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2020

Children in Court. Historical Issues, Contemporary Perspectives. Fragments of a Discourse on the Child in Court.

Introduction to the dossier
Martine Kaluszynski et Sophie Victorien
Traduction de François-Xavier Priour
Cet article est une traduction de :
L’enfance au tribunal. Enjeux historiques, perspectives contemporaines. Fragments de discours sur l’enfant au tribunal [fr]

Texte intégral

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1A number of contributions in this thematic dossier entitled “Children in Court. Historical Issues, Contemporary Perspectives,” were received in response to an earlier call for papers. Our initial intention was to observe how children were treated and what their status was when courts debated the implications of the discourse, guilt, or victim. We wanted to distance ourselves from existing studies focusing on the repressive, reform- and education-based ideas that are at the root of the specific status of juveniles in contemporary history, in order to better apprehend, from a long-term historical perspective, the behavior of judging and investigative authorities towards children. While the history of minority as a mitigating circumstance (excuse de minorité) and age-related statuses are key to this theme, we are also hoping to receive contributions on approaches based on a detailed, circumstantial assessment of the defendants’ childhood. The present dossier aims to lay the groundwork – either in the form of analytical case studies or broader, more comprehensive research – for an exploration of the history of the presence of children in courts, not only in metropolitan and overseas France, but also in other countries.

2This initial sequence is meant to grow over time, since we have opted for leaving the dossier open to fresh contributions, to be uploaded on a regular basis.

3Although the dossier might appear to resemble a patchwork, we like to think of it rather as a kaleidoscope of sorts, granting hitherto little-known objects, experiences, and research a modicum of visibility. The initial articles hail from a variety of different fields, and the authors also vary in terms of their background and status (students, established scholars, practitioners, etc.). This is deliberate: while – or because – they differ in form and substance, all these contributions offer a rich, open, thoroughly engaged view of the subject. We were keen to preserve and make them available to the community, insofar as they grant access to original, complementary works.

4Curiosity was our main driver when putting together this first online selection of papers offering a long-term perspective, spanning a variety of territories and geographical areas, on the word of children and how it is received, their profile and environment, the sexuality of minors, the specificity of judicial rulings and measures taken regarding minors, etc.

Materials, Fields, and Methods: Research in Action

Highly Diverse Methodologies

5This corpus of articles is supported by highly diverse study materials, providing fertile ground for investigation and showcasing research in action.

  • 1 Arlette Farge, La Vie fragile. Violence, pouvoirs et solidarités à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, H (...)

6The diversity in archival and support material is evidence of their ability to grasp and apprehend, despite the difficulties, the figure of the child – either as a culprit, as a victim, or as vulnerable – whose word is increasingly being taken into account in legal proceedings. For instance, excerpts from their witness statements are used in the spirit of Arlette Farge, whose works took us through the maze of 18th-century judicial archives1. The following sources were drawn upon: the archives of the Martinique Department and the national archives of overseas territories, by Claire Palmiste, who drew extensively from the records of the presiding judge at the court of first instance in Fort-de-France, E. Gorlier; the National Archives of Quebec (Catherine Tremblay); the archives of the Charente department (Marie Rougier); articles of law (Article 334 of the French penal code, used by Hélène Duffuler-Vialle); the Compte général de l’administration de la justice criminelle en France pendant l’année 1880 et rapport relatif aux années 1826-1880, a statistical record of the activity of France’s penal institutions for the years 1826-1880, as presented by the Minister of Justice to the President of the Republic in 1880 (Marie Rougier); operative parts of judgments; cases of sexual abuse against minors in four different criminal and/or juvenile courts in southern France; minutes from the Court of Appeal; legal precedents; procedural records of rape cases (Marie Rougier); criminal court procedural records (from the Grasse Tribunal over the first decade of enforcement of the 1912 law, Gwenaëlle Callemein); the Bulletin des arrêts de la Cour de cassation rendus en matière criminelle (Court of Cassation records, Hélène Duffuler-Vialle); the archives of the Social Welfare Court in Chicoutimi, Canada (Catherine Tremblay); the 1964 Kilbrandon report and official statistics, regarding Scotland (John Sturgeon and Élodie Leygue-Eurieult); the 2015 VIRAGE study, exploited by Marie Romero.

7The reader will therefore encounter a great diversity of methodologies, ranging from the exhaustive examination of legal records and archives to statistical analysis, through ethnographic studies, in line with the diversity of academic fields (history, law history, sociology, social work, etc.) and contributors involved. Such is for instance the case for the article on “Children’s hearing,” whose approach felt particularly interesting insofar as it illustrates a collaboration between a French student and her tutor in Scotland. Written by Élodie Leygue-Eurieult in collaboration with John Sturgeon after a seven-month internship in a Scottish social services department in 2019, it aims to crystallize the discussions and debates that took place on the benevolent approach of children and juvenile justice by state authorities in Scotland. The paper demonstrates a process of shared learning between the student and the tutor, based on different cultures and legal systems.

The “World” at One’s Fingertips

8This set of early papers takes us on a journey through Quebec, Scotland, Martinique, Charente, northern and southern France, the Grasse Tribunal – a whole range of countries and geographical areas, which clearly shows that the key issue of our dossier is tackled and approached through singular cultural lenses. Since everything is on a different scale, it becomes possible to cross-examine the differences in how the judicial system operates depending on the place, degree of intervention, or authority applying or anticipating broader policies towards juveniles in court.

9As a matter of fact, but quite fortuitously, our initial selection of articles also happens to span a variety of historical periods – though all of them belong to the contemporary era: 1810/1842, 1889/1914, 1912/1922, 1937/1944, 1963/1967, and the 2010s.

  • 2 Yerri Urban, L’indigène dans le droit colonial français, 1865-1955, Paris, LGDJ, collection “Fondat (...)

10These chronologies “of the object” are interesting in that they circumscribe a specific context each time, with regards to our chosen topic, in terms of the exploited material(s), allowing us – despite the variety of different spaces, from Scotland to metropolitan and overseas France through Quebec and even the colonial context with Claire Plamiste’s works, following in the footsteps of Yerri Urban2 – to spot either the potential similarities or, on the contrary, the differences in the treatment or approach of the question.

Judicial Practice in Acts

The Judicial Process and the Modalities of Implementation

11Reading the articles in this dossier, one gets a clear notion of how contextualized justice can be in practice. Though impartial and fair, it is nevertheless served in sharply defined social and political contexts. This issue permeates Claire Palmiste’s paper on colonial Vichy, especially when discussing the unequal judicial practices that prevailed in the colonial context.

12Also emphasized is how singular these cases are, compared to the usual flow of judicial cases. Marie Romero, for instance, considers that “analyzing the judicial treatment of the victim child has highlighted the necessity of taking into account a number of diverse elements such as determining in what circumstances the facts were uncovered and revealed to the judiciary (to whom, when, how), the characteristics of the discourse and family environment, how close the victims were to the perpetrators, the nature of the abuse. This is all in line with our general observations in the legal field: these cases cannot be treated like any other.”

13The sheer complexity of these cases is immediately apparent. How can one not wonder about the intricacies of the judicial regulations required to apprehend the word of sexually abused children? The role of the investigation on the material and moral situation of the delinquent child, and its impact on the decision of the magistrates, is made visible too. One discovers verdicts that seem to take into account the situation with the clear intention to condemn – in the name of society – sexual crimes committed on children, but also educational measures and sentences pronounced by the judge, as well as overcriminalization, defined as imposing heavy penalties that appear to be unjustified or not in line with the crime that has been committed, as evoked by Claire Palmiste.

The Many Actors Surrounding the Child

14We have been blessed, in this dossier, with three articles that are extremely different yet in line with each other: one is about the Charente department and the 19th century, another takes place in Quebec during the 1960s, and the third one deals with the 2010s in France. These papers give numerous insights about the great many actors surrounding children.

  • 3  France, Angoulême, Archives départementales de la Charente 2U PROV 161. Marie Rougier, “La parole (...)
  • 4 On these questions: Pascale Quincy-Lefebvre, Familles, institutions et déviances. Une histoire de l (...)

15The role of the parents, of the family context or the family who may be embarrassed is discussed: “We humbly ask the public prosecutor to please not pursue the case, if at all possible, seeing as how it would leave our poor children with a bad impression3.” When dealing with a “deviant child,” the trial might be seen as an opportunity for the parents to confess that they are powerless and leave it to the judicial system to find a solution that might both “make the child walk the line” and appease the situation4.

  • 5 On the inception of juvenile justice and the establishment of children’s courts, see in particular: (...)

16The judge, whose specialization was ratified when dedicated courts dealing specifically with delinquent and vulnerable minors were established, was, of course, bound to be an inescapable figure of this dossier5. Interestingly, the specialization of some judges in the early 20th century was rather frowned upon by their colleagues, as if cases involving minors were somehow less “prestigious.” Judge Henri Rollet, quoted by Henri Gaillac in his book on reform schools, noted in 1924:

  • 6 Henri Gaillac, Les maisons de correction (1830-1945), Paris, Cujas, 1991, p. 233.

17“If I ask for promotion while remaining specialized, it is not by way of personal vanity, but so that it may no longer be said, over and over, that a magistrate appointed to the juvenile court should hasten to leave if they intend to be promoted at all6.”

18The articles in the present dossier thus make it possible to observe how the word of children gradually came to be taken into account by magistrates, but also how difficult it may be to come to certain decisions, and how important it is to involve childhood experts able to inform the legal system’s decision-making, as emphasized by Jean Chazal in 1946, speaking about the function of juvenile court judge:

  • 7 Jean Chazal “L’enfant devant le juge. L’aspect éducatif de la comparution en justice”, Éducateurs, (...)

19“The court must rely on precise information about the child to come to a fair decision, for the goal is essentially to take adequate protective and educative measures that suit the minor’s personality. Therefore, the mission of the juvenile court judge is one of exceedingly high human and social value. The whole future of the delinquent youth, their entire teenage and adult life will rest on the magistrate’s decision7.”

  • 8 On social enquiry reports, see in particular: Ludivine Bantigny, Jean-Claude Vimont (dir.), Sous l’ (...)

20Gradually, a whole array of professionals came to gravitate around the figure of the judge, giving them a better grasp of both the word and the personality of children, highlighting the – albeit fluctuating – role of expertise in judgments. As a rule, juvenile court records started to routinely feature expert reports by psychologists, psychiatrists, doctors, educators, social workers, etc. attempting to decipher young people, which certainly goes to show that more attention was being paid to the child, even though some of these reports may be perceived as quite normative and deterministic8.

The Reception of the Child’s Word

  • 9 Paul Brouardel, Des causes d’erreur dans les expertises relatives aux attentats à la pudeur, mémoir (...)

21The child’s word, though increasingly taken into account, is also liable to be challenged by medical experts. “Professor Brouardel once wrote: ‘Children are often praised for their ingenuousness. Nothing could be further from the truth. Their imagination loves turning them into the hero of their own stories […] Give this child – who used to elicit little if any attention – an audience, let the child be listened to, with a degree of solemnity, and they will grow in their own esteem, become a character themselves, and nothing will ever make them admit that they have been misleading their family and those who asked them the first batch of questions9.”

22Considering that his role, as a forensic expert, was to advise the magistrates, he warned and exhorted them to “not infuse the child’s testimony with an emotional or moral value that cannot be there.” The subsequent practice of investigating magistrates showed that the child’s word was indeed taken into account, in a departure from medical theories on mythomaniac children. On the other hand, in Quebec in the 1960s, analysis of the various stages of the legal process at the social welfare court of Chicoutimi, based on the reports by various experts summoned by the court from 1963 to 1967, shows that the word of professionals clearly prevailed.

23All these articles reveal how the word of the child of silence, when it is unveiled, is powered by fear – the fear of not being believed (especially in cases of incest and family abuse), tainted by shame sometimes, with a hint of suspicion from the outside: where is the evidence? Providing supporting evidence is a major issue, as there may have been no direct witnesses, no actual physical violence or trace thereof, the facts may have occurred or started long before the child finally decided to speak out, and ultimately it is one person’s word against the other’s.

24The reception of this word varies considerably depending on the context, the protagonists, the country, the situation, framework, and interlocutor. Moreover, this word may be tainted, difficult, complex, challenged, sensitive, abusive and abused.

  • 10 On how the elites’ view of children – working-class children especially – evolved over time, see: M (...)

25These articles, thanks to or because of chronology and their field of investigation, offer some elements and points of reference on the evolution of what lies at the heart of our dossier: the child and the judiciary, the child in court, the victim child who gradually comes to life as the legal process unfolds, even though in the early stages (19th century), the child as an individual tended to be eclipsed (Hélène Duffuler-Vialle)10.

26One inescapable consequence of the observed developments is the necessity to question what this issue says of political power and these (no less shifting) relationships: State/Society and Society/State.

The Question of State/Society Relationships

  • 11 Delphine Serre, Les coulisses de l'État social. Enquête sur les signalements d'enfant en danger, Pa (...)
  • 12 Dominique Dessertine, “Les tribunaux face aux violences sur les enfants sous la Troisième Républiqu (...)
  • 13 Marie Romero, “La parole de l’enfant victime de violences sexuelles : une enquête au sein de tribun (...)

27These articles show not only where the child fits, but also how this question is addressed by the State and its apparatus, as shown earlier by Delphine Serre11, studying how social workers, tasked with protecting children, report those deemed “vulnerable.” At this particular juncture (the 1990s), this approach was typical of the State’s interest for vulnerable children, for whom public policies were specifically designed, indicating that the issue was a major one on the agenda. How did the State tackle this issue? By what means? According to Dominique Dessertine, this shift occurred during the Third Republic, which was “attentive to protecting the weak.” “By instructing justice to intervene in the protection of children, the Third Republic broke with the spirit of the Civil Code, which favors the family, ‘natural protector of the child,’ and allowed judges to intervene against the right of the father12.” However, as illustrated by Marie Romero’s paper13, while the child’s word is indeed increasingly taken into account, the complexity of the unveiled word often makes the procedure delicate to handle, and while reports occur more frequently, not many of them actually and officially reach the legal system. Neither legislation nor repression really managed to improve the protection of minors at that stage.

  • 14 Marie-Sylvie Dupont-Bouchat, Éric Pierre (dir.), Enfance et justice au XIXe siècle, Paris, PUF, 200 (...)
  • 15 Jean-Claude Caron, Annie Stora-Lamarre, Jean-Jacques Yvorel (dir.), Les âmes mal nées. Jeunesse et (...)
  • 16 On the influence of the State and the evolution of the protection model based on the ideals of the (...)
  • 17 Francis Bailleau, Yves Cartuyvels, Dominique de Fraene, “La criminalisation des mineurs et le jeu d (...)
  • 18 Martine Kaluszynski, Françoise Tétard, Marie-Sylvie Dupont-Bouchat, Un objet : l’enfant en danger m (...)

28Over the 19th century14, the question of juvenile delinquency and its treatment worked its way up the national political agenda to a point where the State was forced to address it and design a specialized justice system for minors15. The drive towards a protection-oriented model16, “a paternalistic, Welfare justice model that characterizes the development of juvenile justice throughout the 20th century in most European countries17”, was strongly influenced by early philanthropic pressure groups, journalists, magistrates, etc.18, as society wanted to have a say in this discussion and even in trials.

29Exploring how society gradually took ownership of this issue – how it intervened, to which degree, what means we used to publicize it (the role of the media springs to mind, e.g. news outlets such as Le Petit Journal, the Gazette des Tribunaux, and local newspapers) – Marie Rougier notes that: “It may be considered that the press echoed an increased level of sensitivity, a lower threshold of tolerance towards juvenile crime: the child became an issue, a subject to be protected.”

30The role of the mass media – which from the outset were mostly interested in the short news item angle and are now able to amplify the narrative by enhancing this short news item form with political and societal issues – is a significant one as far as the question of children in court is concerned.

  • 19 Michel Chauvière, Enfance inadaptée: l’héritage de Vichy suivi de: l’efficace des années quarante, (...)

31On these political and societal issues, the article by Claire Palmiste – based on a register kept by the presiding judge at the court of first instance in Fort-de-France from April 1937 to July 1944, at a time when Martinique was placed under the authority of Admiral Robert, representing the Vichy regime (1940-1943) – clearly emphasizes the social and economic issues at stake in the management of juvenile delinquency, accounting for the complexity of the relationships between political order and societal order (race, gender, class interactions, as well as the necessity of law enforcement in a colonial context) and observing the choice made between an educative logic and a repressive one. Palmiste actually reverses the question: What stance did the highly repressive Vichy regime adopt towards juvenile delinquents19? Can juvenile delinquency be considered to have constituted some form of resistance to a Vichy regime that was extremely unpopular in Martinique?

  • 20 Pierre Lascoumes, Patrick Le Galès, Gouverner par les instruments, Paris, Presses de Sciences Po, 2 (...)

32In conclusion, these papers highlight the question of public action instruments20, more precisely the instruments of justice—those used to actually exercise justice, such as article 334 of the French Penal Code on the role of courts, the role of commissions of inquiry, the role of laws such as the 22 July 1912 Act on juvenile courts and probation in France, or institutions such as Children’s Hearing Scotland, an official court although it tends to operate informally, established in 1968 by the Social Work Scotland Act, which has stood the test of time and remains in operation to this day.

  • 21 Michel Foucault, L'Archéologie du savoir, Paris, Gallimard, “Bibliothèque des sciences humaines”, 1 (...)
  • 22 Chauveau Adolphe, Hélie Faustin, Théorie du Code pénal, Paris, 1872.
  • 23 Martine Kaluszynski, “Identités professionnelles, identités politiques : médecins et juristes face (...)

33The role of knowledge is paramount as well, in the footsteps of Michel Foucault21, the supremacy of Law in its rules (for instance the role of criminal lawyer René Garraud), its doctrine22, practice, usage, but also forensic medicine, an authentic form of expert knowledge that supports the decision, backing the lone word of magistrates whose goodwill towards these doctors could notoriously not always be taken for granted in courts23.

34Then, of course, there is the role of the actors, not only the legal profession – investigating judges, court judge in charge of interpreting the law or the decision, juvenile court judges, probation officers, but also psychologists, psychiatrists, and forensic experts – see for instance interventions by Professor Brouardel and Léon Thoinot.

35For their valuable input and questioning, we wish to wholeheartedly thank the authors of these early papers, who genuinely believed in the project, got invested, were keen to participate and shed new light on these issues.

  • 24 Certainly, the history of the parricide in the 19th century has been masterfully treated by Sylvie (...)

36This dossier is expected to expand as new articles are submitted. It would for instance be interesting to probe earlier eras and new geographical areas, but also to focus on several questions that deserve to be explored further: the figure of the young criminal, particularly the parricide, in court24; the ever-expanding array of speakers and experts in trials involving juveniles, and the consequences thereof on judicial practices; what these actors have to say about the child’s word; the role of the media as they echo and spread the questions and discussions taking place within society on vulnerable and delinquent minors; etc. We are looking forward to reading fascinating new contributions on a topic that remains particularly significant in our society.

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Notes

1 Arlette Farge, La Vie fragile. Violence, pouvoirs et solidarités à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Hachette, 1986, 354 p ; “L'archive, moyen de communication et constitution du sujet historique. Un voyage à travers les archives judiciaires du XVIIe siècle”, Réseaux. Communication - Technologie - Société Année 1991, n° 46-47, p. 41-46 ; La Vie fragile. Violence, pouvoirs et solidarités à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Paris Hachette, 1986 ; Le Goût de l’archive, Paris, Seuil, “Points Histoire”, 1999; Vivre dans la rue à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Gallimard, “Folio Histoire”, 1992 ; avec Michel Foucault, Le désordre des familles. Lettres de cachet des Archives de la Bastille au XVIIIᵉ siècle, Paris, Gallimard, “Folio Histoire”, 1982 ;

2 Yerri Urban, L’indigène dans le droit colonial français, 1865-1955, Paris, LGDJ, collection “Fondation Varenne”, 2010, 665 p.

3  France, Angoulême, Archives départementales de la Charente 2U PROV 161. Marie Rougier, “La parole de l’enfant victime de crimes sexuels dans les procédures judiciaires aux Assises de la Charente (1889-1914)”, Criminocorpus, 2020.

4 On these questions: Pascale Quincy-Lefebvre, Familles, institutions et déviances. Une histoire de l’enfance difficile. 1880-fin des années trente, Paris, Economica, 1997.

5 On the inception of juvenile justice and the establishment of children’s courts, see in particular: RHEI, “Naissance et mutation de la justice des mineurs,” n°17, 2015; David Niget, La naissance du tribunal pour enfants. Une comparaison France-Québec (1912-1945), Rennes, PUR, 2009.

6 Henri Gaillac, Les maisons de correction (1830-1945), Paris, Cujas, 1991, p. 233.

7 Jean Chazal “L’enfant devant le juge. L’aspect éducatif de la comparution en justice”, Éducateurs, n°4, juillet-août 1946, p. 310.

8 On social enquiry reports, see in particular: Ludivine Bantigny, Jean-Claude Vimont (dir.), Sous l’œil de l’expert. Les dossiers judiciaires de personnalité, Rouen, PURH, 2010. On judicial inquiries in particular: Jean-Claude Farcy, Dominique Kalifa, Jean-Noël Luc (dir.), L’enquête judiciaire en Europe au XIXe siècle. Acteurs, imaginaires, pratiques, Paris, Creaphis, 2007.

9 Paul Brouardel, Des causes d’erreur dans les expertises relatives aux attentats à la pudeur, mémoire à la Société de médecine légale, par le Dr P. Brouardel, Paris, Bailliéres et fils, 1884, p. 8, quoted in the present dossier by Marie Rougier: “La parole de l’enfant victime de crimes sexuels dans les procédures judiciaires aux Assises de la Charente (1889-1914)” : https://journals.openedition.org/criminocorpus/6976

10 On how the elites’ view of children – working-class children especially – evolved over time, see: Marie-Sylvie Dupont-Bouchat, Éric Pierre (dir.), Enfance et justice au XIXe siècle, Paris, PUF, 2001, p. 429.

11 Delphine Serre, Les coulisses de l'État social. Enquête sur les signalements d'enfant en danger, Paris, Raisons d'agir, coll. “Cours et travaux”, 2009, 310 p.

12 Dominique Dessertine, “Les tribunaux face aux violences sur les enfants sous la Troisième République”, RHEI, Revue d’histoire de l’enfance “irrégulière”, n°2, 1999, 2010 : http://journals.openedition.org/rhei/35  

13 Marie Romero, “La parole de l’enfant victime de violences sexuelles : une enquête au sein de tribunaux correctionnels français en 2010”, Criminocorpus, 2020. 

14 Marie-Sylvie Dupont-Bouchat, Éric Pierre (dir.), Enfance et justice au XIXe siècle, Paris, PUF, 2001.

15 Jean-Claude Caron, Annie Stora-Lamarre, Jean-Jacques Yvorel (dir.), Les âmes mal nées. Jeunesse et délinquance urbaine en France et en Europe (XIXe-XXe siècles). Actes du colloque international Besançon, 15-17 novembre 2006, Besançon, Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2008.

16 On the influence of the State and the evolution of the protection model based on the ideals of the Welfare State, see: Francis Bailleau, Yves Cartuyvels (dir.), vol. 26, n° 3, 2002; Francis Bailleau, Yves Cartuyvels, Dominique de Fraene (dir.), Déviance et Société, vol. 33, n°3, “La justice pénale des mineurs en Europe et ses évolutions”, 2009.

17 Francis Bailleau, Yves Cartuyvels, Dominique de Fraene, “La criminalisation des mineurs et le jeu des sanctions”, Déviance et Société, n°3, vol. 33, 2009, p. 255.

18 Martine Kaluszynski, Françoise Tétard, Marie-Sylvie Dupont-Bouchat, Un objet : l’enfant en danger moral. Une expérience : la société de patronage, Mire-CNRS, Rapport Ministère de la Recherche, 1990, 186 p. See also Nagisa Mitsushima, Élites “reconnues d'utilité publique”. Philanthropie réformatrice et revendications capacitaires autour de la réforme pénale (1815-1851), Political Science dissertation, Yves Deloye (dir.), Paris, 2014, and most importantly her thesis, La nébuleuse réformatrice Pour l'enfance coupable. Contribution à une sociologie historique des savoirs criminologiques et psychiatriques dans l'entre-deux-guerres, DEA thesis, Université Paris I, Yves Déloye (dir.), 2004, 403 p.

19 Michel Chauvière, Enfance inadaptée: l’héritage de Vichy suivi de: l’efficace des années quarante, Paris, Éd. Ouvrières, 1987; Danièle Lochak. La doctrine sous Vichy ou les mésaventures du positivisme. Les usages sociaux du droit, May 1989, Amiens, France, p. 252-285.

20 Pierre Lascoumes, Patrick Le Galès, Gouverner par les instruments, Paris, Presses de Sciences Po, 2004, p. 370. Charlotte Halpern, Pierre Lascoumes, Patrick Le Galès. L'instrumentation de l'action publique. Controverses, résistances, effets, Paris, Presses de Sciences Po, 2014, p.15-59.

21 Michel Foucault, L'Archéologie du savoir, Paris, Gallimard, “Bibliothèque des sciences humaines”, 1969, rééd. 1992. Olivier Ihl, Gilles Pollet, Martine Kaluszynski, Les sciences de gouvernement, Paris, Economica, 2003.

22 Chauveau Adolphe, Hélie Faustin, Théorie du Code pénal, Paris, 1872.

23 Martine Kaluszynski, “Identités professionnelles, identités politiques : médecins et juristes face au crime en France à la fin du XIXe siècle”, sous la direction de Claude Blanckaert et Laurent Mucchielli, Histoire de la criminologie française, Paris, L'Harmattan, collection Histoire des Sciences Humaines, 1995, p. 215-235.

24 Certainly, the history of the parricide in the 19th century has been masterfully treated by Sylvie Lapalus (Sylvie Lapalus, La mort du vieux. Une histoire du parricide au XIXe siècle, Paris, Tallandier, 2004), but it would be interesting to delve deeper and explore more recent times to determine what developments have occurred in how this “monstrous crime,” one that questions our society, has come to be judged.

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Référence électronique

Martine Kaluszynski et Sophie Victorien, « Children in Court. Historical Issues, Contemporary Perspectives. Fragments of a Discourse on the Child in Court. »Criminocorpus [En ligne], L’enfance au tribunal. Enjeux historiques, perspectives contemporaines, mis en ligne le 30 mars 2020, consulté le 26 novembre 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/criminocorpus/12134 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/criminocorpus.12134

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Auteurs

Martine Kaluszynski

Docteure en Histoire contemporaine, socio-historienne, est chercheur au CNRS/IEP Grenoble (PACTE-Politique Organisation - UMR 5194 - Grenoble). Elle est également membre du comité scientifique de la revue Le Temps de l’Histoire et membre de la direction éditoriale de la revue électronique Le Champ Pénal, Penal Field. Nouvelle Revue Française de Criminologie. Ses travaux portent sur les savoirs et politiques sur le crime en France sous la Troisième République, l’analyse des modes socio-politiques d’élaboration du droit, la construction socio-historique de l’État républicain, des sciences de gouvernement, du droit et de la justice. Martine Kaluszynski est rédactrice en chef de la revue Crimincorpus.

Articles du même auteur

Sophie Victorien

Membre du CLAMOR (UMS 3726) Sophie Victorien est docteure en histoire contemporaine. Elle a soutenu sous la direction de Yannick Marec sa thèse intitulée Jeunesses dangereuses, jeunesses malheureuses. La prise en charge de l’enfance inadaptée par le secteur associatif en Seine-Maritime (1945-milieu des années 1980). Elle est responsable des nouveaux projets numériques du CLAMOR et responsable éditoriale et secrétaire de rédaction de Criminocorpus. Sophie Victorien est membre du comité de rédaction de Criminocorpus, de la Revue d’histoire de l’enfance irrégulière (RHEI) et de la revue Histoire pénitentiaire. Elle est également membre du jury du Prix Françoise Tétard Histoire de l’éducation populaire / Histoire de l’éducation spécialisée.

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