Navigation – Plan du site

AccueilNuméros49The Use of the Infinitive and Par...

The Use of the Infinitive and Participle in the Consecutive Clauses of the Greek Documentary Papyri of the Imperial and Early Arabic Period

L’usage de l’infinitif et du participe dans les propositions subordonnées consécutives des papyrus documentaires Grecs de la période impériale et du début de la période arabe
Η χρήση του απαρεμφάτου και της μετοχής στις συμπερασματικές προτάσεις των ελληνικών παπυρικών εγγράφων της αυτοκρατορικής και πρώιμης αραβικής περιόδου
Eleni Tsitsianopoulou

Résumés

Résumé : le but de cette étude est l’examen de la syntaxe des propositions subordonnées consécutives dans l’utilisation de l’infinitif et du participe dans les papyrus grecs non littéraires de l’époque impériale et du début de la période arabe. L’article présente la fréquence avec laquelle les deux formes verbales apparaissent dans les documents papyrologiques à partir de 31 av. J.-C. jusqu’au viiie siècle apr. J.-C. et met en évidence l’utilisation fréquente de la structure de l’infinitif par opposition à l’utilisation du participe, qui se produit beaucoup plus rarement. En parallèle, des expressions stéréotypées sont présentées, qui sont construites avec des propositions subordonnées consécutives et apparaissent principalement dans les documents juridiques. Les exemples ont été tirés par un corpus d’environ 55 000 papyrus et 15 000 ostraca non littéraires de la base de données en ligne Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri (DDbDP). Afin d’éviter toute erreur, ces textes ont été aussi vérifiés sur leurs éditions imprimées.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Professor of Ancient Greek Philology-Papyrology Amphilochios Papathomas for the helpful suggestions.

Introduction

  • 1 Hofmann 1950, p. 431; Jannaris 1968, p. 414.
  • 2 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, § 584, p. 505.
  • 3 Schwyzer 19592, p. 677.
  • 4 Goodwin, 1929, §§ 584.

1The adverbial relation of the result is stated frequently in papyri with consecutive clauses. The purpose of the present paper is to study the syntax of the consecutive clauses combined with an infinitive or a participle. These clauses are introduced by the conjunction ὥστε (= ὥς τε)1 and by the prepositional designations ἐφʼ ᾧ, ἐφʼ ᾧτε.2 The conjunction ὥστε from the 5th century B.C. onwards becomes prominent as the fundamental introductory conjunction of a consecutive sentence.3 This is a relative particle of comparison. The prepositional designations ἐφ’ ᾧ, ἐφ’ ᾧτε (= on condition that) with the infinitive denote requirement, agreement, or condition. In the main clause, either there is or is implied the demonstrative adverb οὕτως.4

  • 5 Gildersleeve, 1886, p. 165–167.

2The use of the conjunction ὥστε and the prepositional designations ἐφʼ ᾧ, ἐφʼ ᾧτε is common, whereas the use of the conjunction ὡς is absent from the consecutive clauses in papyrus texts. The addition of the particle τε to the conjunction ὡς differentiates the meaning of the two particles. The conjunction ὥστε possesses a peculiar consecutive power compared to the conjunction ὡς. It is used to limit the final meaning to effective.5

  • 6 “Οι επιρρηματικές προτάσεις, εξαιρουμένων των υποθετικών, σε ελληνικούς, μη λογοτεχνικούς παπύρους (...)

3The present article exploits a part of my research material during my doctoral dissertation.6

The consecutive conjunctions with the infinitive

  • 7 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 587; Smyth, 19562, §§ 2251, 2254.
  • 8 Mayser, 1906 –1970, II.1 297.
  • 9 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584a.1, p. 501.
  • 10 Αsopios, 18582, p. 216.

4As in the syntax of the Classical period,7 this syntactical combination is common to papyri when the result needs to be declared as derived from the essence of the main clause. The result is subjective and not objective. The important concept is defined by the nature of the leading clause,8 while the subordinate one only completes the concept of the independent clause.9 In cases where the result appears as something general, the infinitive is used, which is never accompanied by ἄν.10 The conclusion is based on the leading clause.

  • 11 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584d, p. 504.
  • 12 Ibid., II.2 § 584e, p. 505; SMYTH, 19562, § 2279.
  • 13 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, § 584e, p. 505.

5Frequently, the conjunction ὥστε combined with the infinitive states result, intent or purpose. This subordinate clause seems to have the same meaning as in the final clauses, except that the final ones express the purpose, while the consecutive ones only express an unspecified expression of the intended result.11 In order to declare requirement, instead of the conjunction ὥστε, the language after Homer also uses the prepositional designations ἐφʼ ᾧ, ἐφʼ ᾧτε, which correspond to the demonstrative ἐπὶ τούτῳ, which is or is implied in the main clause.12 They take a future indicative or infinitive. Instead of the prepositional designations ἐπὶ τούτοις, ἐπὶ τοῖσδε, which precede the consecutive clause in the syntax of the Classical period,13 in the papyri the demonstrative pronoun τοῦτο is placed, and the consecutive clause functions as an explanation of this demonstrative pronoun.

  • 14 Smyth, 19562, § 2265; Menge, 19619, p. 198.
  • 15 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584h, p. 506; Smyth, 19562, § 2266.
  • 16 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584g, p. 506.

6The conjunction ὥστε combined with the infinitive introduces consecutive clauses, which mainly depend on an affirmative, less often a negative14 or conditional clause.15 This structure involves the sense of non-real.16 The use of the conjunction ὥστε with the infinitive in the papyri is widespread.

  • 17 Smyth, 19562, § 2267.
  • 18 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2. § 584a.2a, p. 501.
  • 19 Asopios, 18582, p. 224.
  • 20 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584c, p. 504.
  • 21 We usually observe verbs and expressions, such as: ὁμολογῶ καὶ ἐντέλλω, ὁμολογῶ ἐπιτρέπω καὶ ἐντέλλ (...)

7The conjunction ὥστε follows expressions or verbs, such as δύναμαι, ποιῶ, κατορθῶ, διαπράττομαι, to denote intended result.17 In the papyri, consecutive clauses with the infinitive follow verbs or expressions, such as: δύναμαι (δύναται κατὰ τὸ τῆς συνηθείας εὐσεβὲς ἐπιτελεῖν), δυνατόν ἐστιν, ἔστιν (= ἔξεστιν), ἔδοξεν, χρὴ plus infinitive, to denote possible result,18 verbs that express wishes or orders,19 verbs, such as ἔστι, γίγνεται,20 ἔχω, ἐπικινδύνως ἔχω, ἀπογράφομαι, ἀποκαθίστημι, δυσωπῶ, προσφωνήσω τὸ ἴσον. They also follow verbs or expressions that denote agreement, command, claim, statement, mission, request, lease, will and the opposite.21

Consecutive clauses with the present infinitive

  • 22 Goodwin, 1929, § 610; Smyth, 19562, § 2279; Schwyzer 19592, p. 681.

8Quite often, in non-literary papyri, in addition to the conjunction ὥστε, the prepositional designations ἐφʼ ᾧ, ἐφʼ ᾧτε occur. In the syntax of the Classical period, we observe the future indicative less often than the infinitive.22 These clauses follow expressions denoting agreement, such as ὁμολογῶ μεμισθῶσθαι, ὁμολογῶ ἐσχηκέναι, ὁμολογῶ, ὁμολογῶ ἀναδεδέχθαι, ὁμολογῶ ἐγγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι, // will: βούλομαι μισθώσασθαι, // reading (in the presence of somebody): ὑπαναγιγνώσκω αὐτοῖς τὰ παρόντα γράμματα κελεύων αὐτοὺς μεταγράψαι, // hire ἐξεμίσθωσα, μεμίσθωμαι, // various meanings: δίδωμι, ἔσχηκα εἰς τὸ εἶναι. In the following papyrus texts, the consecutive clauses are introduced by the conjunctions ὥστε, ἐφʼ ᾧ, ἐφʼ ᾧτε.

9In the majority of the papyri the verbal form, which is the infinitive, is placed after the introductory conjunction of the consecutive clause, emphasizing the action of each verbal form. More specifically, in a papyrus text from the Herakleopolites nome, which is a statement of sheep and goats, the infinitive εἶναι is the second word of the subordinate clause, following the conjunction ὥστε: BGU XVI 2583, 9–22 (B.C. 13): ἀπογράφομαι εἰς τὸ προκ<ε>ίμ[ενο]ν̣ / ἑπτακαιδέκατον ἔτος Καίσαρος τὰ ὑπάρ/χοντά μοι πρόβατα [τέλεια] / … ὥστʼ εἶναι̣ τὸ πᾶν πρόβατα /vest./ νεμόμενα καὶ ποτιζόμενα καὶ αὐ/λιζόμενα περί Φνεβιέα καὶ διʼ ὅλου τοῦ / νομοῦ.

  • 23 The same construction is attested in P.Cair.Isid. 69 (petition) between the consecutive conjunction (...)

10In BGU XVI 2643 (letter), the basic verbal form of the clause, the infinitive μένειν, is the third word of the consecutive clause, as between the introductory conjunction of the clause and the infinitive is inserted the personal pronoun ἐμέ, which functions as a subject of the infinitive, which is emphasized.23 The same clause is connected with the conjunction καὶ with the next consecutive clause with the infinitive μὴ ποιεῖσθαι placed at the end of the clause, following the object καταλογήν μου. It is connected adversatively with the conjunction ἀλλὰ with the following clause, which takes the infinitive ἀπορρῖψαι at the beginning of the period. The clause follows the negative main clause οὐκ ᾔδειν: BGU XVI 2643, 9–13 (B.C. 8): οὐκ εἴδην [ὅτι]μ̣αρ̣κης ἐστιν τόπου ὥστε ἐμὲ / μένειν ἐν Βουσίρ<ε>ι ἡμέρας τρεῖς καὶ μὴ κατα/λογήν μου ποιεῖσθαι ἀλλὰ ἀπορίψαι (l. ἀπορρῖψαι) μοι τὸ ἐπί/σταλμα ̣[…] ̣δε μοι δεδωκέναι π̣λ̣ο̣υ̣/τραψεσ[…] ̣φεν.

  • 24 In SB I 4514 (unknown text type) the same construction occurs: SB I 4514 (= Chrest.Wilck. 425) (BL (...)

11In SB I 6000 (contract) the infinitive εἶναι is placed at the end of the clause. Therefore, there is a structure with the conjunction ὥστε at the beginning and the infinitive verb form (εἶναι) at the end of the period, which includes the other terms of the clause. The consecutive conjunction and the infinitive are the two fundamental elements of the period:24 SB I 6000, 20–27 (6th century): Tαύτης παρʼ ἐμοῦ / εἰς ὑμᾶς συντεταγμένης τῆς παραχωρήσεως καὶ ὁμολογείαι / διαλύσεων παρηκολούθ̣ησαν μεταξὺ σοῦ τῆς ἐμῆς θυγατρὸς / τῆσδε καὶ τοῦ σοῦ ἀδελφοῦ … περὶ φανερῶν / κεφαλαίων, ἐν αἷς ἐντέτακται̣ καὶ τοῦτο, ὥστε τὴν ὠνὴν / τὴν γενομένην τὸ τηνικαῦτα εἰς πρόσωπον / τοῦ εἰρημένου σοῦ ἀδελφοῦ τοῦδε τῶν αὐτῶν καὶ προγεγραμμέ[(νων)] / δύο κελλίων πλησ̣ιαζ[ό]ντων τοῖς κοινοῖς ὑμῶν πατρικοῖς / οἰκήμασιν τοῖς καὶ προγεγραμμένοις βεβαίαν εἶναι.

12In P.Rain.Cent. 57 (official letter), the infinitive ἀπαιτεῖσθαι is placed at the fourth place of the period, following the introductory conjunction and the adverbial designation of the amount μηδὲν περισσότερον, which is emphasized: P.Rain.Cent. 57, 1–6 (A.D. 49): [± 11 ] γιστη {ἐν} ἐν τ̣αῖς κώμαις, / [ ± 12 ] τῶν ἱερέων, [οἷ]ς̣ ἔξεστιν / καὶ δύνναται (l. δύναται) … ἐπιτελεῖν τὰ μ̣υ̣σ̣τ̣ήρι̣α, / ὥστε μηδὲν περισσότερον ἀπαιτεῖσθαι / παρὰ̣ τῶν εὖ ὄντ̣ω̣ν ἢ̣ σύνηθέ̣ς ἐστιν.

13A conditional clause and the predicative of the subject of the infinitive (ἄκυρον) follow the consecutive conjunction to the next papyrus text, which concerns judicial proceedings: P.Ryl. ΙΙ 75, 7–12 (late 2nd century): ζητηθήσεται ὁ πόρος αὐτο[ῦ,] ἤδη / μέντοι τύπος ἐστὶν καθʼ ὃν ἔκρεινα (l. ἔκρινα) / πολλάκις καὶ τοῦτο δίκαιον εἶναί / μοι φαίνεται ἐπὶ τῶν ἐ⟦κ̣⟧ξιστανο/⟦με⟧μένων ὥστε, εἴ τι ἐπὶ περιγρ[α]φῇ / τῶν δανιστῶν (l. δανειστῶν) ἐποίησαν, ἄκοιρον (l. ἄκυρον) εἶναι.

14A relative clause and the object of the infinitive (ταῦτα) precede the infinitive in P.Abinn. 9 (unknown text type): P.Abinn. 9 (= Chrest.Wilck. 322 =P.Lond. II 231), 3–7 (A.D. 346): καὶ δ̣ειʼ ἑτέρων γραμμάτων ἐδήλωσα τῇ εὐγενίᾳ (l. εὐγενείᾳ) σου / ὥστε ὅσα νίτρα καταλαμβάνεις εἴτε διὰ Μαρεωτῶν εἴτε / διὰ Αἰγυπτείων κατερχόμενα ἐν τῇ Ἀρσενοειτῶν ἢ καὶ / ἐν ἑτέροις τόποις ταῦτα ἐπέχειν, καὶ νομίζω μὴ δεδέχθαι / σε τὰ γράμματα.

Consecutive conjunctions with the aorist infinitive

  • 25 In the following examples, the prepositional phrase ἐφʼ ᾧ takes the aorist infinitives (ἀναγνωσθῆνα (...)

15The tense of the infinitive frequently used with consecutive conjunctions in the papyri is the aorist.25 In SB XXIV 16186 (registration of an apprentice for tax assessment) the aorist infinitive μαθεῖν follows the conjunction ὥστε: SB XXIV 16186 (= SEP 1 [2004] 31–35 = AfP 48 [2002] 128–131 = Symbolae Osloenses 73 [1998] 116–12), 4–9 (A.D. 70): Βούλ̣ο̣μ̣α̣ι̣ ἀ̣π̣ὸ̣ τ̣οῦ̣ ἐνεσ/τῶτος μην[ὸ]ς̣ Παῦ̣ν̣ι̣ τ̣ο̣ῦ̣ β̣ (ἔτους) / Αὐτοκράτορος Κ̣α̣ί̣σαρος Οὐεσ[π]α̣σ̣[ι]α̣νοῦ̣ / Σεβαστοῦ ἐγδόσθαι̣ τὸν ἀφήλικά μου / υἱὸν Παχόι̣ν ὥ̣σ̣τ̣ε̣ μαθεῖν τὴν / γερδιακὴν τέχνην.

16Three consecutive clauses followed by three conditional clauses occur in SB XXII 15729 (lease of land). The first conditional clause is followed by the consecutive clause in which the conjunction ὥστε is followed by the conjunction καί, the personal pronoun ἡμᾶς and the aorist infinitive παρασχεῖν. The second conditional clause is followed by the consecutive clause with the same structure as in the first clause except for the omission of καί. The pronoun ἡμᾶς precedes the infinitive ὑποδεῖξαι. The third and last conditional clause is followed by the consecutive clause in which the pronoun ἡμᾶς is once again followed by the infinitive παρασχεῖν and the temporal adverb πάλιν: SB XXII 15729, 20–36 (A.D. 639): κ̣[α]ὶ παράσχομεν / [ἡμῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ] φόρ[ου] αὐ̣τῶ[ν] ἐνιαυσίως / [χρυσ]οῦ νομι̣σ̣μ̣ά̣τια τέσσ̣α̣ρ̣α̣ … καὶ μὴ δύνασθαι ἡμᾶς / ἀγνωμονῆσαι περὶ τὴν δόσι[ν] τοῦ αὐτοῦ φόρου / ἐνιαυσίως καὶ ἐὰν συμβῇ ἐπιθεῖναι / προσθήκην ἐπάνω τῶν ἀρ[ο]υρῶν Μηνᾶ υἱοῦ / Βενιαμῖν ὥστε καὶ ἡμᾶς παρασχεῖν τὴν προσθήκ(ην) / τῶν αὐτῶν ἀρουρῶν ἀναλόγως καὶ ἐὰν συμβῇ / τὰς αὐτὰς ἀρούρας ἀναλωθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος / ὥστε ἡμᾶς ὑποδεῖξαι ὑμῖν αὐτὰς καὶ εἶναι / αὐτὰς χωρὶς δημοσίου καὶ πάλιν ἐὰν σωθῶσι / ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος καὶ συμβῇ τὰς ἐκ λιβὸς καὶ ἀνατολ(ῶν) / καὶ βορρᾶ αὐτῶν ἀρούρας σπαρῆναι ὥστε / ἡμᾶς πάλιν παρασχεῖν ὑμ̣ῖν τὰ αὐτὰ τέσσαρ[α] νομ(ισμάτια) / τοῦ φόρου ἐτησίως.

17In the following example the subject or the object of the infinitives follows the conjunction ὥστε, and the infinitive follows. In SB XX 15162 (copy of an apprenticeship contract), the subject τὴν Τασωοῦκιν precedes the infinitive παρέξασθαι: SB XX 15162, 1–8 (2nd century): Τασωοῦκις Ἥρων̣ος `ὡ(ς) (ἐτῶν) λη ἄση(μος)´ μετὰ κ(υρίου) Μαρέ̣ω̣ς̣ [τοῦ] / ὡ(ς) (ἐτῶν) μθ ἀσή(μου) καὶ ⟦μον̣ος̣⟧ Σανσνέως ψιαθ(οπλόκου) οἱ β̣ / Ἡρακλείδης Ἥρωνος ὡ(ς) (ἐτῶν) μγ οὐλὴ πο̣[δὶ] / δεξιῷ οἱ β συντεθεῖσθαι πρὸς / ἀλλήλους ὥστε τὴν Τασωοῦ/κιν παρέξασθαι τὸν ἑαυτῆς ϋἱὸν / Σαραπίωνα παραμένοντα τῷ / Ἡρακλείδ(ῃ) ἐπὶ ἔτη γ.

18In the following examples, the infinitive occurs more than one or two words away from the conjunction ὥστε, such as in P.Oxy. XII 1490 (BL X 142) (private letter) and in SB IV 7438 (letter): P.Oxy. XII 1490, 2–4 (A.D. 320): Δημήτριος ὁ γνωστὴρ ἠξίωσέν με λέ̣γ̣ιν σοι / ὥστε αὐτὸν ἄ̣λυπον γενέσθαι ὑπὲρ τ̣ῶ̣ν̣ πρ̣ο̣τ̣έ̣ρ̣ων / ἐτῶν and in SB ΙV 7438, 11–13 (A.D. 551): παρακαλῶ δὲ καὶ σπουδήν τινα πλείω προστεθῆναι Διοσκόρῳ / τῷ θαυμασίῳ, ὥστε κἀμὲ χρήσιμον αὐτῷ φανῆναι καὶ ὑμᾶς πολλῷ / πλείονα τὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσπότου θεοῦ μισθὸν ἀπολαβεῖν.†

  • 26 In a similar way in P.Oxy. Hels. 47 b, 3–10 (private letter, 2nd century): ἔτι καὶ ν̣ῦν ἐπ̣ικινδύ/ν (...)

19Another construction is the precedence of the subject of the infinitive with its predicative26 and other designations, as in P.Mich. VI 425, 13–18 (petition, A.D. 198): ἠργολ[ά]βησέν με κ̣α̣ὶ̣ πρότερον ἐμὲ ἐξυβρείσας (l. ἐξυβρίσας) / δημοσίᾳ καὶ τὴν μητέραν μου, μετὰ τ̣ὸ̣ π̣λ̣ί̣σ̣ταις (l. πλείσταις) αὐτὴν πληγαῖς αἰκίσασθαι / καὶ πέλυκι ὅλας μου τέσσαρες (l. τέσσαρας) θύρας κατασχείσαι (l. κατασχίσαι) ὥστε ὅλην ἡμῶν τὴν / οἰκίαν ἀνεπταμένην γενέσθαι καὶ εὐεπείβατον (l. εὐεπίβατον) παντὶ κακού[ργῳ, τούτων] / κατασχεισμένων (l. κατεσχισμένων) καὶ κατενηνεγμένων ἡμῶν μηδὲν [ὀφειλόντων] / τῷ ταμείῳ.

20An attributive participle combined with the object of the infinitive follow the introductory conjunction in SB XII 10780 (= P.Oxy. III 593 descr. = BASP 7 [1970] 23–28), 1–24 (lease of land, A.D. 172–173): Ἐμίσθωσεν Θρασυλλοῦς … ἀρούρας δύο, / ὥστε τὸν μεμισθωμένον ταύ/τας σπεῖραι καὶ ξυλαμῆσαι / οἷς ἂν αἱρῆται γένεσι χωρὶς ἰσά/τεως καὶ ἐχομενείου ἐκφορίου / καὶ φόρου κατʼ ἔτος πυροῦ ἀρτα/βῶν ὀκτὸ (l. ὀκτὼ) καὶ ἀργυρίου δραχμ/ῶν τριάκοντα δύο, ἀκίνδυνα / πάντα παντὸς κινδύνου, τῶν / τῆς γῆς δημοσίων πάντων / ὄντων κατʼ ἔτος πρὸς τὴν μεμι/σθωκυῖαν.

21In P.Oxy. L 3561 (petition), an infinitive with the article precedes the infinitive: P.Oxy. L 3561, 8–12 (A.D. 165): ἐπῆλθ̣άν μοί τινες ληστρικῷ τρόπῳ / ξιφ̣ήρεις μετὰ κώμην Ἱε̣ρ̣ὰν Νεικολά/ου πρὸ τοῦ μαγδώλου καὶ πολλαῖς με / πληγαῖς ᾐκίσαντο ὥστε τῷ ζῆν κιν/δυνεῦσαι.

  • 27 Similarly, in P.Sakaon 42 (= P.Thead. 20), 8–10 (petition, c. A.D. 323): [ἐκέλε]υσας τοῖς χωματε̣πί (...)

22A prepositional designation of time, of place,27 personal pronoun as the subject of the infinitive precede the infinitive in P.Ammon II 30 (petition). The main clause is negative (ἐν δὲ τ̣ῆι ὁμολογίαι ταύτηι οὐκ οἶδ’). The introductory conjunction occurs at the beginning and the infinitive verb form at the end of the period: P.Ammon II 30, 7–10 (A.D. 348): ἐν δὲ̣ τ̣ῆι ὁμολογ[ί]αι / ταύτηι οὐκ οἶδ’ [ἀν]θ’ ὅτου ὑπήχθην προθεσ[μί]αν ὁρ̣ισθεῖ[σα]ν τοιαύτη[ν] κατ̣α̣δέξασθαι / ὥστε εἴσω ἡμ[ερ]ῶ̣ν εἴκοσι ἀπὸ ἑβδόμης καὶ ε̣[ἰ]κ̣άδος Ἁθὺρ [τοῦ] παρελθό̣ν̣[τ]ος μηνὸ̣ς̣ εἰς̣ / τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρ[ειά]ν μ̣ε παραγε̣νέσθαι, ὅπω[ς] π̣έρας ἐπιτεθ̣ῆι τῶι πρά[γμα]τι.

23A relative clause and the object of the infinitive (ταῦτα) precede the infinitive in P.Abinn. 9 (= Chrest.Wilck. 322 = P.Lond. II 231): 3–8 (unknown text type, A.D. 346): καὶ δ̣ειʼ (l. διʼ) ἑτέρων γραμμάτων ἐδήλωσα τῇ εὐγενίᾳ (l. εὐγενείᾳ) σου / ὥστε ὅσα νίτρα καταλαμβάνεις εἴτε διὰ Μαρεωτῶν εἴτε / διὰ Αἰγυπτείων κατερχόμενα ἐν τῇ Ἀρσενοειτῶν (l. Ἀρσινοειτῶν) ἢ καὶ / ἐν ἑτέροις τόποις ταῦτα ἐπέχειν, καὶ νομίζω μὴ δεδέχθαι / σε τὰ γράμματα, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔσχον παρὰ τῆς εὐγενίας (l. εὐγενείας) σου / περὶ τῆς ὑποθέσεως ταύτης γράμματα.

  • 28 Calderini, 1987, V. 49.

24In P.Lips. I 48 from Hypsele28 (guarantee), the subject (με) of the infinitive παραδοῦναι is combined with the attributive participial phrase αὐτὸν τὸν προειρημένον: P.Lips. I 48(BL I 208), 6–14 (A.D. 372): Ὁμολ[ο]γῶ ὀμνὺς τ[ὸ]ν θεῖον ὅρκον / τῶν δεσποτῶν ἡμῶν καλλινίκων / αἰων[ί]ων Αὐγούστων ἀναδεδέχθαι / ὑ̣μῖν Δ̣ανιὴλ Μικκάλου ἀπὸ κεφα/[λ]αιωτῶν τῆς ιγ// ἐπινεμήσεως / κελευσθέντα ἀπαντῆσαι εἰς τὴν / τάξιν ἐφʼ ᾧ με αὐτὸν τὸν προει/ρημένων (sic) παραδοῦναι ὑμῖν ἐ̣π̣ὶ / τῇ ἐ̣π̣α̣ν̣όδῳ.

25The subject of the infinitive may be followed by his object, as in P.Panop. 9 (lease of land), in which the object ἐπιμέλειαν follows the subject of the infinitive ποιήσασθαι: P.Panop. 9 (= SB XII 10976), 2–5 (A.D. 339): μεμίσθωμαι παρὰ σοῦ ἀπὸ / σήμ̣ε̣[ρ]ο̣[ν] π̣ρ̣ὸ̣ς μόνον τὸ ἐνεσ[τὸς ἔτο]ς̣ μέρος σου φοινικῶνος / περὶ τὴν π̣[ό]λ̣ι̣ν̣ ἐ̣φ̣ʼ ᾧ με τ̣[ὴ]ν̣ ἐ̣π̣ι̣μέλειαν ποιήσασθαι / κ̣[αὶ] ἀ̣ν̣α̣β̣ο̣λ̣ὴ̣[ν κ]α̣ὶ̣ π̣ο̣τ̣ι̣σ̣μ̣ὸν <καὶ> ὠχία̣ν̣.

  • 29 In addition, we see the prepositional phrases of place, such as: ἐν τῷ ̣ ̣ ̣α̣υτων γεουχικῷ πωμαρίῳ (...)

26A common expression used in later notarial documents of Oxyrhynchus (6th/7th century) is: ἐφʼ ᾧ τε αὐτὸν ἀδιαλείπτως παραμεῖναι καὶ διάγειν. The consecutive clause is usually dependent on this expression ὁμολογῶ ἑκουσίᾳ γνώμῃ, ἐπωμνύμενος τὸν θεῖον καὶ σεβάσμιον ὅρκον, ἐγγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι and it is followed by a prepositional designation of place,29 such as: ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ κτήματι (P.Oxy. I 135 with BL VIII 232), 10–21 (guarantee, A.D. 579): ὁμολογῶ ἑκουσίᾳ γνώμῃ, ἐπωμνύμενος τὸν θεῖον / καὶ σεβάσμιον ὅρκον, ἐγγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι … ἐναπόγραφον αὐτῆς γεωργόν, ἐφʼ ᾧ τε αὐτὸν / ἀδιαλείπτως παραμεῖναι καὶ διάγειν ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ κτήματι … καὶ μηδαμῶς αὐτὸν καταλεῖψαι τὸ αὐτὸ κτῆμα μήτε μὴν / μεθίστασθαι εἰς ἕτερον τόπον.

27Another construction in papyrus texts (with the conjunction ὥστε) is the location of the infinitive at the end of the consecutive clause and the location of the prepositional designation at the beginning of the clause, enclosing all the others terms of the clause. There is a large distance between the introductory conjunction of the clause and the infinitive. In SB XX 14448 (contract) the infinitive ἐπικρατεῖν, connected with the conjunction καὶ with the infinitives κυριεύειν καὶ δεσπόζειν καὶ χρῆσαι, is placed at the end of the clause: SB ΧΧ 14448 (= P.Lond. ΙΙΙ descr. 1054 p. 54), 1–13 (6th/7th century): ἡμεῖς οἱ ἀποδόμενοι … ἐσχήκαμεν παρὰ σοῦ τοῦ προγεγραμμένου / … εἰς τὸ εἶν[αι π]ε̣ρ̣ὶ σὲ τὸν πριάμενον / κα̣ὶ̣ τοὺ̣ς παρὰ σοῦ μεταλημψο̣μένους [τ]ὴ[ν τοῦ πεπ]ρ̣[αμένου] / σοι παρʼ ἡμῶν ὡς πρόκειται δεσποτείαν ἡμίσεως / μέρους ὁλοκλήρου οἰκίας μετὰ παντὸς αὐτοῦ τοῦ δικαίου / ἐφʼ ᾧτε σὲ ἐντεῦθεν ἤδη τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἡμίσεως μέρους / ὁλοκλήρου οἰκίας μετὰ παντὸς αὐτοῦ τοῦ δικαίου / ἐπικρατεῖν καὶ κυριεύειν καὶ δεσπόζειν καὶ χρῆσαι.

The expressions ὥστε κελεῦσαι ἡμῖν τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐργάτην παρασχεθῆναι and ὥστε σπεῖραι καὶ ξυλαμῆσαι

28In addition to the above examples, the expression ὥστε κελεῦσαι ἡμῖν τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐργάτην παρασχεθῆναι is often used with its variants mainly in texts of receipts: ὥστε κελεῦσαι ἡμῖν τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐργάτην παρασχεθῆναι // ὥστε κελεῦσαί μοι αὐτὸν παρασχεθῆναι // ὥστε κελεῦσαί μοι τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐργάτην παρασχεθῆναι, as in P.Oxy. LXIX 4755, 17–18 (receipt for a cogwheel, A.D. 586): [ὥστε κελε]ῦ̣σαι ἡ[μῖν τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐρ]/[γάτην παρ]ασ̣χεθῆ[ναι // in P.Oxy. LXX 4782, (receipt for an axle, A.D. 528): [ὥστε κελεῦσαί μοι αὐτὸν παρασχεθῆναι.] // in P.Oxy. LXX 4798, 11 (receipt for a cogwheel, A.D. 586): ὥστε κελεῦσαί μοι τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐργάτην παρασχεθῆναι // in P.Oxy. LXX 4799, 16 (receipt for a cogwheel, A.D. 586): ὥστε κελεῦ̣σαί μοι τὸν αὐτὸν μέγαν ἐργάτην πα<ρα>σχεθῆναι. The phrase functions stereotypically and is located chiefly in the middle or less often at the end of papyrus texts concerning receipts.

  • 30 This phrase regularly appears in the following papyri: PSI IΧ 1029, 10–11 (contract of land, A.D. 5 (...)
  • 31 Bataille et al., 19393, comment v. 12.
  • 32 Preisigke & Kiessling, 1925, p. 698.
  • 33 Preisigke & Kiessling, 1927, p. 216.

29Most frequently the stereotypical phrase ὥστε σπεῖραι καὶ ξυλαμῆσαι is attested,30 typically repeated in notarial documents of lease of lands, which usually date back to the 1st until the 4th century. The verb σπείρω is used for cereals, the verb ξυλαμάω is properly used, in contrast to σπείρω, for green crops or fodder (green, such as plants χόρτος και ἄραξ,31 ἰσάτις32 και ὀχομένιον),33 as in BGU IV 1017 (contract of land): BGU IV 1017, 1–11 (3rd cent.): [Ἐμίσθωσεν] … ἀρούρ]ας εἴκοσι δύο ἥμισυ τρίτον, ὥστε / [τῷ μὲν πρώτῳ καὶ τῷ] τρίτῳ ἐνιαυτῷ κατʼ ἔτος σπεῖραι πυ/[ρῷ … φόρου] ἀποτάκτου κατʼ [ἔτο]ς πυροῦ ἀρτά/[βῶν … καὶ τῷ δε]υτέρῳ ἐνιαυτῷ ξυ[λ]αμῆσαι οἷς / [ἐὰν αἱρῶνται χωρὶς ἰσάτ]εως καὶ [ὀ]χομενίου.

  • 34 Bataille, 19393, comment v. 24.

30Very rarely, instead of the conjunction καί, the disjunctive conjunction ἤ occurs in the phrase ὥστε σπεῖραι καὶ ξυλαμῆσαι, such as in P.Oxy. XIV 1687, I. 18 (A.D. 184) σπεῖραι ἢ ξυλαμῆσαι κριθῇ. Perhaps the two verbs have different significance, but the exact meaning and etymology of the verb ξυλαμάω remains obscure.34

The consecutive conjunctions with time alternation of the infinitive

31The way of expressing the time of the infinitive may change. Thus, the present infinitive may alternate with the aorist infinitive and the perfect infinitive, as in the following examples. In P.Oxy. XLV 3250 (contract), the consecutive clause follows the relative conditional clause. There are two consecutive clauses. In this example the first consecutive clause with an aorist infinitive alternates with the present infinitive: P.Oxy. XLV 3250 (BL IX 201; VIII 267), 1–13 (A.D. 63): ἐναύλωσεν Ἀν[ο]υβᾶς … / τὴν δηλουμένην σκάφην σὺν τῇ ναυτείᾳ, εἰς ἣν καὶ ἐμβαλεῖ/ται ἀφʼ ὧν ἐὰν αἱρῆται τοῦ Ἑρμοπολείτου νομοῦ ὅρμον ἄρακος / … καὶ τῶν ἑκατὸν / ἀρταβῶν ἀναυλὶ ἀρτάβας δέκα δύο ἥμισυ, ὥστε ἀποκατασ/τῆσε (l. ἀποκαταστῆσαι) … ναύλου … πρὸς ἀλλήλους τῶν ἑκατὸν ἀρταβῶν / ἀργυρίου δραχμῶν εἴκοσι ὀκτό (l. ὀκτώ), ὥστʼ εἶναι δραχμὰς ἑκατὸν / τεσσεράκοντα, ἀφʼ ὧν ὁμολογεῖ ὁ Ἀνουβᾶς ἐσχηκέναι παρὰ / τοῦ Πολυτείμου ἐπὶ τῶν τόπων δραχμὰς ἑβδομήκοντα / δύο.

32An alternation of the aorist infinitive with the present infinitive is also observed in the consecutive clauses which are introduced by the prepositional designation ἐφʼ ᾥτε, as in P.Stras. I 40 (contract), the pronoun αὐτόν (στ. 30) precedes the infinitives παραμεῖναι τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ λαμπρᾷ σοφίᾳ καὶ προσεδρεύειν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐπείξασθαι καὶ μηδαμῶς ἀποστῆναι. In this example, between the aorist infinitives, the present infinitive προσεδρεύειν occurs: P.Stras. I 40 (BL VIII 414), 23–35 (A.D. 569): Ὁμολογῶ ἐγὼ ὁ … / Κολλοῦθος … / τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ πρωτοτύπου τῆς νομ̣ῆς … δίχα παντοίας μέμψεως … , ἐφʼ ᾧ αὐτὸν παραμεῖναι τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ λαμπρᾷ σο̣[φ]ί̣ᾳ κ[αὶ] / προσεδρεύειν καθαρῶ̣ς̣ καὶ ἀ̣δ̣[ό]λ̣[ω]ς̣ κ̣[α]ὶ̣ ε̣[…] κ̣[αὶ] τ̣α̣ῖ̣ς̣ ἡ̣μ̣[ε]ρ̣(ίαις) / χρείαις γνησίως … καὶ πᾶσαν ἐπε̣ίξ̣ασθαι δου̣λ̣ικῇ̣ / υ ̣ῃ ὑπηρεσίαν εἴτε ἐπʼ ἀλλο̣δ̣απῆς γῆς, εἴτ̣ε κατʼ οἶκον ἀόκν̣ως̣ / … κα̣ὶ μ̣[η]δ̣αμῶ̣[ς] ἀ̣ποστῆν̣α̣ι τῆς δουλ̣ι̣κῆς̣ α[ὐ]τοῦ / π̣ροστα̣σ̣ί[ας.

The consecutive conjunctions with the perfect infinitive

33Consecutive clauses are seldom attested with the perfect infinitive, such as in SB V 7601 (fragment of a document concerning “ὑπομνηματισμοί”) the infinitive ἀπῃτηκέναι: SB V 7601 (= Aegyptus 13 [1933] 514–528), 7–9 (A.D. 135): Ἥρωνος ἀπο[κρι]ν̣ομένου ἀτέλιον διδ[όσ]θαι τοῖς Ἀντινοεῦσι μ[ό]νων, ὧν ἐὰν κτήσ[o]ν̣ται / ἐν τῇ Ἀντιν̣[ό]ου πόλει⟦ν⟧ ο̣ὕτως ὥστε καὶ̣ τ̣ο̣ὺς πρὸ α̣ὐτοῦ ἐπιτηρη̣τ̣ὰς τοὺς ὁμοίως τῶ̣ι̣ / Κάστωρι ἀπῃτη̣κένα̣ι [τ]ὰ τοιαῦτα τέλ̣η. We observe the demonstrative adverb οὕτως in the previous clause.

Consecutive conjunctions with the present participle

  • 35 Schwyzer, 19592, p. 680.
  • 36 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 586b. p. 514–515.
  • 37 Goodwin, 1929, § 607.
  • 38 Ibid.
  • 39 Smyth, 19562, § 2276.

34In the following example, the conjunction ὥστε is combined with a participle. The presence of a participle instead of an infinitive form in the consecutive clauses of non-literary papyri is rare. If there is a participial structure in the leading clause, then the conjunction ὥστε with participle may follow. Consecutive clauses with participle are seldom attested in the syntax of Classical period.35 In this case the structure of the subordinate clause is adapted to the syntactic requirements of the main clause.36 “As a clause with the conjunction ὥστε, depending on an infinitive in indirect discourse, is assimilated to the infinitive, so one depending on a participle in indirect discourse may be assimilated to the participle”.37 This construction is equivalent to the construction with the infinitive.38 “This type of writing can be used in place of an infinitive syntax by attraction to a preceeding participle”.39 Verbs and phrases, such as κόμισαι, ὁμολογῶ ἐγγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι occur.

35In P.Vind.Sijp. XI 7 (guarantee), the consecutive clause takes the participle παραμένοντα which is equivalent to the infinitive παραμένειν. In the main clause there is a participial construction: P.Vind.Sijp. XI 7 (BL VIII 199; VII 96; IX 152), 6–10 (A.D. 463): ὁμολογῶ … ἐ]γ̣γυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι τὸν Αὐρήλιον /…, ὥστε παραμ̣ένοντα ἐν τῶ αὐτῷ ἐπ̣ο̣ικίοˋυ′.

Conclusion

36The use of the consecutive clauses runs throughout the period under consideration, that is from the 1st century B.C. until the 8th century A.D. In the papyri, we find mostly the construction ὥστε plus infinitive denoting a subjective result. The frequently used tenses of the infinitive are the present and aorist, whereas the perfect is rare. Occasionally there is an alternation among the present, aorist and perfect infinitive. The conjunction ὥστε with a participle is seldom attested. The prepositional designations ἐφ’ ᾧ, ἐφ’ ᾧτε are used as conjunctions for introducing consecutive clauses mainly later, from the 4th up to the 8th century. A.D.

37Sometimes the consecutive clause follows the adverb οὕτως or the demonstrative pronoun τοῦτο. Consecutive sentences, in most examples, follow the main clause, as they function as an integral part and continuity of the latter. Concerning the distance between the introductory conjunction of the result clause and the infinitive verbal form the following categories occur: The infinitive form may be located after the consecutive conjunction, at a relatively close distance. This category includes the largest number of examples. Some words are inserted between them, such as personal or demonstrative pronouns, conjunctions, prepositional designations, names, infinitives with articles. The infinitive may also be at a great distance, as subordinate clauses (usually conditional or relatives) or attributive participles with their objects are inserted between them. The infinitive may also be at the end of the period. All the other terms of the period are located between them.

38Worth noting are some mostly attested stereotypical expressions. The phrase used chiefly in receipts is ὥστε κελεῦσαι ἡμῖν τὸν αὐτὸν μικρὸν ἐργάτην παρασχεθῆναι with its variants. The second stereotypical phrase, which is typically repeated in notarial land lease documents (1st– 4th century A.D.) is the phrase ὥστε σπεῖραι καὶ ξυλαμῆσαι. Another expression found in notarial documents (6th–7th century A.D.) is ἐφʼ ᾧ τε αὐτὸν ἀδιαλείπτως παραμεῖναι καὶ διάγειν.

Haut de page

Bibliographie

Books

Αsopios Konstantinos, 18582, Συντακτικόν της Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Γλώσσης, Αthens.

Bataille André et al., 19393, Les Papyrus Fouad I, 1–89, Le Caire.

Calderini Aristide & Daris Sergio, 1987, Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell’Egitto greco-romano, Cisalpino-Goliardica, Milan.

Goodwin William W., 1929, Syntax of the moods and tenses of the Greek Verb, rewritten and enlarged ed., Bristol.

Hofmann Johann B., 1950, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, München.

Jannaris Antonius N., 1968, An Historical Greek Grammar: Chiefly of the Attic Dialect as written and spoken from Classical Antiquity down to the present time, Hildesheim.

Kühner Raphael & Gerth Bernhard, 18983–19043, Aüsfuhrliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache, zweiter Teil: Satzlehre, zweiter Band, reprinted Hannover 1966, Hannover-Leipzig.

Mayser Edwin, 1906–1970, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemäerzeit mit Einschluss der gleichzeitiden Ostraka und der in Ägypten verfassten Inschriften, Berlin-Leipzig.

Menge Hermann, 19619, Repetitorium der Griechischen Syntax, München.

Preisigke Friedrich & Kiessling Emil, 1925, 1927, I, A-K, II, L-W, Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, mit Einschluss der griechischen Inschriften, Aufschriften, Ostraka, Mumienschilder usw. aus Ägypten, Berlin.

Schwyzer Eduard, 19592, Erster Band: Griechische Grammatik (1939) Zweiter Band: Syntax und Syntaktische Stilistik, vervollständigt und herausgegeben von A. Debrunner, München.

Smyth Herbert, 19562, W. Greek Grammar, Cambridge Massachusetts.

Article

Gildersleeve Basil L., 1886, “The Consecutive Sentence in Greek”, The American Journal of Philology 7, p. 161-175.

Webography

Papyri, URL: https://papyri.info

Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusur­kunden Ägyptens, URL: https://aquila.zaw.uni-heidelberg.de/start

Haut de page

Notes

1 Hofmann 1950, p. 431; Jannaris 1968, p. 414.

2 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, § 584, p. 505.

3 Schwyzer 19592, p. 677.

4 Goodwin, 1929, §§ 584.

5 Gildersleeve, 1886, p. 165–167.

6 “Οι επιρρηματικές προτάσεις, εξαιρουμένων των υποθετικών, σε ελληνικούς, μη λογοτεχνικούς παπύρους της αυτοκρατορικής και της πρώιμης αραβικής εποχής (Athens, 2016) (= The adverbial clauses, excluding the conditional ones, in Greek non-literary papyri of the Imperial and early Arabic Period).

7 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 587; Smyth, 19562, §§ 2251, 2254.

8 Mayser, 1906 –1970, II.1 297.

9 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584a.1, p. 501.

10 Αsopios, 18582, p. 216.

11 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584d, p. 504.

12 Ibid., II.2 § 584e, p. 505; SMYTH, 19562, § 2279.

13 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, § 584e, p. 505.

14 Smyth, 19562, § 2265; Menge, 19619, p. 198.

15 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584h, p. 506; Smyth, 19562, § 2266.

16 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584g, p. 506.

17 Smyth, 19562, § 2267.

18 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2. § 584a.2a, p. 501.

19 Asopios, 18582, p. 224.

20 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 584c, p. 504.

21 We usually observe verbs and expressions, such as: ὁμολογῶ καὶ ἐντέλλω, ὁμολογῶ ἐπιτρέπω καὶ ἐντέλλω σοι, ὁμολογῶ ἐγγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι, ὁμολογῶ μεμισθῶσθαι, ὁμολογῶ ἐσχηκέναι, ὁμολογῶ παρειληφέναι, // ἀξιῶ, // ἐδήλωσα, // ἐντεῖλαι, ἐντέτακται, προστέτακται, προσφωνήσω, συνεφώνησα, ἀπέστειλα, ἐπέστειλα, ἐκέλευσα, ἐπιδίδωμι ἀξιῶν κατασχεῖν, παραδώσω, ἀνάγραψαι, // συμπεφώνηται, συνεφώνησα, // παρακαλῶ δὲ καὶ σπουδήν τινα πλείω προστεθῆναι Διοσκόρῳ τῷ θαυμασίῳ, // εἰ δὲ μὴ τοῦτο πράξῳ, ἄλλως ποιήσω, ἠργολάβησα, ὑπήχθην προθεσμίαν ὁρισθεῖσαν τοιαύτην καταδέξασθαι, // ᾐκισάμην, // ἐξεμίσθωσα, ἐμίσθωσα ἄρουραν / ἀρούρας, μεμίσθωμαι // βούλομαι, βούλομαι ἐγδόσθαι τὸν ἀφήλικά μου υἱόν.

22 Goodwin, 1929, § 610; Smyth, 19562, § 2279; Schwyzer 19592, p. 681.

23 The same construction is attested in P.Cair.Isid. 69 (petition) between the consecutive conjunction ὥστε and the infinitives ὑπερανακρατεῖσθαι ἢ παραπράττεσθαι there is typically inserted their subject μηδένα: P.Cair.Isid. 69 (= SB VI 9186) (BL IV 11; V 20), 3–5 (A.D. 310): πολλάκις μὲν / προστέτακτε (l. προστέτακται) ὑπὸ τῶν νόμων ὥστε μηδένα / ὑπερανακρατῖσθαι (l. ὑπερανακρατεῖσθαι) ἢ παραπράττεσθαι // also, the third word is the infinitive ἔχειν in SB I 6000 (contract). In this structure between the consecutive conjunction ὥστε and the infinitive the personal pronoun ἐμὲ occurs: SB I 6000, 3–8 (6th century): μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν / τοῦ μακαριωτάτου σοῦ μὲν πατρός, ἐμοῦ δὲ ἀνδρὸς τοῦδε ὁμολογία / παραχωρήσεως πραγμάτων ἐξετέθη παρʼ ἐμοῦ εἰˋς’′ σὲ καὶ τὸν σὸν ἀδε[λφόν], / ἐμὸν δὲ υἱὸν τόνδε, ἥτις καὶ τὴν ἰδίαν περιέχει δύναμιν, διʼ ἧς / συμπεφώνηται παρʼ ὑμῶν πρὸς ἐμέ, ὥστʼ ἐμὲ ἔχειν τὴν χρῆσιν / τῆς πατρῴας ὑμῶν οἰκίας.

24 In SB I 4514 (unknown text type) the same construction occurs: SB I 4514 (= Chrest.Wilck. 425) (BL VIII 310), 1 (A.D. 269): ἐστὶν ὥστε τοὺς λαμβ[ά]νοντας τάβλας καὶ τὸν σῖτον λαμβάνειν.

25 In the following examples, the prepositional phrase ἐφʼ ᾧ takes the aorist infinitives (ἀναγνωσθῆναι και ποιῆσαι), which follow the introductory conjunction in P.Lond. IV 1384, 14–16 (letter, A.D. 710?): καὶ ὑπαναγνώση’ (l. ὑπαναγνώσῃς) αὐτοῖς’ τὰ παρ’όντα γρ’άμμ[ατα κελεύων] / αὐτοὺς’ μεταγ’ράψαι τὸ ἴσον ἑκάστῳ χωρίῳ] / ἐφʼ ᾧ ἀν’αγ’νωσθῆναι’ αὐτὰ τοῖς τῶν ἰδίων χ[ωρίων] … 45–48: λοιπὸν ὅσης δυ[νάμεως (?)] / ἐμπόνως εἰς τὸ πρ’ᾶγμα τῶν’ τοιούτω[ν φυγάδων ὥστε] / τοῦ ἀποστόλου ἡμῶν καταλαμ[βάν]ον’τος τ̣[ὰ πρὸς σὲ(?)] / ἐφʼ ᾧ ποιῆσαι τὴν’ το[ι]αύτην ἔρ’αυναν (l. ἔρευναν).

26 In a similar way in P.Oxy. Hels. 47 b, 3–10 (private letter, 2nd century): ἔτι καὶ ν̣ῦν ἐπ̣ικινδύ/ν̣ως ἔχω, ὥ̣στε / κ̣αὶ εἰ̣ μὴ̣ γ̣ε̣γρά/φ̣ειν σο[ι [π]έ̣πισμαι (l. πέπεισμαι) / ὅ̣τ̣ι̣ ο̣ὐ̣κ̣ [ἀ]ρ̣ν̣ήσει / ⟦ὥστε⟧ ἀ̣μέριμνόˋν′ / με π̣ο̣ι̣ῆ̣σ̣α̣ι̣ ἐκ παν/τὸς τ̣ρόπου.

27 Similarly, in P.Sakaon 42 (= P.Thead. 20), 8–10 (petition, c. A.D. 323): [ἐκέλε]υσας τοῖς χωματε̣πίκταις μετὰ ὀφικιαλίου καὶ τοῦ / [πραι]ποσίτου τοῦ πάγου, ὥστε ἐπ̣[ὶ] τῶν τόπων γενέσθαι / [καὶ ἐ]πιθεωρῆσαι τὴν ὄψιν.

28 Calderini, 1987, V. 49.

29 In addition, we see the prepositional phrases of place, such as: ἐν τῷ ̣ ̣ ̣α̣υτων γεουχικῷ πωμαρίῳ (P.Oxy. XXVII 2478 with BL VIII 259), 10–14 (guarantee, A.D. 595): ὁμολογῶ ἑκουσίᾳ / γνώμῃ καὶ αὐθαιρέτῳ προαιρέσει ἐπωμνύμενος τὸν θεῖον καὶ / σεβάσμιον ὅρκον ἐνγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι … ἐναπόγραφον / αὐτῆς πωμαρίτην ἐφʼ ᾧ αὐτὸν ἀδιαλείπτως παραμεῖναι καὶ / διάγειν ἐν τῷ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣α̣υτων γεουχικῷ πωμαρίῳ // or ἐν τ̣ῇ̣ / [αὐ]τ̣ῇ̣ κώ̣μ̣ῃ̣ (P.Oxy. LVIII 3959), 11–19 (guarantee, A.D. 620): ὁμολογῶ ἑκουσίᾳ / γνώμῃ καὶ αὐθαιρέτῳ προαιρέσει / (l. -ομνύμενος) τ[ὸν θ]εῖον καὶ σεβάσμιˋον′ / ὅρκον ἐγγυᾶσθαι καὶ ἀναδέχεσθαι / παρʼ ὑμῖν Αὐρήλιον … / ἐφʼ ᾧτε αὐτὸν ἀδιαλείπτως / παραμεῖναι καὶ διάγειν ἐν τ̣ῇ̣ / [αὐ]τ̣ῇ̣ κώ̣μ̣ῃ̣.

30 This phrase regularly appears in the following papyri: PSI IΧ 1029, 10–11 (contract of land, A.D. 52–53) // P.Oxy. XLIX 3488, 11–12 (lease of land, A.D. 70–71) // P.Oxy. IΙ 280, 11–14 (lease of land, A.D. 88–89) // P.Oxy. L 3589, 5–7 (leases of land, 2nd century) // P.Oxy. LXIX 4739, 7–9 (lease of land, A.D. 127) // P.Oxy. Χ 1279, 14–15 (leases of land, A.D. 139) // SB XVI 12693, 9–10 (contract of land, A.D. 140–141) // P.Oxy. ΧΧΧΙΙΙ 2676, 11–13 (lease of land, A.D. 151) // P.Lips. I, 12–13 (loan, A.D. 160–161) // P.Oxy. ΧIV 1686, 8–11 (lease of land, A.D. 165–166) // P.Mil.Congr. XIV p. 74 (= SB XIV 11281), 6–7 (contract of land, A.D. 172) // P.Oxy. LΧΙΧ 4827, 11–16 (lease of land, A.D. 173) // P.Harr. ΙΙ 224, 11–20 (lease of land, late 2nd/early 3rd century) // P.Oxy. IΙΙ 501, 14 (lease of land, A.D. 186) // PSI IΧ 1036, 5–6 (contract of land, A.D. 192) // SB XIV 11604, 8 (contract of land, 3rd century) // SB ΧΧ 14290, 11–12 (contract of land, 3rd century) // P.Oxy. LΧΙΧ 4745, 10–12 (lease of land, A.D. 202) // P.Oxy. ΧΧΧΙ 2584, 11–12 (lease of land, A.D. 211) // P.Oxy. LV 3800, 11–12 (lease of land, A.D. 219) // SB ΧΧ 14983, 5 (contract of land, A.D. 220–260) // P.Oxy. Ηels 41, 13 (contract of land, A.D. 223–224) // PSI IΧ 1072, 12–13 (Oxyrhynchus, contract of land, 3rd century) // P.Harr. I 80 (BL XI 89), 8–9 (lease of land, A.D. 249) // PSI ΧΙΙI 1330, 9–10 (lease of land, A.D. 272) // PSI IΙΙ 187, 10 (lease of land, 4th century) // P.Oxy. LΧΙΙΙ 4379, 12–13 (lease of land, A.D. 369).

31 Bataille et al., 19393, comment v. 12.

32 Preisigke & Kiessling, 1925, p. 698.

33 Preisigke & Kiessling, 1927, p. 216.

34 Bataille, 19393, comment v. 24.

35 Schwyzer, 19592, p. 680.

36 Kühner & Gerth, 18983–19043, II.2 § 586b. p. 514–515.

37 Goodwin, 1929, § 607.

38 Ibid.

39 Smyth, 19562, § 2276.

Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Eleni Tsitsianopoulou, « The Use of the Infinitive and Participle in the Consecutive Clauses of the Greek Documentary Papyri of the Imperial and Early Arabic Period »Cahiers balkaniques [En ligne], 49 | 2023, mis en ligne le 05 janvier 2023, consulté le 22 avril 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ceb/19785 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/ceb.19785

Haut de page

Auteur

Eleni Tsitsianopoulou

Faculty of Philology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Articles du même auteur

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

CC-BY-NC-4.0

Le texte seul est utilisable sous licence CC BY-NC 4.0. Les autres éléments (illustrations, fichiers annexes importés) sont « Tous droits réservés », sauf mention contraire.

Haut de page
Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search