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Reportage, Illustration, Encyclopaedia: Cats, Dogs, and Gorillas Gaining Ground

Illustrating Animals and Visualizing Natural History in Chambers’s Encyclopaedias

L’illustration animalière : l’histoire naturelle par les images dans les Encyclopédies de Chambers.
Rose Roberto

Résumés

Le dix-neuvième siècle fut marqué par un intérêt croissant du grand public pour l’histoire naturelle, un phénomène que l’on peut mesurer à l’affluence du public dans la visite des zoos et des ménageries ambulantes, autant qu’à travers le succès des manuels de botanique, de la collection des orchidées, de la chasse aux fossiles et de la mode des aquariums ou encore au succès des conférences grand public sur la science. Plus de dix ans avant la publication de L’Origine des espèces de Charles Darwin, un ouvrage intitulé Les Vestiges de l’Histoire naturelle de la Création fut publié de façon anonyme par Robert Chambers. Sa première édition fut immédiatement épuisée aux États-Unis comme au Royaume-Uni. Chambers ne reconnut jamais qu’il était l’auteur de ce livre. Sa maison d’édition, W. & R. Chambers, était connue pour ses ouvrages didactiques. Entre 1859 et 1892, deux encyclopédies distinctes furent publiées par cette maison d’édition : Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People and Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, New Edition. Ces deux éditions contenaient des définitions sur les mammifères, les oiseaux, les reptiles, les poissons et les micro-organismes, et les entrées apparaissaient souvent accompagnées d’illustrations. Cet article s’intéresse aux recherches faites sur ces encyclopédies, aux blocs de bois utilisés pour graver les illustrations et à la représentation visuelle des animaux. Il aborde également l’histoire naturelle et les différences entre les définitions et les représentations des animaux dans les deux éditions et vise à mettre en relief l’influence de tendances plus générales dans l’expansion du marché de la publication d’ouvrages d’histoire naturelle de vulgarisation, et plus globalement dans le marché des publications d’encyclopédies illustrées et d’illustrations de livre. Cet article traite également de la philosophie de la maison d’édition concernant le développement personnel, l’apprentissage et la compréhension de la science et pose la question de savoir si les illustrations scientifiques publiées dans ces encyclopédies auraient pu, pour un public contemporain, servir d’indices à l’identité de leur auteur.

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Introduction

1The National Museums Scotland houses over 20,000 woodblocks in its Science and Technology Department from the Scottish publishing firm of W. & R. Chambers. Over 7,000 of those woodblocks were used in the production of the first two editions of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia. These woodblocks, and the volumes their prints appeared in, are important artefacts recording the communication of scientific ideas to the general public and the history of technology. The first edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias was published between 1859 and 1868. The New Edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, referred to in this article as the ‘second edition’ was published between the years 1888 and 1892 and released simultaneously in Edinburgh by Chambers and in Philadelphia by J. B. Lippincott, the American firm that partnered with Chambers on this project. Subsequent editions of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia were produced between 1923–1927, 1935, 1950 and finally in 1966. However, this study focuses on the first two editions and their illustrations, and compares the natural history illustrations with those of other contemporary encyclopaedias such as the ninth edition of Encyclopaedias Britannica (1876–1889) and with Johnson’s New American Cyclopaedia (1875). Visual trends can be detected in all these images, reflecting developments in Victorian culture.

  • 1 In the early 1830s, the word ‘people’ was understood to mean men of the middle classes. By the 1860 (...)

2As Chambers’s Encyclopaedia alludes to within its pages, the nineteenth century world contained new knowledge and interesting discoveries and there was diversity in visual depiction of topics. Animals were represented anatomically, as specimens in their natural habitat, as fossils, or in different phases of their life cycle. Historical people are represented by portraits, autographs, or metal seals. Politically there was a rise in the creation of political states, and the concept of nations and nationalities based on common language, geography, or heritage proliferated, even as European imperialism began to spread. Germany and Italy were unified, and many countries in South America sought independence. Nations or cities were depicted with maps, by significant historical artefacts discovered there, with an illustration of a cityscape, or with a close-up of a key landmark building. In the nineteenth century, new state-funded entities such as national libraries, archives, and zoos were established, and these civic establishments were built not only as a way to showcase wealth and power, but also seen as a means for middle-class reformers to provide a public space with an edifying mission for the people.1 In fact, a parallel can be drawn between national museums and national encyclopaedias. Curators and editors both make deliberate choices about what will be contained and exhibited. In fact, recent scholarship examines how creating national encyclopaedias was part of many other nation-building endeavours undertaken by different countries in the nineteenth century (Kavanagh 241; Burke 192; Belgum 253).

3W. & R. Chambers provides a good case study of the history of publishing, particularly for mass education and what would evolve into a corpus of texts known as reference books. Founded by two brothers, William (1800–1883) and Robert (1802–1871) Chambers, in the early nineteenth century, the firm grew over several decades from small-time bookseller and hand-press printer to a reputable publisher of educational books and periodicals sold globally. It is important to note the firm’s involvement as a producer of periodicals starting in the 1830s, before they successfully transitioned into education and reference books. By 1859, when W. & R. Chambers began taking subscriptions for its illustrated encyclopaedias (NLS Deposit 341/428. W. & R. Chambers Archive), it was a commercial success internationally, having outlived several rival publishers of cheap instructive print (Fyfe 259).

Encyclopaedias as a Genre

4Between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, new genres of reference books evolved developed by professional publishers and businessmen to meet new markets. Their decisions on what to include and how to structure these works changed the nature of genre, as well as the target audience. In the eighteenth century, certain characteristics of encyclopaedias became standard. Generally, they were arranged alphabetically; they were encompassed in a number of volumes; they contained cross-references to related topics, and they contained content written by named experts. Editors also provided underlying structures that connected entries through a topical system (Collison 10). Encyclopaedia regularly began carrying illustrations and they were structured in ways to represent order and control of the world intellectually. They also reflected their place of origin and the world outlook at the time of their creation. For instance the Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Arts et Des Métiers (1751–1772) reflected the contentious state of society in pre-revolutionary France, while the Encyclopaedia Britannica produced during the Scottish Enlightenment, reflected Scottish educational priorities and pragmatism (Blom xxiv). The Britannica was also designed to have further editions, which would be expanded to include new information and scientific knowledge by future generations of editors (Herman 62).

5Jeff Loveland observed that between the 1690s and the 1840s, encyclopaedias grew in terms of number of volumes that each title could contain, but that after the 1840s, encyclopaedias became standardised products with a fixed number of volumes (Loveland 249–51). This was because publishing houses professionalised and editors weighed the financial, legal, and intellectual merits of a proposed book with the likelihood of its commercial success. The cost of compilation and the resources involved in selling knowledge-based works caused them to become financially conservative (Loveland 251). Successful publishers only undertook production work if there was a clear business strategy and they were convinced that the market potential of the publication outweighed the investment of time and resources. For example, archival records show that Lippincott was persuaded to produce a Spanish-language version of the second edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia after being solicited by authorities in Mexico, who indicated that a Spanish-language encyclopaedia with Chambers’s illustrations would be popular (HSP Collection 3104/10.3 341 Lippincott Archives). However, because the Chambers firm was resistant to the idea, believing their resources would be stretched in undertaking a large translation project of high quality, Lippincott concluded going alone would be too much of a financial risk and abandoned the proposed work (HSP Collection 3104/79.1 Lippincott Archives). As the nineteenth century progressed, encyclopaedias were undertaken with long-term business planning, leaving behind their eighteenth-century legacy of being produced for and by autodidacts. As other formats for scholarship developed, such as academic journals, textbooks, and monographs, the role of encyclopaedias shifted to accommodate the informational and educational needs of the rising middle classes (Kister 7). From the 1850s to the twenty-first century, publishers such as Chambers and Lippincott were responsible for a ‘boom, in commercial encyclopaedias’ (Collison 174).

Natural History Markets Meet Reference Works

6Natural history was popular in the nineteenth century. In Scotland alone, 21 amateur natural history societies were in operation in 1873. By 1900, this grew to 70 societies (Finnegan 55). Several other studies in the history of science discuss this growing popularity and availability of natural history material. Exhibiting Animals in Nineteenth-Century Britain discusses the popularity of zoos, travelling menageries, and museums with animal specimens; data was gleaned through extensive research into newspaper and private first-hand accounts of individuals attending shows and events. The book also cites protective legislation and the growth of kinder attitudes towards animals (Cowie 127). In Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences, Bernard Lightman examines the figures for 37 books from the 1830s-1880s, noting the print runs and the volume of continued sales up to 10 years from the initial date of publication. Lightman finds that the best sellers of the period are: Brewer’s 75,000 copies, Woods’s 64,000 copies, Chambers’s 21,000 copies, and Huxley’s 19,000 (Lightman 2007, 490–91). In other words, books on natural history were incredibly popular, and by this measure, Darwin’s works with print runs ranging from 10,000–14,000 seem unremarkable.

Table 1. Abridged data from Lightman’s study on bestselling natural history books

Table 1. Abridged data from Lightman’s study on bestselling natural history books

7Every newspaper had a natural history section, and in the mid-nineteenth century there were books that ranged from giving practical advice for preserving specimens or buying specimens to illustrated guides to help readers identify them in the field. Natural history books could also be bought for low prices at railway stations on the way to a seaside or countryside holiday (Fyfe 165–66). ‘Victorian audiences were bombarded with a steam of spectacular new visual images that changed their relationship to the world and influenced how they were to observe it’ (Fyfe and Lightman 11). It is not a surprise that encyclopaedias would increasingly carry natural history images as well.

Animals in Encyclopaedias

8Since Darwin started his career as an author, natural history audiences were used to illustrations (Smith 16). In the three encyclopaedias surveyed for this paper, there is diversity in the visual depiction of topics. As stated before, animals could be represented anatomically, as an organism in its natural habitat, as a fossil specimen, or by a schematic image showing different phases of its life cycle. In the first edition, botanical illustrations of the entry ‘Opium’ show plants growing in fields, through the tools used to harvest it, by the portion of the plant that is plucked, and how, as a product, opium is manufactured and stored (Findlater 1867, 84–85). Some images and portions of text are modelled on other images in wide circulation or have been extracted from well-known authoritative works. For example, in the 8th edition of Encyclopaedias Britannica, Volume 18, a long extract cited from the book Voyage of the Naturalist is used to fill over 16 pages under the entry for ‘Polynesia’ (Traill 268–82). In the entry ‘Anthropoid Apes’ in the second edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, the printed wood engraving, ‘Skeletons of Anthropoid Apes compared with that of Man’s’ (Patrick 1888, 310) is based on the frontispiece of the book Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature, published in 1863, by Thomas Henry Huxley that was widely circulated. In another entry in the second edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, the entry for ‘Aye-aye’ has two illustrations very similar to aye-ayes in Richard Owen’s Monograph on the Aye-aye, published in 1863 (Figure 1). Note that Owen’s image is credited and allows the encyclopaedia to claim authoritative information by citing Owen (Patrick 1888, 618).

Figure 1. Aye-aye from Richard Owen’s Monograph on the Aye-aye on the left, compared with Aye-aye on the right found in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia.)

Figure 1. Aye-aye from Richard Owen’s Monograph on the Aye-aye on the left, compared with Aye-aye on the right found in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia.)

9In order to determine patterns in the more than 7,000 images in both editions of Chambers’s for this survey, a content analysis tool was adapted, which involved dividing images into different categories based on what the image itself depicted. Using an international standard called CCO, (Cataloguing Cultural Objects), the following 28 subjects were found to be relevant for classifying images in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (1859–1868) and (1888–1892), and were in fact also easily applied to Johnson’s Universal Cyclopaedia (1876) and the ninth edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (1875–1889) (See Table 2).

Table 2. Categories are based on a museum standard CCO, or Cataloguing Cultural Objects, developed by the Getty Research Center. This data standard allows images to be catalogued according to features that can be seen in the images themselves. This standard was applied to all the encyclopaedic images across the books in this study

Table 2. Categories are based on a museum standard CCO, or Cataloguing Cultural Objects, developed by the Getty Research Center. This data standard allows images to be catalogued according to features that can be seen in the images themselves. This standard was applied to all the encyclopaedic images across the books in this study
  • 2 See appendices 1 and 2.

10In a content analysis survey of the images in Chambers’s first and second editions, which divided images into different categories based on the subject depicted, the most frequent type of images found are related to natural history.2 The two categories are vertebrates and botanical images, and this is consistent between the first edition and the second edition. The category ‘vertebrates’ includes depiction of any external features of whole non-human animals, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. It is by far the most numerous of all illustrations in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia. Both Johnson’s and Britannica have a similar proportion of images representing animals in a natural history context, which is consistent across these three encyclopaedic works. Johnson’s was an eight-part work, bound into 4 volumes and sold in the US from 1876. The ninth edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica was released as a 25-volume set, issued between 1875 and 1889.

Table 3. This table shows the ratio of total images and images depicting animals in categories of vertebrate such as mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles

Table 3. This table shows the ratio of total images and images depicting animals in categories of vertebrate such as mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles
  • 3 Interestingly, while Chambers’s Encyclopaedia and Johnson’s depict animals most commonly with an il (...)

11The 1870s was the period between the first edition (1860s) and second edition (1888–1892) of Chambers, and production of Encyclopaedia Britannica overlaps with the second edition of Chambers. As both Chambers and Britannica were produced in Scotland and were competing with each other in US and British markets, there are visual clues that both of them were influencing each other. Major changes between the 8th edition of Britannica (1853–1860) and the ninth edition of Britannica is that more images are integrated with the text, rather than relying on printing images as separate plates in the back of the book. The eighth edition contains 6 dissertations discussing these subjects to varying degrees: metaphysics, ethical philosophy, Christianity, and math and physical sciences, taking up the entire first volume. These are long pieces of text with no images. The alphabetical entries begin in the second volume because the first volume aims to map knowledge for its readers. In contrast, the ninth edition starts its alphabetical entries in the first volume after the foreword and is visually interesting, utilizing around 6,750 images in total integrated with the text. The number has grown significantly higher than the eighth edition’s 5,200 woodblock prints. An indication that the first edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia influenced the ninth edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica visually is a shift in frequency of certain categories. The highest frequency of images in the Britannica eighth edition, published prior to Chambers, is in the category of mathematics and geometry, while in the ninth edition, illustrated entries with natural history subjects have the highest frequency, more than doubling in number.3

Evolving Illustration Styles and Methods

12Another area that indicates influence of encyclopaedias on each other is in the images themselves. Looking through each of the three sets of encyclopaedias, it is striking that certain types of animals are consistently chosen to be illustrated, particular species that objectively do not seem very remarkable. For instance, a fish like the perch, or a particular species of bird, like the woodpecker. There are four illustrations of woodpeckers found in the three encyclopaedias surveyed:

Figure 2. Four species of woodpeckers across four encyclopaedias. Top left: Green Woodpecker, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 1st edition. Bottom left: Green Woodpecker, Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia. Top right: Californian Woodpecker, Encyclopaedia Britannica, ninth edition. Bottom right: Green Woodpecker, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 2nd edition

Figure 2. Four species of woodpeckers across four encyclopaedias. Top left: Green Woodpecker, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 1st edition. Bottom left: Green Woodpecker, Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia. Top right: Californian Woodpecker, Encyclopaedia Britannica, ninth edition. Bottom right: Green Woodpecker, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 2nd edition
  • 4 ‘Pictorial’ is a term used here to refer to an aesthetic illustration style when the concepts of th (...)

13Note that three of the birds are meant to be depicting the same species. The birds on the left seem to be more pictorial in style, with the background fading into a vignette, which is typical of mid-century illustrations.4 The birds on the right seem to be mimicking the style of photographs. They are carefully framed around the edges and the animal itself is centred in the middle. In terms of accuracy, when comparing these historical images of birds with a contemporary image of the Green Woodpecker species, the Green Woodpecker in the second edition of Chambers seems to be the closest match to a contemporary illustration of an adult male Green Woodpecker as shown on the RSPB website (RSPB 2018). The images all suggest different ways of apprehending and comprehending the bird as a romanticized ‘type’ or an accurately represented species. The last decades of the nineteenth century also herald a change in the visual aesthetics of images. There is a growing desire for verisimilitude and the quality of pictorial images, which appear to look more ‘real’ or scientifically accurate; such representational practices had been influenced by photography, and also signify a change in the technology of printing itself.

  • 5 Electrotypes are created by a process in which wax is pressed against a woodblock or a page of type (...)

14We will now examine four further objects from the W. & R. Chambers Collection at the National Museum of Scotland. They typify nineteenth-century innovation in printing, and are good examples of printing technology artefacts from specific periods in the mid to late nineteenth century. As we shall see, the first edition blocks are fairly uniform in appearance, although they vary in size. The blocks from the first edition were used directly to create prints as part of an integrated printing system with type. On the other hand, the blocks used for the second edition vary in terms of their appearance, their purpose (some were not made to be printed from directly), and in the material from which they were constructed. Some images in the second edition were not printed from woodblocks themselves but from stereotypes or electrotypes, which were mounted on wood. In contrast to many of the woodblocks for Chambers’s Encyclopaedia in the first edition, many of the second edition woodblocks look like they have never been printed and they were presumably used as masters for the creation of stereotype or electrotype copies.5

Figure 3. Gorilla block and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 1st edition.

Figure 3. Gorilla block and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 1st edition.

15Figure 3 shows a type of block that is typically used for the first edition and its printed image. This printed image appears in Volume 5, page 15 under the entry for ‘Gorillas’. The whole area of the block is not used. Instead the wood engraver has cleared away large sections around the image to create a vignette. The marks on the block clearly show that this was done by hand, large sections from the back and sides have been cleared away to create a print that only displays the gorilla with a few lines indicating a tree branch, foliage and ground. Examination of the block itself seems to indicate that a free-handed illustration style was adopted. The textures are built up and lines are cut in a series with different tools in a way to vary their thickness contributing to different shading, especially on the fur of the animal. The shape of the print feels organic and has an open outline that fades to a white background when the image is printed.

Figure 4. Orangutan block and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition

Figure 4. Orangutan block and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition

16Figure 4 is one type of block typically used in the second edition along with its printed image. The print image appears in Volume 7, page 618. The printing surface utilizes the entire block and the edges of the final print are framed, in a manner that indicates an attempt to replicate photography. The image also seems to have been copied from an actual model, either a photograph or a studied specimen, rather than imagined by an artist. Its features seem more realistic and can be compared with modern images of orangutans.

Figure 5. Monkey block and image it printed in Volume 7 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition

Figure 5. Monkey block and image it printed in Volume 7 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition
  • 6 According to an account of the electrotyping process by John Southward, graphite could be brushed o (...)

17Figure 5 is another type of block typically used in the second edition along with its printed image. The print image appears in Volume 7, page 275. As can be seen by comparing block with the print, the faces of the monkeys are outlined, and there is a white background space around them. The block itself shows that the entire printing surface has not been cleared away, as it was not necessary since the image would be printed from a derivative electrotype, rather than being printed from directly, as was the case with Figure 3. It is likely that wax was pressed against the monkey faces to make an impression of them, and at some point, perhaps after the electro-chemical bath, any extra copper surrounding the monkey’s face could just be cut away. It is interesting to note that this block was covered with graphite, suggesting a particular procedure the Chambers firm used to create electrotypes, not necessarily followed by other printers.6

18The image also seems to have been copied from an actual model, either a photograph or a stuffed specimen, rather than imagined by an artist. Its facial features seem as realistic and individualistic as with the previous image of the orangutan.

Figure 6. Touraco electrotype and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition

Figure 6. Touraco electrotype and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition

19In some cases, actual electrotypes or stereotypes of images have been found alongside woodblocks in the W. & R. Chambers collection at the National Museums Scotland, mostly in the category of maps. However, there are a few examples of electrotypes of animals. Figure 6 is an example of an electrotype used in the second edition with its printed image in Volume 10, page 256. The printing surface is used in its entirety and the edges of the final print are framed. Electrotypes such as these are fitted on to a woodblock, and used in the printing process.

  • 7 When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retain water; an oil-based ink is the (...)

20Historically, there are three methods of illustrating printed works: intaglio, relief, and planographic. Intaglio methods include etching and copper or steel engraving, where the image is created on a plate by marks incised into a surface; the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. Dampened paper is placed on the plate covered by a blanket. Very high pressure is applied to the blanket, the paper and the plate, so that the ink is pressed into the paper. In the early nineteenth century, a new method of planographic printing was developed: lithography. The latter relied on the principle of water and oil not mixing: an image was drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic stone or plate, then the surface of the stone was treated with an acid and gum Arabic mixture, allowing the ink to go into the pores of the stone. After the stone has been wet, ink is then applied to the wet surface, where the stone’s drawing lines attract the ink but repel the water.7

21Intaglio and planographic methods usually require separate printing from the main body of a text, but it was copper engraving that was the most common method of illustrating large books in the high end of the book market and especially the much lauded eighteenth-century encyclopaedias. In contrast, illustrations produced by wood engraving and later photo-mechanical methods were more economical for publishers because the relief method of printing allowed woodblocks to be printed together with metal type. Images and text could be published together through integrated relief methods so that text and image were printed at the same time and on the same paper, thus reducing the time it took and the costs of extra labour (Beegan 259).

22These methods were not mutually exclusive, many books such as Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (both first and second editions) and Encyclopaedia Britannica use both integrated and separate processes. Chambers’s Encyclopaedias have numerous fold-out steel engraved, hand-coloured maps prepared by the firms W. H. McFarlane, W. & A. K. Johnson, and Bartholomew (Cooney 1). However, the majority of Chambers book illustrations are produced by wood-engraved blocks that are integrated into the main body of the text.

Some Nineteenth-Century Concepts of Evolution

23In the Romance of Victorian Natural History, Lynn L. Merrill writes that printed works in the nineteenth century reflect two cultures existing side by side: writers lamenting the passing of the classical world and the ‘upstart’ scientists. Natural history, Merrill writes, is the bridge between the two cultures (Merrill 12). More recent scholarship discusses the striking illustrations in books or in cheap guides produced by Rev J. G. Wood (1827–1889) or Philip Gosse (1810–1888) that sparked fashions for collecting natural objects or spotting different species on country walks (Smith 72). Museum exhibitions, where people could interact on both a tactile and visual level, were also common ways for people to consume natural history (Carroll 271), while numerous local natural history societies emerged allowing them to share what they had seen or read (Finnegan 55). The editors of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias would have been aware of the financial rewards of catering to the general public’s interest in learning about natural history, through the use of illustrations and also responding to a public increasingly versed in the art of seeing and the habit of contemplating live or depicted animals.

24Concepts of evolution varied in the nineteenth century. Three of those concepts: natural selection, natural theology, and teleology used a range of illustration and visual representation to discuss different versions of how evolution occurred through time (Bratchell 14–18). Sometimes, images used to illustrate these concepts were subtly different, sometimes much more contrasted. Natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) states that species adapt to their environment; those that have favourable adaptations survive and pass their traits on to their offspring. Natural theology, however, is the belief that God or Providence can be found in the wonder of nature, which is ‘ordered, beautiful, simple, and elective’. Nature provides a way to connect with the divine, to observe the beauty in the plumage of a bird, the clouds over the mountains at sunset, the great trees bending in the wind, and in so doing provides individuals with personal inspiration and proof that God exists. The final concept of teleology is best represented by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s (1744–1829) analogy that nature is like a clock and God is like a clock maker. Clocks are ordered mechanisms designed with a purpose by the clock maker, yet clocks exist independently from their clock maker. Lamarck thought it was important to understand nature, to gain insight into the purpose and function of nature, yet, he concluded that studying nature did not lead to understanding God, a being who existed separately from nature (Bratchell 16). A further tenet of Lamarckism that was highly influential is his belief in the purpose and function of nature. It implies that a species, including humans, can improve their survival and refine their function. This feeds into a widespread cultural notion of progress and self-improvement.

25‘Progress’, born out of the Industrial Revolution, became a specific concept that encapsulated capitalism, separation of church and state, individual rights and universal education (Karnow 1989, 175). In contrast to twentieth-century cultural relativism, progressivism was based on the belief that history was moving in a certain inevitable direction toward a specific goal. All life on Earth, including human societies, developed from a primitive state to a more sophisticated stage. Progressivism enabled an optimistic world-view that allowed late Victorians to identify their species, and their own capitalistic civilization, as the high point of universal development. Not only did these beliefs provide a structure in which to classify the natural world and human societies, it provided them with a moral mandate to judge (by their own standards) ‘others’ who were ‘primitive’. People, creatures, or things which did not measure up to their standards, could be pushed aside or remade in order to make room for further progress (Bowler 14). In some ways there is an appeal to this idea of order in the great universe, but it was historically used as a way to justify colonial expansion into areas that had not progressed like in the West. Progress and self-improvement is also the backbone of the philosophy behind the Chambers firm, which wanted to provide ambitious individuals with material to improve themselves (Fyfe 43). Progress has a dual meaning: ‘moving forward’ and self-betterment. Conceiving of evolution as moving from simplicity to complexity resonated with the ancient idea of the Great Chain of Being and connected Earth to heaven in a seamless progression from minerals to plants, animals, humans, angels and God (Lightman 2014, 295).

26As previously stated, there is a twenty-year gap between both editions of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia. Between the 1st edition and 2nd edition, new entries were added. Some of them directly related to new knowledge. ‘Bacteria’, for instance, was added as a new entry in the 2nd edition as the 1870s saw growth in studies of germ theory. Furthermore, a new entry that does not appear in the first edition of Chambers, although it was published after On the Origin of Species, is ‘Evolution’. The same is true for the Encyclopaedia Britannica. ‘Evolution’ is a new entry in the ninth edition. What is interesting in Chambers is that while ‘Evolution’ was added, there is also a separate entry for ‘Darwinian theory’ (Patrick 1889, 685–90). Both ‘Darwinian theory’ and ‘Evolution’ were written by Patrick Geddess (1854–1932), a Scot, who studied under Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895) at Royal College of Mines (now Imperial College), Chair of botany at University College Dundee. Huxley was called ‘Darwin’s bull dog’, but like Huxley’s other protégés, Geddess did not completely agree with Darwin’s interpretation of natural selection, although he was keen on promoting evolution. Reading through Chambers’s Encyclopaedias entries for both ‘Darwinian theory’ and ‘Evolution’, it seems clear that natural selection is treated as an evolutionary concept on an equal footing with Lamarckism. In fact, in the entry for ‘Darwinian theory’, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia explicitly states: ‘we must be careful to guard against the confusion, still widely popular, of “Evolution” with “Darwinism” . . . one particular interpretation of the mechanism and plot of this cosmic drama’ (Patrick 1889, 685).

27The Encyclopaedia Britannica also treats evolution as a controversial topic and it is not until the 11th edition that a full treatment of the subject is given. It is worth noting that encyclopaedias in general, especially those sold to mass consumers, are fairly conservative documents in the information they contain (Yeo 47). New science and discoveries must be well-established, usually over 10 years or more, before new encyclopaedic entries on the topic are made: the 2nd edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica, for example, avoided any mention of the American Revolution, which was taking place while the Encyclopaedia was being written.

28In Victorian Popularisers of Science, Lightman writes about Robert Chambers’s best-selling book, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, published anonymously in 1844 with John Churchill, a firm known for publishing medical works, as Robert Chambers wanted to avoid a scandal that would harm his family and his business (Lightman 2007, 493). Although never completing a university degree himself, Robert Chambers was an autodidact and a prolific author covering many subjects as diverse as history, biology, biography, and geology. His interest in geology and his research activities with local geological societies spurred an interest in what would be presented in Vestiges as a progressive and cosmic version of evolution, that he termed ‘transmutation’. It was fiercely attacked by the scientists of his day. In Vestiges, Robert Chambers embraced Ernst Haeckel’s belief in recapitulation—that the individual foetus passed in development through all stages of human evolution, and that more developed animals display the individual adult form of lower animals—and extended it to apply to the progress of humans (Chambers 225). During Robert Chambers’s lifetime, there was speculation about his authorship of Vestiges. James Secord provides numerous instances of pointed remarks aimed at Robert Chambers, indicating that contemporaries were familiar with his writing style. They attempted to reveal the true identity of the author of Vestiges (Secord 394–95).

Figure 7. Comparison of embryos in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1889

Figure 7. Comparison of embryos in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1889

29Scientific images travel in a culture, doing different ideological work in different ideological contexts. In Picture Theory, Mitchell says ‘all media are mixed media’, and thus an illustrated text is better conceived not just as a juxtaposition of two media but also as a composite synthetic work, combining image and text (Mitchell 46). Many natural history images found in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia support a progressive view of the universe, an optimistic outlook of self-improvement that reinforces what the text says, especially concerning evolution. For instance, as previously noted, there is an illustration after Huxley in the entry for ‘Anthropoid Apes’, and that image is widely known as ‘The March of Progress’. In another instance, there is a comparative illustration in the entry for ‘Embryo’, in Volume 4, in the second edition (Patrick 1889, 322). [See Figure 7]. Embryos of a fowl, dog and man are shown side by side together in a graphical way where readers can see their similarity and quickly grasp the concept that humankind has advanced further in development than the other two animals.

30In another work of the company, Information for the People, the following passage is quite clear about the philosophy of W. & R. Chambers Company, and the message they hope to impart to their readers:

Man is capable of informing himself; the means of doing this are within his power. If he were truly informed, he would not weep over his follies and errors . . . each generation may improve upon its preceding one, and each individual, in every successive period of time, may better know the true path, from perceiving how others have gone before them. There can be no miracle in this. It will, at best, be a slow progress; and wisdom arrived at in one age must command the respect of the succeeding ones . . . (Chambers and Chambers 1842, 106)

31In addition to scenes of animals progressing in Chambers, in a manner suggesting there is a purposeful destination of the Lamarckian persuasion, some animals are posed in ways that suggest both natural theology and teleology. Smith shows how animals are framed in nineteenth-century illustrations ranging from wood engravings to lithographs; depending on the pose of the animal depicted, the Victorian author or illustrator advocates the particular flavour of evolution to which he or she subscribed. For example, illustrations from John Gould (1804–1881) and Philip Gosse (1810–1888) insisted on young birds being nurtured and fed. Bird couples placed together imply a nuclear family and domestic settings, which Smith says celebrate avian or traditional family values, the visual message that God’s glory is embedded in nature. Smith states that through Gould’s animal illustrations, he ‘implies a world that is tranquil, unspoilt, and made possible by beneficent aristocrats’ (Smith 94). Examples of imagined domestic bliss of birds can be seen in the examples of Figures 8, which shows an eagle family, with a protective parent, feeding its young (Wood 29). Next to the eagle family is ‘Yellow-hammer’ in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 1st edition, perched on its nest.

Figure 8. Left image: Eagle feeding young from Illustrated Natural History, 1859. Right image Yellow-hammer with nest in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 1st edition, 1868

Figure 8. Left image: Eagle feeding young from Illustrated Natural History, 1859. Right image Yellow-hammer with nest in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 1st edition, 1868

32Figure 9 shows a bird couple from Philip Gosse’s Natural History: Birds and next to that is a printed image, whose block was shown earlier, of a ‘Touraco’ couple in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1892. This sedate staging technique allows the male and female of the species to be displayed in a way that shows their unique physical features. However, these images do not display the way a typical bird species interact together in nature (Smith 93). The illustrations and their poses are meant to be pleasing to the eye while displaying a tranquil quality.

Figure 9. Left image: typical bird couple pose in Philip Gosse’s Natural History: Bird. Right image: Touraco couple in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1892

Figure 9. Left image: typical bird couple pose in Philip Gosse’s Natural History: Bird. Right image: Touraco couple in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1892

33Contrast these images with the illustration of the quoll in Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia, which typifies many scenes in this work:

Figure 10. Illustration of a male and female quoll hunting in Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia, 1875

Figure 10. Illustration of a male and female quoll hunting in Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia, 1875

34The illustration is constructed to display the male and female of the species together, in a manner similar to Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, but this animated scene captures the dynamics of a predator and prey relationship. This ‘snapshot in time’ signifies what Herbert Spencer coined as ‘survival of the fittest’. According to Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection, species have some traits that enable them to adapt to environment. In the quoll illustration from Johnson’s there does not necessarily seem to be a greater purpose for life other than for it to continue. This image does not seem to provide the audience of this with a sense of a cosmic plan, unfolding in the universe.

35What these illustrations show is that publishers such as Chambers had a message to promote, not just through their textual content, but also through the images that were chosen for their encyclopaedia. The flavour of evolution they subscribed to worked in union with the philosophy that Chambers embodied—the ideas of Lamarckian progress and self-improvement.

The Rise of the Publisher’s Role in the Nineteenth Century

36‘Issues of selection are prominent in media studies. While the means, methods and extents of selection are contentious, that selection must happen is taken for granted’ (Bhaskar 106). Michael Bhaskar addresses the role of publishing in The Content Machine. He sees publishers doing four things: framing and modelling, filtering and amplifying. His premise for this is that content cannot be uncoupled from publishing. Content must be framed, that is, packaged for distribution and presented to an audience. It is packaged according to a model. ‘Publishers tend to use models not to understand the world, but to do things in it’, such as sell their content (Bhaskar 139). An encyclopaedia is a model for a type of publication that can only exist in a specific time and place according to the technologies and knowledge of that time. When a publisher chooses which model will be followed to frame content, something else must take place. The content will be filtered, or selected, and then amplified through the act of publishing (Bhaskar 121). Bhaskar maintains that his theory of publishing is not limited to just publishing books, but is applicable for musical content, digital content, visual content like art work, and increasingly multimedia content such as games. This theory of publishing can be applied to any time period.

37Encyclopaedias became a type of work published for mass audiences, rather than for the elite involving men of business with little tolerance for late contributors who did not send work in on time, or who went over specified word limits. They had deadlines to meet and managed production in an efficient way in order to keep subscribers happy and to guarantee repeat business. Publishers professionalized and became gatekeepers of information. Many of the printed works of ‘science’ circulated in the nineteenth century because publishers saw a market for natural history. Men of business even published work that was controversial; as publishers today are aware, controversy generates sales. As the ecology of publishing changed in the nineteenth century, the Chambers firm expanded from producing serial tracts to quality reference material. Although the types of material changed, what they produced was consistent with their values and ethos.

  • 8 To find encyclopaedic evidence of authorship of Vestiges that is spelled out explicitly, one must l (...)

38Although Chambers’s Encyclopaedia does not explicitly state anywhere that Robert Chambers is the author of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, there are visual and textual clues in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia that show there is great sympathy for its ethos.8 Chambers’s Encyclopaedia promoted a certain concept of evolution that was consistent with the beliefs of its founders, namely the concept of Lamarckism and Victorian progress. In this way, Chambers filters and amplifies this message and then frames it in the form of entries throughout the encyclopaedic model. In this way, the visual information used in the encyclopaedias was adapted to embrace much wider trends in the Victorian world.

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Bibliographie

Primary Sources

Chambers’s Information for the People, Volume 2. 18. Ed. William and Robert Chambers: Edinburgh, 1842.

Correspondence book. Letter dated 20 April 1897, from Lippincott to Chambers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Collection 3104/10.3, 341. J.B. Lippincott Archives. Unpublished.

Incoming letters from Lippincott’s London Agency, 1895-1936. Letter dated 26 May 1897, from London Agent to Lippincott, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Collection 3104/79.1 J.B. Lippincott Archives. Unpublished.

Notebook containing orders from Edinburgh booksellers for Chambers publications, 1852–59. National Library of Scotland. Deposit 341/428. W. & R. Chambers Archive. Unpublished.

Secondary Sources

Adams, Charles Kendall. Quoll’. Johnson’s Universal Cyclopaedia. New York: Alvin J. Johnson, 1874.

Beegan, Gerry. The Mechanization of the Image: Facsimile, Photography, and Fragmentation in Nineteenth-Century Wood Engraving’. Journal of Design History 8.4 (1995): 257–74.

Belgum, Kirsten. `For the glory of my country: Defining America in Webster’s American Dictionary and Lieber’s Encyclopaedia Americana’. Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 35.3 (2013): 253–74

Bhaskar, Michael. The Content Machine: Towards a Theory of Publishing from the Printing Press to the Digital Network. London: Anthem Publishing Studies, 2013.

Blom, Philipp. Encyclopedie: The Triumph of Reason in an Unreasonable Age. London: Fourth Estate, 2004.

Bowler, Peter J. The Invention of Progress: The Victorians and the Past. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989.

Bratchell, Dennis Frank. The Impact of Darwinism: Text and Commentary Illustrating Nineteenth-Century Religious, Scientific and Literary Attitudes. London: Gower, 1981.

Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge: From the Encyclopedie to Wikipedia. London: Wiley, 2011.

Carlisle, Janice. Picturing Reform in Britain. Cambridge: CUP, 2012.

Carroll, Victoria. ‘Natural history on display: the collection of Charles Waterton’. Science in the Marketplace: Nineteenth-Century Sites and Experiences. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2007.

Chambers, Robert. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. London: John Churchill, 1844.

Collison, Robert. Encyclopaedias: Their History Throughout the Ages: A Bibliographical Guide, with Extensive Historical Notes, to the General Encyclopaedias Issued Throughout the World from 350 B.C. to the Present Day. New York & London: Hafner, 1966.

Cooney, Sondra Miley. ‘Stone and Steam Present the World: Making the Maps of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (1860–1868)’. Material Cultures and the Creation of Knowledge Conference. University of Edinburgh, July 22-24, 2005. Unpublished.

Cowie, Helen. Exhibiting Animals in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Empathy, Education, Entertainment. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Findlater, Andrew. ‘Opium’. Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People. Volume 7. First edition. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1867.

Finnegan, Diarmid A. ‘Natural History Societies in Late Victorian Scotland and the Pursuit of Local Civic Science’. The British Journal for the History of Science 38.1 (2005): 53–72.

Fyfe, Aileen. Steam-Powered Knowledge: William Chambers and the Business of Publishing, 1820-1860. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2012.

Fyfe, Aileen, and Bernard V. Lightman. ‘Science in the Marketplace: An Introduction’. Science in the Marketplace: Nineteenth-Century Sites and Experiences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

Herman, Arthur. The Scottish Enlightenment: The Scots’ Invention of the Modern World. London: Harper Perennial, 2006.

Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines. New York: Ballantine, 1989.

Kavanagh, Nadine. ‘“What Better Advertisement Could Australia Have?” Encyclopaedias and Nation-Building’. National Identities. 12.3 (2010): 237–52.

Kister, Kenneth F. Kister’s Best Encyclopedias: A Comparative Guide to General and Specialized Encyclopedias, 2nd edition. Phoenix: The Oryx Press, 1994.

Levine, George. ‘Paradox: The Art of Scientific Naturalism’. Victorian Scientific Naturalism. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2014.

Lightman, Bernard V. Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2007.

Lightman, Bernard V. ‘The Popularization of Evolution and Victorian Culture’. Evolution and Victorian Culture. 1st edition. Cambridge: CUP, 2014.

Loveland, Jeff. ‘Why Encyclopaedias Got Bigger… and Smaller’. Information and Culture: A Journal of History 47.2 (2012): 233–54. Project MUSE.

Merrill, Lynn. The Romance of Victorian Natural History. Oxford: OUP, 1989.

Mitchell, William John Thomas. Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995.

Patrick, David, ed. ‘Anthropoid Apes’. Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1888. Volume 1.

Patrick, David, ed. ‘Aye-Aye’. Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1888. Volume 1.

Patrick, David, ed. ‘Darwinian Theory’. Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1889. Volume 3.

Patrick, David, ed. ‘Embryo’. Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1889. Volume 4.

Patrick, David, ed. ‘Evolution’. Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1889. Volume 4.

RSPB. ‘Green Woodpecker’. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Wildlife Guide. https://www.rspb.org.uk/birds-and-wildlife/wildlife-guides/bird-a-z/green-woodpecker. Access: 1 July 2018.

Schopflin, Katherine. The Encyclopaedia as a Form of Book. PhD thesis, University College London, 2014.

Secord, James. Victorian Sensation. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2001.

Smith, Jonathan. Charles Darwin and Victorian Visual Culture. Cambridge: CUP, 2006.

Smith, William Robertson, and Thomas Spencer Baynes, eds. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th edition. Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1880–89.

Southward, John. Progress in Printing and the Graphic Arts During the Victorian Era. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton Kent & Co. Ltd, 1897.

Traill, Thomas Stewart, ed. ‘Polynesia.’ Encyclopaedia Britannica. Volume 18. 8th edition. Edinburgh: A & C Black, 1853–60.

Twyman, Michael. ‘The Illustration Revolution’. Cambridge History of the Book in Britain. Cambridge: CUP, 2009.

Wood, Rev. George John. The Illustrated Natural History, Volume 2: Birds. London: Routledge, 1859.

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Annexe

Appendix: Image categories

These are categories in Chambers’s Encyclopaedias, 1st edition.

Figure 11. Number of illustrations per category in the first edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias

Figure 11. Number of illustrations per category in the first edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias

Figure 12. Number of illustrations per category in the second edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias

Figure 12. Number of illustrations per category in the second edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias
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Notes

1 In the early 1830s, the word ‘people’ was understood to mean men of the middle classes. By the 1860s, the term applied to working classes. (Carlise 6).

2 See appendices 1 and 2.

3 Interestingly, while Chambers’s Encyclopaedia and Johnson’s depict animals most commonly with an illustration of the entire animal from an external view, Encyclopaedia Britannica chooses to depict the animals in its entries internally, most commonly viewed through their skeletons. Encyclopaedia Britannica appears to influence Chambers in other subject areas. Between the first edition and the second edition of Chambers, there is a rise in the categories of maps and mathematics, both of these categories nearly double in frequency of images. Maps and mathematics are major categories for Britannica, representing the second and third largest categories of the 9th edition respectively. Wood engraved maps that are integrated with the text represent 11% of the total image in the 9th edition. Mathematics or geometry represent 10%.

4 ‘Pictorial’ is a term used here to refer to an aesthetic illustration style when the concepts of the beautiful, the sublime, and the picturesque were tied to ideas of ‘good taste’ found in visual art, literature, and music. Wood-engraved illustrations produced earlier in the nineteenth century had visual qualities giving an impression that they might be drawn from an artist’s imagination or a romanticized vision of a scene, although the image may actually be based on real objects or settings. For more information and the contrast with facsimile-style illustration, see Beegan 257–74.

5 Electrotypes are created by a process in which wax is pressed against a woodblock or a page of type to create a wax mould. The mould is then covered with graphite, because graphite conducts electricity. Next, the graphite-covered wax mould is attached to an anode, through which flowed an electrical current. The cathode is attached to a sheet of copper. Both wax mould and copper sheet are submerged in a chemical bath of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and an electrical charge is sent through both. The electric current causes copper atoms to leave the plate of copper and ‘grow’ on the surface of the wax mould making an exact copy of the original woodblock or page of type. The copper surface is then backed with type metal and affixed to a block, which will be used for printing. The Metropolitan Museum of Art produced a three-minute video demonstrating this process: https://youtu.be/iTytvWs5nV8. Access: 11/26/18.

6 According to an account of the electrotyping process by John Southward, graphite could be brushed onto the woodblock or metal type before wax was pressed onto it to make an impression, in order to prevent the wax from sticking to its mould (Southward 71).

7 When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retain water; an oil-based ink is then applied and repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet and printed (Gaskell 267).

8 To find encyclopaedic evidence of authorship of Vestiges that is spelled out explicitly, one must look to a different encyclopaedia: Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the 9th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica, which contains biographies, there is an entry for the recently deceased Robert Chambers. While it insists at length to say nobody from the Chambers family had confirmed this information, it does state in the entry for Robert Chambers: ‘His knowledge of geology was one of the principle grounds on which the authorship of the celebrated anonymous work, The Vestiges of Natural Creation, was generally attributed to him’ (Smith and Baynes 1889). From this, we can infer that if information about the author of Vestiges is printed in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the information must have been widely known and taken as fact, by the 1880s.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Table 1. Abridged data from Lightman’s study on bestselling natural history books
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 54k
Titre Figure 1. Aye-aye from Richard Owen’s Monograph on the Aye-aye on the left, compared with Aye-aye on the right found in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia.)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 327k
Titre Table 2. Categories are based on a museum standard CCO, or Cataloguing Cultural Objects, developed by the Getty Research Center. This data standard allows images to be catalogued according to features that can be seen in the images themselves. This standard was applied to all the encyclopaedic images across the books in this study
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-3.png
Fichier image/png, 68k
Titre Table 3. This table shows the ratio of total images and images depicting animals in categories of vertebrate such as mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-4.png
Fichier image/png, 41k
Titre Figure 2. Four species of woodpeckers across four encyclopaedias. Top left: Green Woodpecker, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 1st edition. Bottom left: Green Woodpecker, Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia. Top right: Californian Woodpecker, Encyclopaedia Britannica, ninth edition. Bottom right: Green Woodpecker, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 2nd edition
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-5.png
Fichier image/png, 428k
Titre Figure 3. Gorilla block and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 1st edition.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-6.png
Fichier image/png, 584k
Titre Figure 4. Orangutan block and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-7.png
Fichier image/png, 640k
Titre Figure 5. Monkey block and image it printed in Volume 7 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-8.png
Fichier image/png, 489k
Titre Figure 6. Touraco electrotype and image it printed in Volume 5 of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 616k
Titre Figure 7. Comparison of embryos in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1889
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-10.png
Fichier image/png, 138k
Titre Figure 8. Left image: Eagle feeding young from Illustrated Natural History, 1859. Right image Yellow-hammer with nest in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, 1st edition, 1868
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-11.png
Fichier image/png, 452k
Titre Figure 9. Left image: typical bird couple pose in Philip Gosse’s Natural History: Bird. Right image: Touraco couple in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia 2nd edition, 1892
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-12.png
Fichier image/png, 388k
Titre Figure 10. Illustration of a male and female quoll hunting in Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia, 1875
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,9M
Titre Figure 11. Number of illustrations per category in the first edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-14.png
Fichier image/png, 360k
Titre Figure 12. Number of illustrations per category in the second edition of Chambers’s Encyclopaedias
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cve/docannexe/image/4124/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 125k
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Rose Roberto, « Illustrating Animals and Visualizing Natural History in Chambers’s Encyclopaedias », Cahiers victoriens et édouardiens [En ligne], 88 Automne | 2018, mis en ligne le 01 décembre 2018, consulté le 25 août 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cve/4124 ; DOI : 10.4000/cve.4124

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Auteur

Rose Roberto

Rose Roberto is completing an Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded PhD at the University of Reading in collaboration with National Museums Scotland. Her interdisciplinary research covers 19th-century printing history, visual culture, Victorian illustration, and history of science. An online exhibition related to this article is online at: https://www.nms.ac.uk/chambers. In 2018, Roberto was a visiting lecturer at the University of California, Los Angeles and was jointly awarded an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Short-Term Fellowship by Historical Society of Pennsylvania and the Library Company of Philadelphia. She has written various scholarly articles and books chapters, the most recent in The Edinburgh History of the British and Irish Press, Volume 2: Expansion and Evolution, 1800-1900 published by the Edinburgh University Press. She served as series editor for Art Researchers’ Guides to… different cities published by the Art Libraries Society of the UK & Ireland.
Rose Roberto est doctorante à l’Université de Reading et effectue sa recherche en co-tutelle avec le Musée d’Histoire Naturelle d’Écosse. Sa recherche est interdisciplinaire et elle étudie des domaines variés allant de l’histoire de l’imprimerie au dix-neuvième siècle, à la culture visuelle, l’illustration victorienne et l’histoire des sciences. En complément de l’article ci-dessous, elle a contribué à l’exposition en ligne : https://www.nms.ac.uk/chambers. En 2018, Rose Roberto a été chercheur invitée à l’Université de California (Los Angeles) et a reçu une bourse de recherche conjointe de l’Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Short-Term Fellowship (de la part de la Historical Society of Pennsylvania and the Library Company of Philadelphia). Elle a écrit plusieurs articles et chapitres d’ouvrages dont le plus récent a été publié dans The Edinburgh History of the British and Irish Press, Volume 2: Expansion and Evolution, 1800-1900 édité par Edinburgh University Press. Elle a aussi été coordinatrice dans l’édition d’une série de guides édités par the Art Libraries Society of the UK & Ireland et intitulés : Art Researchers’ Guides to… dédiés à plusieurs villes.

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Cahiers victoriens et édouardiens est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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