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Editor's notes

Last update: 9 November 2020

The general style of reference is the Chicago Manual of Style.

1. Overall structure of the article

The paper should be typed in Times 12, with a paragraph spacing of 1,5.

The paper should include, in the following order, and with a line space between each:

a) Title of the article

b) Author’s name

c) Author’s institutional affiliation (or signature). Use a comma if university is followed by research institution. Use a slash if teaching institution is followed by research institution.

d) Author’s biblio-biographical note (50 to 70 words). Institutional position, research interests and recent or significant publication(s).

Capitalise position (X is a Professor…).

For books and book chapters, give Title (publisher, year of publication).

For a journal article, the reference should read as follows: “Title of article” (Name of journal (volume.number, year of publication).

e) add: en (This is part of the metadata of the article, to indicate that it is written in English.)

f) Abstract (50 to 70 words)

g) Key words (about 5, including names, separated by a comma, not capitalised)

h) Date of publication (will be added by the editor in this format: DD/MM/YEAR).

i) Body of the text.

When subtitles are included, they should not be in bold, not numbered, not capitalised, and should be preceded and followed by a line space.

Quotations longer than three lines should be in a separate, off-set paragraph. The source of a block quotation is given in parentheses at the end of the quotation. The opening parenthesis appears after the final punctuation mark of the quoted material. No period either precedes or follows the closing parenthesis.

j) Bibliography.

The “author-date” system is used: give author’s name, date of publication, title, and other bibliographical information (see section on bibliography).

2. General guidelines


  • Explanatory footnotes (which provide information other than bibliographical references) may be resorted to sparingly. Use footnotes, not endnotes, and Arabic, not roman numerals. The footnotes should be numbered successively from 1 through to the end, i.e. do not begin at 1 on each new page. Place the footnote number after the punctuation marks.

Ex. This symbol is called a swastika;6 its existence goes back thousands of years.7

  • No bibliographical footnotes. Replace referential footnotes with parenthetical reference notes and a final bibliography, all in author-date style.

Quotations and punctuation

  • All quotations should be inserted between double inverted commas (“…”; not ‘…’ or « … »). Do not type quotations in italics or bold type. Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. Words inserted in quotations should appear between square brackets ([she]), and words omitted from quotations should be indicated by three spaced periods which should be enclosed in square brackets ([…]).

  • Length of quotes and copyright: to avoid problems of copyright, do not quote sequentially more than 200 words of prose or 5 lines of poetry.

  • Place commas and periods (, .) inside of inverted commas. Place colons, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points (: ; ? !) outside of inverted commas.

Ex: In Walcott’s “The Figure of Crusoe,”

  • With a run-in quotation (as opposed to a block quotation), the source is usually given after the closing quotation mark, followed by the rest of the surrounding sentence or the final punctuation of that sentence. A parenthetical reference need not immediately follow the quotation as long as it is clear to what it refers.

Ex: The Panchatantra was originally compiled for the benefit of three princes, “to teach [them] how to think, not what to think”; to provide them with niti: guiding principles and an “education in the art of living wisely and well” (Rajan in Sharma 1993, xxxiii, xxvii, xxxv).

  • When a question mark or an exclamation point belongs within the quoted matter, that punctuation is retained within the quotation marks, and a period is still added after the closing parentheses.

  • Slashes: Slashes separate lines of poetry incorporated into the text, elements in dates expressed exclusively in digits (2/12/12), and alternative words (and/or). Use a space before and after the slash only when separating lines of poetry.

  • Dashes: Use a medium-length hyphen (m dash), and leave a space before and after ( – ).

Reference notes

  • Reference notes should appear between parentheses in the body of the text. Readers will go to the bibliography for full information.

  • Give the name of the author followed by the year of publication of the source and the page number(s) preceded by a comma.

Example: (Frame 1951, 13–14)

  • Where the name of the author appears in the text, it need not be repeated in the parenthetical citation.

Example: Ogaga Okuyade traces a direct line between the former generations and the third generation of Nigerian writers (2009, 72).

  • Where the date of the source has already been given in the paragraph and it is clear that a subsequent reference, or subsequent references, are to the same source, the date need not be repeated.

  • When starting a new paragraph, or if a citation to another work intervenes, it is necessary to give a full parenthetical citation again (author date, page; or date, page if the author is referred to in the text preceding the quotation).

  • Possible additions, after page number: (…; emphasis added) or (…; original emphasis) or (…; my translation).

  • Two or more references in a single parenthetical citation are separated by semi-colons.

Reference notes for digital sources

  • When giving a reference to an online article that has numbered paragraphs, give the paragraph number.

Example: (van Herk 2020, §2)

  • If the online source has no page numbers, do not add “np”; give author’s name and date of publication.

Spelling (US vs English)

  • Authors can opt for British or American spelling (e.g., colour/color, analyse/analyze)., as long as consistency is maintained within each article. In quoted material, spelling, like punctuation (e.g., single vs. double quotation marks), is left unchanged.


  • Subtitles can be included. Do not capitalise the terms of the subtitle.


  • Translations in the text of the article are to be provided for citations in languages other than English. If the translation is that of the author (rather than a published one), give the original text in a footnote.


If the tale is more inclined to deal with political considerations, it might be because “it is not tales that stage political stakes as much as political powers that take on the appearance of fairytales” (Méchoulan 2006, §1; my translation).1

1. “[C]e ne sont pas tant les contes qui représentent des enjeux politiques, ce sont les pouvoirs en place qui prennent l’allure de contes de fées.”

Other recommendations on the text

  • Do not use headers and footers. Do not use capital letters other than for conventional use.

  • Centuries: no abbreviation: “nineteenth century”; adjectival position: “nineteenth-century literature”

  • Decades: spelled out and expressed in numerals; no apostrophe appears between the year and the s: 1950s (not ’50s or 1950’s).

3. Bibliography

Contents of each entry

The surnames of authors should be in small capitals.

If the works cited contain more than one title by the same author, list titles in chronological order, and repeat author’s name for each entry; don’t use a dash (—) to replace the author’s name.

When a bibliography includes two or more works published in the same year by the same author, the text citations as well as the reference list must use the letters a, b, c, and so on.

If a reference has more than two places of publication, include the first one only.


Aiyejina, Funsho. 1988. “Recent Nigerian Poetry in English: The Alternative Tradition.” In Perspectives on Nigerian Literature: 1700 to the Present, vol. 1, edited by Yemi Ogunbiyi, 52–71. Lagos: Guardian.

Delbaere, Jeanne. 1992. “Turnlung in the Noon Sun: An Analysis of Daughter Buffalo.” In The Ring of Fire: Essays on Janet Frame, edited by Jeanne Delbaere, 161–76. Sydney: Dangaroo.

Delrez, Marc. 2002. Manifold Utopia: The Novels of Janet Frame. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Dvorak, Marta. 2006. “Troping the Voice-Print: Derek Walcott’s Rhetoric of Performance.” “Derek Walcott.” Special issue, Commonwealth Essays and Studies 28, no. 2 (Spring): 45–56.

Okri, Ben. 2013. “Ben Okri in Conversation.” Interview by Vanessa Guignery and Catherine Pesso-Miquel. In The Famished Road: Ben Okri’s Imaginary Homelands, edited by Vanessa Guignery, 17–29. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.


If an entry refers to a chapter from a book which is itself listed, cross-reference the entry by giving the last name of the book’s editor, followed by the page span of the chapter.


Cronin, Jan, and Simone Drichel, eds. 2009. Frameworks: Contemporary Criticism on Janet Frame. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Smaill, Anna. 2009. “Beyond Analogy: Janet Frame and Existential Thought.” In Cronin and Drichel, 67–88.

Digital sources

  • Websites:

Give the same information as for a printed source, with the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) at the end. If the source has a date of online publication distinct from the date of publication on paper, give the date of paper publication first, and add the date of online publication before the URL (see Méchoulan below).

Insert the hypertext link of the URL (readers will be able to consult it when reading the article online).

Do not include the access date of the URL.


Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. 2009. “The Danger of a Single Story.” July.

Austen, Ralph A. 2015. “Struggling with the African Bildungsroman.” Research in African Literatures 46, no. 3 (Fall): 214–31.
DOI: 10.2979/reseafrilite.46.3.214.

Fraser, Robert. 1979. “Four Alternative Endings to Wole Soyinka’s A Dance of the Forests.” Research in African Literatures 10, no. 3 (Winter): 359–74.

Lama Zopa Rinpoche. 2019. “The Purpose of Meditation.” Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. 15 Jan.

Mechoulan, Eric. 2006. “Le Pouvoir féérique.” Fééries 3. Posted online 5 February 2007.

Sussex, Lucy. 2009. “A Woman of Mystery: Mary Fortune.” The Lucy Sussex Home Page. 5 February.

  • E-books:

Books published online: indicate the URL, and the DOI if available.

Books published in both printed and digital forms: cite the source consulted. You may also cite another format.


Poe, Edgar Allan. 2011. “The Philosophy of Composition.” Graham’s Magazine 28, no 4 (April 1846): 163–67.

  • Digital editions of older works: give as much of the standard information as possible.


James, Henry. 1996. The Ambassadors. 1903. Project Gutenberg.

  • Other digital formats should include an indication of the format (e.g. CD-ROM, Microsoft Reader e-book…).


Black, Shameem. 2010. Fiction Across Borders: Imagining the Lives of Others in Late Twentieth-Century Novels. New York: Columbia University Press. Kindle.


Fennell, Jarad Heath. 2016. “The Non-Identical Anglophone Bildungsroman: From the Categorical to the De-Centering Literary Subject in the Black Atlantic.” PhD diss., University of South Florida.

Hoagland, Ericka. 2006. “Postcolonializing the Bildungsroman: A Study of the Evolution of a Genre.” PhD diss., Purdue University.



Khuda kay Liye. 2007. Dir. Shoaib Mansoor. Geo Films and Shoman Production (Pakistan). 168 min.

First edition

If the edition used and listed is not a first edition, give the date of the first edition after the title of the work (and before place of publication and publisher).


Austen, Jane. 1970. Pride and Prejudice. 1813. London: Dent.

Farrell, J.G. 1993. The Siege of Krishnapur. 1973. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.


Should be listed under the name of the interviewee (not the interviewer).

Newspapers and magazines

Byatt, A.S. 2004. “Happy ever after.” The Guardian, 3 January.

Ghosh, Amitav. 1995. “The Ghosts of Mrs Gandhi.” The New Yorker. July 17, 35–41.

Gorra, Michael. 2008. “Birth of a Nation.” The New York Times, 27 January.

Islam, Kajalie Shehreen. 2018. “The Discursive Silence of Women in 1971.” The Daily Star, 16 December.

Table Talk. 1898. Melbourne, Vic. 25 March: 3.

Page span

  • Give the page span of articles, not preceded by “p.” or “pp.” Use an m dash (–), not an n dash (-) between inclusive numbers.

  • To avoid ambiguity, inclusive roman numerals are always given in full. Roman numerals are in small capitals.

  • Abbreviating inclusive numbers: the Chicago style reflects the way the numbers would be read aloud:

First number

Second number



100 or multiples of 100

Use all digits

Use all digits

3–10, 71–72, 96–117

100–104, 1100–1113

101 through 109

201 through 209, etc.

Use changed part only

101–8, 1103–4

110 through 199,

210 through 299, etc

Use two or more digits

321–28, 498–532, 1087–89,

11564–615, 12991–13001

But if three digits change in a four-digit number, use all four



Sources in translation

  • When relevant, and if available, give the title and reference of the original work.


Bernabé, Jean, Patrick Chamoiseau, and Raphaël Confiant. 1993. In Praise of Creoleness. Translated by M.B. Taleb-Khyar. Bilingual ed. Originally published as Éloge de la créolité (Paris: Gallimard, 1989).

Glissant, Édouard. 1989. Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays. Translated by Michael Dash. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Originally published as Le discours antillais (Paris: Gallimard, 1981).

Glissant, Édouard. 1992. Les Indes/The Indies. Translated by Dominique O’Neill. Bilingual ed. Toronto: GREF. Originally published as Les Indes (Paris: Falaize, 1956).

Vishnu Sharma. 1993. The Panchatantra. Translated from the Sanskrit and introduction by Chandra Rajan. New Delhi: Penguin. [standardized spelling for author’s surname and title]

Unpublished sources

Sussex, Lucy. 2016. “Writing Mary Fortune’s Marginal Life.” Presentation at the Australian Historical Association conference. Ballarat, Vic., Australia. 4–8 July.

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