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Design of e–Learning based Based on ADDIE model during the Covid-19 Pandemic

Conception d'un dispositif d'apprentissage en ligne basée sur le modèle ADDIE durant la Pandémie Covid-19
Dinn Wahyudin, Deni Darmawan et Suharti


L'anglais a plus d'influence dans tous les aspects de la vie. Il a fonction d'outil de communication dans le monde. Dans la des pays, elle est la première langue, la deuxième ou la langue étrangère. Le statut de l'enseignement de l'anglais comme langue étrangère est intéressante à observer notamment pendant la pandémie du Covid 19 en Indonésie. Il s'agira ici d'observer la conception d'un dispositif d'apprentissage de la langue anglaise basé sur l'apprentissage en ligne suivant le modèle ADDIE. Cela consiste à concevoir une instruction qui implique cinq procédures ; Analyser, concevoir, développer, mettre en œuvre et évaluer (ADDIE). Analyser, cela signifie identifier les causes probables d'un écart de performance du Virtual Community Digital Learning Nusantara (VCDLN) afin de connaître les besoins des élèves, et de déterminer l'objectif d'apprentissage. Concevoir revient à vérifier les performances souhaitées et les méthodes d'essai appropriées. Développer c'est générer et valider les ressources d'apprentissage. Mettre en œuvre consiste à préparer l'environnement d'apprentissage et engager les étudiants. Évaluer concerne la qualité des produits et processus pédagogiques, avant et après la mise en œuvre. La méthode DBR a été choisie pour soutenir la conception. La maîtrise de l'anglais s'est effectuée à partir de l'e-learning synchrone et asynchrone. Le modèle ADDIE apportera un enseignement en anglais basé sur l'apprentissage en ligne dans le département de l'éducation anglaise dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre stratégique du VCDLN durant la pandémie de Covid-19.

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1The term of information technology became popular in the late of 1970s. According to Martin (in Munir 2010, p. 9), state that the information technology and communication have a close relationship that the information technology is closed to the information processing systems, while the communication technology has function to transmit information. E-learning was the first introduced by the University of Illinos at Urbana-Champaign with a computer- based instruction system (Computer Assisted instruction) and Plato's computer. The era of CBT (Computer-Based Training), e-learning application was in the form of CD-ROM packaging. It is filled in the writing material or multimedia (Video and Audio) in mov, mped-1, or avi format ; In 1994, along with the receipt of CBT by the community. Since 1994, CBT was appeared in the form of more attractive and mass-produced packages ; In 1997, there was LMS (Learning Management System). Currently the community is starting to connect the internet. Everything can be obtained and felt the absolute needs, and the location is not an obstacle anymore ; and in 1999, the year that was a Web-based e-learning application. The development of LMS towards a fully developed Web-based e-learning application.

2E-learning is one of the fields that cultivate in communication technology . In addition, e-learning is familiar and widely used by educational institutions and training to facilitate the learning implementation. E-learning can be seen as a developing system to improve the quality of learning by trying to penetrate the limitations of space and.

3In Indonesia, the use of internet technology for education officially began from the establishment of telematics in 1996. In the same year, the Asian Internet Interconnections Initiatives were formed. Until now, there are 21 higher education/ institutions (public and private), national research institutions, and related agencies that have joined. Recently, electronic learning (e-learning) services such as online learning resources and learning management systems (LMS) have widely been adopted by higher education institutions due to the rapid advancement of internet-based technology (Allen and Seaman 2017 ; GoConqr 2017, in Rajak, et al, 2018, p. 2).

4To support english skill achievement, innovation technology like e-learning is suggested. The problem that hamper an effectiveness showed that the challenge is lack of both technical and social skills required for the implementation of e-learning which contributes to failure of e-learning projects (Ong, 2017, p. 2). There is also inability of teachers to assist the students develop the ability and knowledge necessary to make them use e-learning effectively. Some e-learning studies were conducted in developing countries show lack of vision and framework in implementing e-learning leading to failure of these e-learning projects (Kizito & Bijan, 2006 ; Pal, 2006). In addition, the problem of e-learning is that web and software development can be expensive and schools of all levels might have to invest much money in it if they want to have a sound e-learning system. Finally, technological problems might be another factor we need to address in e-learning. “Even students with extensive technology experience can become confused and lost on the Web” (Roberts, 2004, p. 77).

5Those obstacles need some solving to sustain e-learning based English learning. We need design to identify the weaknesses of EFL teachers which will contribute in making informed decisions about the adoption, implementation, and integration of e-learning that meet the requirements of EFL teachers (Furaydi, 2013, p. 2). English have to be prepared by updating themselves with current trends in language teaching such that e-learning is employed. According to U.S Departement of Education (2017, p. 35) that the schools should be able to rely on teacher preparation programs to ensure that new teachers come to them prepared to use technology in meaningful ways. They have to keep up with the latest developments in teaching especially that language trends constantly change and higher technology are introduced daily (Ong, 2017, p. 2). One of the teacher preparation is training applied. The factor that affects successful of ICT integration in language education is the training (Albirini 2006 : Almozaini 1998, in Furaydi, 2013, p. 2). Here, how to increase student competence in English, actually it comes from teacher innovation to engage student in learning process. What and how’s the material associated with E-learning technology will effect for student achievement. And also to encourage learners to use e-learning programs, technicians need to work out more user-friendly systems (Song, 2012, p. 2).

6Secondly, the teacher has role to make the pattern development by utilize and design based on product innovation. How the concept of teaching materials can be packaged and delivered, to form a instructional innovation. This will conduct from how individuals learn and active with new method, which they can access at the same time or at different times.

Instructional Design

7Instructional design (ID) is a systematic method of development of education and training programs for improved learner performance (Almomen, et al, 2016, p. 2). Instructional design refers to understanding, improving, and implementation of learning methods (Reigeluth, 2014, p. 4). Instructional design is systematically designed for educational program. The instructional systems design is a systematic method of development of education and trainings programs for improved student performance (Hadi, et al, 2017, p. 2). ADDIE instructional model, ADDIE first appeared in 1975 (Branson 1975). It was created by the Centre for Educational Technology at Florida State University. The ADDIE model developed by Dick and Cary in 1978 and Russell Watson revised in 1981, and was considered essential in the development of educational and training programs (Hannum,2005, in Muruganantham, 2015, p. 1 ). The essense of this is directly to increasing education and instruction quality as systematically and sustainability.


8The concept of e-learning has been existing since the second half of the 1990s. It was first used at a seminar and from there spread very quickly, (Belaya, 2018, p. 2). In annually, E-learning have many terms in applied. ASTD (The American Society for Training and Development, in Rusman, et al, 2013, p. 263) state that e-learning is a broad set of applications and processes which include web based learning, computer-based learning, virtual, and digital classrooms. Much of this is delivered via internet, intranets, audio, and videotape, satelite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM. E-learning application was showed in every moment as an era demand. So, e-learning was implemented based on the organization and the purpose of used.

9Indeed, the transformation is an inevitable matter, with the emergence of various new technological terms as an innovation. It shows that the develop and progress of science and technology is increasingly competitive. But whatever it is, whatever its form, everything will appropriate with the context of learning that will be carried out.

10E-learning has a function as a tools of communication that transmits a knowledge via media, either synchronous or asynchronous. E-learning is the process of education that uses innovative methods of transmitting knowledge via the Internet, extranet and intranet technologies, audio, video, and flash animations (Zielińska, 2011, in Kiliçkaya, Krajka, and Zielińska, 2014, p. 4-5). Reinmann-Rothmeier (2003) argues that e-learning is used as a collective term for all types of media-based learning, including both intranet and internet based (Belaya, 2018, p. 2).

Synchronous and Asynchronous in E-learning in Pandemi Covid-19

11The term “e-learning” was first used to asynchronous learning, specifically, online discussion groups. Asynchronous learning is also referred to as “on demand” or “anytime” learning (Eaton, et al. 2017, p. 8).

12Basically, e-learning has two types, namely synchronous and asynchronous. Synchronous means at the same time and asynchronous for different time. Synchronous learning connotes the instructor-led type of learning where there is collaboration and exchange of ideas and knowledge among participants at the same time. It could be in the form of video conferencing, chat room or virtual classrooms that bring all participants online working collaboratively at the same time in real-time for instruction and feedback (Robinson, 2008 ; Murali, 2010). Manprit, (2011). Asynchronous learning which is self-paced uses e-mail, blogs, wikis, discussion boards, web-supported textbooks, audio, video courses, web networks, hypertext documents (in Obuekwe & Eze, 2017, p. 2).

13The synchronous teaching proceeds in a real time, in which all participants accept the presented experience simultaneously and they can react mutually. The asynchronous teaching is usually applied in different times to different students. They can choose the pace and the way of accepting experience, but they cannot react mutually in a real time (Hubackova, 2015, p. 2).

14Asynchronous tools are used by learners at their own choice of time. The messages or information held by the system are read by the users when they choose to come online unlike synchronous tools, which take place in real time. Synchronous tools are live communication like conversations on the telephone (Rajaram, 2009, p. 2)

Impact of E-learning in English Language Learning

15E-learning have some kinds of application media. These media, such as ; audio-visual (Recording, Transparancy, Slide, Film, and Computer), Text Based Tools Visual, Web and CD. Those are used based on learning context. Here, English consists of four skills, among other ; Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. They are can use e-learning as a skill achievement

16Learners can work according to their own pace and they were supported by using some tools like audio recording, pronunciation and special monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, in order to facilitate understanding of the lexical items provided in exercises or reading passages. Grammar and writing activities were also supported by virtual classrooms. Listening skill was practiced through several audio and video materials. Moreover, learners can have speaking sessions with online tutors on dates announced in advance. The sessions held with learners are recorded for subsequent review (Kiliçkaya, Krajka, & Zielińska, 2014, p. 14 ).

17Web and CD-based learning programs aim to provide intensive language activities to improve language learning skills such as reading and listening. Web-based learning environments could be a very efficient way of conducting reading and listening classes. (Sagin-Simsek, 2008 ; Tanyeli, 2009, in Kiliçkaya, Krajka, & Zielińska, 2014, p. 15 ). Also CD based Instruction was really provided the student mastery in reading and listening, the student can access some native language speeches by Audio-Visual.

18In terms of developing speaking skills, for those students who rarely have an opening to speak with native speakers, and for others who are shy, automatic speech recognition technology provides opportunities for them to practice speaking (Yang & Chen, 2007). As noted by other researchers, including (Chiu, Liou, & Yeh, 2007), the use of automatic speech recognition systems that allow students to engage in speech interactions with a computer is an advantage of E-learning. A web-based conversation environment called Candle Talk has also been developed to enable students to communicate with their computers interactively (Chiu et al., 2007), This software allows EFL learners to access explicit speech training programmes, thereby enhancing their oral skills (in Mutambik, 2018, p. 2).

19Examining the significance of such text based tools, Al-Menei (2008) investigated the effectiveness of the computer-assisted English writing skills of Saudi students. His study demonstrated a significant improvement in the writing capabilities of Saudi EFL students when they had used computer-assisted programmes to correct their grammar and paragraph writing, as the E-learning setting provides ample time for students to reflect and focus. Farzi (2016) also observed that computers can be programmed to provide corrective instruction to identify any mistakes in writing. This arguably helps students to correct their mistakes, enriching their writing. (in Mutambik, 2018, p. 3).

20Furthermore, E-learning was provided for unprecedent opportunities when developing their reading skills, due to the unrestricted availability of course materials online (Brandl, 2002). Online information enables students to overcome the confines of textbook based learning, by promoting access to knowledge at any time and from anywhere. Opportunities for listening to authentic language also abound online. Indeed, Romeo (2008) observed the importance of listening exercises to understand relative clauses and audio prompts available through online applications. He reports on evidence that suggests that when more syntactically complex clauses are used, learners alter their method of approach to learning and understanding (in Mutambik, 2018, p. 3).

21The students are able to have considerable degree of choice over place and time in learning and they are also able to decide how much to learn as long as they have access to computer and internet. Apart from the flexibility and convenience, e-Learning also provides opportunity for “repeated practice and ease of review” (Long, 2004, p. 69), which are essential in the learning of foreign languages. e-Learning can simply be viewed as : “online access to learning resources, anywhere and anytime”(Holmes, 2006, in Soong, 2012, p. 2). Some E-learning applications permit students learning English to readily access beneficial language resources and communicate directly with native English speakers. Furthermore, the students can study English listening, verbal communication, reading, and written communication skills in authentic contexts (Debski & Gruba, 1999 ; Yang & Chen, 2007 ; Al-Qahtani, 2016 ; Al-Hassan & Shukri, 2017) (in Mutambik, 2018, p. 1).

22A significant component of this technology advancement is the development of e-learning environment which has been recognised as having transformative potential in terms of English language teaching and learning methodology (Hellebrandt, 1999). Yang & Chen, 2007 ; Shuchi, & Islam, 2016, specifically, students can use E-learning resources to acquire the four main English language skills (in Mutambik, 2018, p. 2). In many countries of the world, for different fields of life such as business, travel, banking, entertainment, governance, security have witnessed rapid revolution as a result of the emergence of ICT (e-learning). Teachers can access a lot of information which they can transmit to the students (Obuekwe, & Eze, 2017, p. 1)

Framework Education Technology

23English Learning is an achieved through an innovation in e-learning education. English skills are adapted from various learning media that are part of e-learning. The next is educational technology framework in English learning.

Fig.1. Framework English Instructional

Fig.1. Framework English Instructional

Fig. 2. Framework E-learning technology based English Learning in Pandemic Covid-19

24There are some components of educational technology have. They are : area, pattern, diffusion and innovation, and practical innovation.

  1. Area

25English instruction was effected from technology area. They are included ; Design, Develop, Utilization, management, and evaluation.

  1. Design

26Design of english instruction by using E-learning means that how the material is conveyed and evaluated. The teacher are packing learning material (learning innovation engineering) to make a match between teacher as a messenger and student as a receiver. It is really better when the teacher make and develop the system until the current of theory and practice of study are easy to do and assess. Teacher ability to design study system will get more free and simple to access student understanding and student achievement because they are created and held on alone. Even though, the school need many infrastructure and tool for designing systems.

  1. Develop

27Here, English consists of four skills ; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. E –learning also have some kinds of application, like ; Audiovisual technology, technology based computer (Computer based instruction), and integrated technology. Three of them are chosen based on skill requirement. An example ; the student need speaking skill, and dominate listening, and it can be provided by using audiovisual, there is sound and picture that shows the student to listen and see the mouth of speaker. An another example ; if the student study about lexical item, so the hypermedia that effected to “Integrated technology” is

28recommended. That is supported by Audio-Visual material. The audio and visual material was provided.

  1. Utilization

29In utilization, this part try to make the content to implement. The content of E-learning is effected by utilizing. Where we use a product innovation. We make and fill the content of e-learning. Many materials that can be took and build for student activities but it needs an ability to present in online.

  1. Management

30Management is indispensible for teacher. They have centered position to manage information until the learning process will be presented. To actuate e-learning for English. The teacher should be able in mastering computer based instruction that will be applied e-learning. Because they are there, and teach English by using e-learning. The learning message information will be given to student.

  1. Evaluation

31Evaluation consists of formative and summative.

  1. Formative, the student, how the learning message was accepted in their mind. Here, we can see and observe student understanding and ability to the learning with timing. This evaluation give some better suggestion and input for the next learning and goals.

  2. Sumative, the teacher, related with the teacher who has important role in presented English by using e-learning. If the teacher false to prepare and implement this instruction, so, it should be upgraded or improved. And summatif, for student, we can use competence test by using computer based instruction, then appropriate it with English instruction. We can see the student can meet with the instructional standard based e-learning.

32The evaluation system that can be developed is the evaluation processes with indicators and references to learning completion from spent of time allocation ; completed e-learning pages ; whether or not able to read and interpret ; after that correct the answer from some questions ; and able to go through the entire learning process. In addition, the scoring system that can be applied is the scoring system with indicators of online learning completeness, the ability to make reports and upload them via online, able to answer all questions, and self assessment. The score can be done on an interval scale so that the score can be confirmed more quickly in online to students.

  1. Pattern

33Fig. 3. Pattern of English based E-learning Technology

34The objectives are analyzed based on the taxonomy level in three competencies. English instruction is greater in the cognitive domain, the goal must be based on cognitive levels of Bloom and Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomies. The ability structure in Bloom's Taxonomy, namely Knowledge, Understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. While the composition of abilities in Anderson and Krathwohl from the bottom to the top : Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and

35Creating. If we look the ability sections both of lower and higher levels. The low level began from remembering - application, while the high level category start from analyzing to creating.

36The context of English Instructional from listening, speaking, reading and writing skills will determine the purpose based on three competencies (attitudes, knowledge and skills). For example, on writing skills, with aims that the students are able to create a text from the expostition text, based on Synchronous and Asynchronous. What is the purpose of writing skill in terms of online learning, which is at the same and different time. Everything must be considered.

37After analyze the goal, then this will start to select the contents and methods. The content related with the level that the students should be achieved, the selection of materials should not inversely proportional to the level of ability, this can be seen in Bloom and Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy. Then, what is the method for learning process. Computer based English itself in writing skill, can be done by reading, question and answer, drill and practice. Based on Synchronous, there will be the dialogue and discussion. If Asynchronous, the learning process is asked the existence of projects individually, as well as groups, and discovery.

38Media and teacher are the bridge in conveying the information, the teachers will not always play an active role to deliver messages, so the media is needed. E-learning becomes a medium to give the messages in class anywhere. But it's just requires the teacher's ability to manage computer-based information, even not mastery all of them, it’s important know and understand how to use technology. Soong, (2012, p. 2), modern teachers are not supposed to be technicians, but they are required to have basic knowledge ofcomputers.

39The student, create learning innovations. Teachers will be guided student to the independent learning systems. With helping of media that has been specifically designed by media experts themselves, teachers or even other staff academic e-learning program.

  1. Diffusion and Innovation

40This Web-based E-learning is the use of media as a way to deliver information on English learning, for example to make the student mastery in speaking skills, the teacher must familiarize students with presenting various video / audio sources such as speech, and conversation from native, which improve children's vocabulary, accent, fluency, grammar, and understand what the speaker conveys through various e-learning applications. This applied is to make students easy to access learning without limits of any space and time.

  1. Practical Innovation

41Whatever that the benefit of innovations is better for innovation targets, it will be very difficult to accept if the innovator does not understand the innovation strategy, or it can be assumed that the innovation failure is one of the innovators who does not comprehensively understand innovation strategies.

42E-learning is a learning technology. Electronic learning is changing the way to communicate learning. The application of this technological innovation refers to the implementation of the educational process in the form of teaching and learning processes in schools, the implementation of which is the elaboration of these technology products as a medium of learning in schools.

43Research Questions

44This research aims to design e-learning-based English instruction by using ADDIE model, with Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate.


46This study will design e-learning based English Instruction for English Education Departement by using ADDIE model. This study is used Design based Research (DBR). Amiel and Reeves (2008, p. 6), state that design-based research consists of four stages : Analysis of practical problems by researchers and practitioners in collaboration ; Development of solutions informed by existing design principles and technological innovations ; Iterative cycles of testing and refinement of solutions in practice ; and Reflection to produce “design principles” and enhance solution implementation. In this case, the writer only get two stages, both need analysis and organizing design.

47The procedure that adresses instructional design is ADDIE model, with Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate.


49Implementation E-learning toward English Learning

50The internet application was facilitated by e-learning in connecting information management activities and delivered messages in learning. This is helped to introduce an innovation in English learning. Also as an innovation technology that has role to get information via Web. Theories and applications will be packaged well, so that they are able to attract and increase students' interest in learning, then do the meaningfull learning for student. There is the cone experience of Dale, this is presented by whole instructional experiences especially by using Web in English purposes, as follows.

51Students who learn English will meet this cone as an appropriate purpose, as like what the content of English skill that can be used in some kinds of Web of e-learning. E-learning has recently become an integral component of modern education system (Khan, 2016, p. 3). Then what is the media that match with content from those skills. We can identify the learning experience that will be used in each of the skills, then take an e-learning Web of inovation technology to collaborate.

  1. Implementation of verbal receiving via e-learning. The student accept learning by using computer. There is a content that facilitated student work. This part give a student habit to the word, reading or even listening skill. It also helps the student who difficult in visual study. Other meaning, the student who different of learning style and accept.

  1. Implementation of visual receiving via e-learning. This is easy for student visual mastery. The student use visual form to acquire meaning of four skills in English. Because there is student who has dominant for this. Not verbal section.

  2. Implementation of receiving and producing via e-learning. The student get some learning of e-learning then will be received, and interacted with computer. The student be receiver as a passive, and producer as an active student.

  3. Implementation of doing via e-learning. This the last of cone experience that address student to do and habit in action. The student do the real in the field. So that, the student really have better experience in learning process. Give the student chance to access workplace temporally. This will be showed the student achievement. To overcome doing the real teaching, it will be contemplated the simulation and others.

52To support the implementation of E-learning based English Learning, we can do the steps of ADDIE (Branch, 2009, p. 57) ; analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluation.

53Table 1. Implementation of English Instruction in Pandemic Era







Identify the probable

causes for a

performance gap

Verify the desired

performances and

appropriate testing


Generate and validate

the learning


Prepare the


environment and

engage the


Assess the quality of

the instructional

products and

processes, both

before and after


Common Procedures

Validate the performance gap

Determine instructional goals

Confirm the intended audience

Identify required resources

Determine potential delivery systems (including cost estimate)

Compose a project management plan

Conduct a task inventory

Compose performance objectives

Generate testing strategie

Calculate return on investment

Generate content

Select or develop supporting media

Develop guidance for the student

Develop guidance for the teacher

Conduct formative revisions

Conduct a Pilot Test

Prepare the teacher

Prepare the student

Determine evaluation criteria

Select evaluation tools

Conduct Evaluations











54Table above show that the procedure from how to implement the instructional. Here, the instruction that supported by e-learning. The explanation of e-learning based English Instruction can be seen below ;

  1. Analyze

55The teacher should conduct an analysis to identify the gaps of student in different background. Among other ; what student need to study, why the student need it, the student in learning style, then the student difficulties, the student low achievement who have not motivation and have anxiety to study.

56The teacher should deliver some questionare and interview to student, and questionare to the teachers. Until the teacher get direction to make a presented plan.

  1. Validate the performance gap

57To master the English skills is not easy for teachers and students. Many obstacles and challenges that will be passed, then step by step would be felt. There are several gaps that occur in achieving English skills. The following details are based on several related journals.

  1. The lack of various learning innovations based on learning goals and needs.

  2. The students lack motivation to be active because they are afraid of being wrong and laughed.

  3. The students do not appreciate and help other friends who are late in English achieving.

  4. The teachers are lack to become a model in improving students' English language habits. The students do not make English as a habit, because the teacher as an educator does not apply the same thing. Many teachers use their mother tongue, in the classroom, such as clarifying difficult concepts or explaining new vocabulary and grammatical points (Alabdan, 1993 ; Alnofaie, 2010 ; Alshammari, 2011, in Alharbi, 2015, p. 3).

  5. Learning English is limited in class, it does not provide authentic learning for students. According to Alharbi (2015, p. 2) EFL context, classroom practice is crucial given the lack of opportunities to use English outside the classroom.

  1. Determine instructional goals

58The objectives can be realized according to the description of competence. The competencies that will be achieved are inseparable from some aspects of attitude, knowledge, skill, and creating competences.

  1. Attitude

59The students can always be grateful of their abilities, because all of them are from the gift of Allah SWT ; the students can appreciate their friends' efforts and help friends when they are in trouble ; the students can be brave, confident, and responsible for what they want to do, because everything will affect the process of improving their abilities.

  1. Knowledge

60The students can understand and master the elements in achieving English language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing), and the students are able to understand the basics in using ICT. The students can browse materials, assignments, answer and submit the answers.

  1. Skill

61The students can explore and apply the English ability with various media in technological innovation.

  1. Creating competence

62The student can create a media that can improve their english abilities in all time.

  1. Confirm the intended audience

63In improving English language skills using e-learning is generally used by universities, still rarely applied in primary and secondary education. In this case, e-learning in English learning is good in higher education (S1), considering that the age of students has an average ability and stronger in learning ICT. For the selection of e-learning applications and the depth and limitation of the material can be carried out based on the identification of learning needs and the circumstances of the students.

  1. Identify required resources

64Learning resources are important to conform learning goals. Learning resources can be obtained through various links or materials that can be obtained from the expert that are willing to facilitate such learning. E-learning can make it easier for students to access learning anywhere, it requires the ability of teachers to design and apply e-learning as well as possible. Resources can be facilitated by ;

  1. CD-ROM, the contents that are various audio-visuals to help students learn and understand the elements of English skill

  2. Web-Based Instruction, able to assist the student in communicating. Web-Based Conversation Environment called Candle Talk has also been developed to enable students to communicate with their computers interactively (Chiu et al., 2007), This software allows EFL learners to access explicit speech training programmes, thereby enhancing their oral skills. (in Mutambik, 2018, p. 2). The students who are lack of willing to learn english can freely express their abilities without any shame.

  1. Determine potential delivery systems

65Learning delivery systems depend on the selection of methods. For delivery systems can be done in various ways, this is written below ;

    1. Online presentations and discussions, with virtual learning. Learners can interact in a discussion at the same time (Synchronous).

    2. Learning can be done by browsing material through the link provided by the teacher on the internet (Asynchronous).

  1. Design

66E-learning has feature as an online activities in unlimited space and time. Whether from syncronous and asyncronous. Syncronous, the teacher and student do learning together via online at the same time. Asyncronous, the teacher can provide the content, and the student can access in different time.

67In this case, the teacher will design E-learning based English learning : learning objective, material/content, media/strategy, and assessment, flowcart of learning to facilitate the student experience. The design should be supported between student learning experience in English with e-learning both syncronous and asyncronous. The description of teaching and learning will implement in the same way and different way. Example in one/two semester, at the same time, the teacher and student set the day for two days in a time as an usually want to learn. While, different time, the student can access anytime in anyplace.

68Other thing, the teacher can design system alone in platfrom and take all sources that construct student learning experience. The teacher can easy and understand to access learning because some plots were conducted by themselves.

69Based on the ADDIE procedure, in the design stage, can be seen below ;

  1. Conduct a task inventory

70This can be done with several efforts, it is related with how to be able to improve the ability to dominate English via e-learning.

    1. The students should be gotten good attitudes, values or ethics in using English through e-learning media.

    2. The students must be studied and understood the surrounding environment and the life changing from society in all times.

    3. The students must be prepared and thought about e-learning based English learning.

    4. The students must have soul in innovating learning with e-learning.

  1. Compose performance objectives

71Creating a performance objective, when it’s known how to do and solve the gap. The objective will be achieved by designing detailed indicators of English achievement.

  1. Familiarize attitudes, values and ethics with students towards themselves and others.

  2. Understanding the concepts of English : Mention the components of mastering English language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) ; Explain the meaning of components in English ; Give examples from English components.

  3. Analyzing the components of English language skills based on audio-visual (speaking), virtual communication tools (writing), Web-CD-based learning (reading and listening), and another media.

  4. Analyzing the components of English skills based on British and American English.

  5. Identify and compare the components of English skills based on the contents of media that used.

  6. Designing an implementation plan to observe English language skills can be through ;

  1. Speaking : it shows the film (audio-visual) from american and british english (asynchronous), and video-conferencing, student to student in conversation (synchronous).

  2. Writing : the media of e-mail, and blogs as communication tools to transmit and receive the writing (Asynchronous), and chat as tools of communication through groups and private as the real time (Synchronous).

  3. Reading and listening : they can learn in various text and audio contents, that are obtained on web-CD. Listening is in CD by audio (Asynchronous), while Web media, the students are asked to open an audio link, audio is listened at the same time and they can answer the questions that the teacher ask (Synchronous). Reading have a text from CD (Asynchronous), and web, students are asked to download a text in a link, and identify the questions that was given, the next, it submitted to the teacher based on the time that determined (Synchronous).

72Organizing the instruments to explore and identify the components in English skills.

  1. Collecting data through observation ; Process the results of data collection ; Make the reports in the form of articles.

  2. Presenting the report results : Make a presentation ; Review articles designed.

  1. Generate testing strategie

73Values can be obtained by the tests or non-tests. A description of the valuation strategies is listed below ;

  1. Oral Test. This test is used because the aims to improve the English speaking ability. This can be done with some questions or speaking performance from

74students in conversation, speeches, or role play. The students achievement can be marked in standard of English speaking.

  1. Listening test : To test the students understand and accept the conversation from the speaker. It will be given the question for students to answer.

  2. Written test : this test is carried out with multiple choice questions that will test the students ability (Reading), and the description test (writing).

  3. Non test. This test can be done by observing from attitudes, values and ethics were shown by the students in English practice.

  1. Develop

75In this case, for Synchronous, The teacher can develop media from all material to facilitate student English skill, and support student to do that. On the other hand, Asynchronous, the teacher can develop by learning setting that can be accessed for all students. Here, possibly, the teacher want to facilitate the student with some media. So, make a list for a task based on the requirement.

76In this case, the development stage will be described according to the steps below ;

  1. Generate content

77The point of the material was presented as follows ;

  1. Implant the values, attitudes, and ethics in English applied.

  2. Understand the concept of English language skills (component of mastery skills)

  3. Analyze the English language skills based on the sources requested and provided.

  4. Write the research reports in the form of articles.

  5. Present the reports based on English skill components

  1. Select or develop supporting media

78Media is tools of message delivery. In this case, you can use audio-visual media, web-CD, text based tools and / virtual communication tools, etc.

  1. Develop guidance for the student

79The competencies that have been proclaimed and written will be realized with guidance for students in achieving their abilities. The guideline is a series of written descriptions that contains RPS.

  1. Conduct formative revisions

80To improve students' English skills intensivelly, this used formative evaluation in the middle of semester to improve and upgrade the weaknesses in the learning process.

  1. Conduct a Pilot Test

81To develop a pilot test, it really depends on the material with the depth and limits. The test that facilitated in improving English skills as follows ;

82a) Attitude assessment

83b) Written assessment

84c) Performance assessment

85d) Observation guidelines

  1. Implement

86Implementation is realization document into practice. In Synchronous and Asynhronous , the student was given a link to acces a task that should be accomplished in all time based on the teacher instruction. All information that the teacher provided in that link adresess student to understand and work. Then the program in one/two semester like resources (text, and videos), task, remedial, feedback and score, etc were presented.

87For all English skills are communicated for student. For Synchronous. An example ; speaking skill is applied through student and teacher or even student with other student to see that the student able and mastery in oral communication. In Asynchronous, writing skill is involved, the teacher can give the student module of the text that will give student

88time to analyze main idea, supporting sentence, or the problem that will identify according the teacher’s requirements.

89Those are able to use in Synchronous and Asynhronous based on the context of learning experience.

  1. Prepare the teacher

90However the teacher must have preparation in teaching, even though the teacher is a facilitator or mediator, but the role of teacher is very important in addressing, perfecting, and directing students to the actuate learning outcomes. Then the teacher both individual and team, should have the ability to choose and establish goals, materials, methods, and evaluations that are suitable and appropriate in implementation for students with education level. Everything is related to e-learning applications.

  1. Prepare the student

91The students in the study should have initial preparation to start the learning process for one semester. So, the students must obtain ; Semester Learning Plan (RPS), explain the RPS that involves students in conducting the ideas, by arguing about learning design to be considered, do the contract learning, prepare students to enter the instruction via e-learning.

  1. Evaluate

92In this part, the evaluation can use as individual and group. As individually, each student able to achieve the standard with the scale in each of the skill. For group, each group can be seen from responsibility to work better cooperatively with the teacher demand to collect an assignment. The score will presented based on indicators.

  1. Determine evaluation criteria

93 Firstly, the evaluation must be determined the criteria. This criterion becomes the basis to consider and decide the results of student achievement. The assessment criteria are determined by the educational institutions.

  1. Select evaluation tools

94 The evaluation tools have two types, including ; test, and non test evaluation. Test, assess the performance and written test from students. While non-test, assess the students attitude in their performance.

  1. Conduct Evaluations

95 To conduct the evaluation, it can be done from pre-test before the students have learning process, this is to find out the extent of students ability in the field. The next is the assessment of process, this used to the learning process takes place, by assessing the attitudes, written activities and performance of students. Then the assessment of assignments, midterm test and final exam.


97English is not a new field of the study. English as tools of communication for human in the world. Many ways to learn english as our goals. They are conventional and modern part. Globalization era demands an innovation technology in modern learning.

98E-learning as an innovation technology has great potential for foreign language instruction. With increased mobility of Web based Instruction will play more important role, and the teacher power should not always be used. The education doers should conduct the material based on the student needs and grade. The student and teachers demonstrated the ability to align the ICT materials with the proficiency levels of the students. The materials also needed to be relevant to the rural context of the school. ICT materials for language learning available on the Internet do not usually fit the local context (Keong, et al, 2016, p. 4).

99Two ways of learning both synchronous and asynchronous have learning designed each other. It is to be hoped that the discussion of e-learning types will contribute in increasing the English teachers competence for their future teaching experiences and the student ability in understand, applied of English, and specific for organizing learning via e-learning. ADDIE model was addressed e-learning based english instruction.

100The reason why e-learning- based english instruction should be designed. Some students have not time to get face to face learning. The alternatif action is provided online learning to facilitate student needs and achievement. The student that is unable to stay along, can answer teacher question in other times. They can access in unlimited time as the teacher instruction. For learning in the same time, it needs the student in multiple live such as conferencing, chat, or another media that used in pandemic covid-19.

101E-learning demonstrates a huge advantage if it were employed and utilized adequately. This case will promote the effectiveness and enhance instructional delivery to satisfy needs of all stakeholders to a large extent.


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Titre Fig.1. Framework English Instructional
Légende Fig. 2. Framework E-learning technology based English Learning in Pandemic Covid-19
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Dinn Wahyudin, Deni Darmawan et Suharti, « Design of e–Learning based Based on ADDIE model during the Covid-19 Pandemic  »Communication, technologies et développement [En ligne], 11 | 2022, mis en ligne le 26 février 2022, consulté le 31 mars 2023. URL : ; DOI :

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Dinn Wahyudin

Curriculum Development, Postgraduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

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