sentiment of national unity; they incorporated the remote regions into the national imagination (Osborne, 167).

Life’s Nationalizing of Landscape

18Born in China to missionary parents, Henry R. Luce—founder and editor of Life—was a very pious man who had an unrelenting pride in America. However, in his manuscript he wrote that "the American mood was like that of a sick patient" with low moral and a lack of national pride. According to his diagnosis, "Pride in America was muted... Patriotism was out of favour. The Founding Fathers, along with all such "big words" as Justice and Freedom, were mocked." (Luce, MS Box 83 folder 1, 3). Luce prescribed a remedy to get America back on its feet: through images of landscape. Life gave Americans a good dose of national glorification.

  • 3 This idea was indirectly inspired by the book by Carolyn Merchant, Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Na (...)

19Much of Life’s news photography regenerated the founding myths of America and two distinct themes emerged. First of all, America was a sort of "Reinvented Eden"3 and secondly the landscape became the expression of democratic ideals for which the country stood.

  • 4 Frederic Church, Albert Bierstadt, and Thomas Moran were among the most famous painters belonging t (...)

20From the moment America freed itself from British rule, landscape iconography played a vital role in the definition and perpetuation of America’s national identity. It is worth mentioning two unmistakeably important periods prior to the early Cold War era. First was the western expansion4 captured by the 19th century painters and photographers, and then the 1930s Depression era photographed by the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Instead of seeing these two as isolated periods (which they obviously were, originally), in the Life iconography of the 40s they seemed to fit into a much larger, visual Christian narrative of Fall and Recovery.

21The 19th century was, for Americans, the first invention of America as a Garden of Eden. The claiming and redeeming of the wilderness by human labor became the major justification for westward expansion—the savage wilderness is turned into an orderly Garden. This becomes one of the fundamental American myths. Through the representations of America’s natural wonders by painters and the confirmation of their reality in photographs, they became part of the visual collective knowledge. Translated into engravings and woodcuts for popular distribution in newspapers and magazines, and publicly displayed in museums, the works of the 19th century landscape artists provided the visual component of national identity and pride.

22In the 1930s, America seemed to have fallen from God’s grace as seen in the FSA’s depiction of the rural crisis. In the words of Roy Stryker, director of the FSA, the pictures generated from this group "introduced America to Americans." (Brady, Introduction). But what Americans saw in exhibits and the press were images of their Fall—waste, desolation, poverty. The emphasis was on what had gone wrong in America.

23In response to this negative image of America, and instead of admitting that America’s renewed prosperity was a result of the very war that threw the rest of the world into crisis and misery, Life proposed a much nobler explanation. In keeping with the Christian narrative, it ran images of America as a reinvented Eden and the cornucopia of the world.

24Throughout the latter half of the 1940s, the magazine published images of American prosperity. Each year, especially at harvest time, Life’s landscape iconography depicted America as, once again, a renewed Garden of Eden blessed by divine providence. For instance, the final photograph of the photo essay "The Harvest that Saved the World" showed an enormous field that was harvested "just in the nick of time" before the storm broke (25). Above the freshly cut blades of wheat, large threatening clouds let through a ray of sunshine. The American productivity, despite the unpredictability of nature, confirmed the conviction of being blessed by God—an idea demonstrated by the quote from a Kansas farmer accompanying the photo, "It looks as if God wanted this one" (24). To make this message all the more clear, Life’s photographers seemed to have borrowed a technique used by the 19th century American painters called Luminism, which uses light to focus viewer’s attention. In the 19th century, as in the 1940s, the rays of sun piercing through the clouds were seen to reflect the American desire to see the hand of God in the natural world. This was, of course, a recurrent theme throughout the 1940s as the double-page layout of the 1949 article "New Harvest" illustrated. The agricultural plentitude was emphasized not only by the expanse of the field being harvested but by the celestial light beaming down on the crops as well.

25In compliance with the American myth of the reinvention of the Garden of Eden, God’s blessing alone in the Land of plenty does not suffice; man must transform the natural resources that God has placed at his disposal. The lead article in the July 29, 1946 issue of Life showed the American farmer Ed Langin in a vast field of ripe wheat ("Harvest that Saved" 21). Even though it is obvious the immensity of the wheat field was the main subject of the photo essay, the centrality of the man underlined his importance in the exploitation of the fertile land. The framing of the photograph isolated these two elements—the field and the man—while at the same time it bled off the page; the field appeared to continue endlessly in all directions. This was reinforced by the inclination of the wheat to the right, Lagin’s gaze to the left and the inclusion of the viewer next to Langin in the middle of the field. Thus in the heart of this endless agrarian wealth was the creator; not in prayer, but feeling, almost caressing his production. Man’s presence was depicted as essential; without him, land—despite its potential—would remain uncultivated and unproductive. According to Life, the Garden flourished once again, but the vast expanse of the territory and the profusion of natural resources required Americans to work hard and to use their ingenuity in order to fully exploit all the possibilities. What Leo Marx later saw as an "intrusion" in the garden, the machine, was for Life the proof of American ingenuity and technological progress.

26Agricultural production was not the only evidence of the country’s prosperity resulting from a mixture of divine selection, American ingenuity and work ethic that Life offered its readers. The exploitation of natural resources such as the extraction of minerals from the land or the transformation of water into energy provided other examples. The photo essay "Big Steel," for example, mirrored the layout technique used in the photo of Ed Lagin in "Harvest that Saved the World" by focusing on the centrality of man and his relevance to production. LeRoy Salsich was photographed in the middle of a quarry gazing into the unseen, but most probably prosperous, future (46). In the same way, the July 25, 1949 article "Water for a new Eden" repeated textual references such as "modern Eden" and "new Eden" which reinforced the visual allusions to rebirth, or in this case, baptism (24-25). In the accompanying photo, children seemed to be receiving a baptism from the first water coming from the medal cross and the article highlighted this "idolatrous worship of water." The other picture presented a variation of the photo of Ed Langin in which water, instead of wheat, trickled through a man’s hands. These Biblical references evoked the legacy of the past reaffirming, yet again, the conviction of the American people as the Chosen people. God’s blessing coupled with American ingenuity and skill resulted in the unequalled prosperity of the 1940s. This myth of divine election consolidated the attachment of the community to a specific terrain (Smith 1999, 135) and Life’s iconographic representation reconfirmed the exceptionalism of America and its people. These recurrent iconographic themes in layout and biblical references illustrate Life’s intention to convince its readers that America was a blessed land and its value system (and not the war) the cause for its prosperity.

27While certain photo essays almost undeniably proved the strong analogy between natural rights and the American system, landscape was the embodiment itself. As an ideological nation (as opposed to a nation based upon ethnic identity), "[w]hat counts ... are not blood ties, real or alleged, but a spiritual kinship, proclaimed in ideals that are allegedly derived from some ancient exemplars in remote eras. The aim is to recreate the heroic spirit (and the heroes) that animated "our ancestors" in some past golden age" (Smith 1999, 58).

28Places of military victories or birthplaces of national heroes, rivers, coasts, mountains, plains and towns became sacred places to be venerated and glorified by the members of the nation. These places where national heroes walked, spoke, fought and died, are endowed with a specific collective emotion (Smith 1999, 135) and further transformed this territory into a "historic land," or what Anthony Smith defines as "a terrain where people have exerted mutual and beneficial influence over several generations" (Smith 1991, 9).

29The "Kansas" article published on February 14, 1944 bolstered the state’s historic past with the aim of calling attention to its less-known role in the historic past of the nation (87). The second picture of the first page of the article showed the inside of a cabin. To the readers of the 1940’s it was obvious that it was not the interior of a compatriot’s house, but rather an important place in Kansas’s folklore. Indeed, the caption confirmed that John Brown, legendary hero for his fight against slavery, lived in this exact place during the "Kansas War" in 1856. The different components of the photograph, the architecture and the furniture, helped the readers imagine the life of an American hero of the 19th century. Thus, while informing readers of different aspects of present day Kansas, the photographs were also reminders of the national values, such as equality and freedom, upon which the nation was founded and has grown. Life’s photographic references to the national past transmitted knowledge of America’s historic land and provided Americans the opportunity to vicariously participate in national pilgrimages and celebrations. Themes such as "American Symbols," "American Songs," "American Legends," "William Penn," "US Congress," "The Mississippi: Old Prints Recall Golden Age," or "Thoreau’s Walden," are just a few examples of different photo essays that showed places and scenes associated with the American past. As a source of national history and folklore, the magazine functioned as cement for a heterogeneous population by providing Americans proof of their historical and ideological unity.

30The glorification of America and the American identity as depicted in Life’s news photography was reinforced through the publication of images of other countries as a means of comparison.

31Life was able to offer a rare glimpse into the "Iron Curtain Countries" in 1949. In this critical photo essay readers were able to see life under the Communist yoke in Hungary, Poland and Romania. The aim was to show "how it feels to live in a country where foreign rulers lay a heavy hand on daily life" (132). The first image of the article offers a glance of the landscape on the Russian/Hungarian border. Looking at this scene, the first impression (and the one that lasts) is not very positive (as could be expected). The two main objects—the gate and the no man’s land—evoke feelings of desolation, loss, and restriction. The close-up of the gate at eye-level stops the reader/viewer dead in his tracks. He is forbidden to continue on his way. On the gate, in the middle, is the Soviet star whose black outline contrasts sharply with the white horizon—the celestial light is showed by communist obscurity. The land appears to be cold, barren, and slightly out of focus, making any detail indistinguishable. The different elements of the image remind the reader of communist obstruction of freedom and warn that beyond this point, innocent men and women were prisoners of an oppressive system. It stresses that "few men go down this road, and even fewer come back." (132) Blocked at the foot of the gate, the readers eyes gaze down the road that "stretches indefinitely towards nothing" towards a dreary and hopeless future.

32At a time when the United States felt threatened by the emergence of a possible alternative system, communism, held up for comparison against images of Communist countries, the idolized image of America transmitted the idea of its superiority. The world was a Manichean world divided between good (the American system) and evil (Communism): America incarnated liberty, progress and divine selection while atheist communism epitomized regression, poverty and stagnation. Communism as the antithesis of America could only reinforce already existing and nascent sentiments of anticommunism. Life’s textual and visual rhetoric justified the support for containment.

Conclusion

33As a newsmagazine. Life went beyond its primary function of informing the public of the latest news. Through images of the national territory it provided the continuum with Americans’ imaginative responses to their contemporary environment. While much of Life’s news coverage reflected the diversity of the American territory making it visually and conceptually more accessible, it was, nonetheless, based on socially constructed images belonging to American mythology. As Schwartz and Ryan wrote in Picturing Place, "landscape is shaped by, and carries within it, multiple articulations of cultural memory and identity." (3) This memory, like the news, was selected and presented with a goal of transmitting a specific vision of the nation. Concentrating heavily on the favorable aspects of the nation (never-ending wheat fields and sites of victorious battles) and by visually tying modern America to its religious past and democratic values, Life transmitted to its readers a glorified image and instilled dignity and pride in the nation. Other aspects less noble but all too present (waste, overproduction, difficult labor conditions for workers or even elements of national conflict) were ignored. By emphasizing the "other" through representations of communist countries. Life further strengthened the concept of American national identity. Thus, landscape iconography fit into a much broader framework in which Life magazine sought to unite Americans in a common national ambition—to perpetuate and promote the American system.

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Bibliography

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. London: Verson, 1991.

Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Paris: Seuil, 1957.

Bazin, André. "Ontologie de l’image photographique." Qu’est-ce que le cinéma? 1945 Paris: Ed. du Cerf, Collection le 7ème art, 1990.

Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. London: Fontana, 1973.

Brady, Pat. "Out of One, Many: Regionalism in FSA photography." ‹http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug99/brady/intro.html

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Hicks, Wilson. Words and Pictures. New York: Harper and Bros., 1952.

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Merchant, Carolyn. Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Osborne, Brian S. "The Iconography of nationhood in Canadian art." The Iconography of landscape. Cosgrove, Denis and Stephan Daniels eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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Life articles

"Big Steel." Life 11 November 1946: 45-53.

"The California Way of Life." Life 22 October 1945:105-117.

"The Colorado: A Wild and Beautiful River." Life 23 October 1944: 72.

"Harry Truman’s Missouri." Life 25 June 1945: 75.

"The Harvest that Saved the World." Life 29 July 1946: 21-25.

"Iron Curtain Counties." Life 5 December 1949: 123-134.

"Kansas." Life 14 February 1944: 87.

"Kentucky: Border State." Life 18 September 194: 91.

"Linemen Battle Winter." Life 6 February 1950: 34.

"A Look at America." Life 25 September 1944: 21.

"Maine Winter." Life 12 February 1945.

"New Harvest Adds to Big Wheat Surplus." Life 27 June 1949: 23.

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Notes

1 For advertising purposes, Life estimated its pass-a-long readership at around 25,000,000. Cf. Robert Elson, The World of Time inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise. 1941-1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973) 257. For circulation figures of the leading US periodicals of 1949 Cf. Harry Hansen ed. The World Almanac and Book of Facts for 1949 (New York: New York World Telegraph Corp., 1949) 403.

2 The notion of print capitalism is introduced in chapter 3 of Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communities. In short, he postulates that, "the convergence of capitalism and print technology...created the possibility of a new form of imagined community..." (46)

3 This idea was indirectly inspired by the book by Carolyn Merchant, Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture (New York: Routledge, 2004).

4 Frederic Church, Albert Bierstadt, and Thomas Moran were among the most famous painters belonging to the Hudson River School. Carleton E. Watkins (Yosemite Valley and the Sierra redwoods) and William Henry Jackson were photographers.

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References

Bibliographical reference

Heather Jane Bayly-Colin, « Photo I.D.: Landscape Iconography in Life Magazine in the Early Cold War Era », Caliban, 19 | 2006, 139-148.

Electronic reference

Heather Jane Bayly-Colin, « Photo I.D.: Landscape Iconography in Life Magazine in the Early Cold War Era », Caliban [Online], 19 | 2006, Online since 13 December 2016, connection on 22 April 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/caliban/2423 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/caliban.2423

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About the author

Heather Jane Bayly-Colin

Université de Nantes

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Copyright

Licence Creative Commons
Caliban – French Journal of English Studies est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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