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Negotiating Nepal's access to the sea



There are currently 42 land-locked countries in the world, many of them among the world's poorest States, one of which is Nepal. This paper traces her efforts since 1950 to negotiate successively more favorable treaties governing the transit across India of her imports and exports to and from the sea. I emphasize the negotiations and their contexts rather than the results, focusing particularly on those of 1976-78 and 1989-91, in both of which I played an active role. This case study illustrates how a political geographer can help resolve difficult real-world problems. It also illustrates that land-lockedness is inherently a political rather than a geographic problem. Key words: Nepal, land-locked States, political geography, international transit.

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Martin Ira GLASSNER, « Negotiating Nepal's access to the sea », Cahiers d’études sur la Méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien [En ligne], 35 | 2003, mis en ligne le , consulté le 24 juin 2018. URL :

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