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Actas de Congresso

Compromise management as a challenge for corporate communication

Enric Ordeix i Rigo e enricor@blanquerna.url.edu
p. 171-183

Resumo

The article «Compromise Management as a challenge for Corporate Communication» is focused on the bridge between communication and organizational behavior. The author wants to guide the reader on the construction of the corporate believes and how this influences the credibility of organizations. At the same time, this approach to compromise management invites to go deeper inside the evolution of the corporate culture when dealing with Public Relations and internal communication. This text concludes with pointing some new tendencies in internal public relations management and with settling the new professional roles we are playing or we will be playing rather soon.

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Texto integral

1. Introduction

  • 1 Settling Corporate Standards Across Cultural Barriers. Second Global Communication Symposium, June (...)

1For some time now we have been debating the concepts that determine public relations processes. The recurring objective of many studies is to provide a basic description of these processes and their effects, as we often think that by explaining how the activity is structured we are describing our discipline. We are forgetting, however, to study the organization as a prior stage to the implementation of actions and campaigns. In both the professional and academic spheres we tend to highlight the explanation of techniques and specialties, whilst neglecting the study of the organization and its characteristics1.

2It is essential that we once more introduce a focus on analysis of the identity and personality of organizations, and its adaptation to the social characteristics of the environment. In public relations, although a command of support techniques is necessary in order that the organization’s message be better understood, we must not allow ourselves to neglect the characteristics of the organization, as to do so would be to run the risk of transmitting an incoherent message with regard to the organization’s characteristics and operations.

3Public relations contribute to improve corporate values and credibility of the institution. Yet, despite the important role played by the management of values and the commitments deriving from them, studies and methodology in this field are poor; here we hope to make a minimal contribution to their enrichment.

  • 2 WILCOX, D.L., CAMERON, G.T. & XIFRA, J. Relaciones públicas: Estrategias y tácticas. Madrid: Addiso (...)
  • 3 SCHEIN, E. Organizational Culture and Leadership, Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1992.

4We would like to highlight a subject which is related to new ways of generating internal involvement in companies and other organizations facing a revolution in the form of the application of new organizational systems which affect human resource and marketing management. We believe this to be at least partly a consequence of democratization of the information we are exposed to by new technologies. Within this framework organizations, and in particular companies, have become increasingly concerned with defining and constructing the personality of the organization and its areas of interest and social commitment. We believe that the first step in a lengthy public relations process resides principally in the formation of a group identity within the different environments in which the organization operates2.In this respect, management of the organizational culture becomes essential for development of the elements which will construct the message addressed to the publics. Identification with the organization's values and message increases the level of participation within entities and constructs an area of understanding, the backbone of public relations activity. This area of understanding does not exist between people if there is not commitment from both sides, however, whilst commitments are expressed through value3and generate expectations that have to be satisfied to win credibility. All in all a feedback circle.

  • 4 GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey): La (...)
  • 5 7th European Research PR Association (EUPRERA) International Congress. New Challenges for Public Re (...)

5When faced with this subject we must address two subsidiary questions. The first is to establish the fundamental principles governing the processes of internal participation in organizations4 and to determine the basic functions and professional roles deriving from this. And the second is to open a debate on internal relationships in a new globalized market and establish the role that public relations must play in this sphere5.

6In summary, in this discussion we must ask ourselves the role the profession must adopt in order to keep corporative/organizational culture cohesive and latent with regard to new challenges and emerging tendencies in extremely demanding dynamic social environments and in markets with new sensibilities.

7We must not forget that, among other factors, both internationalization and new technologies have provoked a succession of social changes which have affected the management of organizations and which have also at the same time generated new approaches in the field of communications and public relations. We have taken into consideration three fundamental aspects when initiating the debate: the construction of identity and values as a backbone for organizational culture, the internal effects of social responsibility when constructing reference values with and between employees, and finally processes and methods for internal relationships as a form of expressing commitment and achieving consensus within and between the different sectors of the audience which comprises the entity.

2. Global organizational management changes

  • 6 MINTZBERG, H. El poder en la organización. Barcelona: Ariel Economia, 1992.

8We start from the consideration that changes in organizational systems6favour the cultural cohesion of organizations and that the effective cohesion of this culture is dependent on a good internal communication process. This is provided, to a great extent, by the environment, history, the sector, leaders and obviously, the people comprising the teams.

  • 7 ORDEIX I RIGO, E. Reflexión sobre las Conclusiones del I Internacional Symposium in Global Corporat (...)

9In an international context we see that in recent years the biggest European companies have replaced their general communications and public relations departments with specific departments which highlight the diversity of tasks and functions within the field of communications and public relations, among which appear specific areas exclusively dedicated to the analysis and management of organizational culture7.The need to create a solid corporate culture in a changing and globalised market has led to, among other things, the development of activities aimed at the social construction of the brand, the definition of values and the improvement of internal participation and communication.

  • 8 ORDEIX, E. & XIFRA, J. Companies paradoxes when settling corporate culture basis in a global and mu (...)

10Finally, it is not possible to understand current organizational management if we do not take into account the evolution of new techniques which favor interaction. These new tools help to align individual objectives with the organization's group objectives. Comprehension, dialogue and participation are concepts which are already integrated into current human resource policy management. Therefore, transparency of information is established as a basic necessary change for all organizations in an ever more interconnected and globalized world8.

11These social and economic changes have not favored the development of public relations as a professional field, however. The following could be seen as elements which have obstructed its evolution: communication has often been viewed as an additional task of little short-term benefit rather than a priority for adapting to the environment and a means of ensuring the future of the organization; internal communications, and as a consequence internal relations, often assume tasks which are considered appropriate but which correspond to activities in which all the other departments or functional areas must be involved; and finally, commitment management is closely linked to satisfying expectations and its establishment therefore generates reticence due to fear of failure.

12The construction of organizational culture may be understood to be a basic element in preserving an organization’s being positively accepted by society, with the effects on the market that this entails in the case of companies.

3. Corporate personality building

  • 9 ORDEIX, E & SERRA, A. La comunicación responsable, Perspectiva, Revista de la Consultora Madrid: Me (...)

13The link between identity and values and the personality of the organization can be understood from a definition of the concept of culture. Basing ourselves on definitions by various authors, we understand organizational culture to be the set of values shared by members of an organization, mani- fested in their own cultural behavior and expressions — symbols, ceremonies, rituals, language, style of communication, etc., guiding the attitude of its members and determining the organization’s relationships on both the inside and outside whilst logically also exerting an influence on motivation and the level of involvement and commitment employees have with the company9.

  • 10 Many authors make no distinction between organizational culture and corporate culture. The concept (...)

14Edgar Schein (1992) understands organizational culture10to be a set of assumptions shared by members of an organization, manifested in the behavior and cultural artifacts of the organization itself (language, style, rituals...) and guiding all members of the organization in their actions and in making coherent and stable judgments of their own behavior and that of others.

  • 11 KOTTER, J. Power and Influence: Beyond formal Authority. New York: Free Press, 1985.

15According to Kotter (1985),11culture is a set of values, group behaviors, and ways of thinking and acting by most of the members of an organization, and it is transferable to future members. That which is not written determines the elements that constitute the feeling of belonging to a group.

16In summary, we can say that organizational culture is the sum of shared values, meanings, beliefs, conceptions and expectations which organize and integrate a group of people who work together. We must take into consideration the fact that values, assumptions, attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and feelings are implicit elements of the organization which are only observable through the symbols, rituals, myths, language, communicative style and organizational dynamic.

17If we understand corporate values to be the attitude preached by the company and upon which its principles of coexistence are based, companies which wish to generate a strong social activity and establish significant internal cohesion tend to have their social values and complicities very well defined. In fact, a company is no longer understood to be socially committed if it has not adequately developed its reference values.

  • 12 GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey): La (...)
  • 13 BOTEY, J – ORDEIX, E. Las relaciones internas: de la cultura organizacional a la construcción inter (...)

18Therefore, as we have stated, a company generates an identity to differentiate it from the competition when it demonstrates a coherence with the attitudes it expresses12.The company strengthens its attitude when it commits itself to aspects which interest or comprise the social activity of the city or country in which it operates. This identity and these values are often expressed through public activities, or through declarations of corporate principles, such as deontological codes13or plans and reports pertaining to sustainability and social responsibility.

4. The Social Responsibility: a way to express companies’ compromises

19A company’s commitment is linked to its level of responsibility. The first level of commitment is linked to basic company management, while the second is linked to citizens.

  • 14 DOZIER, D.; GRUNIG, L., and GRUNIG, J. Manager’s Guide to Excellence in Public Relations and Commun (...)
  • 15 Grunig describes a succession of elements which we can consider basic for a company to cross the th (...)

20Expressed from James Grunig’s (1995) point of view14,public responsibility is understood to be the commitment which derives from the basic management of the organization; social responsibility, on the other hand, comprises that which derives from the ability of the organization to develop roles and therefore influence the society around it. Despite the fact that, on a basic level, the organization has to follow established norms and comply with the labor and economic commitments which derive from its own management, on a second level, responsibility is developed by influencing a broader social environment and becoming involved in areas of general interest which transcend the organization’s reason for being15.

5. New roles of internal public relations: looking for a cultural consensus

21We do not understand an organization to have established social commitments without it beforehand having the attitude to fulfill internal commitments with its employees. It would be improbable to think a company expresses an attitude differently outside to inside. What is more, it would be counterproductive to think that an organization uses a language or acts or reacts differently towards its main body of opinion (its employees), those who generate messages to the outside and who, at the same time, enjoy great credibility.

  • 16 ORDEIX, E. (coord.). Las funciones del lenguaje en las memorias de responsabilidad social corporati (...)
  • 17 International Association Business Communicators. General Conference. Washington, June 1999.

22The role of internal relationships is therefore fundamental in bearing testimony to an organization’s public responsibility and as a step towards solid and coherent social responsibility. In this respect, if we do not align individual and group interests, those which affect the closer environment and the broader, it is difficult to group concerns and satisfy expectations as an organization16. It is clear that internal relationships present themselves as a weapon to combat discrepancies and promote consensus between groups within an organization17.

  • 18 Internal relations vs. internal communication. Although we understand internal communication as the (...)
  • 19 KOTTER, P., Power and Influence. Beyond formal Authority. New York (USA). Free Press, 1985.

23Professional management of internal relationships18is a field of undoubted value for organizations wanting to bring cohesion to their organizational culture so as to better develop its attributes or differences. The growingimportance of this field within the organization is mainly due to its ability to adapt messages to cultural reality, its values and people. It is for this reason that communication processes aimed at employees require significant amounts of knowledge of the principles, characteristics, composition and processes for creating a solid organizational culture19,often supported on the pillars of social responsibility.

  • 20 GRUNIG, J. & HUNT, T. Managing Public Relations. New York (USA); Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

24Grunig and Hunt (1984)20state the correlation which exists between communication and organizational culture: bi-directional communication is a typical element of participative culture, whereas unidirectional communication is for companies with an authoritarian culture. In this respect, these authors state that communication provides considerable benefits, as participative cultures enjoy a better return than authoritarian cultures with regard to social image and social responsibility is a form of expressing this.

6. New models of participation

25The new models of participation permitted by new information technologies necessitate greater transparency and commitment, promote greater symbiosis between organizations and their environment, and establish a two way effect to bring consensus. When this happens, the target audience is also the transmitter and improved two-way information is established. In fact, we know that successful internal relationship processes are those which allow communicative symmetry, because they manage to achieve areas of common interest. Many definitions of public relations have now integrated these concepts.

26We can therefore now make a list of an organization's new needs for internal communication and relationships in the new organizational context we have described:

  • To give coherence and confidence to actions and general processes for change whilst correcting arbitrariness. To therefore improve financial and time savings in the analysis and application of strategy.

  • To create a solid corporate culture: to establish an individual style and align individual and group objectives.

  • In particular, to make all employees aware of the importance and need for controlling communicative processes, in order that they add value to the organization and its brand, and demonstrate their effectiveness and valid contribution to the attainment of «business» or service objectives.

27This leads us to think of the strategic role internal communication plays in managing the commitments which explain the personality of the organization in its various areas of interest. Involvement in subjects of general interest to the social environment often entails a type of communication which is inspired in personal relationship dynamics unrelated to the mass media. One danger for the organization is to be left outside the debate if it does not establish dynamics of participation and limits itself to being a mere spectator. Having once been the main transmitter, it is now relegated to accepting the role of a channel. Or, put another way, the previously passive receiver of the message now becomes the active and dominant party in the communicative process.

  • 21 Four models by Grunig and Hunt for «Managing Public Relations» (1984), explained by XIFRA, J. Plani (...)
  • 22 GRUNIG, L.A., GRUNIG, J.E. and DOZIER, D.M. Excellent public relations and effective organizations:(...)

28An organization’s commitment to subjects of interest to internal audiences means that this command of the communicative process is not displaced to the old receiver but remains within the organization as a thematic and conceptual reference. Furthermore, despite the fact that a tendency towards Grunig and Hunt’s fourth model (1984)21,the two-way symmetrical model, is preferable, we find that many organizations will fight to remain within the two-way asymmetrical model, due to the fact that directors erroneously believe this will give them better command of the situation and the activity of communication22.

  • 23 Harvard Business Review on Managing People, USA:HBS Press, 1999.

29The contribution of communication as a form of expressing areas of commitment is therefore of paramount importance. Expressed values must coincide with actual actions, as Schein stated, in order that there is a coherent perception of them23.We know that major crises stem from incoherence between that which is expressed and actual actions and how this generates incoherence and unsatisfied expectations. Communication serves to generate the correct attitude to provide a value which will conceptualize and determine the identity of the organization.

30Cultural cohesion and consensus are achieved in that internal communication and, by extension, internal relationships contribute to the balance and symbiosis of interest among the organization’s members.

7. Conclusions

  • 24 LONG, L.W., & HAZELTON Jr., V. «Public relations: A theoretical and practical response.» Public Rel (...)

31In their model of the public relations process24Long and Hazelton (1987) were already placing particular stress on the cognitive function of public relations for obtaining determined behaviors. This discursive function, which establishes attitudes within a group, is the one we now incorporate within the concept of constructing organizational culture.

7.1. Compromise is credibility

32We cannot conceive of a solid organizational culture without consolidated and coherent spaces for commitment. Commitment often gives security to the people the organization is in contact with, and the areas which best generate complicities and confidence are in fact mainly those which are conceived on the basis of psychology as areas of comfort. Areas of comfort generate security, whilst at the same time establishing commitment from the party who until now had been perceived as the receiver. As we have mentioned before, this party is now something more than a receiver, given that the communicative process searches them out in order to produce the message and basic concepts which defend and justify the organization before the competition.

  • 25 XVI Congrés en Entorns de Progés. Valor-líder: Barcelona, October 2004.
  • 26 CORTINA, A. Ética de la empresa. Madrid: Trotta, 1996.

33We believe it is worthy of mention that various business owner forums25 consider that there can be no progress without commitment26,and that the principal element of progress is in the company's capacity to develop a framework for social responsibility. We can therefore say that real progress is only established when the company is respectful of its basic social environment and balances its business activity with a certain amount of social commitment, beginning with its own employees.

7.2. Rational communication to convince

  • 27 SORRIBAS, C. & ORDEIX, E. Anàlisi dels canvis en els processos creatius dels plantejaments publicit (...)

34If we consider that the informing and educating function of public relations is strongly linked to the capacity to generate complicities among the organization's target publics through rational communication, this could lead us to believe that the emotional element plays only a minor part. This is contrary to that which happens in other related disciplines in the field of communication such as marketing or advertising27,where the affective element becomes significant and achieved complicity is weakened through argumentation. Internal public relations work along the lines of arguments to con- vince members of the organization, either directly, or through the opinion leaders in each functional area or department. And although emotion plays an important role in the field of human relationships, there are audiences, such as the internal one, with whom it is better to use a descriptive and argumentative style, and not one which appeals to sentiment.

7.3. Three main tendencies in internal pr management

35In this respect, we could say that there are three tendencies in the area of internal relations in a new market and a changing society:

  • 28 HEATH, R. A Rhethoriacal Perspectiva on the Values of Public Relations: Crossroad and Pathways Towa (...)

36Symmetrical bi-directional communication is imposing itself, despite the fact that relationships between persons on different levels28of power will never be able to establish themselves with the same conditions and abilities of those involved. As we have seen, the new supports provided by interactive environments are fundamental in this tendency.

    • 29 SHAH, D. V.; CHO, J.; EVELAND, W. P.: KWAK, N. Information and Expression in a Digital Age. Modelin (...)

    Knowledge management theories are becoming the methodological basis from which to select information so that it might be best adapted to the receiver, regardless of their department or area of work, creating new online internal computer applications29.

    • 30 NEGUS, K. & PICKERING, M. Creativity and Communication and Cultural Value. London: SAGE, 2004.

    There is no communication without commitment30.We are eitheraddressing a subject of mutual interest to both parties or there is no real communication and we are facing very technical and unstrategic communication, with a low effectiveness index. Social responsibility for businesses has the momentum it has in part because of this tendency to establish areas of commitment associated to general interest. This naturally has internal effects within organizations, with regard to both the fulfillment of expectations and joint responsibility in the management of the content which appears in the communication process.

  • 31 See GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey) (...)

37Consequently, the new professional roles of the person in charge of internal relations in this new organizational framework are31: to mediate conflict; to act as a prescriber for everything relating to information about the industry and the organization; to investigate aspects which could potentially become an opportunity or a conflict; to develop a critical spirit; to research tendencies that could influence the organization's working dynamic; and finally to supervise and guide strategic communication policies in order to make them coherent with the social expectations of employees.

38As internal relationships set, public relations must take responsibility for the construction of a solid corporate culture, a fact which requires constant monitoring and often the reconfiguration of communications management in accordance with the values of the organization. Organizations' investment in internal relations is meaningful because it brings with it increased returns and prestige for the organization, and represents medium and long-term benefits according to the level of commitment and expectation generated.

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Bibliografia

BOTEY, J, &ORDEIX, E..Las relaciones internas: de la cultura organizacional a la construcción interna de la marcas. III Congrés Internacional de Comunicació i Realitat FCCB-URL: Trípodos [Extra 2005]

CORTINA, A. Ética de la empresa. Madrid: Trotta, 1996.

DOZIER, D.; GRUNIG, L., y GRUNIG, J. Manager’s Guide to Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. Mahwah (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.

European Research PR Association (EUPRERA) International Congress. New Challenges for Public Relations. November, 10-13, 2005. Lisbon (Portugal).; Van Ruler, B. &Vercic, D. (Editors) Public Relations and Communication Management in Europe. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 2004-

GRUNIG, J. & HUNT, T. Managing Public Relations. New York (USA); Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.

GRUNIG, L.A., GRUNIG, J.E. y DOZIER, D.M. Excellent public relations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries, Mahwah, Lawrence Erl- baum, 2002.

Harvard Business Review on Managing People, USA:HBS Press, 1999.

HEATH, R. A Rhethoriacal Perspectiva on the Values of Public Relations: Crossroad and Path ways Toward Concurrente. Mahwah, New Jersey: Journal of Public Relations Research (LEA), 2000

International Asociation Business Comunicators General Conference. Washington, June of 1999.

KOTTER, J. Power and Influence: Beyond formal Authority. New York: Free Press, 1985.

LONG, L.W., and HAZELTON, V. Public relations: A theoretical and practical response. Public Relations Review, 13, (2), 1987, 3-13.

MINTZBERG, H. El poder en la organización. Barcelona: Ariel Economia, 1992.

MOSS, Danny- DESANTO, Barbara. «Public Relations Cases, International Perspective» Londres i Nova York: Routledge, 2002.

NEGUS, K. & PICKERING, M. Creativity and Communication and Cultural Value. London: SAGE, 2004.

NOGUERO, A. La función social de las Relaciones Públicas. Barcelona: PPU-UB, 2000

ORDEIX I RIGO, E. Reflexión sobre las Conclusiones del I Internacional Symposium in Global Corporate Comunication celebrado en la Facultat de Comunicació Blanquerna Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 28-30 de julio de 2004. Publicado en las actas del I Congreso Internacional de Investigadores de Relaciones Públicas, 16-17 de noviembre de 2004 en la Universidad de Sevilla.

ORDEIX, E. (coord.). Las funciones del lenguaje en las memorias de responsabilidad social corporativa. Presentado en el Marco del II Congreso Internacional de Investigadores de Relaciones Públicas. Universidad de Sevilla (2005).

ORDEIX, E & SERRA, A. La comunicación responsable, Perspectiva, Revista de la Consultora Madrid: Mercer.Human Resource Consulting, 2002.

ORDEIX, E. & XIFRA, J. Companies paradoxes when settling corporate culture basis in a global and multicultural european market. San Diego: Internacional Association of Business Disciplines 2006.

SCHEIN, E. Organizational Culture and Leadership, Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1992.

Settling Corporate Standards Across Cultural Barriers. Second Global Communication Symposium, June 27-29, 2005. Udine University (Gorizia-Italy).

SORRIBAS, C. & ORDEIX, E. Anàlsi dels canvis en els processos creatius dels plantejaments publicitaris de les empreses líders en la gestió de la RSC a l’Estat. Comparació 2000-2005. III simposium de Professors Universitaris de Creativitat Publictària. Trípodos [Extra 2006]

WILCOX, D.L., CAMERON, G.T. & XIFRA, J. Relaciones públicas: Estrategias y tácticas. Madrid: Addison Wesley, 2006. 8ª ed. (trad. Cast.).

XIFRA, J. Planificación estratégica de las relaciones públicas. Barcelona: Paidós, 2005.

XVI Congrés en Entorns de Progés. Valor-líder: Barcelona, octubre de 2004.

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Notas

1 Settling Corporate Standards Across Cultural Barriers. Second Global Communication Symposium, June 27-29, 2005. Udine University (Gorizia-Italy).

2 WILCOX, D.L., CAMERON, G.T. & XIFRA, J. Relaciones públicas: Estrategias y tácticas. Madrid: Addison Wesley, 2006. 8ª ed. (translated from Spanish).

3 SCHEIN, E. Organizational Culture and Leadership, Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1992.

4 GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.

5 7th European Research PR Association (EUPRERA) International Congress. New Challenges for Public Relations. November, 10-13, 2005. Lisbon (Portugal).; Van Ruler, B. & Vercic, D. (Editors) Public Relations and Communication Management in Europe. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 2004-

6 MINTZBERG, H. El poder en la organización. Barcelona: Ariel Economia, 1992.

7 ORDEIX I RIGO, E. Reflexión sobre las Conclusiones del I Internacional Symposium in Global Corporate Comunication celebrado en la Facultat de Comunicació Blanquerna Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 28-30 de julio de 2004. Published in the report on the 1st International Congress of Public Relations researchers, 16-17 November 2004 at the University of Seville.

8 ORDEIX, E. & XIFRA, J. Companies paradoxes when settling corporate culture basis in a global and multicultural European market. San Diego: International Association of Business Disciplines 2006.

9 ORDEIX, E & SERRA, A. La comunicación responsable, Perspectiva, Revista de la Consultora Madrid: Mercer. Human Resource Consulting, 2002.

10 Many authors make no distinction between organizational culture and corporate culture. The concept of organizational culture refers to all types of organizations including those which do not have a business objective, whereas the concept corporate culture refers only to the latter.

11 KOTTER, J. Power and Influence: Beyond formal Authority. New York: Free Press, 1985.

12 GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.

13 BOTEY, J – ORDEIX, E. Las relaciones internas: de la cultura organizacional a la construcción interna de la marcas. III Congrés Internacional de Comunicació i Realitat FCCB-URL: Trípodos [Extra 2005]

14 DOZIER, D.; GRUNIG, L., and GRUNIG, J. Manager’s Guide to Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. Mahwah (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.

15 Grunig describes a succession of elements which we can consider basic for a company to cross the threshold of public responsibility and become socially committed: the economic effects of the social activity on the receiving group; the quality of the activity on terms of management and the capacity to fulfil the expectations which are generated; the social effects of actions and the correlation and coherence of this activity with the attitudes the company wishes to promote; and the financial load it represents for the social investor. Percentage of the social balance compared to the accountable balance linked strictly to the company’s business.

16 ORDEIX, E. (coord.). Las funciones del lenguaje en las memorias de responsabilidad social corporativa. Presented within the framework of the 2nd International Congress of Public Relations researchers. University of Seville (2005).

17 International Association Business Communicators. General Conference. Washington, June 1999.

18 Internal relations vs. internal communication. Although we understand internal communication as the information which is transmitted and maintained between the different areas, departments or people comprising a company or organization, internal relations are awarded a broader meaning, including as they do interrelations which are not based on any informative act. These two terms have often been used synonymously, both working basically on internal flows of communication which are established between the people and the organization itself, and at the same time on the communication processes, channels and tools which are used to generate a climate of confidence between the integral members of an organization.

19 KOTTER, P., Power and Influence. Beyond formal Authority. New York (USA). Free Press, 1985.

20 GRUNIG, J. & HUNT, T. Managing Public Relations. New York (USA); Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

21 Four models by Grunig and Hunt for «Managing Public Relations» (1984), explained by XIFRA, J. Planificación estratégica de las relaciones públicas. Barcelona: Paidós, 2005.

22 GRUNIG, L.A., GRUNIG, J.E. and DOZIER, D.M. Excellent public relations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries, Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002.

23 Harvard Business Review on Managing People, USA:HBS Press, 1999.

24 LONG, L.W., & HAZELTON Jr., V. «Public relations: A theoretical and practical response.» Public Relations Review, 13(2), 1987, 3-13.

25 XVI Congrés en Entorns de Progés. Valor-líder: Barcelona, October 2004.

26 CORTINA, A. Ética de la empresa. Madrid: Trotta, 1996.

27 SORRIBAS, C. & ORDEIX, E. Anàlisi dels canvis en els processos creatius dels plantejaments publicitaris de les empreses líders en la gestió de la RSC a l’Estat. Comparació 2000-2005. III Simposium de Professors Universitaris de Creativitat Publicitària. Trípodos [Extra 2006].

28 HEATH, R. A Rhethoriacal Perspectiva on the Values of Public Relations: Crossroad and Pathways Toward Concurrente. Mahwah, New Jersey: Journal of Public Relations Research (LEA), 2000.

29 SHAH, D. V.; CHO, J.; EVELAND, W. P.: KWAK, N. Information and Expression in a Digital Age. Modeling Internet Effects on Civic Participation. Communication Research, Vol.32 No. 5, October 2005 531-565.

30 NEGUS, K. & PICKERING, M. Creativity and Communication and Cultural Value. London: SAGE, 2004.

31 See GRUNIG, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communications Management. Hillsdale (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992. and MOSS, Danny- DESANTO, Barbara. «Public Relations Cases, International Perspective» London and New York: Routledge, 2002.

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Referência do documento impresso

Enric Ordeix i Rigo e enricor@blanquerna.url.edu, «Compromise management as a challenge for corporate communication»Comunicação Pública, vol.3 nº5 | 2007, 171-183.

Referência eletrónica

Enric Ordeix i Rigo e enricor@blanquerna.url.edu, «Compromise management as a challenge for corporate communication»Comunicação Pública [Online], vol.3 nº5 | 2007, posto online no dia 15 outubro 2020, consultado o 28 fevereiro 2021. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/cp/8227; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/cp.8227

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Autores

Enric Ordeix i Rigo

Blanquerna School of Communication – Ramon Llull University

enricor@blanquerna.url.edu

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