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The prepositional expression of cause in Greek non‑literary papyri of the Imperial Period

Expression de la cause prépositionnelle dans les papyrus grecs non littéraires de la période impériale
Η εμπρόθετη έκφραση της αιτίας σε ελληνικούς, μη λογοτεχνικούς παπύρους της αυτοκρατορικής εποχής
Eleni Tsitsianopoulou

Abstracts

This paper deals with the statement of cause in Greek documentary papyri of the Imperial Period. It studies the frequency of occurrence of the adverbial designations, the detection of their position within the clauses and the identification of the terms they define in Greek non‑literary papyri from 31 B.C. until 4th century. The examples come from a body of approximately 30 000 Greek non‑literary papyri texts and ostraca. The search of the material was based on the online database Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri (DDbDP), which includes all the documentary papyri. In order to avoid possible mistakes in electronic publications, the papyri texts were also checked by the printed volumes of texts.

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Introduction

1This study is exclusively based on a corpus of approximately 30 000 Greek non‑literary papyri texts and ostraca of the period under consideration.

  • 1 Bortone, 2010, p. 110.
  • 2 Goodwin, 1930, § 1199, p. 254.

2The cause as a prepositional function is expressed by genitive, dative, accusative, by prepositional phrases, by causal participle and by causal relative clause. Prepositions and cases are closely linked. “There are similarities between prepositions and cases. Ancient Greek prepositions were linked to nouns inflected for case.”1 The Greek genitive, accusative and dative had a wide range of meanings including cause. Quite often, in the papyri texts, it is expressed in a prepositional manner. The prepositional cause of the papyri is expressed either with prepositions or improper prepositions. The prepositions appear in composition with verbs. They are also used as independent words, to connect nouns with other parts of the sentence. Besides these prepositions, there are certain adverbs used in the same way, which cannot be combined with verbs. They are called improper prepositions.2 The paper is devoted to the prepositional formulation of cause with prepositions and then with the improper prepositions in the papyri texts of the Imperial period.

The cause formulation with prepositions with two cases

  • 3 Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, § 433.4, p. 473.

3The prepositions διά, κατά and ὑπέρ go with genitive and accusative.3 At first, we will analyze examples of texts in which there are two-minded prepositions (διά plus accusative, κατά plus accusative and ὑπέρ plus genitive).

διά + accusative

  • 4 Delaunois, 1988, p. 37.
  • 5 Mayser, 1906‑1970, II.1, p. 329‑330.
  • 6 Harrison, 1858, p. 191, 208; Mayser, 1906‑1970, II 2, p. 426‑427; Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, 434 (p. (...)
  • 7 Luraghi, 1989, p. 294.

4The Greek accusative, in Classical times, was the most common case.4 The preposition διά, which is often found in the papyri texts of the period under consideration, is sometimes written with accusative of noun, of adjective, with an infinitive with article,5 with neutral of pronoun, interrogative, demonstrative to declare a cause.6 As it is well known “διά plus accusative occurs in cause expressions and appears to be the most common means for expressing cause.”7

  • 8 Similarly, we observe in P.Oxy. XXII 2342 (BL VII 148), 25‑27 (petition, 16 March, A.D. 102): διδαχ (...)
  • 9 Similarly, we see in P.Oxy. ΙX 1223 (= Sel.Pap. I 164) (BL XI 148), 17‑22 (private letter, A.D. 370 (...)

5In the following papyri, the preposition διά plus accusative may precede the identified type8 or may follow it.9 In P.Oxy. XII 1481 the preposition διά goes with noun accusative (διʼ ἀσθένειαν) and specifies the previous verb εἰμί: P.Oxy. XII 1481, 3‑4 (private letter, early third century) διότι ἐν παρεμβολῇ ἠμι (l. εἰμι) κ̣α̣ὶ̣ / οὐ διʼ ἀσθένε[ι]αν, ὥστε μὴ λοιπο̣ῦ̣ (l. λυπο̣ῦ̣). In P.Oxy. XIV 1666 (= P.Pap. I 149), 2‑3, 14‑15 (private letter, third century) at first, the prepositional phrase of cause διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν defines the previous phrase οἴομαι μεταδεδωκέναι and then, the qualifier διὰ ταύτην τὴν αἰτίαν precedes the verb οὐκ ἴσχυσα: οἴομαι τὸν ἀδελφὸν Σαραπάμμωνα μεταδεδωκέναι ὑμεῖν (l. ὑμῖν) / διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν κατῆλθον εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειαν … κ̣[αὶ δ]ι̣[ὰ τ]αύτην τὴν αἰτίαν οὐκ εἴσχυσα (l. ἴσχυσα) πρὸς / ὑ[μ]ᾶς [κ]αταντῆσαι.

  • 10 Similarly, we observe in P.Oxy. XIV 1636 (= Sel.Pap. I 49), 26‑30, 34‑37 (contract of land, 27 Nov. (...)

6Often, the preposition διά is written with an infinitive with article and follows the defined term as it is shown in the following papyri.10 In P.Oxy. XLII 3059 (letter of Didyme to Apollonius, second/third century) the preposition διά goes with an infinitive with article διὰ τὸ μὴ βλέπεσθαι, defines the previous participle μὴ βλέπουσαν: P.Oxy. XLII 3059, 3‑4: γεινωσκέ (l. γίγνωσκε) με μὴ βλέπουσαν τὸν ἥλιον / διὰ τὸ μὴ βλέπεσθαί σε ὑπʼ ἐμοῦ. Sometimes, however, the preposition διά with an infinitive with article may precede the identified verbal type, as in P.Oxy. VIII 1133, 11‑13 (receipt, 24 March, A.D. 396) in which the prepositional phrases διὰ τὸ παραπεπτωκέναι and μὴ εὑρίσκεσθαι precede for emphasis the phrase δηλῶ ἄκυρον καὶ ἀνεπίφορον εἶναι: καὶ διὰ τὸ / παραπεπτοκενη (l. παραπεπτωκέναι) τὸ γρ[αμματε]ῖόν σου καὶ μὴ εὑρίσκεσθαι δηλῶ τούτω (l. τοῦτο) ἄκυ̣ρον κ [αὶ ἀνε]πίφ[ορο]ν εἶναι.

  • 11 We observe the same structure in P.Oxy. VII 1033 (= Chrest.Wilck. 476 = Sel.Pap. II 296), 9‑14 (pet (...)
  • 12 Preisigke, 1925, p. 124.

7However, both syntactic structures11 may appear in the same text as in P.Oxy. LI 3644, 15‑21, 30 (letter of Heras12 to Papontos, third century), in which the prepositional phrase διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀφεθῆναι defines the next verb ἔπληξε. Afterwards, the prepositional designation διὰ τὸ ἐπείγεσθαι follows the verb κατάσχῃς: ἐπυθώμην (l. ἐπυθόμην) / αὐτῆς πῶς ἐπλήγη  καὶ ἔμα/θον ὑπὼ (l. ὑπὸ) πάντων ὥτει (l. ὅτι) διὰ τω (l. τὸ) / μὴ ἀπεθῆναι (l. ἀφεθῆναι) την (l. τῇ) Σαβειναν (l. Σαβίνᾳ) / ἄρθι (l. ἄρτι) ἃ εἶχε ἐντὸς ἀτῆς (l. αὐτῆς) ᾗ κα/τῖχε (κατεῖχε) κλειδεὶ (l. κλειδὶ) τῆς ἐξέδρας ἔπλη/ξε αὐτὴν … ἀλʼ (l. ἀλλʼ) ὥρα (l. ὅρα) μὴ κατάσχῃς Ἁρποχρᾶν διὰ τω (l. τὸ) ἐπίγεσσθε (l. ἐπείγεσθαι) περὶ τον (l. τῶν) / ἐπιθηκο͂ν (l. ἐπιθηκῶν).

8Noteworthy is the next example of P.Oxy. IX 1206 (= Sel.Pap. I 10 = Arangio‑Ruiz, FIRA III 16), 10‑16 (adoption, 27 March‑25 Apr., A.D. 335), in which the preposition διά is composed with four infinitives with article a) διὰ τὸ εἶναι which refers to the previous phrase ἀπώσασθαι οὔτε εἰς δουλαγωγίαν ἄγειν b) διὰ τὸ ἐκδεδωκέναι which defines the previous infinitive ἀποσπᾶν c) διὰ τὸ συμπεπεῖσθαι and d) διὰ τὸ συντεθεῖσθαι which specifies the previous infinitive παραβαίνειν: καὶ οὐκ ἐξέστε (l. ἐξέσται) μοι τοῦτον ἀπώσασθαι οὔτε εἰς / δουλαγωγείαν (l. δουλαγωγίαν) ἄγειν διὰ τὸ εὐγενῆ αὐτὸν εἶν[α]ι̣ κ̣[αὶ] ἐξ εὐγενῶν / γονέων ἐλευθέρων, ὥσπερ οὐδὲ καὶ ἡμῖ[ν τῷ τ]ε Ἡρακλείῳ καὶ / τῇ γυνεκὶ (l. γυναικὶ) Εἰσαριη (l. Εἰσαρίῳ) ἐξέστε (l. ἐξέσται) τὸν παῖδα ἀποσπ̣ᾶ̣ν̣ ἀ̣π̣[ὸ σο]ῦ̣ τοῦ Ὡρίωνος διὰ τὸ ἁπαξ απλῶς εἰς ὑειοθεσίαν (l. υἱοθεσίαν) ἐκδεδωκέναι [σοι α]ὐτὸν, ο̣ὐ̣δ̣ʼ α̣ὖ / μετὰ ταῦτα ἐ[ξέστ]ε (l. ἐξέσται) τινὶ παραβένειν (l. παραβαίνειν) τὰ ἐνγε[γ]ραμμένα διὰ / τὸ ἐπὶ τούτοις συνπ̣ε̣π̣ῖσθαι (l. συμπεπεῖσθαι) καὶ συντετῖσθαι (l. συντεθεῖσθαι).

  • 13 We notice the same construction in P.Oxy. IX 1219, 9‑11 (letter of Aristandrus, third century): καὶ (...)
  • 14 We see a similar structure in P.Oxy. XXIV 2407, 44‑45 (proceedings of a public meeting, late third (...)
  • 15 Preisigke, 1925, p. 122.

9In the following texts, the preposition διά is written with the neutral pronoun, demonstrative, interrogative or personal. The prepositional phrase either follows13 or precedes14 or is placed between the specified phrase. In the following BGU III 923, the preposition διά is written with an accusative of neutral interrogative pronoun, it is placed at the beginning of the sentence and specifies the verb οὐκ ἦλθε: BGU III 923, 19‑20 (private letter, first/second century) διὰ τί δὲ / κατὰ τὸ ἔθος ἐλθοῦσα οὐκ ἦλθε εἰς οἶκον. In P.Oxy. XVII 2111 the prepositional designation διὰ τοῦτο is placed between the specified phrase ἀκυροῦν προσήκει: P.Oxy. XVII 2111, 4‑5 (judicial proceedings, c. A.D. 135): οὐ πάντως δὲ τὸ δάνειον ἀκυροῦν διὰ τοῦτο / [προσήκει. In SB XVI 12556 (= BGU IV 1042 = Symposion p. 330), 7‑11 (letter of Iulius Agrippinus to his mother Herais15 concerning the process of Drusilla, second century) we observe the qualifier διʼ ἐμὲ which defines the following verb κατέχω: διὸ γράφω σοι ἵνʼ / [ε]ἰδῇ[ς.] π̣ρ̣ὸ πάντων τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ / Ἰουλι̣[α]ν̣οῦ γ̣[  ̣]νέσθω ἄχρι τοῦ πα/ραθ[  ̣  ̣]τα ὅ̣τι διʼ ἐμὲ ἐνθάδε αὐ/τὸν̣ κα̣τ̣έχ̣ω.

  • 16 Similarly we observe in P.Oxy. XXXVI 2784 4‑6 (private letter, third century): διὰ γὰρ τοῦτο σήμερο (...)

10In P.Oxy. LV 3816 (letter of Ptoleminus to Sinthonis, third/fourth century), the prepositional phrase of cause διὰ τοῦτο is placed at the beginning of the period, emphasizing the adverbial function of cause16 of the verb οὐκ’ ἐδυνήθην: P.Oxy. LV 3816, 8‑9 (third/fourth century.): διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ’ ἐδυνήθην λαλῆσαι αὐτῷ.

κατά + accusative

  • 17 Harrison, 1858, pp. 337‑338; Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, § 433.4.b3 (p. 478); Smyth,1956, § 1690.2 (p (...)

11Κατά plus accusative is used to declare the motive of an action.17 The connection of cause which is prepositionally declared is also found in the following papyri of the third and fourth centuries, which deliver to us texts of minutes: P.Oxy. XXIV 2407, 40 (memoranda of proceedings of a public meeting, late third century), the prepositional phrase κατὰ τί defines the verb συνήδρευσαν: κατ̣ὰ̣ τί γὰρ ὅλοι ο[ὐ] συνήδρευσαν. In P.Oxy. XVII 2110 (= Sel.Pap. II 240), 5 (proceedings of the senate, 6 Oct., A.D. 370), the preposition κατά is composed with accusative of noun (κατʼ ἄγνοιαν), specifies the verb ἐχειροτόνησεν: ἴσως κατʼ ἄγνοιαν ὁ πρόεδρος ἐχιροτόνησέν (l. ἐχειροτόνησέν) με.

ὑπέρ + genitive

  • 18 Harrison, 1858, p. 459; Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, § 435.I.2 (p. 486); Smyth, 1956, § 1697.1 (p. 386 (...)

12Ὑπέρ plus genitive has the signification of “because of, by reason of”.18 In P.Oxy. XII 1490, 2‑4 (letter of Heraclides to an official, c. A.D. 320), the qualifier ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐτῶν defines the infinitive γενέσθαι: Δημήτριος ὁ γνωστὴρ ἠξίωσέν με λέ̣γ̣ιν (l. λέγειν) σοι / ὥστε αὐτὸν ἄ̣λυπον γενέσθαι ὑπὲρ τ̣ῶ̣ν̣ πρ̣ο̣τ̣έ̣ρ̣ων ἐτῶν.

The cause formulation with prepositions with three cases

ἐπί + dative19

  • 19 Kühner & Gerth, 1898‑1904, § 438 ΙΙ.3 (p. 500‑503); Smyth, 1956, § 1689.2 (p. 378‑379).
  • 20 Mayser, 1906‑1970, II.2 p. 462.
  • 21 Kühner & Gerth, 1898‑1904, § 438 ΙΙ.3d, p. 502.
  • 22 Harrison, 1858, 261, p. 286‑287.

13The preposition ἐπί is composed with genitive, dative and accusative case.20 The preposition ἐπί plus accusative indicates a cause especially close to verbs or expressions of emotion, such as: συγχαίρων, εὐχαριστεῖν, ἡσθῆναι.21 Ἐπί is sometimes used to declare the ground or reason of an action.22 To declare the cause in the papyri of the second up to the fourth century the prepositional phrase ἐπί plus dative is preferred. In P.Oxy. XXII 2342, 3‑7 (petition, A.D. 16 March, 102), the prepositional phrase ἐπὶ καταγνώσει defines the preceding participle ἀποκηρύξας: τῶ[ι] β (ἔτει) Τραιανοῦ Καίσαρος / τοῦ κυρίου Πασίων Σαραπίωνος κοινωνὸς / καὶ δανειστὴς ὢν τελευτήσας ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ / ἀποκηρύξας τὰ τέκνα ἐπὶ καταγνώσει διάδοχον ἔσχε τὴν γυναῖκα Βερενείκην. In P.Oxy. LIX 3992, 22‑26 (letter of Aelius Theon to Herminus, second century) the qualifier ἐπὶ αἱρέσει specifies the verb μεταδώσει: ἐπὶ / ποίαι αἱρέσει μεταδώσει σοι / καὶ ἡ ἀδελφή μου καὶ Διονύσιος / ὁ νομογράφος καὶ Πτολεμαῖος ὁ μελλογυμνασίαρχος. In BGU IV 1080 (= Chrest.Wilck. 478 = Hengstl, Griechische Papyri 75), 2‑4 (private letter, third century), the prepositional phrase ἐπὶ συμβιώσει defines the participle of emotion συγχαίρων: ἀσπάζομαί σε συνχαίρων / ἐπὶ τῇ ὑπαρχθείσῃ σοι ἀγαθῇ [ἐ]σ̣ευβεῖ (l. εὐσεβεῖ) καὶ εὐτυχῆ (l. εὐτυχεῖ) [σ]υμβιώσι (l. συμβιώσει).

14In papyri texts of the third century the preposition ἐπί goes with dative of demontstrative pronoun, infinitive with article or noun. It usually identifies a previous verbal form of emotion. In P.Oxy. XXXI 2610 (= Pap.Agon. 5), 2‑3 (unknown text type, late third century), the preposition ἐπί plus dative of demonstrative pronoun (ἐπὶ τούτοις) specifies the previous infinitive εὐχαριστεῖν: εὐχαριστεῖν δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοις βουλόμενος, ὁπόσα εἴχετε] / [ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὑπὸ τῶν] πρὸ ἐμοῦ αὐτοκρ[ατόρων δεδομένα ὑμῖν δίκαια καὶ φιλάνθρωπα, ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς φυλάττω. In P.Oxy. XXVII 2476 (BL VIII 258‑259) (= Pap.Agon. 3 = New documents illustrating early christianity 9 p. 67‑68 n. 23), 7‑10 (private letter, 26 Jul., A.D. 288), the prepositional phrases ἐπὶ τῷ περιεληλυθέναι καὶ ποιῆσαι specify the previous infinitive of emotion ἡσθῆναι. Additionally, the prepositional phrase ἐπὶ τούτοις refers to the previous infinitive εὐχαριστεῖν: ἦν ε]ἰκὸς ὑμᾶς τοὺς τὴν ἱερὰν / σύνο[δον νέμοντας ἡσθῆναι ἐπὶ τῷ εἰς ἐμὲ περιεληλυθέ]ναι τὴν τῶν ὅλων κηδεμονίαν καὶ βασ[ιλείαν <καὶ> διὰ ψηφίσματος φα]νερὰν ποιῆσαι τὴν γνώμην [ἣν ἔχετε πρὸς ἡμᾶς εὐχαριστεῖν δʼ ἐπὶ τούτοις βουλό]μενος [ὁ]π̣[ό]σ̣α / εἴχετα[ι] (l. εἴχετε) ἐξ ἀρ[χ]ῆ̣ς ὑπὸ τῶν [πρὸ ἐμοῦ αὐτοκρατόρων] δεδομένα ὑμεῖν (l. ὑμῖν) δίκαια καὶ [φιλάνθρωπα ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς φυλάττω προσαύξειν ἐθέλω]ν.

Improper prepositions

ἕνεκα, ἕνεκεν + genitive declare purpose and cause23

  • 23 Smyth, 1956, § 1700, p. 388.
  • 24 Bortone, 2010, p. 119.

15We observe the prepositions ἕνεκα, ἕνεκεν in papyri texts from the second century until the fourth century. The commonest meaning of ἕνεκα plus genitive is cause.24 The prepositions ἕνεκα, ἕνεκεν go with genitive of personal or relative pronoun and noun. We often see anastrophe of preposition.

16In P.Oxy. LV 3810, 7‑8 (letter of Callias to Cyrilla, second/third century), there is an anastrophe of preposition, the preposition ἕνεκα is composed with genitive of noun (ἕνεκα ἵππου), specifying the verb πέπομφε: πεπομφι  (l. πέπομφε) γάρ με ὁ βα̣σ̣ι̣λ̣ι̣κ̣ὸ̣ς̣  / εἰς Ἀθρ̣ῖβειν ἕνεκα ἵππ̣ο̣υ̣. In P.Oxy. X 1293, 16‑17 (letter of Theon, 24 Jul., A.D. 118‑138), the preposition ἕνεκα goes with genitive of personal pronoun and noun or adjective. The two prepositional phrases ἕνεκα ἡμῶν, ἕνεκα τῶν καμηλιτῶν, are connected in an intensifying and contrasting manner (οὐχ ‑ ἀλλὰ), define the verb ποιῶ: τοῦτο οὐχ ἕνεκα ἡμῶν / ποιῶ ἀλλὰ ἕνεκα τῶν καμηλειτῶν. In P.Oxy. XVIII 2182 (BL VIII 254), 34‑35 (letter of a strategus, 19 Apr., A.D. 165) from Ptolemais Euergetis (Arsinoites), there is an anastrophe of preposition and the preposition ἕνεκεν which takes the genitive of relative pronoun (ὧν ἕνεκεν) defines the verb ἔπεμψα: ὧν ἕνεκε / ἔπεμψα ἐξ αὐτῶν πρός σε. In P.Oxy. XX 2267, 5‑8 (petition to authorities, A.D. 360), there is also an anastrophe of preposition in the prepositional phrases φιλοπραγματείας ἕνεκα καὶ αἰσχροκερδίας, which specify the participle γενομένη: ἡ Διοδότου δὲ / τοῦ γενομένου καθολικοῦ τῶν δεσποτικῶ̣ν̣ πραγμάτων γενομένη σκευωρία φιλοπ̣ρ̣α̣γ̣ματίας (l.‑φιλοπραγματείας) ἕνεκα / ἰ̣δ̣ίας ἑα̣υ̣το̣ῦ̣ καὶ ἐσχροκερδίας (l. αἰσχροκερδίας) δηλοῦντος παρʼ ἐμοῦ εισμου ἐ̣ργ̣άσασθαι τοιαύτη γεγένηται.

χάριν + genitive25

  • 25 Schwyzer, 1950, p. 551‑552 6b; Smyth, 1956, § 1700, p. 388.

17In P.Oxy. XXII 2342 (petition to authorities, second century) we also observe an anastrophe of preposition. The preposition χάριν composed with the pronoun ὧν precedes the participle of emotion ἀδικούμενος: P.Oxy. XXII 2342 (BL VII 148), 25‑28 (16 March, A.D. 102): διδαχθεῖσα / μὴ ἐπι[φ]έρειν διὰ τὸν ἔλεγχον ἔκρυψε / μεθοδ̣ [ε]ύ̣σασα τὸν στρατηγὸν σπουδήν τινα / ὧν χάριν ἀδικουμε (l. ἀδικούμε<νος>) ἐπί σε [κατ]αφεύγω.  In P.Oxy. X 1296 (= Sel.Pap. I 137), 5‑7 (letter of Dius, third century), the preposition χάριν with genitive of noun specifies the verb ἀμερίμνει: ἀμερίμνη (l. ἀμερίμνει) οὖν, πάτερ, χάριν τῶν μαθημάτων / ἡμῶν.

Conclusion

18In the documents of Imperial era, prepositional phrases of cause are often found in private letters and in petitions to the authorities. They are also attested in other types of documents, such as contracts, adoption documents, receipts, complaints, judicial proceedings, memoranda, minutes of proceedings of a public meeting. In most examples, the prepositional phrases are with articles. They usually follow the specified terms. In a few examples they precede the terms to which they refer for emphasis. Prepositional qualifiers of cause are mostly attested in the second, third and fourth centuries A.D.

19Higher incidence is shown by the preposition διά plus accusative case and ἐπί plus dative. The use of the prepositional phrases κατά plus accusative, ὑπέρ plus genitive, ἕνεκα (ἕνεκεν) plus genitive and χάριν plus genitive is limited in papyri texts of the era under consideration. In some examples, there may be a verbal form of emotion, denoting the causal relationship. The cause in the Imperial Period as well as in the early Arabic Period is mainly expressed in documentary papyri by subordinate causal clauses.

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Notes

1 Bortone, 2010, p. 110.

2 Goodwin, 1930, § 1199, p. 254.

3 Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, § 433.4, p. 473.

4 Delaunois, 1988, p. 37.

5 Mayser, 1906‑1970, II.1, p. 329‑330.

6 Harrison, 1858, p. 191, 208; Mayser, 1906‑1970, II 2, p. 426‑427; Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, 434 (p. 484); Thomson, 1960, p. 93.

7 Luraghi, 1989, p. 294.

8 Similarly, we observe in P.Oxy. XXII 2342 (BL VII 148), 25‑27 (petition, 16 March, A.D. 102): διδαχθεῖσα / μὴ ἐπι[φ]έρειν διὰ τὸν ἔλεγχον ἔκρυψε / μεθοδ̣[ε]ύ̣σασα τὸν στρατηγὸν σπουδήν τινα. // P.Oxy. VI 903 (= CPJ III 457 d), 12‑13, 20 (accusation against a husband, fourth century): ἀπήντησεν δὲ αὐτῷ Ζω[ίλ]ος ὅτι καὶ τὸν τρόφιμον αὐτοῦ ἐνέ/κλισεν (l. ἐνέκλεισεν), καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὅτ[ι] διὰ τὸν τρόφιμόν σου ἦλθας ἢ διὰ τὴν / τοίαν ἦλθας λαλῆσαι ἐπάνω αὐτῆς.

9 Similarly, we see in P.Oxy. ΙX 1223 (= Sel.Pap. I 164) (BL XI 148), 17‑22 (private letter, A.D. 370): ἐὰν δὲ ἀμελήσῃς, ὁ οἶκος ἡμῶν περιστάσι (l. περιστάσει) / κοινωνεῖν μέλλει διὰ τὴν ἀπουσίαν τοῦ γεούχου ὑπὸ τοῦ / φορτικοῦ Ἀμμωνίου σπεκουλάτορος καὶ τοῦ ἐπαρχικοῦ.

10 Similarly, we observe in P.Oxy. XIV 1636 (= Sel.Pap. I 49), 26‑30, 34‑37 (contract of land, 27 Nov., A.D. 249): ὅπερ καὶ παρέξομαί σοι / [ἀ]πὸ τῶν ὑπὲρ αὐτ[ο]ῦ τελουμένων δημοσίω(ν)… μέχρι τοῦ / διελθ[όντος] ϛ (ἔτους) … διὰ τὸ / τὰ ἀπὸ το[ῦ ἐ]νεστῶ[τ]ος α (ἔτους) τ̣ο̣ύ̣του πρ̣ό̣σ̣φ̣ο̣ρ̣α̣ εἶναι … ἐὰν αἱρῇ δημοσιώσεις δι[ὰ] τοῦ καταλογείου, οὐ / προσδεόμενος μεταλήμψεως μου διὰ τὸ ἐντεῦθεν ε[ὐ]δοκεῖν με τῇ ἐσομένῃ ὑπὸ σοῦ / δημοσιώσει.

11 We observe the same structure in P.Oxy. VII 1033 (= Chrest.Wilck. 476 = Sel.Pap. II 296), 9‑14 (petition to riparii, 18 Oct., A.D. 392) καὶ μὴ ἐχόντων / ἡμῶν τὴν βοήθειαν εἴτʼ οὖν τοὺς δημοσίους καὶ τοὺς ἐφοδευτὰς πολλάκεις (l. πολλάκις) σχεδὸν εἰπε͂ν (l. εἰπε<ῖ>ν) ψυχὴν ἐκεινδυνεύσαμεν (l. ἐκινδυνεύσαμεν) διὰ τὸ / τούτους παρʼ ἡμῶν ἀπεσπᾶσθαι μόνοι περιερχόμενοι εἰς / τὴν πόλιν καὶ κατοπτεύοντες. διὰ τοῦτο ἑαυτοὺς ἀσφαλισζόμενοι (l. ἀσφαλιζόμενοι) / τούσδε τοὺς λιβέλλους ἐπιδίδομεν.

12 Preisigke, 1925, p. 124.

13 We notice the same construction in P.Oxy. IX 1219, 9‑11 (letter of Aristandrus, third century): καὶ γὰρ σὺ αὐτὸν φιλεῖς καὶ διʼ αὐ/τὸν καὶ διὰ τὴν μνήμην τ[ο]ῦ πα/τρὸς αὐτοῦ.

14 We see a similar structure in P.Oxy. XXIV 2407, 44‑45 (proceedings of a public meeting, late third century): δ̣ιὰ τί γὰρ ἔκ’τοτε [τοῦ]τ̣ο̣ [οὐ]κ̣ ἐγένε[τ]ο / [μέχρι το]ῦ̣ δεῦρο. In P.Oxy. VI 903 (= CPJ III 457 d), 12‑13, 19‑21 (accusation against a husband, fourth century), the prepositional phrase διὰ τί precedes the verb: ἐποίησεν / τὰς ἔξω θύρας αὐτοῦ ἐνκλισθῆναι (l. ἐγκλεισθῆναι) ἐπάνω μου λέγων ὅτι διὰ τί ἀπῆλ/θας εἰς τὸ κυριακόν.

15 Preisigke, 1925, p. 122.

16 Similarly we observe in P.Oxy. XXXVI 2784 4‑6 (private letter, third century): διὰ γὰρ τοῦτο σήμερον / οὐδὲ τὰ κτήνη ἀνέπεμψα προσδο/κῶν χόρτον αὐτοῖς ἐμβαλέσθαι. // BGU III 935 (BL VII 935) (petition, third century): διὰ ταῦτα ἱκετεύομεν. // // P.Oxy. LVI 3858, 7‑8 (letter of Bares to Diogenes, fourth century): διʼ αὐτὸ̣ τοῦτο ἔγραψά σοι. // P.Oxy. XIV 1676 (= Sel.Pap. I 151), 16‑17 (letter of Flavius Herculanus to Aplonarion, c. A.D. 324): διὰ τοῦτο ὑπερη/φάνηκας ἡμᾶς. // P.Oxy. XII 1428, 11‑13 (official letter, fourth century): διὰ / [δὲ] τοῦτο ἀπ̣έστιλα (l. ἀπ̣έστειλα) τὸν προειρημένον ὀφφικιά/[λιο]ν.

17 Harrison, 1858, pp. 337‑338; Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, § 433.4.b3 (p. 478); Smyth,1956, § 1690.2 (p. 380).

18 Harrison, 1858, p. 459; Kühner & Gerth 1898‑1904, § 435.I.2 (p. 486); Smyth, 1956, § 1697.1 (p. 386).

19 Kühner & Gerth, 1898‑1904, § 438 ΙΙ.3 (p. 500‑503); Smyth, 1956, § 1689.2 (p. 378‑379).

20 Mayser, 1906‑1970, II.2 p. 462.

21 Kühner & Gerth, 1898‑1904, § 438 ΙΙ.3d, p. 502.

22 Harrison, 1858, 261, p. 286‑287.

23 Smyth, 1956, § 1700, p. 388.

24 Bortone, 2010, p. 119.

25 Schwyzer, 1950, p. 551‑552 6b; Smyth, 1956, § 1700, p. 388.

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References

Electronic reference

Eleni Tsitsianopoulou, « The prepositional expression of cause in Greek non‑literary papyri of the Imperial Period », Cahiers balkaniques [Online], 46 | 2020, Online since 08 January 2020, connection on 21 October 2020. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ceb/15109 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/ceb.15109

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About the author

Eleni Tsitsianopoulou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Philology

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