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Evolution of the Health System

Inefficiency, Violence, and Digital Healthcare
Carine Milcent
Translated by David Buchanan
p. 39-50


China’s public health system has gone through a number of development stages. This paper aims at showing how, from its inception as a hierarchical system, the healthcare system then lost its structure, to finally give birth to a focalised system where the first point of entry in the treatment process has become the hospital, in particular the healthcare establishments that offer the most reliable standards of care. These days, the widely-acknowledged inefficiencies of the healthcare system have led to a climate of violence between medical staff and their patients, caused by the overwhelming demand that hospitals must bear, the ambiguous status of public establishments, financial benefits and other perks for medical staff, as well as the medical staff’s civil servant status, and the implications thereof. Policies to foster the development of primary health centres are struggling to gain traction, while digital healthcare offers promising solutions and is developing fast.

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Bibliographical reference

Carine Milcent, « Evolution of the Health System », China Perspectives, 2016/4 | 2016, 39-50.

Electronic reference

Carine Milcent, « Evolution of the Health System », China Perspectives [Online], 2016/4 | 2016, Online since 01 December 2017, connection on 26 February 2020. URL : ; DOI :

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About the author

Carine Milcent

Carine Milcent, CNRS-Researcher at Paris-Jourdan Sciences Économiques (PSE), has been on assignment at CEFC since 1 September 2014 (

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