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Remboîtage of a Binding: Authenticity and Conservation of "Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century"

Malina Belcheva

Abstracts

The present study of the album Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century, includes commentaries on the conservation research, the album provenance, bibliographical information, acquisition; details of the conservation treatment: the binding, text block, and graphic works consolidation; and it underlines the conservation integration of the historical repairs through contemporary conservation materials applied for stabilization of the album condition and enhancement of the binding flexibility and solidity.

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Full text

The author would like to thank The Art Institute of Chicago and Victoria Lobis.

Introduction

  • 1 Images of the watermarks are shown on Fig. 14a, Fig. 14b, and Fig. 14c.
  • 2 Clarence Buckingham's large and impressive collection included old master prints by Dürer, Lucas va (...)

1The provenance of Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641) collection of intaglio prints at the Art Institute of Chicago can be traced back to 1913 when the museum trustee Clarence Buckingham (1854-1913), a major Chicago financier and print collector, purchased the first state of Van Dyck's etching of the portrait of the seventeenth-century Flemish landscape painter Joos de Momper. Trimmed within the impression mark this graphic work is produced between 1630 and 1633 on ivory laid paper, which bears the watermark1 of the crowned interlaced Cs with Cross of Lorraine and the inscription in graphite on the verso - L.L, R. 5760; LL, w 71. Fourteen years after this first acquisition, in 1937, the entire collection2 of C. Buckingham’s prints and drawings (by that time deposited at the Art Institute of Chicago) became a part of the permanent museum collections, together with an established fund for its future development. Today, the Art Institute of Chicago’s collections of graphic works include all of the etchings created by Van Dyck along with several prints from the Iconography series designed by the artist and produced by his printmakers, among them: Paulus Pontius (1603-1658), Lucas Vorsterman (1595-1675), Willem Hondius (1597-1658), Pieter de Jode the Younger (1606-1674), and Robert van Voerst (1597-1636).

Exhibition overview

2Selected for the exhibition "Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print" at The Art Institute of Chicago were 140 graphic works, comprising portraits of noblemen, monarchs, diplomats, scholars, artists, and a collection of Van Dyck’s Iconography prints compiled by a print collector in an album. The exhibition featured prints from Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) and Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617), who preceded Van Dyck, and portraits by Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–69), and Jan Lievens (1607–74), who were influenced by his artwork.

Fig. 1. Title: Conservation of the album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century"

Fig. 1. Title: Conservation of the album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century"

Photographs of before- and after conservation process, gallery view and exhibition cradles design for the album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century".

Credits: Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago. Album conservation and photographs by Malina Belcheva.

Iconography prints

  • 3 In a few cases Van Dyck left his portraits practically unfinished except for the head: e.g. the Por (...)
  • 4 Lobis, Victoria. Van Dyck's Legacy. The Artists as subject and the vitality of the portrait print. (...)
  • 5 Fifty-two plates engraved from portraits by Van Dyck and others, 16th – 17th century. Album of fift (...)
  • 6 Turner, Simon (comp.) and Carl Depauw (ed.). The New Hollstein: Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravi (...)
  • 7 See Lobis, Victoria. Van Dyck's Legacy…, 70.
  • 8 Hind, Arthur. Van Dyck his original etchings and his iconography. Houghton Mifflin Company, Museum (...)
  • 9 Ibidem.
  • 10 Ibidem, 17.

3Portrayed in a uniform style the Iconography prints of over 100 designs were executed between 1630 and 1645. They were fully or partially3 produced by Van Dyck, and by artists who he employed for the completion and printing of the portraits. "The prints for the Iconography emerged through a combination of etchings produced by Van Dyck himself and designs (drawn and painted) that he conceived for other printmakers to execute. Although the series was never published in total during his lifetime” - the curator of the exhibition "Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print" Victoria Lobis shares commentaries - “its coherent aesthetic indicated that he intended it to be understood as a unified artistic statement.”4 V. Lobis implies that Van Dyck's portrait prints were intended to be perceived as a collective group, and her assumption is supported through a number of bound albums of the series, presently in private and public collections, including the album of selected intaglio prints “Fifty-two plates engraved from portraits by Van Dyck and others, 16th – 17th century” at the Art Institute of Chicago.5 In her essay “Van Dyck's Legacy. The Artists as subject and the vitality of the portrait print” V. Lobis refers to Simon Turner's survey, published in the introduction to “The New Hollstein: Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, 1450-1700,”6 focusing on the remaining bound volumes of the Iconography prints. She points out that print collections of the eighteenth, and twentieth centuries viewed the intaglio prints as being part of a series.7 Arthur Hind, curator of prints and drawings at the British Museum, explores these aspects in his manuscript “Van Dyck his original etchings and his iconography,”8 and considers the originality of Van Dyck’s Iconography as an innovative undertaking in the beginning of the 17th century. He underlines the very few documentary evidence directly related to the artist attitude towards his series of etchings and engravings, which form the corpus of his portrait prints. There are also incomprehensible to study questions as how many subjects Van Dyck intended to portray, in what particular order he wanted the prints to appear, and was the idea of the series his or of his publisher. "Towards the end of the sixteenth century and in the early seventeenth such series had apparently been popular and successful ventures with numerous publishers and engraver print sellers. The majority of these series had been essentially the works of the publishers, who had included works by various engravers. A few similar ventures had been more exclusively the work of a single man, or at least of a single workshop. But I can point” - writes Arthur Hind, - “to no series of portraits before the Iconography of Van Dyck, which aimed at reproducing the paintings of one artist alone."9 At the time when Van Dyck started to create the intaglio prints for the Iconography series, his mentor Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) (portrayed here by Van Dyck on Fig. 4. with his self-portrait incorporated in an ornate compositional frame) had received help from assistants-engravers who worked under his guidance in his atelier. Consequently, Van Dyck organized his atelier following his peer’s example. “With this precedent Van Dyck is […] more likely to have formulated his scheme on his own account, than to have carried out his undertaking at a publisher's suggestion. Moreover the title-page of the 1645 edition of the Iconography expressly describes the plates as engraved at the master's expense."10

Fig. 2 Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago

Fig. 2 Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago

View into The Jean and Steven Goldman Prints and Drawings Galleries of Van Dyck Rembrandt and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago. Photograph of the exhibition entrance showcasing the unfinished (except for the head) Self-Portrait (1630/33) of Anthony van Dyke. Etching in black ink on ivory laid paper with print dimensions 246 × 157 mm (image/plate), and 257 × 169 mm (sheet), graphic print provenance Clarence Buckingham Collection of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Credits: The Art Institute of Chicago

Fig. 3 The album display

Fig. 3 The album display

Photograph of the album display at Portraiture and Intimacy thematic gallery of the exhibition Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print, and the graphic portrait of Isabella Clara Eugenia, 1630/40, graphic print provenance of William O. Goodman collection of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Credits: The Art Institute of Chicago

Provenance of the album

  • 11 The Goodman family archive containing papers, letters, photograph albums, cards, genealogical mater (...)
  • 12 Kenneth Goodman (1884-1918), a play writher and theatre producer, was the son of Erna Malvina Sawye (...)

4The album "Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century" comprises selection of graphic works by Van Dyck and his portrait designs completed and executed by various artists between 1620 and 1641. In 1918 the album "Fifty-two Plates…” entered the Art Institute of Chicago as a gift by William Owen Goodman (1848–1936). There is no particular documentation or records accompanying this museum acquisition with the exception of indirect documents, correspondence, and materials related to Goodman family art collection, preserved at the Newberry Library in Chicago.11 Among Erna and William Goodman gifts to many cultural institutions is the generous donation of $250,000, bestowed in 1922 to the museum for the establishment of the Goodman Theatre in Chicago - one of the most influential theatres in the city to this day. Four months after the gift was received, the Art Institute of Chicago began the construction of the theatre on the museum ground at Monroe and Columbus Drive and in 1925 the Goodman Theatre was funded following Kenneth Goodman’s12 vision for an ideal theatrical institution combining professional training with the highest performance standards.

Biographical sketch of the artist

5Van Dyck is a Flemish Baroque painter, a court painter to the Archduchess of the Netherlands Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566-1633), a court painter to King James VI and I of Scotland and England (1566-1625), and a court painter to King Charles I of England (1600-1649). Influenced by the Italian portrait styles, he depicted the royal family, and members of court nobility. The album includes 52 of 100 catalogued works of the Iconography series, among them are the graphic portraits of Duchess Isabella Clara Eugenia Infant of Spain from 1598 to 1621, Marie de ‘Medici Queen of France (1573-1642), Gaston Duke of Orléans (1608- 1660), son of Marie de ‘Medici, his wife Marguerite of Lorraine, Duchess of Orléans (1615-1672), Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665) and Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) King of Sweden (1594-1632).

Preliminary examination of the album

6The engravings and etchings in the folio album “Fifty-two plates…” are thematically collected and arranged according to the personal preference of an unknown art collector. The selection of the album prints are with historical and bibliographical importance, highly regarded for their exceptional artistic and technical mastery as the artist’s most significant graphic works. Intaglio prints (as in the album collection) in the 17th century were novel and created for reproduction of portrait paintings. They were collected and preserved in albums, which served as visual presentation of important artworks, and were organized in subject matters following their owners’ personal taste.

7The structure of the album “Fifty-two plates…” is similar to a “scrapbook” custom bound binding with stubs inserted to accommodate additional sheets of collector’s prints. Fifty two graphic works are trimmed within the impression edges. They are gently adhered into the leaves of the album, in most cases, on their four corners. Some of the prints, due to their size, are folded in the centre, as the impression of the commemorative double portrait of Rubens and Van Dyke, measuring 35x45cm.

Fig. 4 Anthony van Dyck, graphic portrait of himself and of his mentor Peter Paul Rubens

Fig. 4 Anthony van Dyck, graphic portrait of himself and of his mentor Peter Paul Rubens

Double portrait of Peter Paul Rubens (left) and Anthony van Dyck (right). Antwerp, The Netherlands (35x45cm). Engraving by Paulus Pontius (1603-1658). The inscription of the portrait reads: upper left: PET. PAVL RVBENS EQVES PICTOR ANTWERPIENS; upper right: ANTONIVS VAN DYCK PICTOR ANTVERP.; lower center: Ecce RVBENS... / ... pavide dubitastis amantes.; lower elft: Ant. van Dijck facies pinxit; lower center: Eras. Quellinus delin.; lower right: Paulus Ponius facies sculp. Graphic print provenance collection of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Credits: The Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

8The album “Fifty-two plates…” is bound in maroon colour morocco grained goatskin with raised bands, and gold tooling on the spine and front cover. The front and back boards of the binding are covered with different in colour and quality leather, than the spine of the book, incorporated into the binding in a later period.

Fig. 5 The Collector’s handwritten note

Fig. 5 The Collector’s handwritten note

The collector’s handwritten inscription on the album title page reads: "52 Heads chiefly from the Paintings of Ant: von Dycke." There is no further indication revealing the owner's identity apart from his initial letters and monogram hand tooled on the centre of the front binding cover, which reads as: "H", or "I", "B", and a number "4" or a "cross."

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

9The binding boards, which could be dated to the 17th century, exhibit distinctive evidence of previous conservation treatments.

  • 13 From French remboîtage rebinding of a book from remboîter to rebind (a book) (1874; 1306 in Old Fre (...)

10The text block is made of folio sheets of hand-laid paper without watermarks. Visible on the paper surface are consistent chain lines from the wires of the paper mould. Noticeable is a discrepancy between the period of the binding boards, the paper of the text block, and the period of the prints creation. While the etchings and engravings are undoubtedly original - they bear the artists’ and printers’ personal marks, also typical watermarks on the paper of the period, and could be dated between the 16th and 17th centuries - the binding front and back covers are not original to the album. They are additionally adapted to the text block. The reason behind this remboîtage13 is difficult to be determined, as there is no clear evidence for the choice of the collector or binder’s preference in combining elements from two different books.

Fig. 6 The album before conservation treatment

Fig. 6 The album before conservation treatment

The album is leather bound tight-back English style binding with raised bands in maroon long grain morocco goatskin leather. The text block is sewn on approximately 1 cm wide textile tapes, forming four raised bands laced into the front and back boards.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Fig. 7 The album before conservation treatment

Fig. 7 The album before conservation treatment

The album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century” before conservation treatment, visible are prior conservation campaigns. The tooling of the album is in gold with a simple decoration on the spine, and a dentelle double-layered English panel ornamentation of the front cover. The photograph is showing the rebacking of the binding with new leather, now falling apart.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Remboîtage of the binding

  • 14 “There is not a comparable English word for this expression, recasing being the closest; however, i (...)

11From a historical perspective a remboîtage is the process of transferring boards or text blocks (also endpapers) from an original binding to another. There are different reasons behind this practice, known from the French bookbinding tradition, which are justified in the attempt of increasing a book value by adding more luxurious covers, or transferring a superior text of a work into a better binding than the one originally made for it.14 That may be performed because the binding’s damage is considered impossible to repair, or as result of decision to enhance the book’s appeal by adding existing, more elegant and desirable, binding covers. The remboîtage technique may be done to protect a text block, but could also be made for altering and misrepresentation of the authenticity of a valuable book. Repositioning of the binding boards requires a new spine label, and sometimes a new spine for the text block thickness to be refitted into the binding covers, as observed in the album “Fifty-two plates…”

12Although previous conservation efforts succeeded unity between the text block and the new binding boards, residual acidity in low-grade leather, used for repair of the album spine, and its natural degradation processes, over period of time, reduced, and compromised its flexibility to provide the opening of the binding, which resulted in separation of the binding joints and losses on the spine head and tail.

13Evidence for remboîtage of the bindings is:

  • the width of the binding boards, which are much wider than required for the usually necessary square provided for the text block’s protection,

  • the original spine is missing, only parts of the original binding remain,

  • the text block is attached to the binding boards through machine made, possibly in the 20th century, textile guards, which are now visible on the inner joints of the book,

  • from the same period are the new endpapers pasted over front and back marbled papers, original to previous text block and now visible aside the new paste-downs (Fig. 8),

  • machine made, in the 20th century, textile headbands, and

  • new gold tooling of lines and simple decoration on the spine are present.

14The album is in an English style tight back binding sewn on 1cm wide tapes forming four raised bands. The album is privately bound for its owner’s collection and includes a hand-written note on the title page “52 Heads chiefly from the Paintings of Ant: von Dycke.” Fig. 5. The collector’s initials “B,” “H,” possibly “I,” are plaited in a monogram resembling a number 4, and/or a cross, on the first binding board. (Fig. 11). Special tooling is crafted through uniquely designed metal type cut for the owner’s initials and monogram, which are centered in a double-line dentelle decorated front gilt panel. There is no particular indication for whom the album was made.

The conservation treatment

15Noticeable during condition assessment of the album are prior conservation treatments, which are difficult to date. There is no conservation documentation, photographs, or reports accompanying the acquisition records, consequently, previous restorers’ names, and conservation locations are impossible to be determined. My conservation treatment at the Art Institute of Chicago respected the album authenticity, intended stabilization of the binding structure, and consolidation of original and historic repair materials. The conservation of “Fifty-two plates…” included: Surface cleaning, consolidation, and repair of the binding, text block, and graphic works. Following the exhibition curator’s request the album’s historic patina was preserved, particularly noticeable over layered endpapers of the binding front and back turn-ins.

Fig. 8. The album before conservation treatment

Fig. 8. The album before conservation treatment

This photograph is showing the album multiple prior repairs and various conservation materials. Visible are the silk headbands, which are largely extended to the bindings' square. The text block edges are trimmed without additional edge decoration.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

16Conservation outline: The album text block and graphic works were dry cleaned with a vulcanized rubber sponge and Staedtler Mars Eraser Crumbs. The leather binding was consolidated using 2% Klucel G dissolved in chemically pure Isopropanol. Text block folios and graphic works were repaired with handmade Japanese tissue (Tengucho, Sekishu, Mino-Gami, Okiwara). Missing fragments were reconstructed, tinted with diluted watercolours, and consolidated with Klusel G dissolved in Isopropanol. Abraded binding corners and losses on the album spine head and tail were selectively infilled with 100% cotton blotter paper, Japanese tissue (Sekishu), and genuine leather in archival quality. Conservation repairs were tinted for aesthetics with acrylic paints to the original binding relief, and consolidated with Klucel G and SC6000.

Fig. 9. The album during conservation

Fig. 9. The album during conservation

The album during conservation, close up of the conservation consolidation of the text block using Tangucho Japanese handmade papers. The collector's graphic prints are finely adhered on their four corners on the verso of the album leaves.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Fig. 10. The album during conservation

Fig. 10. The album during conservation

A narrow strip of feathered Sekishu Japanese tissue was applied on the binding joints, extended over the spine and front and back boards. Degraded leather on the spine hinges, head and tail were reconstructed, and the missing head caps were formed and moulded using new bookbinding leather, Moriki papers and Japanese tissue.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Fig. 11. The album after conservation

Fig. 11. The album after conservation

Close up photograph of the album spine, tail and front cover after conservation treatment.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Fig. 12. The album after conservation

Fig. 12. The album after conservation

Close up photograph of the fore-age of the album after conservation treatment.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Fig. 13. The album after conservation

Fig. 13. The album after conservation

Photograph of the album front cover and spine after conservation. The existing binding decoration is recreated using multiple applications of a palette of alizarin crimson, quinacridone violet, cadmium red dark, red oxide, Van Dyck brown, and carbon black acrylic hues mixed with high viscosity Methylcellulose (dissolved in water), which aims to extend the drying period and to allow a light application of colour.

Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.

Fig. 14 Paper watermarks

Fig. 14 Paper watermarks

Images of paper watermarks attributed to selection of handmade papers preferred by Van Dyck and his printmakers for the execution of the prints from the Iconography series. Full catalogue of paper watermarks of the intaglio prints presented at Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago is published at: Lobis, Victoria with an essay by Maureen Watten. Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print, The Art Institute of Chicago, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, NH, US, 2016, 87-107. The illustration is showing graphic drawings of the watermark impressions.

Credits: The Fitzwilliam museum, Cambridge, UK. Images courtesy of The Fitzwilliam museum, Cambridge, UK.

Conclusion

17The conservation of the album "Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century" at the Art Institute of Chicago encompassed conservation treatment and research of the album’s bibliographic information, provenance, and acquisition. Consolidation and reconstruction of the binding losses proceeded from compositional analysis of the original and secondary binding materials. Based on extensive conservation study stabilization of the album’s condition enhanced the binding’s flexibility, and solidity, and successfully integrated historical repairs with contemporary conservation materials. Following the conservation treatment the album was presented at "Van Dyke, Rembrandt and Portrait Prints” exhibition in The Jean and Steven Goldman Prints and Drawings Galleries at the Art Institute of Chicago.

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Bibliography

The Art Institute of Chicago (2016): Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print exhibition in The Jean and Steven Goldman Prints and Drawings Galleries at the Art Institute of Chicago, Curator Victoria Lobis, Prince Trust Curator at the Art Institute of Chicago - https://www.artic.edu/exhibitions/2281/van-dyck-rembrandt-and-the-portrait-print

Carter, John. A B C for book collectors. 5th ed., Hart Davis, London, UK, 1972.; Carter, John. ABC for Book Collectors, 8th ed. ed., Oak Knoll Press, British Library, New Castle, London, UK, 2004.

Etherington, Don, Matt Roberts. Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books. A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology. Library of Congress, Washington, DC, US, 1982.

Fifty-two plates engraved from portraits by Van Dyck and others, 16th – 17th century. Album of fifty-two portrait prints, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, US.

Goodman Family Papers, 1795-2003, Bulk, 1880-1995, Midwest.MS.Goodman Family, The Newberry Library - Modern Manuscripts, Newberry Library, Chicago, IL, US.

Hind, Arthur. Van Dyck his original etchings and his iconography. Houghton Mifflin Company, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, US, 1915, 12.

Ligatus Project, The Language of Bindings Thesaurus (LoB), University of the Arts London, London, UK.

Lobis, Victoria. "Van Dyck's Legacy. The Artists as subject and the vitality of the portrait print". In: Lobis, Victoria with an essay by Maureen Watten. Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print, The Art Institute of Chicago, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, NH, US, 2016.

The Edward Worth Library. Van Dyck at the Edward Worth Library https://vandyck.edwardworthlibrary.ie/van-dyck-book/

Turner, Simon (comp.) and Carl Depauw (ed.). The New Hollstein: Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, 1450-1700. Anthony van Dyck, 9 vol., Rotterdam, 2002.

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Notes

1 Images of the watermarks are shown on Fig. 14a, Fig. 14b, and Fig. 14c.

2 Clarence Buckingham's large and impressive collection included old master prints by Dürer, Lucas van Leyden, Rembrandt, Schongauer, Hollar, Piranesi, Goya, Delacroix, modern etchings by Meryon, Seymour Haden, Legros, Whistler, Degas, Manet, Gauguin, Munch and Klinger, and Japanese woodcut prints by Hokusai, Hiroshige, Kiyonaga, Utamaro, Okumura Masanobu, Suzuki Harunobu, Tôshûsai Sharaku and Katsukawa Shunshôto. For additional information see: Gookin, Frederick. Catalogue of a memorial exhibition of Japanese color prints from the collection of the late Clarence Buckingham, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, US, 1908; Lugt, Frits, Les marques de collections de dessins et d'estampes: marques estampillèes et écrites de collections particulières et publiques; marques de marchands, de monteurs et d'imprimeurs; etc..., Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1921; Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago, Vol. 33, no. 4, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, US, 1939, 62-64.

3 In a few cases Van Dyck left his portraits practically unfinished except for the head: e.g. the Portrait of Himself (W. 4), and the Frans Snyders (W. 11), but so placed on the copper as to lead the imagination to supply the natural basis of a body. Hind, Arthur. Van Dyck his original etchings and his iconography. Houghton Mifflin Company, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, US, 1915, 11.

4 Lobis, Victoria. Van Dyck's Legacy. The Artists as subject and the vitality of the portrait print. In: Lobis, Victoria with an essay by Maureen Watten. Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print, The Art Institute of Chicago, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, NH, US, 35-71, 35.

5 Fifty-two plates engraved from portraits by Van Dyck and others, 16th – 17th century. Album of fifty-two portrait prints, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, US.

6 Turner, Simon (comp.) and Carl Depauw (ed.). The New Hollstein: Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, 1450-1700. Anthony van Dyck, 9 vols. (Rotterdam, 2002), Parts I-III.

7 See Lobis, Victoria. Van Dyck's Legacy…, 70.

8 Hind, Arthur. Van Dyck his original etchings and his iconography. Houghton Mifflin Company, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, US, 1915, 12.

9 Ibidem.

10 Ibidem, 17.

11 The Goodman family archive containing papers, letters, photograph albums, cards, genealogical materials, diaries, and travel memorabilia is preserved at The Newberry Library in Chicago. For additional information see: Goodman Family Papers, 1795-2003, Bulk, 1880-1995, Midwest.MS.Goodman Family, The Newberry Library - Modern Manuscripts, Chicago, IL, US.

12 Kenneth Goodman (1884-1918), a play writher and theatre producer, was the son of Erna Malvina Sawyer and William Owen Goodman who passed away at the age of 35 in the influenza epidemic of 1918. To memorialize their son Goodman family established many memorials in his name.

13 From French remboîtage rebinding of a book from remboîter to rebind (a book) (1874; 1306 in Old French in sense ‘to hide (a thing) away’, 1549 in sense ‘to restore (a deformed object) back to its proper form’ from re- and -emboîter) and -age.

14 “There is not a comparable English word for this expression, recasing being the closest; however, in craft bookbinding, "recasing" connotes a book that has been removed from its covers, repaired and/or resewn, and then returned to the original covers.” Etherington, Don, Matt Roberts. Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books. A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology. Library of Congress, Washington, DC, US, 1982. From: Carter, John. A B C for book collectors. 5th ed., Hart Davis, London, UK, 1972, 69. “The transferring into a superior binding of a text more interesting or valuable than the one for which it was made.” Carter, John, ABC for Book Collectors, 8th ed. ed. Oak Knoll Press, British Library, New Castle, London, UK, 2004, 189.

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List of illustrations

Title Fig. 1. Title: Conservation of the album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century"
Caption Photographs of before- and after conservation process, gallery view and exhibition cradles design for the album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century".
Credits Credits: Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago. Album conservation and photographs by Malina Belcheva.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 322k
Title Fig. 2 Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago
Caption View into The Jean and Steven Goldman Prints and Drawings Galleries of Van Dyck Rembrandt and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago. Photograph of the exhibition entrance showcasing the unfinished (except for the head) Self-Portrait (1630/33) of Anthony van Dyke. Etching in black ink on ivory laid paper with print dimensions 246 × 157 mm (image/plate), and 257 × 169 mm (sheet), graphic print provenance Clarence Buckingham Collection of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-2.jpg
File image/jpeg, 183k
Title Fig. 3 The album display
Caption Photograph of the album display at Portraiture and Intimacy thematic gallery of the exhibition Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print, and the graphic portrait of Isabella Clara Eugenia, 1630/40, graphic print provenance of William O. Goodman collection of The Art Institute of Chicago.
Credits Credits: The Art Institute of Chicago
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-3.jpg
File image/jpeg, 153k
Title Fig. 4 Anthony van Dyck, graphic portrait of himself and of his mentor Peter Paul Rubens
Caption Double portrait of Peter Paul Rubens (left) and Anthony van Dyck (right). Antwerp, The Netherlands (35x45cm). Engraving by Paulus Pontius (1603-1658). The inscription of the portrait reads: upper left: PET. PAVL RVBENS EQVES PICTOR ANTWERPIENS; upper right: ANTONIVS VAN DYCK PICTOR ANTVERP.; lower center: Ecce RVBENS... / ... pavide dubitastis amantes.; lower elft: Ant. van Dijck facies pinxit; lower center: Eras. Quellinus delin.; lower right: Paulus Ponius facies sculp. Graphic print provenance collection of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Credits Credits: The Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-4.jpg
File image/jpeg, 773k
Title Fig. 5 The Collector’s handwritten note
Caption The collector’s handwritten inscription on the album title page reads: "52 Heads chiefly from the Paintings of Ant: von Dycke." There is no further indication revealing the owner's identity apart from his initial letters and monogram hand tooled on the centre of the front binding cover, which reads as: "H", or "I", "B", and a number "4" or a "cross."
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-5.jpg
File image/jpeg, 127k
Title Fig. 6 The album before conservation treatment
Caption The album is leather bound tight-back English style binding with raised bands in maroon long grain morocco goatskin leather. The text block is sewn on approximately 1 cm wide textile tapes, forming four raised bands laced into the front and back boards.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-6.jpg
File image/jpeg, 335k
Title Fig. 7 The album before conservation treatment
Caption The album “Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century” before conservation treatment, visible are prior conservation campaigns. The tooling of the album is in gold with a simple decoration on the spine, and a dentelle double-layered English panel ornamentation of the front cover. The photograph is showing the rebacking of the binding with new leather, now falling apart.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-7.jpg
File image/jpeg, 338k
Title Fig. 8. The album before conservation treatment
Caption This photograph is showing the album multiple prior repairs and various conservation materials. Visible are the silk headbands, which are largely extended to the bindings' square. The text block edges are trimmed without additional edge decoration.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-8.jpg
File image/jpeg, 210k
Title Fig. 9. The album during conservation
Caption The album during conservation, close up of the conservation consolidation of the text block using Tangucho Japanese handmade papers. The collector's graphic prints are finely adhered on their four corners on the verso of the album leaves.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-9.jpg
File image/jpeg, 367k
Title Fig. 10. The album during conservation
Caption A narrow strip of feathered Sekishu Japanese tissue was applied on the binding joints, extended over the spine and front and back boards. Degraded leather on the spine hinges, head and tail were reconstructed, and the missing head caps were formed and moulded using new bookbinding leather, Moriki papers and Japanese tissue.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-10.jpg
File image/jpeg, 240k
Title Fig. 11. The album after conservation
Caption Close up photograph of the album spine, tail and front cover after conservation treatment.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-11.jpg
File image/jpeg, 245k
Title Fig. 12. The album after conservation
Caption Close up photograph of the fore-age of the album after conservation treatment.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-12.jpg
File image/jpeg, 210k
Title Fig. 13. The album after conservation
Caption Photograph of the album front cover and spine after conservation. The existing binding decoration is recreated using multiple applications of a palette of alizarin crimson, quinacridone violet, cadmium red dark, red oxide, Van Dyck brown, and carbon black acrylic hues mixed with high viscosity Methylcellulose (dissolved in water), which aims to extend the drying period and to allow a light application of colour.
Credits Credits: Malina Belcheva. Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-13.jpg
File image/jpeg, 276k
Title Fig. 14 Paper watermarks
Caption Images of paper watermarks attributed to selection of handmade papers preferred by Van Dyck and his printmakers for the execution of the prints from the Iconography series. Full catalogue of paper watermarks of the intaglio prints presented at Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago is published at: Lobis, Victoria with an essay by Maureen Watten. Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and the Portrait Print, The Art Institute of Chicago, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, NH, US, 2016, 87-107. The illustration is showing graphic drawings of the watermark impressions.
Credits Credits: The Fitzwilliam museum, Cambridge, UK. Images courtesy of The Fitzwilliam museum, Cambridge, UK.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/7138/img-14.jpg
File image/jpeg, 64k
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References

Electronic reference

Malina Belcheva, “Remboîtage of a Binding: Authenticity and Conservation of "Fifty-two Plates Engraved from Portraits by Van Dyck and Others, 16th - 17th Century"”CeROArt [Online], 12 | 2020, Online since 08 March 2021, connection on 11 April 2021. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/7138; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/ceroart.7138

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About the author

Malina Belcheva

Malina Belcheva is the Head of Rare Books and Special Collections at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria. She graduated in Conservation from the American Academy of Bookbinding in the USA, and has completed her second doctoral studies in Visual Communication at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria. Her previous education is in the field of Philosophy, she completed the PhD program in Philosophy of Politics, Culture, Law and Economics and has a Master of Arts degree in Philosophy from Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria. Ms. Belcheva has held conservation positions at the Art Institute of Chicago, Harold Washington Library Centre, and at the Northwestern University conservation laboratories in Chicago, USA. mbelcheva@libsu.uni-sofia.bg or malinagbelcheva@gmail.com

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Copyright

Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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