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Editor's notes

Last update: 8 November 2019

The general style of reference is the Chicago Manual of Style.

1. Presentation of an article

The paper should be typed in Times 12, with a paragraph spacing of 1,5.

The paper should include, in the following order, and with a line space between each:

a) Title of the article

b) Author’s name

c) Author’s institutional affiliation (signature)

d) Author’s biblio-biographical note (50 to 70 words). Institutional position, research interests and recent or significant publication(s).

e) Abstract (50 to 70 words)

f) Key words (about 5, including names)

g) Body of the text.

When subtitles are included, they should not be in bold, not numbered, and should be preceded and followed by a line space.

Quotations longer than three lines should be in a separate, off-set paragraph. The source of a block quotation is given in parentheses at the end of the quotation. The opening parenthesis appears after the final punctuation mark of the quoted material. No period either precedes or follows the closing parenthesis.

h) List of works cited.

The “author-date” system is used: give author’s name, date of publication, title, and other bibliographical information (see examples provided).

  • The surnames of authors should be in small capitals.

  • If the edition used and listed is not a first edition, give the date of the first edition after the title, and before place of publication, publisher, and date of publication of edition used, followed by a period.

  • If the works cited contain more than one title by the same author, list titles in chronological order, and repeat author’s name for each entry (no — to replace the author’s name).

  • If an entry refers to a chapter from a book which is itself listed, cross-reference the entry by giving the last name of the book’s editor, followed by the page span of the chapter (see Cronin & Drichel and Smaill in the examples given).

  • Give the page span of articles, not preceded by “p.” or “pp.” Use an m dash (–), not an n dash (-) between inclusive numbers. Abbreviating inclusive numbers: the Chicago style reflects the way the numbers would be read aloud:

First number

Second number



100 or multiples of 100

Use all digits

Use all digits

3–10, 71–72, 96–117

100–104, 1100–1113

101 through 109

201 through 209, etc.

Use changed part only

101–8, 1103–4

110 through 199,

210 through 299, etc

Use two or more digits

321–28, 498–532, 1087–89,

11564–615, 12991–13001

But if three digits change in a four-digit number, use all four



To avoid ambiguity, inclusive roman numerals are always given in full. Roman numerals are in small capitals.

  • If a reference has more than two places of publication, indicate the first one only.

2. General guidelines

The general style of reference is the Chicago Manual of Style.


Explanatory footnotes (which provide information other than bibliographical references) may be resorted to sparingly. Use footnotes, not endnotes, and Arabic, not roman numerals. The footnotes should be numbered successively from 1 through to the end, i.e. do not begin at 1 on each new page. Place the footnote number after the punctuation marks.

Ex. This symbol is called a swastika;6 its existence goes back thousands of years.7

No bibliographical footnotes

Replace referential footnotes with parenthetical reference notes and a final bibliography, all in author-date style.

Reference notes

  • Reference notes should appear between parentheses in the body of the text. Readers will go to the bibliography for full information.

  • Give the name of the author followed by the year of publication of the source and the page number(s) preceded by a comma.

Ex: (Frame 1951, 13–14)

  • Where the name of the author’s name appears in the text, it need not be repeated in the parenthetical citation.

Ex: Ogaga Okuyade traces a direct line between the former generations and the third generation of Nigerian writers (2009, 72).

  • When the same page or pages in the same source are cited more than once in one paragraph, the parenthetical citation can be placed after the last reference or at the end of the paragraph, preceding the final period. If the page numbers change, the citation should occur at the first reference; the following citations need include only the page.

  • When a reference list includes two or more works published in the same year by the same author, the text citations as well as the reference list must us the letters a, b, and so on.

  • Possible additions, after page number: (…, emphasis added) or (…, original emphasis) or (…, my translation).

Quotations and punctuation

  • All quotations should be inserted between double inverted commas (“…”; not ‘…’ or « … »). Do not type quotations in italics or bold type. Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. Words inserted in quotations should appear between square brackets ([she]), and words omitted from quotations should be indicated by three spaced periods which should be enclosed in square brackets ([…]).

  • Length of quotes and copyright: to avoid problems of copyright, do not quote sequentially more than 200 words of prose or 5 lines of poetry.

  • Place commas and periods (, .) inside of inverted commas. Place colons, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points (: ; ? !) outside of inverted commas.

Ex: In Walcott’s “The Figure of Crusoe,”

  • With a run-in quotation (as opposed to a block quotation), the source is usually given after the closing quotation mark, followed by the rest of the surrounding sentence or the final punctuation of that sentence. A parenthetical reference need not immediately follow the quotation as long as it is clear to what it refers.

Ex: The Panchatantra was originally compiled for the benefit of three princes, “to teach [them] how to think, not what to think”; to provide them with niti: guiding principles and an “education in the art of living wisely and well” (Rajan in Sharma 1993, xxxiii, xxvii, xxxv).

  • When a question mark or an exclamation point belongs within the quoted matter, that punctuation is retained within the quotation marks, and a period is still added after the closing parentheses.

  • Slashes: Slashes separate lines of poetry incorporated into the text, elements in dates expressed exclusively in digits (2/12/12), and alternative words (and/or). Use a space before and after the slash only when separating lines of poetry.


They are to be provided for citations in languages other than English. The translation is usually given in the text, and the original in a footnote.

Electronic sources

  • Electronic sources: give the same information as for a printed source, followed by the URL followed by a period, as follows:

  • For electronic sources, insert the hypertext link.


Use a medium-length hyphen, and leave a space before and after ( – ).

Other recommendations

Please do not use headers and footers. Do not use capital letters other than for conventional use.

Centuries: no abbreviation: “nineteenth century”; adjectival position: “nineteenth-century literature”

Decades: spelled out and expressed in numerals; no apostrophe appears between the year and the s:

1950s (not ’50s or 1950’s).

3. Works Cited: examples

Aiyejina, Funsho. 1988. “Recent Nigerian Poetry in English: The Alternative Tradition.” In Perspectives on Nigerian Literature: 1700 to the Present, vol. 1, edited by Yemi Ogunbiyi, 52–71. Lagos: Guardian.

Austen, Jane. 1813. Pride and Prejudice. London: Dent, 1970.

Bernabé, Jean, Patrick Chamoiseau, and Raphaël Confiant. 1989. In Praise of Creoleness. Translated by M.B. Taleb-Khyar. Bilingual ed. Paris: Gallimard, 1993. Originally published as Éloge de la créolité.

Cronin, Jan, and Simone Drichel, eds. 2009. Frameworks: Contemporary Criticism on Janet Frame. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Delbaere, Jeanne. 1992. “Turnlung in the Noon Sun: An Analysis of Daughter Buffalo.” In The Ring of Fire: Essays on Janet Frame, edited by Jeanne Delbaere, 161–76. Sydney: Dangaroo.

Delrez, Marc. 2002. Manifold Utopia: The Novels of Janet Frame. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Dvorak, Marta. 2006, Spring. “Troping the Voice-Print: Derek Walcott’s Rhetoric of Performance.” In “Derek Walcott.” Special issue, Commonwealth Essays and Studies 28, no. 2: 45–56.

Glissant, Édouard. 1981. Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays. Translated by Michael Dash. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1989. Originally published as Le discours antillais (Paris: Gallimard).

Glissant, Édouard. 1956. Les Indes/The Indies. Translated by Dominique O’Neill. Bilingual ed. Toronto: GREF, 1992. Originally published as Les Indes (Paris: Falaize).

Khuda kay Liye. 2007. Dir. Shoaib Mansoor. Geo Films and Shoman Production (Pakistan). 168 min.

Rollason, Christopher. 2010, 3 June. “‘In our translated world’: Transcultural Communication in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide.”

Smaill, Anna. 2009. “Beyond Analogy: Janet Frame and Existential Thought.” In Cronin and Drichel, 67–88.

Vishnu Sharma. 1993. The Panchatantra. Translated from the Sanskrit and introduction by Chandra Rajan. New Delhi: Penguin. [standardized spelling for author’s surname and title]

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