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2 - L’esthétique de littérature de voyage et d’exploration / Exploration and the Aesthetics of Travel

Travelling in Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle (1839)1

Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard
p. 89-100

Abstract

Dans cette lecture du Voyage of the Beagle publié par Charles Darwin en 1839 après son voyage de cinq années autour du monde (1831-1836), différentes acceptions du terme 'voyage' sont envisagées : transport, migration, lorsque Darwin fait le constat que les fragments préhistoriques qui méritent d'être classés comme 'fossiles' sont déplacés, perdus, retrouvés, avant d'être dans une vitrine de musée. Il en va de même des animaux qu'il observe, tout comme des graines de plantes, voire des pierres. Par ailleurs, mêlant les observations du géologue à celles du 'philosophe naturaliste', Darwin en vient à noter toutes sortes de déplacements qui relèvent en fin de compte d'un voyage perpétuel sur la croûte terrestre, croûte elle-même toujours en mouvement. Et enfin, c'est le regard du voyageur lui-même qui semble ainsi s'harmoniser avec ce qui devient une théorie du mouvement universel, cela au moment même où l'ère industrielle donnait priorité au mouvement, ce dont l'invention du cinéma allait faire son miel dès la fin du siècle.

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Author's notes

The edition which is referred to in this study is Voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin—Charles Darwin's Journal of Researches, London: Henry Colburn ed.,1839, edited with an Introduction by Janet Browne & Michael Neve, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989.

Full text

  • 1 The edition which is referred to in this study is Voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin—Charles Darwi (...)
  • 2 Robert FitzRoy had joined a first expedition by the Admiralty to survey the eastern coast of South (...)
  • 3 John Stevens Henslow, Professor of Botany at St John's College in Cambridge. He had known Darwin si (...)
  • 4 Charles Lyell (1797-1875), prominent geologist and author of Principles of Geology in three volumes (...)

1The voyage of HMS Beagle on a survey expedition of the Eastern coast of South America for the English government began in 1831 and ended in 1836 after adding other surveys to the one initially planned. When he was told that the Admiralty were looking for a naturalist to accompany Captain Robert FitzRoy2 on his mission of exploration, Darwin was a twenty-two-year old student in Cambridge who had developed personal interests in what was then termed 'naturalist philosophy,' i.e. a close observation of nature, insects and birds as well as plants of which he collected specimens. He was a friend of Henslow's3 who taught botany in Cambridge, and the latter also drew his attention to Charles Lyell's works on geology which he read at that period.4

  • 5 Romance in a Pond, UK, 1932, black and white with sound, 9 minutes. Produced by British Instruction (...)

2This paper will first address Darwin's travel observations on the actual 'travelling' of birds, tortoises or lizards, as well seeds and stones, and even fossils. Darwin's simultaneous observations in geology, and what he terms the 'crust' of the earth, show his interest in a general theory of perpetual change and movement in nature which overrides the then widely acknowledged theory of Lamarck (Bredekamp 15-16). After a five years travel around the world, the 'naturalist philosopher' concluded from his observations that the apparition of new varieties originated in individual trial and error and was the result of chance (Turner 71). At the moment when the birth of the industrial era was promoting a general acceleration of motion which is best illustrated by the development of transport by train (Schivelbusch), Charles Darwin focused his observations on the travelling of minerals, plants as well as animals, favouring a general theory of universal movement which led not only to a theory of plate tectonics but to a new approach of the theory of natural evolution (Turner 10). As will tentatively be argued by way of conclusion on travelling and the observation of survival in nature, the invention of scientific cinema can be seen as a truly Darwinian processing of 'natural observation' in Western 'travelling' culture. The example of a short didactic documentary film on amphibious vertebrates, depicting the 'travels' of the familiar newt in English ponds,5 clearly demonstrates that Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle was understood by the following generations into the 20th century as a model for tales of biological diversity which associated the critical accuracy of the scientist and the enthusiasm of the naturalist.

Travelling fossils: the example of the Toxodon

3Here is what Darwin has to say about the case of the Toxodon and the 'perfect tooth':

November 26th- 1833 I set out on my return in a direct line for Monte Video. Having heard of some giant's bones at a neighbouring farm house on the Sarandis, a small stream entering the Rio Negro, I rode there accompanied by my host, and purchased for the value of 18 pence, the head of an animal equalling in size that of the hippopotamus […] The people at the farmhouse told me that the remains were exposed by a flood having washed down part of a bank of earth. When found, the head was quite perfect, but the boys knocked the teeth out with stones, and then set up the head as a mark to throw at. By a most fortunate chance, I found a perfect tooth, which exactly fits one of the sockets of this skull, embedded by itself on the banks of the Rio Tercero, at the distance of about 180 miles from this place. (Darwin 141-2)

4While the traveller's interest in fossils during his five years voyage is epitomized in this example, one also sees the travelling of such fossils, which benefit from the action of water and soil in their resting place, of boys' games and the solitary chance travel of the "perfectly fitting tooth," while Darwin himself was able to locate it 180 miles further down the river. Thanks to this tooth recovering its true place, the fossil was declared to be a Rodent and baptized the Toxodon upon its arrival among English scientists many miles away. In Darwin's collections, everything was meticulously tagged, recorded in at least two different lists or catalogues, along with notes on location, carefully packed away in barrels to be sent to England. The boxes were addressed to Henslow in Cambridge. The transportation of the specimens provided them with a new life given to them by the scientists in England, and contributed to the creation of a wide readership which benefited to Darwin when he published the Voyage.

5Thus the final travelling of natural specimens leads to the labyrinth of human thought and reflexion, another time-space for infinite travel. Reading the Voyage shows the transmutation of natural specimens into 'food for thought' in Darwin's own commentaries of his observations, announcing his major opus On the Origin of Species published twenty years later, which begins with a reminiscence of this early voyage. As will be argued in this paper, it was the parallel exploration of two separate fields of investigations, geology on the one hand, natural species on the other hand, which led to a single theory of 'perpetual movement' which has come down to us as Darwin's theory of evolution.

Expanding on the notion of 'travelling'

6On some of the Galapagos Islands, where he arrived in September 1835 (Darwin 268-290), Darwin found huge tortoises travelling endlessly uphill on their way to drink water in springs. He noted that this kind of travel was only performed by those who lived on islands with such springs. On other islands where there were no springs, the animals sucked the water from the rain on the vegetation. Observations implying adaptation to the natural environment such as these are paralleled by similar observations of lizards, and also, most notably, of birds. He notes that lizards live in water or on land, depending on their species, while the marine iguanas only swim in cold seas but change their colour to black when on land in order to rapidly absorb heat and minimize the period of lethargy6 after emerging from the water. Moreover, they vary in body size depending on the island their individual species inhabits, and the food it provides. Darwin also notes that one finds sea birds who cross overseas (sea gulls for instance, or blue footed Boobies) though it is the case of land birds that draw his attention. His observations of the Galapagos actually establish a connection between birds and seeds, suggesting that differences in the travelling seeds were correlated with the fifteen different finch species which he identified, i.e. had an influence on the dimensions of beaks among birds of the same species.7

  • 8 James Holman (1786-1857), traveller and author of A Voyage Round the World, London, 1834-5.

7Such remarks on the varieties of behaviour and specific physical details within a same species show his interest in the already existing debate on evolution but it is more generally the signs of a constant change which draw his attention. Moreover, his observations of lagoon islands in Keeling—where Darwin stayed in April 1836—actually provide him with opportunities for a comment on travelling seeds per se. Darwin quotes Holman's Travels8 and the account of a resident who lived during twelve months in these islands: "Seeds and plants from Sumatra and Java have been driven up by the surf on the windward side of the islands" (Darwin 334-335). He lists seeds which have been found, such as the cocoa-nut of Balci, the soap-tree, the castor-oil plant and various kinds of seeds unknown to the Malays who settled on the islands. He comments on the probable means by which such seeds have travelled, among which the trade winds, i.e. winds blowing continually towards the equator which are deflected westward by the rotation of the earth. The part played by trees is central to such reasoning, since they also carry creepers and their "hardy" seeds which "retain their germinating power" (Darwin 335).

8On the other hand, in his account of his stay in the Keeling Islands, Darwin also pays equal attention to minerals. He notes in particular the discovery by Captain Ross, on a small lagoon island a few miles north of Keeling, "in the conglomerate of the outer coast, a well-rounded fragment of greenstone, rather larger than a man's head" (Darwin 339). The finding of this stone where every other particle of matter was calcareous, being a coral lagoon, suggested it had travelled from a distant land. Though Darwin hesitated at first to conclude that "it must have come there entangled in the roots of some large tree," he adds that he later found confirmation of such extraordinary travelling. Islanders living in another archipelago of lagoon islands actually obtained stones for the sharpening of their instruments by searching the roots of trees which had been cast up on the beach (Darwin 340). Such passages as these reveal a keen interest in explaining the variety of his findings by vast movements of natural elements such as wind, water, or air, occasioning the uprooting and displacement of various scales of fragments of matter indifferently from plants—including huge trees and small seeds—or minerals, which are all entirely ruled by chance. The second field of interest of Darwin in his Voyage, namely geology, also reveals a major experience of the 'natural philosopher,' since his practice of logical inference paradoxically led to acknowledging the impossibility of formulating laws governing the modifications of the natural world, while the modifications of animals could tentatively be read as the signs of an adaptation to differences in surroundings.

Darwin's 'plate tectonics'

9In February 1835, "lying down in the wood to rest," Darwin experienced the results from a severe earthquake at Valdivia (Chile). He writes: "the world, the very emblem of all that is solid, has moved beneath our feet like a crust over a fluid […] I felt the earth tremble" (Darwin 228-29). For the young 'natural philosopher, this earthquake confirmed Lyell's opinion that it is a slow but steady elevation of the land which causes earthquakes. "From several considerations […] we can scarcely avoid the conclusion, however fearful it may be, that a vast lake of melted matter, of an area nearly doubling in extent that of the Black Sea, is spread out beneath a mere crust of solid land" (Darwin 239). The key word in this statement is "crust", and his conception of this crust as the site of constant 'change', i.e. the abstract notion of 'movement' or the pragmatic notion of 'travelling'.

10Lyell's theory of a slow continuous elevation appeared to be demonstrated, particularly when he tells us: "During my walk […] I observed that numerous fragments of rock, which, from the marine productions adhering to them, must recently have been lying in deep water, had been cast high on the beach" (Darwin 230). Later, observing the lofty mountains of the cordillera, he notes "an immense thickness of stratified alluvium" in the valleys between these, but infers that this matter was accumulated "at the bottoms of deep arms of sea" from his comparison with "what now happens in the southern part" of the same range (Darwin 244). The author then proceeds to describe what he imagines as a narrative in which geological energy is described as a sculptor and painter of movement:

These great piles of strata have been penetrated, upheaved, and overturned, in the most extraordinary manner, by masses of injected rock, equalling mountains in size. On the bare sides of the hills, complicated dikes, and wedges of variously coloured porphyries and other stones, are seen traversing the strata in every possible form and direction, proving also by their intersections successive periods of violence. (Darwin 245)

11The scale of the geological world is expressed by the use of adjectives such as "great," "masses," while the violence of the earthquake which he experienced is now seen as a general attribute of the geological world. The chaos he observes is expressed by adjectives such as "complicated," or by periphrases as with "in every possible form and direction." The energy of the geological world is described as a process of "traversing", or of an "injection" of "rocks", an oxymoron associating liquid and solid matter within a single gesture. But he also reads the action of time in the different colours indicating a variety of soils—time being an essential feature of the notion of travelling. However, if, as Lyell had suggested, a gradual elevation was taking place in the present moment of Darwin's observations, his subsequent study of corals and the Keeling Islands led him to the view that the sea floor, similar to a 'crust,' was also subjected to an inverted movement of subsiding, geological activity being explained by the struggle between elevation and its opposite, sinking.

12About the Keeling Islands, Darwin makes a general statement on "organic" growth and decay of a specific kind of "crust," the corals, as a case study illustrating such irreversible movement: "Throughout the whole group of islands, every single atom, even from the smallest particle to large fragments of rock, bears the stamp of having been subjected to the power of organic arrangement" (Darwin 340). But he notes the existence of dead coral among the living calcareous crust. Those "lamelliform" corals, which are the efficient agents in forming a reef, cannot live at any considerable depth. Thus the deeper slopes consist of a smooth layer of calcareous sand, interrupted only by intervals composed probably of dead coral rock. Coral whether alive or dead is the essential structure of the 'organic arrangement,' both animal and mineral, in the area. In the past corals were thought to have constructed their skeletons on the circular crests of submarine craters. But Darwin suggests:

The theory which I would offer, is simply, that as the land with the attached reefs subsides very gradually from the action of subterranean causes, the coral-building polypi soon raise again their solid masses to the level of the water: but not so with the land. […] each point, one after the other according to its altitude, was submerged, the coral grew upward and formed the many islets now standing at one level. (Darwin 345-346)

13Another example in Keeling Island is added (Darwin 348), in which the water was as tranquil as in a sheltered lake, yet old cocoa nut trees were undermined and falling, and the foundation-posts of a storehouse which had stood seven years above sea level were daily washed by the tide. When shaken by earthquakes, caused by plate tectonics, the subsidence became rapid.

14After having observed the evidence collected in coral reefs, Darwin offers a personal view that elevation and subsidence of the crust of the earth co-exist:

Continental elevations, as observed in South America and other parts, seem to act over wide areas with a very uniform force; we may therefore suppose that continental subsidence acts in a nearly similar manner. On this assumption, and taking on the one hand, lagoon islands, encircling and barrier reefs, as indications of subsidence; and on the other hand, raised shells and corals, as our proof of elevation, we may test the truth of the theory— that their configuration has been determined by the kind of subterranean movement […]. (Darwin 349)

15The scale of such a hypothesis is no obstacle to an identical remark on a much smaller scale about the co-existence of varieties within a same species, as observed among birds, or variations in amphibious animals such as lizards, or the co-existence of dead corals and living ones on the same atoll. Observations are what leads him on, unhampered by apparent contradictions, change in time overruling these. Observation is indeed a characteristic of his mode of travelling, which is confirmed by a close study of his writing itself.

Travel writing as a 'personal diary' in The Voyage of the Beagle

16The study of travelling as a mode of living is central to Darwin's use of narrative, and of the first person address to his reader, thus creating the voiced presence of the traveller, while his whole sensoriurm is activated. In the chapter about the Keeling Islands, for example, Darwin describes two species of the genus Millepora, one of which possessed the property of stinging the other of changing colour. The detailed paragraph he devotes to the stinging coral is an interesting instance of his own use of his senses in his observations, i.e. not only his vision but also his sense of smell and his touch. "The emphasis is upon things individually seen heard, smelt, touched, tasted" writes Gillian Beer (Beer 61). In his time research in physiology had already introduced a separation of the senses. With the 19th century, the body was divided into separate specific functions, among which the senses which conditioned knowledge. Jonathan Crary speaks of "a discovery that knowledge was conditioned by the physical and anatomical functioning of the body, and perhaps most importantly, of the eyes" (Crary 79). Such a background sheds a particular light on Darwin's text, which reads as follows:

The stony branches or plates when taken fresh from the water have a harsh feel and are not slimy, although possessing a strong and disagreeable odour. The stinging property seems to vary within certain limits in different specimens: when a piece was pressed or rubbed on the tender skin of the face or arm, a pricking sensation was generally caused, which came only after the interval of a second, and lasted only for a short time. (Darwin 341)

17The qualifier 'stony' is used for two natural orders which are usually thought as foreign to one another, plants and stones. The tactile information is given a status usually restricted to visual information, to which he adds olfactory information. The characteristics of corals are those of live organic beings. Their 'stinging property' is put to the test by a rubbing of tender parts of the observer's skin. However his eye is also attracted to sensations of colour, as he notes that "there was another and quite distinct kind of coral, which was remarkable for the change of colour, which it underwent shortly after death; when alive it was of a honey yellow, but some hours after death after being taken out of water, it became as black as ink" (Darwin 341). The author then immediately shifts to a parallel observation about fish who feed on coral: "there are here two species of fish, of the genus Sparus, which exclusively feed on coral. Both are coloured of a splendid bluish-green, one living invariably in the lagoon, and the other amongst the outer breakers" (Darwin 341). One is reminded of the new understanding of perception of colours (Crary on Goethe 67-74) and their dependence on physiology, both in the animal and in the observer's senses. In the same period as Darwin is writing, the new analogy between the physiological nature of sensations and the physical and chemical agents on a sensitized surface which made photography possible was evoked, and it looks as if Henry James's image of the 'sensitive membrane' were rooted in earlier theories of physiology and sensations such as Johannes Müller's beginning in 1833 (Crary 88-90). A fact that suggests a further analogy with animated images creating relations and transformations between figures, and the dominant interest in modifications which lie at the core of Darwin's interests in movement whether geological or from one colour to another on an animal's skin.

18In The Voyage of the Beagle as well as in his later works, but most strongly in this first text, in the use of the first person narrator's voice, not only is Darwin in the role of the traveller as a visual, tactile and olfactory observer, but he also focuses less on singleness than on mobility: "In his use of words he is more preoccupied with relations and transformations than with limits" (Beer 33). Contemporary with the fascination for movement that Darwin's Voyage conveys, and which is so characteristic of the 19th century in Western countries, the history of early cinema (Mannoni 202-222) is rife with travels of all sorts and travels by train in particular (Costa de Beauregard). An example among others is one of the pioneering natural history films produced in Great Britain, the above-mentioned Romance in a Pond. This short film is relevant to the debate on 'travelling' as the central Darwinian theme of documentary cinema for several reasons. Its subject is the life-story of the common newt. Its amphibious adventure—mostly for the baby newts, their travel from under water to the dry land, but also the adults from land to water—is relevant to Darwin's general interest in metamorphosis such as trees turned into stones (Darwin 252), stone to lava (Darwin 253 'melted stone'), the organic into the mineral (corals into reefs). The microscope first captures the female and then the male newt who, under the change of weather in spring, leave the land where they have spent the winter under stones. The oddly amphibious animals both slip under water in a nearby pond and mate, before coming back on land, leaving tiny eggs of future baby newts on plants under water; the camera microscope then captures the developing embryo, and its struggle against its thick shell. We see the gills (DVD 6:18) of the baby newt once it has broken the shell of its egg (DVD 4:52) and the growing of front and hind legs along its tail. Further on, the baby newt tests its full-grown lungs as it climbs a rock until it breaks the surface of the water (DVD 8:32). The film stills are remarkable in the way they capture the swift movements of the tiny animals, while selecting some low angles to focus in close-shot on their remarkable eyes and head.

19This scientific film responds to the two aims of 'Cine-Biology' which attempt to blend together into one narrative two sharply contrasting points of view: "the critical accuracy of the scientist, the enthusiasm of the naturalist"—to which, for presumably didactic reasons, this documentary adds the "anthropomorphic ideas of the layman who strives to translate the doings of an insect in terms of human endeavour" (Boon 2). Such are already the two contrasting points of view of Darwin's journal The Voyage of the Beagle: bringing together the critical accuracy of his observations, and his enthusiasm as a naturalist. But most of all, the camera captures the movement of the organic world, the newt as well as the vegetation of its natural environment, and the more general agitation of water in the pond, the shore and the dry land, as well as oxygen in air filling the newt's lungs instead of its gills under water. This short film thus argues that biological diversity responds to a change in the animal's use of its environment from land into water and back again, in a manner reminiscent of Darwin's above quoted Keeling Islands lizards (Darwin 279).

20To conclude, what the experience of the five years voyage with the HMS Beagle gave Darwin was a large collection of specimens from different orders of nature, stones and bones, but also flora and fauna. It enabled him to conceive the view that their various species sprung from a general movement which was analogous to what geology had taught him, leading to the hypothesis that the slow but continuous movement of various strata struggling against one another at random, was also what characterized the variety of plants and animals, man belonging to the latter order. The struggling of water and land and the resulting effect of this struggle upon the life and death of corals exemplified a more general overview of nature, in which varieties vanish or appear according to trial and error in a world governed by chance (Bredekamp15-47). It is clear that Darwin's use of geology (i.e. movement in the mineral order, disappearance and appearance of minerals) in a discussion of evolution (movement among species, disappearance and appearance of species) must be seen as more than Huxley's then commonly known theory of the survival of the fittest. Rather, Darwin's views provided a scientific echo for other fields in which movement became central to an understanding of life, psychology and in particular phenomenology. Another way of reading the Voyage is indeed the study of Darwin's direct perception of the natural world (as his observation of sensitive corals shows), which inspires him with flights of imagination altogether compatible with scientific theorizing. When it appeared, the camera-eye was unavoidably Darwinian to the extent that it inherited the traveller's observant eye as a substitute, if not to tactile or olfactory sensations and perceptions, at least most convincingly to these visual observations, even using a microscope's eye under water to depict the life of baby newts.

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Bibliography

BEER, Gillian, Darwin's Plots—Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (1983), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

BREDEKAMP, Horst, Les Coraux de Darwin—Premiers modèles de l'évolution et tradition de l'histoire naturelle, traduit de l'allemand par Christian Joschke, Paris: Les Presses du réel et Centre d'Histoire de Sciences Po, 2008.

CRARY, Jonathan, Techniques of the Observer—On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, (1990) 1992.

DARWIN, Charles, Voyage of the Beagle-Charles Darwin's Journal of Researches, London: Henry Colburn ed.,1839, edited with an Introduction by Janet Browne & Michael Neve, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989.

HOLMAN, James, (1786-1857), A Voyage Round the World, London, 1834-5.

MANNONI, Laurent, Le Grand art de la lumière et de l'ombre-archéologie du cinéma, Paris : Nathan Université, 1994.

SCHIVELBUSCH, Wolfgang, The Railway Journey—Trains and Travel in the 19th century, (1977) New York: Urizen Books, 1979.

Articles

BOON, Tim, "An Introduction to Secrets of Nature", Leaflet accompanying the DVD-Secrets of Nature-Pioneering natural history films-1922-1933, London: BFIVD861, www.bfi.org.u, 2.

COSTA DE BEAUREGARD, Raphaëlle, "The Train as a Mirror of Cinema: John Ford's The Iron Horse (1924)", filmjournal 3 (2016), 1-18; online https://www.ucl/filmjournal/

TURNER, Frederick, "Prediction, Reduction, and Emergence: An Introduction to Rémy Lestienne's Dialogues About Emergence", Kronoscope 16 (2016) n°1, 5-14.

Electronic resources

https://www.amnh./exhibitions/darwin/a-trip-around-the-world/ accessed on 7 October 2016.

www.lapresse.ca/voyage/le-laboratoire-qui-inspira-darwin.php. Accessed on 8 October 2016.

Filmography

Romance in a Pond, UK, 1932, black and white with sound, 9 minutes. Produced by British Instructional Films, photography by Percy Smith (not credited). Secrets of Nature- Pioneering natural history films-1922-1933, DVD edition: London: BFIVD861, www.bfi.org.uk

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Notes

1 The edition which is referred to in this study is Voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin—Charles Darwin's Journal of Researches, London: Henry Colburn ed.,1839, edited with an Introduction by Janet Browne & Michael Neve, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989.

2 Robert FitzRoy had joined a first expedition by the Admiralty to survey the eastern coast of South America, significant in naval and commercial terms for Great Britain since 1825. Charles Darwin sailed as a private gentleman who shared the young Captain's interests in exploration as well as his cabin and library. Because Darwin was dreadfully seasick he spent most of his time on land, and his observations are essentially those of a traveller on land.

3 John Stevens Henslow, Professor of Botany at St John's College in Cambridge. He had known Darwin since 1828, after Darwin's father, Robert Waring Darwin, had decided to withdraw his son from medical studies at Edinburgh University and had sent him to Cambridge in order to take the ordinary degree that was a prerequisite for entering the church.

4 Charles Lyell (1797-1875), prominent geologist and author of Principles of Geology in three volumes, London (1830-33). He advocated a 'uniformitarian' view of nature, reflecting upon the different times of the planet and man's own short time of existence, and became Darwin's friend.

5 Romance in a Pond, UK, 1932, black and white with sound, 9 minutes. Produced by British Instructional Films, photography by Percy Smith (not credited). Secrets of NaturePioneering natural history films, London: BFI. The newt is a small tailed amphibian allied to the salamander species which is common in the countryside in England. This author has watched them in a private pond in Derbyshire in 2005, but small salamanders are also common on the continent. See Paul Farley's poem "Newts" in The Dark Film, MacMillan, 2012, 11.

6 Alfred Wallace, Natural Selection and Tropical Nature. Essays in Descriptive and Theoretical Biology, London: MacMillan, 1895, and http://darwin-online.org.uk/ accessed on June 2016.

7 www.lapresse.ca/voyage/le-laboratoire-qui-inspira-darwin.php, accessed on 08 Octobre 2016.

8 James Holman (1786-1857), traveller and author of A Voyage Round the World, London, 1834-5.

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References

Bibliographical reference

Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard, « Travelling in Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle (1839) », Caliban, 59 | 2018, 89-100.

Electronic reference

Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard, « Travelling in Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle (1839) », Caliban [Online], 59 | 2018, Online since 01 June 2018, connection on 02 March 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/caliban/3768 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/caliban.3768

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About the author

Raphaëlle Costa de Beauregard

Université Toulouse-Jean Jaurès.
Raphaëlle COSTA DE BEAUREGARD est professeur emérite, Université Toulouse-Jean Jaurès, Fellow de Clare Hall (Cambridge, 2005), Membre de SFS, SCMS, AFECCAV, NECS, fondatrice en 1990 de la SERCIA (Société d'Etudes et de Recherche sur le Cinéma anglophone). Doctorat d'Etat consacré à l'analyse de l'image : Le Portrait élisabéthain dans l’œuvre de Nicholas Hilliard (1987). Publications : Nicholas Hilliard et l’imaginaire élisabéthain, Paris : CNRS, 1992 ; Silent ElizabethansThe Language of Colour of two Miniaturists, Montpellier : CERRA, 2000. Direction d’ouvrages collectifs : Le Cinéma et ses objets, Poitiers : La Licorne, 1997 ; Cinéma et CouleurFilm and Colour, Paris : Michel Houdiard, 2009. Recherche en cours : ouvrage sur le temps dans le cinéma muet.

By this author

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Copyright

Licence Creative Commons
Caliban – French Journal of English Studies est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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