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La Bourgogne au premier Moyen Âge (viexe s.) : approches spatiales et institutionnelles – 2de livraison

Alsace and Burgundy : Spatial Patterns in the Early Middle Ages, c. 600-900

Karl Weber

Résumés

Cet article étudie, sur la longue durée, les concepts spatiaux, en vigueur du viie au ixe siècle, dans la région qui s’étend sur le nord-est de la Bourgogne, le nord de l’actuelle Suisse et l’Alsace. L’emploi des mots pagus et ducatus dans les sources montre bien que les ducs des temps mérovingiens ont exercé leur pouvoir dans le cadre administratif d’un pagus plutôt que d’un duché. L’Alsace a formé une région centrale au cœur de l’Austrasie, sur la rive gauche de la vallée moyenne du Rhin. À la fin de l’époque mérovingienne, les ducs d’Alsace reçoivent le pouvoir sur les parties anciennement burgondes du Jura. C’est sous le règne de Louis le Pieux (814-840) qu’est introduit en Alsace le concept spatial, novateur, de ducatus. Le ducatus Alsacensis constituait un duché sans duc. Les relations étroites entre le sud alsacien et l’ancien pays burgonde ont continué à jouer un rôle considérable : au xe siècle, la région étudiée ici devient le nucleus du regnum Jurense des rois Rodolphiens.

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Entrées d’index

Index de mots-clés :

pagus, duché

Index géographique :

Franche-Comté, Suisse, Alsace, Maxima Sequanorum
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Notes de la rédaction

Cet article fait référence aux cartes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 et 10 du dossier cartographique. Ces cartes sont réinsérées dans le corps du texte et les liens vers le dossier cartographique sont donnés en documents annexes.

Texte intégral

  • 1  R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder, Stuttgart, 2004, p. 177 ; I. Wood, « The political structure of the Burg (...)
  • 2  G. Bührer-Thierry and S. Patzold, « Introduction », in G. Bührer-Thierry, S. Patzold and J. Schnei (...)

1The following overview concerns the question of whether forms of spatial organisation below the kingdom level are discernible in the areas corresponding to present-day Western Switzerland and Western France during the early Middle Ages. The two objects of our observation, Alsace and Burgundy, must first be defined in greater detail. From a spatial point of view, the entirety of early medieval Alsace will be considered during the years 600 to 900. In the case of Burgundy, we will concentrate on the area situated between Jura and the Alps that formed the basis of the kingdom of Rudolph the First during the late Carolingian age, following the year 888. This landscape is typically referred to by the names « Upper Burgundy », « Transjurane Burgundy », or « Transjurania »1. But these names are not contemporany significations of the landscape – a fact we have to consider, when we reflect about the spatial structures of a region as a political space in the early Middle Ages2.

  • 3  R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, ibid., p. 38-46. Cf. R. Poupardin, Le royaume de Bourgogne, 888-1038. É (...)

2We will begin with a description of the conditions during the late Roman period. In late fifth century, Alsace and northern Switzerland were still a part of the Roman Empire. The Burgundians in particular, who were settled in the area as foederati, in the southern part of Maxima Sequanorum, could rely on the basic structures of late Roman administration (cf. map 1). The Burgundian settlements included the so called Sapaudia, in other words the three civitates of Genava, Colonia Iulia Equestris and Aventicum – the area from Lake Geneva to the High Rhine in the vicinity of the mouth of the River Aare. Here the late Roman Civitas constitution remained largely intact3.

Map 1 – The Maxima Sequanorum province during the late Antiquity (around 395)

Map 1 – The Maxima Sequanorum province during the late Antiquity (around 395)
  • 4  R. Scharf, Der Dux Mogontiacensis und die Notitia Dignitatum. Eine Studie zur spätantiken Grenzver (...)
  • 5  D. Geuenich, Die Geschichte…, op. cit., p. 17.

3Conversely, in Germania Prima upheavals appear to have taken place even during the fifth century. It is possible that members of the border troops were still residing in Strasbourg and Mainz even after the year 413, however just how long the Roman border ducat remained intact remains unknown4. Such statement can also be said of the reign of the Alemanni in the region along the left banks of the Rhine, at the turn of the fifth and sixth centuries. The image of a Greater Alemannia at the turn of the fifth and sixth centuries, extending from Troyes to Passau, as handed down by the so-called « Geographer of Ravenna », is a figment of the imagination of the poorly informed compiler. More authoritative is the hypothesis that the Alemanni briefly exercised a loosely construed suzerainty over the lands to the left of the Rhine before the Franks under Clovis intervened between 497 and 5065.

  • 6  E. Ewig, Die Merowinger…, op. cit., p. 6.

4Following the defeat of the first Burgundian royal dynasty at the hands of the sons of Clovis in 534 the Merovingian, the Franks finally took matters in hand. The landscape there was now shaped by the sub-realms of Austrasia and Burgundy, with their respective sedes regia Reims, and later Metz as well as Chalon-sur-Saône6.

Spatial structures in the Merovingian era

« Tribal region » of the Austrasian-Burgundian border area

  • 7  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass im Regnum Francorum. Adel, Kirche und Königtum am Oberrhein in (...)
  • 8  Traditiones Wizenburgenses. Die Urkunden des Klosters Weissenburg 661-864, ed. A. Doll, Darmstadt, (...)

5The first records of groups of persons of non-Roman origin in the region date to the earlier Franconian era of the early Middle Ages. Their names spread into larger areas, such as in the case of the Alesaciones in the civitas Argentoratensium, which was soon named « Strasbourg ». This name is certainly of Germanic origin and likely means « those who live abroad »7. With the dawn of the documentary tradition, Alsace is soon mentioned as a pagus in 6958.

  • 9  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 46.

6From where the first Alsatians came cannot be determined in detail, however, in what is referred to as the « Chronicle of Fredegar », they are identified as the educators of the Austrian Prince Theuderic II. This indicates that the early Alsatians were clearly in the service of the king. Their origins in this capacity are to be sought in the triangle of the palatinates of Strasbourg, Marlenheim and Selz. Northern Alsace was a core area of Merovingian Austria, which was regularly on the travel route of the Austrasian rulers9.

  • 10  Vitae sancti Columbani abbatis discipulorumque eius libri II, ed. B. Krusch, MGH Scriptores rerum (...)

7Southern Alsace and northern Burgundy, however, remained beyond the reach of the Merovingian kings for a long time. The remoteness of royalty is reflected in the security situation. Even after the subjugation of the Alemanni, the Belfort Gap and the northern Jura were exposed to constant threat. Marauding Suebi could be found in the area that surrounds Luxeuil Abbey into the early seventh century10.

  • 11  E. Ewig, « Volkstum und Volksbewusstsein im Frankenreich des 7. Jahrhunderts », in H. Atsma (dir.) (...)

8As was already the case in Alsace, this uncertain situation is the reason for the settlement in the Belfort Gap by groups such as the Scotingi, Varasci, Chattwari and the Chamavi – who lent their name to the pagi of Escuens, Varais, Attuyer and Amous (cf. map 2) ? The German historian Eugen Ewig referred to these pagi on the Austrasian-Burgundian border area as « tribal pagi ». The latest onomastic studies identify these gentes in the Belfort Gap as « of Burgundian origins »11.

Map 2 – Pagi in the Besançon diocese and its western front (7th–11th c.)

Map 2 – Pagi in the Besançon diocese and its western front (7th–11th c.)

9Nevertheless, land grants were a difficult undertaking and were inconceivable without participation of the kingdom. Therefore a decisive role will be ascribed to the Merovingian rulers in the settlement of these groups, in the Austrasian-Burgundian border region.

The Transiorani and their pagus

  • 12  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 63.

10In addition to the Alsatians, a pagus – with the geographical name pagus Ultraioranus – emerged during the Merovingian period. It was probably comprised of the five smaller pagi of Avenches, Valais, Nyon, Geneva and Belley, and was thus tied to the civitas structure of Sapaudia, of the former Burgundian heartland (cf. map 5). Romainmôtier monastery was situated in the southwest of the Ultraioranus (cf. map 10). The question of just how far this pagus extended to the east can only be partly answered thanks to Burgundian patrocinia on upper Lake Zurich. The effort to locate the northern frontier must also rely on guesswork ; it is possible that Solothurn was a part of this12.

Map 5 – Alsace, Swabia and Burgundy during Rudolph the First’s reign (9th century)

Map 5 – Alsace, Swabia and Burgundy during Rudolph the First’s reign (9th century)

Map 10 – Monasteries of the Besançon’s diocese until the year thousand

Map 10 – Monasteries of the Besançon’s diocese until the year thousand
  • 13  R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, op. cit., p. 171. Cf. ibid., p. 177 the references to the Regnum Burgun (...)

11The Chronicle of Fredegar offers a wealth of material concerning the direction of the pagus. It identifies an uninterrupted series of dukes who held the title of honor ducatus between 590 and 614. One of them with the rank of patricius received the pagus Scotingorum to the south of Besançon in addition to the pagus Ultraioranus. This establishes the ducat as a probably militarian office granted by the king over the district of the pagus Ultraioranus, in the Merovingian regnum Burgundiae. The duces were used to ward off the military hazards emanating from the invading Lombards, who penetrated into the pagus via the Aosta Valley in Italy13.

  • 14  Fredegarii et aliorum chronica. Vitae sanctorum, ed. B. Krusch, MGH Scriptores rerum Merovingicaru (...)
  • 15  Vitae sancti Columbani…, op. cit., I.14, p. 174. Cf. J. Schneider, « Spatializing Meersen : Monast (...)
  • 16  B. Kasten and W. Haubrichs, « Unedierte Privaturkunden… », op. cit., p. 21.

12The pagenses of the Ultraiuranus had great independance. When Chlothar II sought to introduce a new duke in 614 (they started ?) the resistance and murdered the partisan of Chlothar14. Local officials, including a count and a bishop, were at the forefront of this movement. Apparently, Clothar did not renew the office after that and instead placed the groups between the Alps and Jura – gentes qui intra Alpes septa et Iurani saltus arva incolent –, under the direction of a duke who exercised authority on both sides of the Jura and had his seat in Besançon. Waldelenus and his son Chramnelenus, also known through the Vita Columbani, were also active as military leaders15. The reports about the dukes in Besançon come to an end with Chramnelenus but the pagus Ultraioranus survived the crises of the late seventh century – although likely in a reduced form. Its traces can be followed into the Fifties of the eighth century, as shown recently by Brigitte Kasten and Wolfgang Haubrichs16.

The Etichonid dukes of the Alsatian pagus

  • 17  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 142.

13The model of a great pagus under the direction of a duke can also be found in Alsace (cf. map 3). There is a demonstrable, continuous sequence of five dukes around the 40s of the eighth century. The office became hereditary under the official known as Eticho. Eticho may have come from the Burgundian sub-realm, more precisely from Attuyer (cf. map 2). The documentary evidence of an impressive series of monasteries founded during the Etichonids’ time in office attests to their sphere of influence. The common spatial designations can be reconstructed with what is now a more abundant documentary tradition. The last Duke Liutfrid consistently used the term pagus Alsacensis to describe the area under his reign17. The domain of the dukes in Alsace also included Sornegau, the territory around Delémont with Moutier-Grandval Abbey, as well as the Ajoie, a small region in the Belfort Gap (cf. map 5).

Map 3 – Monasteries and palaces in Alsace (until 775)

Map 3 – Monasteries and palaces in Alsace (until 775)
  • 18  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, ibid., p. 142.

14Still not fully understood is the relationship between the two Etichonid brothers, the Duke Liutfrid and the Count Eberhard, who after 722 and following the division of an inheritance, acted alongside but not against one another in Alsace (cf. map 4). While it can be assumed that Eberhard sought proximity to the emerging Carolingian mayor of the palace, Duke Liutfrid resigned from office after 743 for reasons not entirely known18.

Map 4 – Etichonides’s properties during the first half of the eighth century

Map 4 – Etichonides’s properties during the first half of the eighth century
  • 19  D. Geuenich, « …noluerunt obtemperare ducibus Franchorum. Zur bayerisch-alemannischen Opposition g (...)

15This last fragile phase of the Etichonid Duchy marked the first rebellion on the part of the Alemannic Leader Theodbald in 741 in Alsace. Not without reason he selected Alsace, the accessible heartland of Merovingian Austria, as the theatre of his rebellion19.

  • 20  Regesta Alsatiae aevi Merovingici et Karolini 496-918, ed. A. Bruckner, Strasbourg, 1949, no. 137 (...)
  • 21  Regesta Alsatiae…, ibid., no. 127, p. 69. Cf. S. Esders, « Spätantike und frühmittelalterliche Duk (...)

16A brief intermediate conclusion for the Merovingian era : The bearer of the title of dux was in charge of pagi. The spatial jurisdiction of the dukes in northern Burgundy and in Alsatia was the pagus, not the ducatus. This by no means detracts from the position of the late Merovingian dukes, especially in Alsace. They collected taxes that included the universal draft, the pacification due and others – taxes later reserved for the king20. This indicates the military function of the office which is also testified to by the Etichonid’s possession of a gynæceum. In late Antiquity, garments for the Roman army were produced in these workhouses for women21.

Carolingian innovations

Ducatus Alsacensis

17For Alsace under the Carolingians, the previously discernible split manifested itself through the ecclesiastical geography of the assignment between the southern region and the Diocese of Basel.

  • 22  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 147.

18As a result, there were different counts active in the South and in the North, although this had no impact at all on the name of the region. In their official documents, the first Carolingian kings – Pepin, Carloman and then Charlemagne – made constant use of the pagus terminology. During the reign of Louis the Pious, however, notable changes occurred in geographic terminology. In the year 817 in two diplomas for Murbach Abbey, Louis’ chancellery used « in ducatu Alsacensi » in the address. In the respective successions between 840 and 878 the term ducatus Alsacensis was continued. The Introduction of the term ducatus Alsacensis thus bears the signature of Louis the Pious22.

  • 23  Die Urkunden Lothars I. und Lothars II, ed. T. Schieffer, MGH Diplomata Karolinorum, 3, Berlin/Zur (...)

19We need to remember that this was a ducatus without a dux. That´s the difference with the honor ducatus of the Merovingian time. This ducatus also comprised the Sornegau, as attested in a diploma of Lothar the First for the Moutier-Grandval Abbey23. This again established a connection between Alsace and Sornegau and probably Elsgau as well.

  • 24  J. Schneider, Auf der Suche…, op. cit., p. 77-78 and 102-109 ; Id., « Spatializing Meersen… », op. (...)

20The ducatus Elisatiae of the ninth century can be traced further. In 839, it was the subject of the plan for the division of the kingdom between Louis the Pious and Lothar the First. As part of Lotharingia between 843 and 870, Louis the German increased his efforts to acquire the region, ultimately meeting with success after the division of the regnum Lotharii24 (cf. map 8).

Map 8 – Lotharingia during the ninth century

Map 8 – Lotharingia during the ninth century

The portio regni ultra Iuram montem

21By 860 already, Lothar II, under pressure from many sides, had transferred Alsace to Louis the German – a provision that was obviously not carried through to completion. To date there has not been sufficient appreciation of the fact that Lothar II, in the immediate vicinity, proceeded in very similar fashion in the area of the now well-known pagus Ultraioranus. In 859, one year prior to the transfer of Alsace to Louis the German, he had transferred the land beyond the Jura – portio regni ultra Iuram montem – over to his brother Louis of Italy. According to Regino of Prüm, Hugbert, brother of queen Theutberga and the lay abbot of St Maurice, received the ducatus between Jura and Great St Bernard, but Hugbert rebelled against Lothar after his separation from Theutberga. Hugbert was defeated by Konrad, the father of the later King Rudolph – initially a count as well as lay abbot of St Maurice before serving as margrave between Jura and the Alps. The identity of this region with the pagus Ultraioranus is obvious25.

  • 26  Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini, ed. B. von Simson, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in us (...)

22Additionally, the group of people who lived there apparently enjoyed special rights. As the Annals of St Vaast note of the year 888 : « But those beyond the Jura and on this side of the Alps campaigned for Rudolph. » Just how important this group was had already been shown after the division of Meerssen. Louis sent his son Karl to the terra ultra Iurum to secure an oath of allegiance from as many as possible following the death of his nephew, Louis of Italy. Ultimately, he also succeeded in this. Rudolph remained loyal to the East Frankish house until the death of Karl in 888. The Annales Fuldenses, from an Eastern Frankish point of view, described a part of Rudolph’s realm as Burgundia superior, an expression unused by Rudolph, who called himself rex Jurensium. A contemporary of the eleventh century baptized it as Jurensis Burgundia26.

Nordgau and Sundgau in Alsace

  • 27  M. Borgolte, « Die Geschichte der Grafengewalt im Elsass von Dagobert I. bis Otto dem Großen », Ze (...)

23The rise of Rudolph had consequences for Alsace. Under the Treaty of Meerssen, two counties were merged comitatus. Research owes Michael Borgolte for developing the insight that the split of Alsace, as laid down in the geographical names of Nordgau and Sundgau, does not surface until the reign of the East Francian ruler Arnulph, during the last decade of the ninth century, when the two names appear nearly simultaneously in traditional sources27. The different districts of the counts and the assignment to different dioceses speak to a nomenclature oriented around long-existing structures that would place greater emphasis upon Alsace as a part of East Francia, partly in order to fend off claims by Rudolph.

Summary : Geographic patterns in early-mediaeval Alsace and Burgundy

24I conclude my remarks with four summary theses :

251. Characteristics of the Austric-Burgundian border are the so-called « tribal pagi » that date back to the settlement of groups under royal supervision during the sixth century. During the Merovingian era great pagi such as Alsace and the pagus Ultraioranus are under the leadership of dukes, who describe their realms not as duchies but rather relate their honor ducatus to dominion over several pagi. In these pagi, as was shown with the example of Alsace during the late phase of the Merovingian era, they exercised rights that were tantamount to those of royalty.

262. The introduction of the spatial ducatus terminology for Alsace as a political term is a conscious innovation from Louis the Pious. Up until the Treaty of Meerssen, the term was used as an ordering category for an Alsace that had been expanded through addition of Sornegau, a layout that was lost after 870. It was a ducatus without a dux.

273. For the area in the North of Switzerland, there are no discernible efforts to revive the function of duces as military leaders in the pagus that had already been interrupted by the year 614. The rise of the Rudolphians begins based on the office of the count and not as rulers of a spatial duchy. An adequate description of the base of the Rudolphian kingdom was the regnum Iurense (tenth century) in the tradition of the pagus Ultraioranus.

284. We can discern the following long-term spatial patterns :
• An administrative link between Alsace and the area of the northern Jura was established under the Merovingian dukes and was discontinued only under Arnulph and Rudolph ;
• The independence of the territory between Jura and Alps. The relatively broad freedom enjoyed by the people living there can be explained with the key position of their territory along the passes to Italy.

Reçu : 27 juillet 2017 – Accepté : 3 mai 2018

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Notes

1  R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder, Stuttgart, 2004, p. 177 ; I. Wood, « The political structure of the Burgundian kingdom », in M. Maier and S. Patzold (dir.), Chlodwigs Welt : Organisation von Herrschaft um 500, Stuttgart, 2014, p. 383-396 ; C. Wilsdorf, L’Alsace des Mérovingiens à Léon IX : articles et études, Strasbourg, 2011. Cf. H. Hummer, Politics and power in early medieval Europe : Alsace and the Frankish Realm, 600-1000, Cambridge, 2005 ; D. Geuenich, Die Geschichte der Alemannen, Stuttgart, 2005 ; E. Ewig, Die Merowinger und das Frankenreich, avec des annexes bibliographiques par U. Nonn, Stuttgart, 2012 ; J. Schneider, Auf der Suche nach dem verlorenen Reich. Lotharingien im 9. und 10. Jahrhundert, Cologne/Weimar/Vienna, 2010.

2  G. Bührer-Thierry and S. Patzold, « Introduction », in G. Bührer-Thierry, S. Patzold and J. Schneider (dir.), Genèse des espaces politiques (ixe-xiie siècle) : Autour de la question spatiale dans les royaumes francs er post-carolingiens, Turnhout, 2018, p. 7-27 ; J. Schneider, « Begriffe und Methoden der aktuellen Raumforschung », in S. Brather and J. Dendorfer (dir.), Grenzen, Räume und Identitäten. Der Oberrhein und seine Nachbarregionen von der Antike bis zum Hochmittelalter, Ostfildern, 2017, p. 341-358.

3  R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, ibid., p. 38-46. Cf. R. Poupardin, Le royaume de Bourgogne, 888-1038. Étude sur les origines du royaume d’Arles, Paris, 1907, p. 8 ; I. Wood, « The political structure… », ibid.

4  R. Scharf, Der Dux Mogontiacensis und die Notitia Dignitatum. Eine Studie zur spätantiken Grenzverteidigung, Berlin/New York, 2005, passim.

5  D. Geuenich, Die Geschichte…, op. cit., p. 17.

6  E. Ewig, Die Merowinger…, op. cit., p. 6.

7  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass im Regnum Francorum. Adel, Kirche und Königtum am Oberrhein in merowingischer und frühkarolingischer Zeit, Ostfildern, 2011, p. 51.

8  Traditiones Wizenburgenses. Die Urkunden des Klosters Weissenburg 661-864, ed. A. Doll, Darmstadt, 1979, no. 213, p. 427-429 : Marsal, 682/683 April 1.

9  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 46.

10  Vitae sancti Columbani abbatis discipulorumque eius libri II, ed. B. Krusch, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 37, Hanover, 1905, I.8, p. 167. Cf. S. Esders, « Zur Entwicklung der politischen Raumgliederung im Übergang von der Antike zum Mittelalter : Das Beispiel des pagus », in O. Dally et al. (dir.), Politische Räume in vormodernen Gesellschaften. Gestaltung – Wahrnehmung – Funktion, Berlin, 2013, p. 195-211.

11  E. Ewig, « Volkstum und Volksbewusstsein im Frankenreich des 7. Jahrhunderts », in H. Atsma (dir.), Spätantikes und fränkisches Gallien. Gesammelte Schriften, t. 1, Zurich/Munich, 1976, p. 231-273, see p. 236 ; B. Kasten and W. Haubrichs, « Unedierte Privaturkunden des Jura-Klosters Saint Claude », Archiv für Diplomatik, 58 (2012), p. 15-56, p. 21 ; cf. W. Haubrichs, « Les Chamaves et les autres : une enquête linguistique sur les traces des Chamaves, Hattuaires, Varasques, Scotinges et Burgondes au nord de la Bourgogne », Bucema, 21.2 (2017) [https://journals.openedition.org/cem/14779]. Cf. the dicussuion on the pagi : G. Bührer-Thierry and S. Patzold, « Introduction… », op. cit., p. 12.

12  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 63.

13  R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, op. cit., p. 171. Cf. ibid., p. 177 the references to the Regnum Burgundiae as a territorial term in merovingian times.

14  Fredegarii et aliorum chronica. Vitae sanctorum, ed. B. Krusch, MGH Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum, 2, Hanover, 1888, IV.24, p. 142. Cf. R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, ibid., p. 194.

15  Vitae sancti Columbani…, op. cit., I.14, p. 174. Cf. J. Schneider, « Spatializing Meersen : Monasteries in Jurassian Burgundy (6th-9th C.) », Bucema, 22.1 [http://journals.openedition.org/cem/15084].

16  B. Kasten and W. Haubrichs, « Unedierte Privaturkunden… », op. cit., p. 21.

17  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 142.

18  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, ibid., p. 142.

19  D. Geuenich, « …noluerunt obtemperare ducibus Franchorum. Zur bayerisch-alemannischen Opposition gegen die karolingischen Hausmeier », in M. Becher and J. Jarnut (dir.), Der Dynastiewechsel von 751. Vorgeschichte, Legitimationsstrategien und Erinnerung, Münster, 2004, p. 129-143.

20  Regesta Alsatiae aevi Merovingici et Karolini 496-918, ed. A. Bruckner, Strasbourg, 1949, no. 137 = Traditiones Wizenburgenses…, op. cit., no. 12.

21  Regesta Alsatiae…, ibid., no. 127, p. 69. Cf. S. Esders, « Spätantike und frühmittelalterliche Dukate. Überlegungen zum Problem historischer Kontinuität und Diskontinuität », in H. Fehr and I. Heitmeier (dir.), Die Anfänge Bayerns. Von Raetien und Noricum zur frühmittelalterlichen Baiovaria, St. Ottilien, 2012 (2e ed. 2014), p. 425-462.

22  K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, op. cit., p. 147.

23  Die Urkunden Lothars I. und Lothars II, ed. T. Schieffer, MGH Diplomata Karolinorum, 3, Berlin/Zurich, 1966, no. 105, p. 215-251 : Remiremont, 849 August 25. Cf. K. Weber, Die Formierung des Elsass…, ibid., p. 181.

24  J. Schneider, Auf der Suche…, op. cit., p. 77-78 and 102-109 ; Id., « Spatializing Meersen… », op. cit. [http://journals.openedition.org/cem/15084] ; T. Zotz, « Das Elsass – ein Teil des Zwischenreichs ? », in H. W. Herrmann and R. Schneider (dir.), Lotharingia. Eine europäische Kernlandschaft um das Jahr 1000, Saarbrücken, 1995, p. 49-70, see p. 67-69.

25  Regesta Imperii online, t. I.3, no. 1216g [http://www.regesta-imperii.de/id/0859-00-00_1_0_1_1_0_2636_1216g] (02-07-17). Annales de Saint-Bertin, ed. F. Grat, J. Vieilliard and S. Clémencet, Paris, 1964, a. 859, p. 82 : Lotharius fratri suo Ludovico Italorum regi quandam regni sui portionem adtribuit, ea videlicet quae ultra Iuram montem habebat, id est Genavam, Lausonnam et Sedunum civitates, cum episcopatibus, monasteriis et comitatibus, praeter Hospitale quod est in monte Iovis et Pipincensem comitatum. Regino of Prüm, Chronicon cum Continuatione Treverensi, ed. F. Kurze, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi, 50, Hanover, 1890, a. 859, p. 78 : Anno dominicae incarnationis DCCCLVIIII. Lotharius a Hucberto abbati ducatum inter Iurum et montem Iovis commisit. Cf. R. Poupardin, Le royaume de Bourgogne…, op. cit., p. 8 ; R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, op. cit., p. 182.

26  Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini, ed. B. von Simson, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi, 12, Hanover, 1909, a. 888, p. 64-65 ; Annales Fuldenses sive Annales regni Francorum orientalis, ed. F. Kurze, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi, 7, Hanover, 1891, a. 894, p. 124 = Regesta Imperii online…, op. cit., no. 1897d. Cf. R. Poupardin, Le royaume de Bourgogne…, ibid., p. 184 ; R. Kaiser, Die Burgunder…, ibid., p. 182. Cf. Vita s. Leonis IX papae. Die Touler Vita Leos IX., ed. H.-G. Krause, D. Jasper and V. Lukas, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi, 52, Hanover, 2005, p. 148 : rex Iurensis Burgundie. Cf. L. Ripart, « Le royaume rodolphien de Bourgogne (fin ixe-début xie siècle) », in M. Gaillard et alii (dir)., De la mer du Nord à la Méditerranée. Francia Media, une région au cœur de l’Europe (c. 840-c. 1050) », Luxembourg, 2011, p. 429-452.

27  M. Borgolte, « Die Geschichte der Grafengewalt im Elsass von Dagobert I. bis Otto dem Großen », Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, 131 (1983), p. 3-54, see p. 33. For recent research on « spatial turn » see J. Schneider, « Territorium revisited : Zusammenfassung und Ausblick », in G. Bührer-Thierry et alii, Genèse des espaces politiques…, op. cit., p. 287-297.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Map 1 – The Maxima Sequanorum province during the late Antiquity (around 395)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 580k
Titre Map 2 – Pagi in the Besançon diocese and its western front (7th–11th c.)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 520k
Titre Map 5 – Alsace, Swabia and Burgundy during Rudolph the First’s reign (9th century)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 724k
Titre Map 10 – Monasteries of the Besançon’s diocese until the year thousand
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 444k
Titre Map 3 – Monasteries and palaces in Alsace (until 775)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 500k
Titre Map 4 – Etichonides’s properties during the first half of the eighth century
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 428k
Titre Map 8 – Lotharingia during the ninth century
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cem/docannexe/image/14838/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 656k
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Karl Weber, « Alsace and Burgundy : Spatial Patterns in the Early Middle Ages, c. 600-900 », Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre | BUCEMA [En ligne], 22.1 | 2018, mis en ligne le 03 septembre 2018, consulté le 24 septembre 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cem/14838 ; DOI : 10.4000/cem.14838

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Karl Weber

Aachen-Freiburg

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