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2004
296

Climatic changes driving on floods in the Yangtze Delta, China during 1000-2002

Les changements climatiques et les inondations dans le delta du Yangtze, en Chine de 1000 à 2002
Tong Jiang et Qiang Zhang

Résumés

On dispose pour le delta du Yangtze d’importants recueils de données historiques sur le climat et les inondations. On a traité avec la méthode de Mann-Kendall, les séries pour la fréquence des inondations et l’humidité de 1000 à 1950, et pour les débits de crue et les températures maximales d’été de 1950 à 2002. L’analyse montre que la fréquence des inondations a présenté une tendance négative jusqu’en 1600 et une tendance positive de 1600 à 1950. L’humidité a une tendance positive après 1300, tendance très significative de 1700 à 1800. Les débits de crue et les températures maximales ont une tendance négative avant 1990, positive ensuite.
Les périodes de forte activité solaire et les plus fortes températures de la surface océanique accélèrent la circulation atmosphérique entre océan et continent, et causent une augmentation des précipitations et des risques de crues.

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Texte intégral

This paper is financially supported by the Key project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KZCX3-SW-331), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40271112) and Foundation of Key Laboratory of Flood/Water logging and Wetland Agriculture of Hubei Province. Sino-French Joint Project (PRA E02-07) has funded Chinese scientists to visit to Rouen University to process research data and to finalize this paper. We should extend our thanks to Prof. Chen Jiaqi in Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, for providing valuable instrumental data and part of historical data of climatic changes of the study region.

Introduction

1Climatic warming, flood hazards and their impacts on human society receive increasing attention from governments and public (IPCC, 2001). During recent years, agriculture, industry and even the development of the whole national economy suffered tremendous loss resulting from flood and water logging hazards.

2The Yangtze Delta is densely populated and economically developed. Monsoonal climate, geomorphologic characteristics and human activities inflict floods and water-logging hazards on the Yangtze Delta, hindering the local economic development to a certain degree. With increasing population growth and development of economy, especially under the influences of climatic warming, occurrence of flood hazards has a rapid trend and losses are on increasing. Therefore, understanding principles of flood occurrence is theoretically and practically meaningful for local mitigation and reduction of flood disasters.

3Researches on past climatic changes (An, 1986; James, et al., 2000; Vishwas, et al., 2000; Zhang, et al., 2001a; Zhang, et al., 2001b) are important for knowledge of the past climatic changes. China has abundant historical records and exceptional information of the past climatic changes. This is the valuable historical heritage for the study of the past climatic variations. The importance of the research on the Yangtze Delta lies mainly in the following characteristics :

  • there are relatively complete and long historical records of climatic events and human activities in the study region. Instrumental records of precipitation, temperature and ground-surface runoff between 1950-2002 can be applied to extend the time series of historical records;

  • past research (Zhang, et al., 2002) indicated that the study region is typical in its geomorphologic characteristics and the climatic changes (it will be discussed in more detail in the next section).

4Therefore the research results of this paper, to a certain degree, can serve as a reference for the mitigation and reduction of the flood hazards in the lower Yangtze River. The shaded zone (Fig. 1) is the key pilot region in this paper because the data on temperature, flood discharge, precipitation and historical data are more easily obtained and available for research.

Study region

5The Yangtze Delta (30°N-33°N, 119°E-122°E), located in East China, is characterized by subtropical monsoon climate (Fig. 1). A mixed deciduous and evergreen forest characterizes the vegetation of the region. The mean annual temperature is 15.5°C. In summer, the region is occupied by the Subtropical High and the maximum temperature reaches 28.9°C; in winter, the region is influenced by Mongolia High and the minimum of temperature reaches 3.3 °C. The mean annual precipitation is 1235 mm. Rainfall in summer (June-August) accounts for 40% of the total amount and only 11% occur during winter months (December-February). Climatologically, the region is sensitive and susceptible because it lies along the demarcation between subtropical and temperate climates that divides between significant disparate air masses (Daniel, et al., 1996; Yu, et al., 2000). Thus, it is always linked with maximum floods that mostly result from excess rainfall during summer especially in June and July (the so-called Plum Rainy Season and typhoon-induced excessive precipitation in August) when slow-drifting cold fronts meet with the moist and stable subtropical-derived air mass (Yu et al., 2000). A nearly level plain with an elevation of 2-7 m above sea level covers 75% of the region. This low-lying terrain makes the region vulnerable to floods, maritime tidal natural hazards, etc. The delta is a well-developed area in industry and agriculture and is densely populated. Megapolis like Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, are located in this region. Therefore, research of impacts of climatic changes on floods in the Yangtze Delta is markedly significant in human mitigation and adaptation to flood hazards. The North Yangtze Delta is taken as the key pilot region in this paper, as research materials are relatively easy to be obtained and are available for research.

Data preparation

6Data used in this paper are mainly extracted from historical documentary materials(1000-1950) and instrumental data of precipitation and temperature from local meteorological and hydrological stations (1950-2002). The homogeneity of the data is analysed by calculating the von Neumann ratio (N), the cumulative deviations (Q/n-0.5 and R/n-0.5), and the Bayesian procedures (U and A) (Buishand, 1982; Maniak, 1997). The data sets of all stations which have been used in the present study are homogeneous with a significance beyond the 95% confidence level.

7Based on the annual flood grades in the Yangtze Delta for the last 1000-year period (1000-1950) according to the Atlas of the Flood/Dryness in China for the Last 500-year Period (Atlas, MICMB, 1981) as well as numerous historical flood recordings extracted from local chronicles, we reconstruct the flood series in the Yangtze Delta from 1000 to 1950 (appendix I) according to rational regional flood indices (Table 1). The Chinese Meteorological Science Institute is responsible for the compilation of this atlas (Atlas, MICMB, 1981). The participants involved more than 30 institutions within China. The grades standards of the flood/drought are the following: grade 1 denotes heavy flood; grade 2 denotes flood; grade 3 denotes normal; grade 4 denotes drought and grade 5 denotes heavy drought (Table 1). The instrumental data of flood discharge are the multi-year average discharge of rivers in the Yangtze Delta (1950-2002).

8These materials are collected and classified in detail for research. The number of floods and drought events per 10 years serves as an index of the frequency of floods and drought events (Fig. 2). The humidity parameter is determined by the methods from Zheng Sizhong, et al. (1997) These authors put forward the definition of the humidity parameter (I) as shown in the following equation :

9Where F is the occurrence number of the floods in the study region, and D is the number of drought events. The range of I is between 0~2. If occurrence probability of flood is equal to that of drought events, I=1; If the climate is wet, then I>1, if the climatic condition is dry, I<1. As we all know, historical records themselves have some insufficiencies as far as exactness and completeness are concerned. Here we take these historical records qualitatively as random events and the records offer exact information on past climatic changes.

10The SST climatology index and the mean SST index for the area (4°N - 4°S, 150°W-90°W) are an area average of the corresponding 120 (4×30 boxes) monthly mean SST index and analyzed SST index values, respectively. The SST index data (1950-2002) are from Marine Department Report (Japan Meteorological Agency, 1991). The sunspot data (also with time series for 1950-2002) are obtained from the Belgium astronomical observatory, (2003).

11For expanding the time series of climatic changes, instrumental records of climatic changes are also collected and analyzed. Mann-Kendall analysis (MK) (Kendall, M. G., 1938; Dietz et al., 1981; Hirsch et al., 1984) is performed on these instrumental data to explore the possible principles of climatic changes and its relation to the flood hazards of the study region. The temporal interval of the instrumental data is from 1950 to 2002.

Results

Flood / tidal events and temperature changes

Period from 1000 to 1950

12Fig. 2 demonstrates the connections between flood events, climatic changes and maritime tidal events. 8 frequently-occurring flooding periods are marked a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h in Fig. 2 as 8 shaded zones. We can see that there is a special temporal interval during 1500 and 1800 characterized by a high occurrence frequency of floods, and this period is also the so-called Little Ice Age (Bradley, et al., 1992; Huang, 2000; Yang, et al., 1995). Fig. 2 also shows us that the climatic conditions of the Little Ice Age in the study region are characterized by high humidity and moist (I>1). The arid climatic and wet climatic events occurred alternately. Still larger floods occurred between about 1500-1700, during the transition from the medieval warm interval to the cooler Little Ice Age. The same phenomenon occurred in the upper Mississippi River region (James, 1993).

13It can also be seen from Fig. 2 that occurrence of maritime tidal events and of floods are in good agreement. These 8 shaded zones in Fig. 2 show 8 periods when tidal events and floods occurred almost simultaneously (except in zone a and zone b), therefore it can be said that the maritime tidal events had significant impacts on occurrence of the floods in the Yangtze Delta, rather than the direct and absolute factors. As mentioned above, low-lying terrain made the study region prone to impacts of floods and tidal events. Historical records describing climatic events indicate that part of flood events are the direct result of tidal events. Some historical records like 1335, tidal inundation occurred accompanying floods, many people died (2-grade flood); 1512, July, was windy, tidal inundation occurred. Houses and people were damaged and in inundation in thousands (1-grade flood); 1539, tide level rose rapidly, the depth of the ground surface water is tens of meters, thousands of people died (1-grade flood) and so on. It should be mentioned here that the connections between flood events and tidal inundation are not statistically significant, for the tidal inundation events are not the decisive and one and only causes for the occurrence of flood events. At most, parts of floods are the result of tidal inundation events in the study region and tidal inundation events just serve as one of the causes leading to the occurrence of flood events.

14The reasons of the phenomenon mentioned above, except those of climatic aspects, lie in terrain characteristics. The study region is low-lying with an altitude of 2~2.6m, the Huanghai Sea is east to the region. This low-lying terrain and geographical position made the region susceptible to influences of tropical storm, floods and tidal inundation (Daniel, et al., 1996). Low-lying terrain caused difficult discharge of ground surface water, therefore, excessive precipitation usually results in floods. Fig. 2 demonstrated that drought and flood events usually occurred concurrently. We can see from Fig. 2 that these 8 flooding periods are also drought periods. Another climatic transition usually led to occurrence of floods. Modern meteorological analysis (Shi, 2003) and depositional records (Zhang, et al., 2001b) provide enough evidences for this point.

Period from 1950 to 2002

15Fig. 3 demonstrates the good connections between annual precipitation, flood discharge, SST index and solar activities in certain periods marked by the shaded zones. This is the main reason why the correlations between the sun spot, index of SST, annual precipitation and discharge are not statistically significant. These 3 shaded zones marked in Fig. 3 demonstrate 3 periods characterized by greater flood discharge (it can easily be seen from 4-year moving average curve). And these 3 periods are also characterized by stronger solar activities. Shaded zone marked show a relatively weak solar action compared to two other periods. But the general trends are that the greater flood discharge matches stronger solar activities. Fig. 3 also indicates that these 3 periods also correspond to higher SST index for the area 4°N to 4°S and 150°W to 90°W. What is meaningful, is that these 3 periods (shaded zones) also match the frequently-occurring periods of floods in the lower Yangtze River. Therefore, we can tentatively draw such a conclusion: stronger solar activities and higher SST index gave rise to quicker and stronger hydrological circulation from ocean to continent, resulting in excessive precipitation, which in turn increase the possibility of occurrence of greater floods in the study region.

16Fig. 4 demonstrates correlations between annual precipitation and flood discharge of the Yangtze Delta, showing good linear connections between flood-season discharge and the annual precipitation; the regression fit is high (R2=0.8739), which demonstrates a significant impacts of precipitation on floods in the study region.

MK analysis

MK analysis methods

17In 1963, Lorenz analyzed the nonlinear phenomenon of the convection activity and put forward the famous Lorenz system, explaining the puzzling unpredictable problems under the influences of nonlinear phenomenon. In the 1960s, french mathematician Thom (1972) developed the catstroph theory. In 1970s, the catstroph analysis of climatic changes are prevailing and used widely in research on climatic variation (Fu, 1994; Wei, 1999) and other domains (Lettenmeier, D. P., 1988; Loftis, et al., 1991). In this paper, MK method (Claudia, 2002; Kendall, 1938; Kendall, 1975) will be used to explore the changing features of flood discharge and maximum high summer temperature.

18MK method assumes the times series under research are stable, independent and random with equal possibility distribution. We assume that the time series under study is x1, x2, x3……xn; mi denotes the accumulative total of samples that xi>xj (1 j i), N is the size of the samples.

19Definition of the statistic parameter dk:

20(2 k N)

21On the condition that the original time series is random and independent, free from correlations between items. The variance and the mean of dk are defined as follows:

E[dk]=k(k-1)/4

Var[dk]=k(k-1)(2k+5)/72 (2 k N)

22Under the assumption above, the definition of MK statistics of Z1 is as the following equation shows:

23(k=1, 2, 3 ……n)

24 Where Z1k is the normal distribution, given significance level of a=0.05, when Z1k>U0.05 (U0.05 is the statistic value determined by the significance level of a, U0.05=1.96), the time series are determined to be on a changing trend with the significance of 95%.

25And then the MK analysis will be performed on the time series of the contradictory sequence, namely the time series under study will be: xn, xn-1, ……, x1, and at the same time, making Z1k=-Z2k (k=n, n-1, ……, 1), Z1k=0. Z2k, just like Z1k, is also the MK statistic index.

Flood frequency and humidity changes derived from MK analysis

26Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 show the MK analysis results according to calculation methods above. MK analysis suggests that flood frequency during 1000-1950 has a negative trend before 1600AD (Z1 curve); and a positive trend during 1600-1950, but not at 95 % significance level. Fig. 5 also indicates that the abrupt point of the time series of the flood frequency is at about 1550 (at the >90 % level). Fig. 6 indicates the changing trends of the humidity during 1000-1950 in the Yangtze Delta. It can be seen from Fig. 6 that the humidity has a positive trend after 1300s, and during 1700-1800 this positive trend is at >95 % significance level. The abrupt point of the time series of the humidity changes is at about 1250s. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 demonstrate the close connection between wet climatic conditions and occurrence of floods, corroborating quantitatively the viewpoints mentioned above.

27Fig. 7 shows that the abrupt point of the time series of the annual precipitation changes is in the middle 1960s (passed the test of significance level of 90%). Z1 curve of Fig. 7 demonstrates a negative tendency of the summer precipitation (also passed the test of significance level of 90%). After 1970s however, the annual precipitation change is stable and in balance, and at the early 2000s (after 1990), the changes experience a positive trend. But as seen from the fit line with a negative slope, the general changing trend of annual precipitation is negative. Original annual precipitation curves of Fig. 7 demonstrate a negative trend after 1990s.

28Fig. 8 indicates that the abrupt point of the time series of the maximum summer temperature is at the middle 1990s, the exact time is at about 1993. Z1 curve in Fig. 8 demonstrates that the maximum high summer temperature changes are on a negative trend before 1990s and show a positive tendency after 1990s (the test of significance level of 90% is satisfied). This point is also seen from the 4-year moving average curves in Fig. 8. While the flood discharge changes have a negative trend before 1990s, they have a positive tendency after 1990s; these results indicate that the changing trend of flood discharge matches that of the maximum high summer temperature of the study region. The occurrence probability of the maximum high summer temperatures will be increasing under the climatic warming scenario (James, 2000; Mirza, 2002; Deng, et al., 2000) and which will increase in turn the occurrence probability of the flood events.

Connections between flood-season discharge and annual precipitation, SST index and solar activities

29The SST index curve in the paper is based on the monthly SST index anomalies averaged for the area 4°N to 4°S and 150°W to 90°W. Table 2 shows the Pearson correlations between sun spot, index of SST, annual precipitation and discharge. The statistic significance is determined by the 2-tailed test method. It can be seen from Table 2 that the index of SST and the sun spot are positively correlated with discharge and annual precipitation (but at <99 % level). The correlation between annual precipitation and the discharge is negative and at 99 % level. It can be seen from Table 2 that the flooding seasons are mainly in summer (June, July and August), the flood discharge is in linear connection with annual precipitation, and the precipitation season is in summer, indicating the strong correlation between flood season and precipitation periods. This is also the climatic change characteristics of monsoon climate zone.

Conclusions

30Some conclusions are drawn as follows:

311/ During the Little Ice Age period (1500s-1850s) (Bradley, 1992), with rapid and strong fluctuation of climatic changes, alternately occurring wet and arid climatic conditions are the main factors for frequent flood events. Still larger floods occurred between about 1500-1700, during the transition from the medieval warm interval to the cooler Little Ice Age. The same phenomenon occurred in the case of the upper Mississippi River (James, 1993). Therefore, climatic transition should receive more attention. Low-lying terrain of the study region makes the tidal flood the important factor resulting in flood events. According to historical records and past research results, some flood events are the direct results of tidal flood events. This conclusion may be beneficial for the Yangtze Delta in future mitigation and reduction of flood hazards.

322/ MK analysis results indicate that during 1000-1950 the flood frequency shows a negative trend before 1600AD and a positive trend during 1600-1950, but not at the 95 % significance level. Humidity has a positive trend after 1300s, and during 1700-1800; this positive trend is significant at >95 % level. MK analysis results for flood frequency and humidity demonstrate the close connection between wet climatic conditions and occurrence of floods. MK analysis of annual precipitation indicates that the abrupt point of the annual precipitation is at the 1960s; before the 1990s, the annual precipitation changes demonstrate a the negative trend; after 1990s, the discharge shows a positive trend. MK analysis results for time series of the maximum high summer temperature demonstrate that the abrupt point is at the middle 1990s. The Z1k curve of annual precipitation and maximum high temperature series showed a negative trend before 1990s and positive trend after 1990s. This phenomenon is worthy of attention. Deng, et al. (2000), suggested that climatic warming may lead to high occurrence possibility of maximum high summer temperatures. Based on close connections between changes of the annual precipitation and the maximum high summer temperature, we can see that the occurrence probability of the maximum high summer temperature will be greater under the future climatic warming scenario, which will increase the occurrence possibility of serious summer rainfall. Therefore, the flood controlling is still an arduous systematic engineering to complete under the future climatic warming for the Yangtze Delta.

333/ Pearson correlation analysis indicates that close connections occurred between annual precipitation, flood discharge, SST index and solar activities (but at <99 % level). Therefore, we should attach much attention to the changes of SST index and solar activities, which will be beneficial for possible exact prediction of flood hazards in the future.

Fig. 1 : Geographical location of the Yangtze Delta and the shaded zone is the key pilot study region

Index

Grade

Type

Ri>(+1.17σ)

1

Heavy flood

(+0.33σ)<Ri(+1.17σ)

2

Flood

(-0.33σ)< Ri(+0.33σ)

3

Normal

(-1.77σ)< Ri(-0.33σ)

4

Drought

Ri( -1.77σ)

5

Heavy drought

Table 1 : The flood/dryness grade criteria for instrumental precipitation data (1950-2002) in the Yangtze Delta (Ri is the precipitation in each station in the Yangtze Delta from May to September since 1950; is the multi-year average precipitation; σ is the standard deviation) (MICMB, 1981).

Table 1 : The flood/dryness grade criteria for instrumental precipitation data (1950-2002) in the Yangtze Delta (Ri is the precipitation in each station in the Yangtze Delta from May to September since 1950; R̄ is the multi-year average precipitation; σ is the standard deviation) (MICMB, 1981).

Fig. 2 : Correlation between flood events, tidal events and temperature changes (Wang, 2002) in the Yangtze Delta.

The dashed lines in IV and V part of the figure denote 50-year moving average. The dashed lines in I denote the zero degrees. The shaded zones demonstrate the periods characterized by the higher-frequency floods (the data are listed as the appendix) and its coincidence with climate changes of China (Wang, et al., 2002). The periods with fewer floods are not marked with shaded zones. Data related to the frequency of floods, high maritime tidal events, drought events and humidity conditions are reconstructed according to the annual flood grades in MICMB, 1981.

Fig. 3 : Correlation between flooding discharge, annual precipitation and the sea-surface temperature and solar activities and the flood events in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

The SST index climatology and mean SST index for the area (4°N - 4°S, 150°W-90°W) is an area average of the corresponding 120 (4×30 boxes) monthly mean SST index and analyzed SST index values, respectively (Japan Meteorological Agency, 1991). The sunspot data (also with time series between 1950 and 2002) are obtained from Belgium astronomical observatory, 2003. The sunspot data are the difference values (the average value subtracts from the original value). The instrumental data of flood discharge are the multi-year average discharge of rivers in the Yangtze Delta (1950-2002).

Fig. 4 : Connection between annual precipitation and the flooding discharge during 1950-2002 at a tributary river basin the Yangtze Delta

Fig. 4 : Connection between annual precipitation and the flooding discharge during 1950-2002 at a tributary river basin the Yangtze Delta

Fig. 5 : Mann-Kendall analysis results of the food frequency during 1000-1950 in the Yangtze Delta.

These two dashed lines in the map denote the confidence level of 95%.

Fig. 6 : Mann-Kendall analysis results of the humidity during 1000-1950 in the Yangtze Delta.

These two dashed lines in the map denote the confidence level of 95%.

Fig. 7 : Mann-Kendall analysis results of the annual precipitation during 1950-2002 in the Yangtze Delta.

These two dashed lines in the map denote the confidence level of 95%.

Fig. 8 : Mann-Kendall analysis results of the extreme high summer temperature during 1950-2002 in the Yangtze Delta.

These two dashed lines in the map denote the confidence level of 95%.

Frequency of the floods, drought events, maritime tidal events (Number of natural hazards per ten years) extracted from historical documents and MICMB, 1981.

Year

flood events

drought events

maritime tidal events

1005

1

2

0

1015

0

3

1

1025

4

0

0

1035

0

3

0

1045

0

2

0

1055

0

0

0

1065

1

0

0

1075

0

2

0

1085

2

1

0

1095

1

0

0

1105

1

3

0

1115

3

2

0

1125

0

1

0

1135

1

5

1

1145

0

2

0

1155

2

1

0

1165

0

1

0

1175

0

0

1

1185

0

4

0

1195

2

3

0

1205

5

4

0

1215

1

2

0

1225

1

0

0

1235

0

0

0

1245

0

2

0

1255

0

0

0

1265

0

0

0

1275

0

0

1

1285

2

0

0

1295

2

3

0

1305

1

1

0

1315

0

0

1

1325

1

2

2

1335

0

2

1

1345

0

0

1

1355

0

0

0

1365

0

0

0

1375

0

0

1

1385

1

0

1

1395

0

1

1

1405

1

0

0

1415

1

0

0

1425

0

1

1

1435

1

3

0

1445

4

1

0

1455

4

1

0

1465

2

1

1

1475

1

3

0

1485

0

5

0

1495

1

0

0

1505

0

5

0

1515

2

3

2

1525

3

4

1

1535

2

3

1

1545

2

2

0

1555

4

4

0

1565

7

1

0

1575

9

0

0

1585

4

2

2

1595

6

0

0

1605

3

1

0

1615

4

4

0

1625

3

2

0

1635

4

6

0

1645

1

3

1

1655

2

5

1

1665

3

1

3

1675

7

2

0

1685

1

1

0

1695

4

0

0

1705

3

1

0

1715

3

3

0

1725

0

1

2

1735

4

1

3

1745

4

1

1

1755

3

2

2

1765

1

1

0

1775

1

3

1

1785

1

5

0

1795

0

1

3

1805

1

7

3

1815

2

3

0

1825

3

1

0

1835

5

2

0

1845

2

1

1

1855

1

3

2

1865

1

2

1

1875

1

5

0

1885

2

1

1

1895

0

3

0

1905

4

0

0

1915

3

2

0

1925

1

4

0

1935

1

3

0

1945

1

0

0

1950

2

0

3

1955

1

1

1

1960

1

1

0

1965

2

2

0

1970

2

3

0

1975

2

2

0

1980

2

2

1

1985

2

3

1

1990

0

2

1

1995

2

3

1

2000

4

2

2

Table 2 : Pearson correlation between Index of SST, Sun spot, Annual precipitation and discharge (1950-2002).

The significance is determined by the two-tailed significance test method (at the 99 % level).

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Titre Table 1 : The flood/dryness grade criteria for instrumental precipitation data (1950-2002) in the Yangtze Delta (Ri is the precipitation in each station in the Yangtze Delta from May to September since 1950; is the multi-year average precipitation; σ is the standard deviation) (MICMB, 1981).
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Titre Fig. 4 : Connection between annual precipitation and the flooding discharge during 1950-2002 at a tributary river basin the Yangtze Delta
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Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Tong Jiang et Qiang Zhang, « Climatic changes driving on floods in the Yangtze Delta, China during 1000-2002 », Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography [En ligne], Environnement, Nature, Paysage, document 296, mis en ligne le 20 décembre 2004, consulté le 04 décembre 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/2823 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/cybergeo.2823

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Auteurs

Tong Jiang

Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China;
Key Laboratory of Flood/Water logging and Wetland Agriculture of Hubei Province, Jingzhou, 434025, China.

Qiang Zhang

Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China;
Key Laboratory of Flood/Water logging and Wetland Agriculture of Hubei Province, Jingzhou, 434025, China.

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