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Cyprien Richer, Etienne Come, Mohamed Khalil El Mahrsi et Latifa Oukhellou. La mobilité intermodale par les données billettiques. Analyses spatio-temporelles du réseau bus-métro de Rennes Métropole

1Article 854

2Title in English

3Intermodal mobility analysis with smart-card data. Spatio-temporal analysis of the bus-metro network of Rennes metropole

4Abstract in English

5This paper aims to analyse the intermodal practices of mobility in the bus-metro network of Rennes metropole. Intermodality being strongly linked to the use of urban public transport networks, the Rennes Métropole bus and metro network data provided by Keolis-Rennes provides a very significant part of daily intermodality. To compensate for the lack of information on destinations and correspondances in the ticketing data a reconstruction of trips was made on the basis of hypotheses provided by the literature. The research carried out in the "Mobilletic" project considerably deepened the understanding of the temporal and spatial dimensions of intermodal mobility within Rennes Métropole’s urban public transport network.

6Title in Chinese

7通过智能公交卡分析多式联运——雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络的时空模型分析

8Abstract in Chinese

9本论文旨在分析研究雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络的多式联运。由于联运需要充分利用城市公共交通系统,由法国凯奥雷斯集团(雷恩)提供的雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络运行数据包含非常重要的日常联运数据。尽管智能卡数据不能提供行程目的地和换乘信息,我们在由文献得出的假设的基础上重构了行程和目的地的模型。雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络多式联运的时空分析在学术上具有重要的意义,"Mobilletic"研究项目增强了我们对该研究领域的理解和分析。

Aurélien Martineau et Mathilde Plard. Les personnes âgées immigrées à l’épreuve du Successful Aging

10Revue de littérature sur les conditions de vieillissement des migrants âgés en France

11Article 853

12Title in English

13Are elderly immigrants meeting the challenges of successful aging? Review of literature on the aging of elderly migrants in France

14Abstract in English

15Since the mid-20th century, scientists have constantly examined the conditions for healthy aging. Successful Aging as a paradigm has gradually spread far beyond the scientific sphere. Access to « successful-aging » has become a collective purpose as a policy reference in our contemporary societies. As people get older in their host country, immigrants have to conform to the dominant gerontological models. Therefore, the « success » of elderly migrants’ aging in France represents a political and public health objective. This article aims at examining the links between migration and aging in order to better understand the social and spatial issues associated with the elderly immigrants « successful-aging » in France. To deal with this problem, a literature review on the aging conditions of immigrants in France (based on a corpus of 75 references) was completed. This article combines the results of this state of the art by analyzing the situations of elderly migrants through two of the main components of Successful Aging (1. Their health status and 2. Their social networks and commitment in social life)). The results demonstrate that the « success » of aging is more complex for elderly migrants compared to the normative ideal of « successful-aging ». While it is necessary to avoid a generalized view of their situations, the living conditions in France and the discontinuities encountered expose some of these groups to significant difficulties in old age. Research in geography is necessary to spatialize the different aging experiences of immigrants within their own territories.

16Title in Chinese

17老年移民面临“成功老化”的挑战?关于法国老年外来移民老龄化情况的文献综述

18Abstract in Chinese

19自从20世纪中期以来,科学家持续地进行了关于健康老化的研究。成功老化作为一种范式自从传播至科研之外的领域。普及“成功老化”因此也成为了当代社会的政策目标。移民在其所生活的国家逐渐步入老年,他们的老化过程也必须适应该国的老化模式。因此移民的成功老化成为法国的政治目标和公共健康的重要议题。本文旨在探索移民与老化之间的联系,从而加深关于移民“成功老化”的社会与空间要素的理解。针对该问题本文完成了一份关于法国移民老化的文献综述(基于75份参考文献)。本文总结了当前的研究成果,并从“成功老化”的两个基本点进行分析 (1.他们的健康状况;2.他们的社交网络与参与社交活动的状况)。研究结论证明移民的成功老化较之规范性的成功老化理想状况远为复杂。我们应该避免对移民老化的一种普遍化的认识,在法的生活状况与移民群体日常经历的不连续性使他们在老年时遇到相当多的困难。地理学科在该领域的研究当中必不可少,因为地理学能为我们提供一种空间的视角,从空间的角度分析移民在他们所在的区域的迥异的老化经历。

Jose Maria Feria Toribio, Gwendoline De Oliveira Neves et Claudia Hurtado Rodriguez. Une méthode pour la délimitation des aires métropolitaines. Application au système urbain espagnol

20Article 852

21Title in English

22A methodological essay for the definition of Spanish metropolitan areas

23Abstract in English

24This paper presents a detailed methodological proposal for the definition of Spanish metropolitan areas. The methodology is based upon a key variable, commuting, which is highly used internationally, and it is applied to 2011 census data. The contribution of the article deals with two questions : firstly, the explanation and detailed discussion of all the steps and decisions taken in the delimitation process, and secondly, a comparison between the results obtained and those produced by the delimitation of the OECD and the INE-Urban Audit. The conclusions demonstrate both the robustness of the methodological process adopted for delimiting metropolitan areas and the need to add morphological data in order to consider the new forms and organization of contemporary metropolitan areas.

25Title in Chinese

26方法论——定义西班牙都市圈

27Abstract in Chinese

28本文具体提出定义西班牙都市圈的一种方法。该方法论建立在通勤状况这一关键的变量上。通勤状况被国际学术界广泛采用作为界定都市圈的切入点,这一方法也适用于2011年西班牙的普查数据。本文的主要贡献在于解决了两个问题:首先,本文解释了界定都市圈过程当中的所有步骤和所做的选择;其次,本文比较了由该方法得出的结论和由OECD和INE-Urban Audit所做出的界定。结论证明了本文所提出的定义方法具有稳健性,另外本文也指出该方法仍需纳入形态学数据从而能够补充完善当代都市圈的新的型态和组织方式。

Nicolas Verdier et Ludovic Chalonge. La question des échelles en géohistoire. Les bureaux de la poste aux lettres du XVIIIe siècle à nos jours

29Article 851

30Title in English

31The issue of scales in geohistory. Post offices from the 18th century to the present day

32Abstract in English

33Starting from a practice of research that has been going back for years on the question of the use of scales in geohistorical works, this text offers a reflection on the plays of scale, as well as on the question of the MAUP (modifiable areal unit problem). By studying the history of the distribution of post offices in France during the last three centuries, it is a question of trying to place the questioning on the scale at the same level as those relating to space and time when studying social facts. In this framework, we offer to go through the idea of “scalable scalar profiles”, not only to insist on the necessary variations of scale in the analysis of spatio-temporal phenomena, but also to try to define evolutionary spatial templates to enable the widest possible understanding of processes.

34Title in Chinese

35从 18世纪至今的邮局看地史学中的尺度问题

36Abstract in Chinese

37有关地史学中的尺度问题的研究已开展了多年,本文回顾了在地史学中尺度这一概念的运用以及可调整地区单元问题(MAUP)。要研究法国过去三个世纪以来邮局分布的历史,一个重要的问题是要将尺度放置于与空间和时间同等重要的地位,从而能更好地反映社会现实。在此框架下,我们检验了“可缩放尺度模型 (scalable scalar profiles)”,本文不仅坚持在分析时空现象时运用不同的尺度,并且我们尝试运用开创性的空间模板从而提供对过程的更全面的理解。

Farid Rahal, Zahra Hadjou, Nadège Blond et Rahim Aguejdad. Croissance urbaine, mobilité et émissions de polluants atmosphériques dans la région d’Oran, Algérie

38Article 850

39Title in English

40Urban Growth, Mobility and Emissions of Air Pollutants in the Oran Region, Algeria

41Abstract in English

42Urbanism and mobility strongly constrain present and future environmental conditions in large urban centers. The disorganized expansion of Algerian cities now creates multiple risks related to the transport sector. Air pollution is one of those risks.
The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for assessing air pollutant emissions from road traffic. The methodology is based on a coupling between GIS and deterministic modeling to better represent the spatio-temporal distribution of emissions.
It is applied to the city of Oran in Algeria, which shows that the growth of the urban fabric, and in particular its peripheral spreading over the period 1966-2015, has led to a transfer of population from the city center to the peripheral poles of Bir El Djir, Es Sénia and Sidi Chahmi. This spread is confirmed by the study of a chronological series of satellite images.
This evolution of the urban form generates a greater need for mobility and aggravates the circulation and congestion problems of fossil-fueled vehicles that are sources of significant polluting emissions whose negative impact on health and environment is no longer to prove.
The implementation of a pollutant emissions cadastre is an essential step in order to evaluate the air quality in the Oran region. These emissions are here quantified in time and space thanks to the application of the EMISENS model, based on vehicle counts.
Given the evolution of the urban fabric and transport, these emissions should continue to increase because of the mobility needs induced by the uninterrupted spread of the city and by the high attractiveness of the city center to the Oran agglomeration citizens.

43Title in Chinese

44阿尔及利亚奥兰地区的城市增长,交通和大气污染物排放

45Abstract in Chinese

46城市化与交通极大地限制了大都市当今与未来的环境状况。阿尔及利亚城市的无序扩张造成了与交通相关的许多风险。其中空气污染是较为突出的一个。此项研究的目的是建立一套评估交通污染的方法 。为更好地呈现污染排放的时空分布,该方法结合地理信息系统(GIS)与确定性建模(deterministic modeling)。

47本文将该方法运用于阿尔及利亚奥兰地区,结果显示奥兰地区城市增长,尤其是1966年至2015年间城市边际的扩张已经使城市人口逐渐从中心城区转移至城市边缘的Bir El Djir, Es Sénia 和 Sidi Chahmi。通过对一系列不同时序的卫星图片的研究进一步证实了这一人口转移。

48城市形态的转变带来了对交通的需求,也恶化了机动车的拥堵问题。而这些使用化石燃料的机动车是空气污染物的主要来源,它们所造成的空气污染对人体和环境的危害无需赘述。

49污染排放物地籍的实施是评估奥兰地区空气质量的重要的举措。基于机动车数据的EMISENS模型从时间有空间两个角度量化了污染排放。

50基于城市结构与交通状况的转变,一方面持续扩张的城市带来新的交通需求,另一方面奥兰的中心城区保持其对居民的吸引力,由此可见奥兰地区的污染排放将持续上升。

Virginie Mobillion. Idéologie et pouvoirs en République Démocratique Populaire Lao. Enseignements tirés d’une lecture géographique du système de soins

51Article 849

52Title in English

53Ideology and powers in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Lessons from a geographical reading of the health-care system

54Abstract in English

55Since 1975, Laos is a People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R) with a socialist political line while also using authoritarian practices. This political regime is distinct by its opening to a market economy in the early 1980s. In this context, we consider ways of coexisting and potential links between authoritarianism, socialism and economic liberalization. The article offers to study this issue in Vientiane, the political and economic capital, through the analysis of the health-care system. As a state apparatus and a permeable device to political and economic developments, the health care system is able to reveal the power and expectations of the political sphere and the relationships between public and private actors. The proposed geographical approach is based on two complementary analyses: on one hand the development of the health-care system (public, private, traditional) as it was conceived and framed in the capital city, and on the other hand the spatial organization of health care provision and planning. A short socialist period providing for the development and the supervision of a large network of care is opposed to a rapid and liberal economic shift, in which the public care system is neglected by public authorities and private providers serving their own interests and by the same token the legitimacy of the leaders.

56Title in Chinese

57从医疗系统的地理分布看老挝人民民主共和国的意识形态与权力关系 

58Abstract in Chinese

59自1975年以来,老挝人民民主共和国结合了社会主义的政治传统与威权注意的政治实践。1980年老挝向市场经济转型之后,其政治体系凸显了其独特性。在这一背景之下,我们思考威权主义,社会主义和经济自由化是否能够共存,以及他们之间的潜在联系。本文通过研究老挝的政治与经济首都万象的医疗系统为此研究问题提供一个独特的视角。作为国家机器的重要组成部分,医疗系统受到政治与经济发展的渗透与影响,因此对医疗系统的研究也能揭示政治领域的权力结构和既定目标,以及公共部门与私营部门之间的关系。本文所提出的地理学方法基于两种分析方法:一方面分析医疗体系(公共的,私营的,传统的)的发展是如何被设计以适应首都的状况的,另一方面分析医疗服务的提供与规划的空间组织形式。本文将社会主义时期与之后的自由经济转型期相对照。在较短的一段社会主义时期,政府发展了大规模的医疗系统网络,而在经济转型期政府忽视公共医疗体系的发展,而私营医疗服务机构以逐利为主要目标,由此削弱了政治领导者的公信力。

Frédéric Roulier. Une adaptation de la régression bidimensionnelle aux polygones : un exemple en cognition spatiale

60Article 848

61Title in English

62One way of adapting bidimensional regression to polygons: an example with spatial cognition

63Abstract in English

64Bidimensional regression is a statistical method used to compare two surfaces. It is based on the adjustment of the positions of two clouds of homologous points structuring the two surfaces to compare. The results of the bidimensional regression only concern the clouds of points in question. The article presents a method to extend the results to polygons, especially in a mapping context. For this purpose, it complements the bidimensional regression by two successive interpolations. To illustrate its possibilities, the method is applied to the mapping of cognitive representations of forest fragments in Thiérache (France).

65Title in Chinese

66改进二维回归分析使试用与多边形的一种方法一个有关空间认知的例子

67Abstract in Chinese

68二维回归是一种比较两个平面的统计学方法。该方法调整两个由星云状的点组成的平面进行比较。二维回归的结果只涉及了组成平面的点。本文介绍了一种将结果扩展到多边形的方法,尤其能够被用于制图的过程中。 为此,它通过两个连续的插值来补充二维回归。 为了说明其可行性,本文应用该方法绘制了Thiérache(法国)的森林碎片化的认知表征(cognitive representation)。

Manuel Fuenzalida, Santiago Linares et Victor Cobs. Intra-territorial inequalities in children’s hospital admissions in the Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile

69Article 845

70Abstract in English

71This paper aims to unveil the behavior of inequalities in health among the children population according to socioeconomic groups living in the same territory. The main purpose of the research is to determine if hospital admissions for respiratory diseases present evidence of unequal effects on morbidity of the resident population in the municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile (MAS). The entropy index is used in order to present socio-spatial inequalities, proportional differences between mutually exclusive groups, and redistribution potential. Simultaneous observation of the spatial distribution of multiple socioeconomic groups within a territory provides a new lens for approaching the recent studies of inequality in the MAS, and allows to overcome an analysis based only on two antagonistic groups.

72The main findings show inequality of health damage in residents of different municipalities in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile. The data shows how the place of residence influences the health inequalities experienced, finding the following configurations: territorial balance; territorial imbalance; territorial inequality; extreme territorial inequality. The differences found in the proportionality of hospital admissions, according to the socioeconomic group do not follow a uniform trend in favor of least vulnerable groups.

73Title in Chinese

74智利圣地亚哥都市区区域内儿童入院的不平等现象

75Abstract in Chinese

76本文旨在根据居住在同一地区的社会经济群体揭示儿童人口中健康状况不平等的现象。该研究以智利圣地亚哥都市区Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile, MAS为研究样本主要目的是确定呼吸道疾病的住院记录是否反映了不同城市居民人口中病况的不平等现象。熵指数用于表示社会与地域的不平等互斥群体之间的比例差异以及再分配潜力。

77同时观察一个区域内多个社会经济群体的空间分布为圣地亚哥的不平等研究提供了新的视角并且能够克服仅基于两个拮抗群体的分析。

78主要调查结果显示,智利圣地亚哥都市区下辖的不同城市的居民健康状况存在不平等。数据显示居住地如何影响了健康状况的不平等,显示出以下特征:地域平衡; 地域不平衡; 地域不平等;极端的地域不平等。根据社会经济群体的不同,医院入院比例存在差异,但弱势群体并非总是最容易入院的人群。

Vinicius M. Netto, João Vitor Meirelles, Maíra Pinheiro et Henrique Lorea. A temporal geography of encounters

79Article 844

80Abstract in English

81Integrating social and spatial networks will be critical to new approaches to cities as systems of interaction. In this paper, we focus on the spatial and temporal conditions of encounters as a key condition for the formation of social networks. Drawing on classic approaches such as Freeman’s concept of segregation as ‘restriction on contact’, Hägerstrand’s time-geography, and recent explorations of social media locational data, we analysed the space-time structure of potential encounters latent in the urban trajectories of people with different income levels in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This approach allows us to estimate trajectories examining spatiotemporal positions in tweets, and assess spaces of potential encounter and levels of social diversity on the streets. Finally, we discuss the utility and limitations of an approach developed to grasp how clusters of encounters between groups with different income levels are produced.

82Title in Chinese

83相遇encounters的时间地理研究

84Abstract in Chinese

85在城市作为互动系统的新方法中整合社会和地域网络对于城市至关重要。 在本文中我们将重点放在个体间相遇encounters的空间和时间条件上作为社交网络形成的关键条件。 本文建立在一些经典的研究方法例如弗里曼 (Freeman)将社会隔离定义为接触限制 restriction on contactHägerstrand的时间地理以及近来对社交媒体位置数据的研究。我们分析了巴西里约热内卢的不同收入水平人群在城市轨迹中相遇的时空结构。 这种方法使我们能够估计推文中时空位置的轨迹,并评估不同个体在城市中相遇的空间性,和社会多样性的水平。 最后,我们讨论了一种方法的效用和局限性,该方法用于研究不同收入水平的群体之间如何产生稳定的相遇群系(clusters of encounters)。

Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch, Olivier Ninot et Emma Thébault. Watch this space! A Visual Essay on vacant land in Cape Town

86Article 843

87Abstract in English

88Vacant land has recently mostly attracted interest for its ecological and social importance, or its planning possibilities. In this paper, we investigate vacant land in a fast-growing city in an emerging country, namely Cape Town in South Africa. In so doing, we are also pleading for vacant land to be taken seriously as a theoretical notion. When investigating urban fragmentation, we need to examine what lies (and happens) between the urban splinters. We therefore use the Cape Town case as a lens to propose a working definition of vacant land (as space out of place that disrupts the urban fabric and its logic) and visual methods with which to approach it.

89Title in Chinese

90小心这个地方开普敦空置土地的可视化论文

91Abstract in Chinese

92近来空置土地引起了人们的兴趣其生态和社会重要性以及其规划可能性受到很多关注。 在本文中我们研究了新兴国家的处于快速发展中的城市即南非的开普敦的空置土地的状况。我们强调空置土地作为理论概念的重要性。 在研究城市碎片化时,我们需要检验城市碎片之间的存在(和发生的事)。 因此,开普敦案例为我们提供了一个视角,我们在此基础上提出空置土地的定义(错置了的扰乱城市结构及其逻辑的空间)和理解它的视觉方法。

Sébastien Larrue, Julien Chadeyron et Frédéric Faucon. Quelles origines à l’asylvatisme des îles volcaniques australes Crozet et Saint-Paul (Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises, océan Indien) ?

93Title in English

94How to explain naturally treeless islands of Crozet and Saint-Paul (French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Indian Ocean)?

95Article 842

96Abstract in English

97The subantarctic volcanic islands of Crozet and Saint-Paul have no indigenous trees or shrubs. This absence is all the more surprising as some southern islands in the Furious 50s have native woody species. Is the "insular context" of the Crozet and Saint-Paul islands at the origin of the phenomenon?

98We examined eight geographical factors that can influence the number of woody species on 26 subantarctic volcanic islands including Crozet and Saint-Paul. Our results show that the average annual temperature explains 23.7% of the variance in the number of woody plants on the islands studied. The absence of trees and shrubs on the Crozet Islands is partly linked to annual temperatures below 6°C. However, the dispersal capacities of southern woody species and the difficulty for seeds to reach these islands also seems to play a fundamental role. The Main Component Analysis (MCA) shows that the insular context of Saint-Paul does not differ from islands with indigenous woody species. The asylvatism of Saint-Paul cannot be explained by the specificity of its insular context. Shrubs were observed there in 1626 and 1633, but volcanic activity at the end of the 17th century seems to have eliminated native woody plants on Saint-Paul island before the first botanical surveys were carried out.

99Title in Chinese

100如何解圣保罗(Saint-Paul)和克罗泽特(Crozet南半球和法署南极地区,印度洋)的自然无树岛屿?

101Abstract in Chinese

102亚南极火山岛圣保群岛Saint-Paul)和克罗泽特群岛Crozet上没有原生树木或灌木。考虑到在“愤怒的50年代”一些南部岛屿有原生木本植物,因而原生树木在这两个群岛上的缺位就更加令人惊讶了。克罗泽特群岛和圣保罗群岛“与世隔绝” 的状况是否能解释这一现象的起源?

103我们研究了对包括克罗泽特群岛和圣保罗群岛在内的26个亚南极火山岛上的木本植物数量产生影响的8个地理因素。我们的研究结果表明,年平均温度解释了所研究岛屿上木本植物的23.7%的数量变化。 克罗泽特群岛没有树木和灌木,一定程度上与年均气温低于6°C有关。然而,南方木本植物的扩散能力和其种子到达这些岛屿的难度似乎也起着很关键的作用。主要成分分析(MCA)表明,圣保罗群岛的隔绝状况和其他有原生木本植物分布的岛屿并无区别。圣保罗无原生木本植物的状况无法由其特殊的隔绝状况来解释。1626年和1633年在圣保罗曾观察到灌木,但在进行第一次植物调研之前,17世纪晚期的火山活动可能已摧毁圣保罗的原生木本植物。

Antoine Fleury. Les périurbains et leurs espaces publics : enquête sur les franges nord de la métropole parisienne

104Title in English

105Suburbanites and public spaces. A survey on the Northern fringes of Paris

106Article 841

107Abstract in English

108Peri urban areas are often viewed as spaces without city life due to a lack of public space. However, a lot of recent studies show that these areas are increasingly diverse and tend to become spaces of social practices. Based on a survey in the Northern fringes of the Parisian metropolis, this article analyses the inhabitant’s practices and representations in order to identify spaces which they use as public spaces, at some point or another. It presents the various types of practiced public spaces, both in terms of form and in terms of public interaction, and points out social differences in using public spaces. To summarize, the article shows that suburbanites in the Northern fringes of Paris use and visit diversified public spaces, according to practices and representations that combine, and at times oppose, geographical proximity versus distance, city versus countryside, quest of ‘nature’ versus ‘otherness’.

109Title in Chinese

110郊区居民与郊区的公共空间 巴黎北部边缘地区的一项调研

111Abstract in Chinese

112由于缺乏公共空间城市周边地区通常被认为没有城市生活。 然而最近的许多研究表明这些领域越来越多样化正在成为社会活动的空间。 根据巴黎大都市北部边缘地区的一项调查本文分析居民的活动和感知从而鉴别出在不同时间点被他们用作公共空间的空间。本文呈现了在形式和公共互动等方面各异的多种类型的公共空间并指出了使用公共空间的社会差异。 总而言之本文显示巴黎北部的郊区居民使用和访问多元化的公共空间。而公共空间的实践和感知有时使地理距离上的邻近与疏远,城市与乡村,“自然”与“他者”等相互对立,然而更多的时候是使其相互结合。

Beatriz Fernández Agueda. La fabrique politique et territoriale du Grand Madrid (1900-1939)

113Article 840

114Title in English

115The political and territorial fabric of the Greater Madrid (1900-1939)

116Abstract in English

117During the first decades of the 20th century, Madrid underwent crucial socio-economic and spatial transformations which reinforced its metropolitan role. These new dynamics coexisted and came into friction with the symbolic and political functions of the national capital. This paper aims to examine the double and sometimes conflictual role of Madrid as a historical capital and an emergent metropolis. The first section focuses on the study of these urban transformations in order to better comprehend the simultaneous process of metropolitan formation and of capital assertion. The second section deals with the spatial and political projects for Madrid of Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939). Furthermore, the diffusion at the national level of the notion of Greater Madrid, which had only been employed till the 1930s by local actors, will be discusses.

118Title in Chinese

119大马德里的政治和区域结构1900-1939

120Abstract in Chinese
20世纪的前几十年马德里历经重要的社会经济和空间的变革这增强了其作为大都市的作用。 这些新的活力与其国家首都的象征和政治功能共存并也发生了冲突和摩擦。 本文旨在研究马德里作为历史首都和新兴大都市的双重角色而这双重角色很多时候是相互冲突的。 本文第一部分重点研究城市转型的过程以便更好地理解两个同时进行的过程马德里大都市的形成与确立其国家首都地位的过程。 第二部分研究第二西班牙共和国1931-1939马德里的空间和政治。 此外本文还将讨论在国家层面推广大马德里概念的问题该概念在20世纪30年代之前都仅被地方所使用。

Atika Benazzouz-Belhai et Nadia Djelal. Les résidences fermées dans les périphéries d’Alger, produits d’un impératif sécuritaire et de disparités sociales

121Article 839

122Title in English

123Gated communities in the suburbs of Algiers, products of social disparities and a security imperative

124Abstract in English

125This research aims primarily to give persuasive highlights on the context causing the proliferation of closed and secure residences, in Algiers-city, and therefore to identify their specific characteristics. The insecurity and the political unrest incurred in Algeria, and in a particular way in Algiers and its suburbs areas, during a decade between 1988 and 1997 were mainly responsible of the development of these gated communities. However, the housing crisis and the important programs of property developers are at the origin of their significant evolution and their spread out to other prefectures of Algeria. Nowadays, living in luxurious residences is a sign of belonging to a certain social rank. These communities are often criticized for being an indication of rampant social segregation and sometimes carrier of germs of spatial inequality.

126Title in Chinese

127阿尔及尔郊区的封闭式社区(gated community),社会差异和安全需求的产物

128Abstract in Chinese

129这项研究的主要目的是为阿尔及尔市的封闭和安全住宅的扩散提供有力的解释从而确定其具体特征。 1988年至1997年的十年期间阿尔及利全国的不安全环境和政治动荡以及阿尔及尔市及其郊区的特殊性是这些封闭式社区发展扩散的主要原因。 然而房地产危机和房地产开发商的重要项目是封闭式社区的重大演变的根源也导致了其扩散到阿尔及利亚的其他省份。 如今居住在豪华住宅中是某种社会地位的标志。 这些社区经常被批评为是不受限制的社会隔离的表征更有时承载了空间不平等的毒瘤。

Victor Piganiol. Instagram, outil du géographe ?

130Abstract in English

131The article raises the question of the usefulness, or lack thereof, of a social network for sharing photographs and videos in class. Instagram is indeed a global platform that is ubiquitous in the daily lives of teenagers. Every day millions of pictures are posted from anywhere on the planet. These are resources that can potentially be mobilized by a teacher. But Instagram is not just that. What is geographical about the social network and its use and daily practice ? The latter raises many questions, including that of the relationship to the space held by the individuals who use it, as well as the impression of a certain form of a-spatiality.

132Title in Chinese

133Instagram可以作为地理学的工具吗?

134Abstract in Chinese

135本文提出了一个问题在课堂上分享照片和视频形成的社交网络是否有用。 Instagram确实是在青少年日常生活中无处不在的一个全球性平台。 每天都有数百万张照片分享它们可能来自地球上的任何地方。 这些资源可以被教师利用起来。 Instagram的潜力不仅如此。社交网络及其使用和日常实践中什么是地理的 后者引出了许多问题包括社交网络与其使用者所持有空间的关系以及某种形式的去空间性a-spatiality

Dante Flavio da Costa Reis Junior. A historiography of Brazilian theoretical and quantitative geography: The “Rio Claro case”, from flourishing to fall

136Article 837

137Abstract in English

138Based on the assumption that, in local contexts, scientific progress may manifest differently, this article aims to present to the European community of geographers aspects of the so-called « neo-positivist geography » in Brazil. In the 1970s, one institution was emblematic, acting as sounding board for the pragmatic and scientific thinking of the Theoretical and Quantitative Geography in the country: the former Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters of Rio Claro, São Paulo State. We acknowledge key characters associated with this institution, who did not only engage in apologetic speech but also produced texts with reflective and applied content. Furthermore, we describe the reasons underlying reproaches endured by Brazilian theoretical geographers. The virtual heirs to a geography engaged in defending technical and linguistic accuracy found themselves acting under a condition of exclusion that soon hastened the rise of a long season of decay for the Rio Claro institution.

139Title in Chinese

140巴西理论和定量地理学的历史:里约克拉罗(Rio Claro,从繁荣到堕落

141Abstract in Chinese

142基于在一定的地域环境下科学进步可能有不同的表现的假设本文旨在向欧洲地区的地理学家介绍巴西所谓的新实证主义地理学 20世纪70年代前圣保罗州里奥克拉罗哲学科学和文学系是一个标志性的机构充当了该国理论和数量地理学的实用和科学思想的扩音器。我们提及了与该机构相关的关键人物,他们不仅参与辩护言论,而且还写作了具有反思和应用内容的文本。 此外,我们介绍了巴西理论地理学家所承受的责备背后的原因。这一捍卫技术与语言准确性的地理学流派实际上的继承者很快发现他们受到了各方的排斥,由此很快加速了里约克拉罗(Rio Claro)机构的长期衰败。

Eva Thulin et Bertil Vilhelmson. Does online co-presence increase spatial flexibility? On social media and young people’s migration considerations

143Article 836

144Abstract in English

145The Internet facilitates new practices of social interaction at a distance, enabling online co-presence and potentially relaxing social constraints on geographical mobility. Conceptualizing the role of online co-presence, we examine whether and how Internet-based social contacts influence young people’s pre-migration considerations and decision making. Empirically, we use survey data on 750 Swedish young adults and a follow-up study comprising 24 in-depth interviews. The main findings suggest that interregional migration is becoming less costly to the individual in social terms. Survey data indicate that extensive online contacts relax respondents’ perceived need for geographical proximity to family and friends. The qualitative study differentiates the implications of online co-presence: for some interviewees, online interaction reinforces thoughts of migration – either permanent or temporary – and increases perceived spatial flexibility and choice. For others, it can never really compensate for spatial proximity to family and friends.

146Title in Chinese

147在线共存(online co-presence)是否会增加空间灵活性 关于社交媒体和年轻人的移民考虑

148Abstract in Chinese

149 互联网促进了远程社交互动的新实践,实现了在线共存并可能放松对地域流动性的社会约束。我们定义在线共存的作用,并研究基于互联网的社交联系是否以及如何影响年轻一代的移民前考虑和决策。在实证研究中,我们采用了750名瑞典年轻成人的调查数据和包含24次深度访谈的后续研究。主要调查结果表明,区域间移民对个人来说社会成本越来越低。调查数据表明,广泛的在线联系缓解了受访者对与家人朋友的地理临近性的主观需求。定性研究对在线共存的不同影响进行了分类:对于一些受访者而言,在线互动增强了移民(无论是永久的还是临时的)的考虑 ,并增加了主观的空间灵活性和自主选择。而对于其他人来说在线共存永远无法替代与家人朋友的空间临近性。

Joanne Hirtzel. Paramétrage d’un modèle de simulation individu-centré des mobilités résidentielles : enjeux, démarche et résultats

150Article 834

151Title in English

152Settings of an individual-based simulation model of residential mobility: issues, approach and results

153Abstract in English

154The parameters of an agent-based model, in social sciences, reproduce human behavior, and their quantification are often based on empirical data. Agent-based models are commonly used and described in the literature but the calibration protocol process is less documented. To broaden these ongoing discussions, this article presents an approach for calibrating an individual-based residential simulation model. The model is integrated in an agents-based LUTI simulation platform - Mobisim – which aims at simulating the impact of spatial change scenarios on daily and residential mobility. The simulation outputs can then be used to support land planning decision making. The model calibration has been designed according to the model formalization choice and to the objectives it has been developed for. The adopted procedure is iterative and empirical. It relies on a combination of different methods, related to the availability and quality. The relevance of the chosen values to estimate the parameters and the outputs consistency has been verified through exploratory analysis.

155Title in Chinese

156基于个体数据的居住流动性模拟模型的基本参数:问题,方法和结果

157Abstract in Chinese

158在社会科学中,代理人基模型agent-based model)的参数被用于模拟人的行为,其量化通常基于经验数据。代理人基模型经常为文献中所使用和描述,但校准流程的记录较少。为丰富学术界当前在该领域的讨论,本文介绍了一种校准基于个体的居住模拟模型的方法。该模型是运用代理人基模型的LUTI模拟平台Mobisim中的一部分,Mobisim旨在模拟空间变化情景对日常流动性和居住流动性的影响。然后,模拟模型的输出可被用于支持土地规划决策。模型校准是根据模型形式化选择和其开发目标设计的。该校准方法采用的步骤是迭代和经验的。它依赖于不同方法的组合,并根据可用性和质量进行调用。本研究通过探索性分析验证了所选值在估计参数和输出一致性方面的有效性。

Sandra Mallet et Cécilia Comelli. Politiques d’éclairage public et transformations des espaces urbains : une approche critique

159Article 833

160Title in English

161Urban lighting policies and their impact on space: a critical approach

162Abstract in English

163This article focuses on the political and social dimensions of urban lighting. It studies the role of public lighting and its importance in urban policy for the transformation of urban spaces. This analysis is based on a study of the urban policy led in Bordeaux over the past two decades. Indeed, the municipality has had an active urban-light policy since the mid-1990s, which has considerably modified its night-time life, landscape and public spaces. The text analyzes the diversity of urban planning tools and the geographical choices made in terms of public lighting, the gap between the geography of urban lighting and the uses of the city during the night, as well as the links between the social composition of spaces in Bordeaux and the lighting policy applied there. It highlights how urban lighting deeply affects the social geography of the city.

164Title in Chinese

165城市照明政策及其对空间的影响一种批评方法
Abstract in Chinese

166本文重点介绍城市照明的政治和社会影响。 本文研究了公共照明的作用及其作为改变城市空间的城市政策的一部分的重要性。 该分析基于过去二十年来波尔多的城市政策的研究。自20世纪90年代中期以来,市政府一直积极采用夜间照明的城市政策,极大地改变了城市的夜生活,城市景观和公共空间。 本文分析了城市规划方法的多样性和公共照明政策的地理选择,城市照明的地理区域与城市空间夜间的使用区域之间的差异,以及波尔多城市照明政策与城市空间社会构成之间的联系。本研究强调了城市照明如何深刻地影响了城市的社会地理。

Sébastien Munafò. Forme urbaine et mobilités de loisirs : l’« effet barbecue » sur le grill

167Article 832

168Title in English

169Urban form and leisure mobilities: testing the “barbecue effect” hypothesis

170Abstract in English

171Several studies have underlined so far that the residents of city centers, with similar income levels, tend to travel more during their leisure time than people in more peripheral areas. One hypothesis put forward to explain this phenomenon suggests that suburban residents enjoy a more pleasant environment for recreation (better prone to barbecue parties for instance) while central city dwellers are forced to travel more in order to enjoy nature and quietness. This hypothesis is framed as the “compensation effect” or “barbecue effect”. Due to the very high level of energy consumption of leisure mobilities, this effect would lead to deeply question the virtues of the compact city in terms of sustainable mobility.

172This article is focused on testing the compensation hypothesis on the cases of Geneva and Zurich. Our quantitative and qualitative data lead us to reject this hypothesis. The occasional mobility of city center inhabitants is actually very important and largely unknown but far from being strictly related to a desire of nature. It also doesn’t fit with any compensation idea. Moreover, its energy impact is not important enough to actually reverse the contrasts of sustainability between compact and suburban forms in terms of mobility.

173Title in Chinese

174城市形态和休闲流动leisure mobilities测试烧烤效应barbecue effect假设

175Abstract in Chinese

176目前有几项研究强调城市中心居民往往比收入水平相近的周边地区的居民在休闲时间更多地出游。有一个假设试图解释这一现象:郊区居民享受更舒适的休闲环境(例如,更容易组织烧烤派对),而中心城市居民被迫更多地旅行以享受自然和宁静。这一假设被称为“补偿效应”或“烧烤效应”。由于休闲流动性(leisure mobilities)的能源消耗非常高,这种影响将在可持续流动性方面对紧凑型城市的优点提出深刻质疑。

177本文的重点是检验日内瓦和苏黎世的补偿效应。基于定量和定性数据,我们否定了这一假设。城市中心居民偶尔的流动性实际上非常重要,而且其目的很大程度上是未知的,远非与渴求接近自然的愿望严格相关。它也不符合任何补偿理念。此外,它的能源影响并不足以实际扭转紧凑型和郊区型城市之间流动性可持续性的对比。

Antonin Montané, Freddy Vinet, Thomas Buffin-Bélanger et Olivier Vento. La simplification des Atlas de Zones Inondables par approche hydrogéomorphologique : une nécessité pour la pérennité de la méthode

178Article 831

179Title in English

180The simplification of floodplain atlas by hydrogeomorphological approach: a necessity for the sustainability of the method

181Abstract in English

182Are Flood Zones Atlas (AZI; Atlas de Zones Inondables) by hydrogeomorphological (HGM) approach effective in communicating flood hazard? What changes are possible to promote the dissemination of this approach? A survey carried out among semi-experts and non-experts and an analysis of legend contents of flood zone atlas allow us to highlight the main limitations of the actual maps. Such limitations include the type of geographic information created, graphic semiology, but also the possible gap between the interpretation of the field by geomorphologists and the understanding of the final mapping by non-experts. Highlighting these limits leads to the proposal of a simplified AZI legend which should allow a better understanding of geographic information and a faster achievement for geomorphologists.

183Title in Chinese

184通过水文地貌方法简化洪泛区地图集该方法可持续性的必要性

185Abstract in Chinese
洪水区地图集AZI; Atlas de Zones Inondables是否能通过水文地貌HGM方法有效地显示洪水发生的风险大规模地推广该方法将带来哪些方面的变革针对 半专家和非专家进行的一项调查以及对洪水区地图集图例内容的分析使我们能够指出地图的主要局限性。 这些限制包括所创建的地理信息的类型图形符号以及地貌学家对所绘制区域的解释与非专家的理解之间可能存在的差距。 鉴于这些限制我们提出简化AZI图例如此应该能够使普通读者更好地理解地理信息而地貌学家也能提高绘图的效率。

Elfie Swerts. A data base on Chinese urbanization: ChinaCities

186Article 830

187Abstract in English

188n China, the measurement of the cities’ population is confusing. Indeed, the administrative boundaries do not delineate a “strictly urban” unit, but include a territory composed both of urban and rural territories which are under the jurisdiction of a main city. This article describes the construction method and the content of a new harmonized database of the Chinese cities’ population, the ChinaCities database.

189Title in Chinese

190关于中国城市化的数据库中国城市数据库China Cities

191Abstract in Chinese

192在中国城市人口的衡量标准并不清晰。 实际上行政边界并没有划定严格意义上城市的单位而是包括一个由主要城市管辖的城市和乡村地区组成的区域。 本文介绍了一个全新的中国城市人口的统一数据库即中国城市数据库ChinaCities database的构建方法和内容。

Philippe Vidal, Thierry Joliveau, Danièle Sansy, Armelle Couillet et Philippe Jeanne. Approche géographique du géocaching comme opérateur de lien territorial : une illustration havraise

193Article 829

194Title in English

195A Geographical Approach of Geocaching as a Performer for Territory: The case of Le Havre

196Abstract in English

197With the rise of web 2.0, initiating and coordinating digital activities in local territories depends less and less on public authorities. The point can be illustrated by the practice of geocaching, a collaborative free-to-play game which connects a private company acting as the organizer, with a community of gamers. New relations to the local territory then emerge between Internet surfers, organized as a collective, and their living space. It is not essentially a matter of existing bandwith or 3G access, but of users being able to participate spontaneously and durably in simple digital services, which are co-constructed and self-regulated. Among the consequences on contemporary territorial dynamics, can be detected a beginning process of spontaneous designation of sites and objects as grass roots everyday heritage and visitable sites, potentially attractive for tourists. This calls for revisiting the definition of "connected territories". Geocaching shows that a territory can become connected, even if it is under-equipped in terms of telecommunications, if those who live in it pass through and discover it, reestablish contact with the local sites through digital services. In this case, geocaching is acting as the vector of this re-connection.

198Title in Chinese

199将地理藏宝Geocaching视作与地域建立联系的媒介的一种地理方法以法国勒阿弗尔为例

200Abstract in Chinese

201随着Web 2.0的兴起在地方开展和协调数字活动对公共机构的依赖程度越来越低。这一点可以通过地理藏宝Geocaching的实践来说明这是一种协作的免费游戏将作为组织者的私人公司与游戏玩家社区联系起来。然后,集体组织起来的互联网使用者和他们的生活空间之间建立起新的地域关系。它本质上与现有的带宽或3G接入的问题无关,而是由于用户能够自发地和持久地参与简单的数字服务,而这些服务是共同构建和自我管理的。在地理藏宝对当代地域动态的影响中,可以发现一个新的趋势,即自发地指定地点和物件作为民众的日常遗产和可游玩的地点,这些地点对游客具有潜在的吸引力。

202这要求我们重新审视联接的地域connected territories的定义。地理藏宝表明,如果当地居民经过并发现某一地点,通过数字服务重建与当地网站的联系,即使在电信设施发展较弱的情况下该地点也可以实现联接。在这种情况下,地理藏宝充当了重新建立这种联接的媒介。

Xavier Rochel, Anne Hecker et Alexandre Verdier. Un patrimoine pour la marche. Les sentiers vignerons de Nancy

203Article 828

204Title in English

205A heritage for pedestrians. The vineyards footpaths in Nancy, France

206Abstract in English

207The ancient footpaths around Nancy used to be frequented for the exploitation of vineyards. Nowadays, wine growing has utterly stopped but the footpaths have remained. They are a much-appreciated heritage for local inhabitants. Using a historical GIS, we mapped the network of footpaths as it is now and as it used to be at the beginning of the 19th Century, using the Napoleonian cadastre which was elaborated between 1809 and 1833. The original network amounted to a linear total of 92 km of footpaths, of which only 49 km remain. This dwindling process has nothing to do with the disappearance of vineyards, since they were replaced by family gardens, and the practice of an occasional pleasure walk has maintained the pedestrian traffic. But the urban and peri urban slopes where these footpaths are set are much coveted for urbanization, and they are the only available spaces for bypass routes between the densely-built city and the surrounding, protected natural spaces. The network of footpaths thus appears to be under a constant risk of dislocation.

208Title in Chinese

209游步道遗产 : 法国南希Nancy的葡萄园小径

210Abstract in Chinese

211南希周围古老的游步道曾经为经常探访葡萄园的游人提供便利。如今葡萄种植已杳无踪迹但这些游步道仍然存在。它们是当地居民非常喜爱的文化遗产。利用历史地理信息系统,我们基于1809年至1833年间成书的拿破仑地籍,绘制了现在和19世纪初的游步道网络。最开始的网络有线性总长度长达92公里的游步道,而其中仅49公里保存至今。游步道的逐渐缩减与葡萄园的消失无关,因为它们被家庭花园所取代,而偶尔的游乐活动则保持了游人的流通量。然而,分布着游步道的城市和城市周边山坡正为城市化所觊觎,因为这些山坡是密集的城区和周边受保护自然空间之间唯一可用的旁道。因此,游步道网络似乎处于不断被侵占的风险之中。

Dorian Bernadou. Construire l’image touristique d’une région à travers les réseaux sociaux : le cas de l’Émilie-Romagne en Italie

212Article 826

213Title in English

214Image building and social network: the use of pictures to promote the Emilia-Romagna region as a tourist destination

215Abstract in English

216The pictures provided by official touristic offices are supposed to have an effect on social representations and the relationship between a region and people who wants to visit it. This paper presents the evolution of communication strategies chosen by the regional authority of Emilia-Romagna (Italy) to promote the entire region and enhance its attractiveness to tourists. The study relies on an image analysis which takes into account both the content of the pictures and the geographical location of the places which have been chosen to embody the region. Those pictures come from sources representative of the place with two different promotion practice periods: the regional internet site dedicated to tourism promotion, and the official Facebook account of the Emilia-Romagna Region Tourism Board. The outcomes highlight a new way to present the region, much more focused on urban areas and local ways of life. This change can be explained by many factors: the evolution of the communication medias which give an active role to the local population, but also the evolution of local development strategies or the broader territorial dynamics such as metropolization.

217Title in Chinese

218形象建设和社交网络利用图片推广艾米利亚 - 罗马涅地区the Emilia-Romagna region作为旅游目的地

219Abstract in Chinese

220官方旅游中心提供的图片应该对某一地区的社会形象以及地区和游客之间的关系产生影响。本文介绍了艾米利亚 - 罗马涅意大利地区当局为促进整个地区的形象建设和提高对游客的吸引力所选择的传播策略的演变。该研究依赖于图像分析,该图像分析考虑了图片的内容和被选择用于代表该区域的景点的地理位置。推广所使用图片来自能代表各景点的来源,而该地区的推广实践分为两个阶段:第一阶段使用了致力于旅游推广的地区官方网站,第二阶段使用了艾米利亚 - 罗马涅地区旅游局的官方Facebook帐户。研究结果显示了宣传该地区的新方法,这种新方法更加关注城市地区及当地生活方式。这种变化可以由许多因素来解释:传播媒介的演变使当地人能够积极地参与其中,其次地区发展策略的演变以及其他的地区动态如大都市化也非常重要。

Nelly Leblond. Gouverner l’agriculture grâce aux modèles ? Le cas du CAADP au Mozambique

221Article 825

222Title in English

223Governing agriculture through economical models? The case of CAADP in Mozambique

224Abstract in English

225The agricultural policies aligned on the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) are coproduced with economic models. Models became hegemonic in a context of foreign aid dependency and of elite’s socialization through economic modelling. Based on grey literature and observations in Mozambique, we analyze the contribution of modeling to this policy making. While officially promoting the objectives of ownership, efficiency, and evidence-based policies, modeling enables the coexistence of contradicting claims and acts. CAADP and models are an apparatus instrumentalized by political and agro-industrial elites. Their coproduction therefore enables the reproduction of economic and political strategies it claimed to suppress. Our results call for a reappraisal of the multiple appropriations of modeling and of the effects of the agricultural policies promoted.

226Title in Chinese

227通过经济模型economical models治理农业 莫桑比克的CAADP案例

228Abstract in Chinese

229在非洲农业综合发展计划(CAADP)的影响下制定的农业政策伴随着经济模型共同产生。 模型在外国援助依赖和精英通过经济建模社会化的背景下成为霸权。 基于莫桑比克的灰色文献 “grey” literature和实地观察我们分析了建模对这一政策制定的贡献。 在正式宣传中强调促进所有权效率和循证政策的目标的同时建模使相互矛盾的主张和行动共存。 CAADP和模型成为了政治精英和农工业精英的工具。 因此它们的共同产物不断催生它们声称要压制的经济和政治策略。 我们的研究结果倡导重新评估建模的多重作用以及所推广的农业政策的效果。

Guillaume Faburel. Les formations universitaires en urbanisme en France : un nouveau gouvernement des corps (de métiers)

230Title in English

231University training in urban planning in France: a new way to govern professions

232Abstract in English

233More than any other discipline, urbanism interacts with the world which it makes intelligible by its knowledge, and apprehendable by its courses. However, the issues that govern urban developments have changed in nature and scope. We show how teachings in urban planning, mainly in master’s degree, have moved away from analytical perspectives and critical orientations, which are today more important than ever.

234Over the last thirty years, these trainings courses have experienced a real twist, which the competitive climate for the recognition of diplomas cannot explain. To date they comprise a specialized technical field, between profession repositories and standardization of careers, between the federation of Instituts d’urbanisme and the standardization of knowledge by the Comité National des Universités (CNU).

235The articulation between pluridisciplinarity and practical knowledge, structured in the 1970s and 1980s around noticed thoughts, has generally substituted another couple, both as a position and a process of formation: the action of hyper-urbanism (based on manufacturing processes and their management), technical know-how and their orientation towards economic development (based on projects and their instruments). By this twist, the current of urban studies has developed very little in France (although very widely deployed abroad). Furthermore, urban planning courses remain affected by a broad socio-ecological misconception.

236Title in Chinese

237法国大学城市规划训练职业管理的新方法

238Abstract in Chinese

239城市规划(urbanism比任何其他学科都更能与世界互动它的知识使认识世界成为可能而城市规划的训练使世界可以被理解。然而,治理城市发展的问题在性质和范围上都发生了变化。我们指出城市规划的教学(主要是硕士学位)如何渐渐偏离了分析视角和批判性,而当前分析视角和批判性比以往任何时候都更加重要。

240在过去的三十年中,城市规划的训练课程经历了一个真正的转折,仅仅用文凭承认度的激烈竞争无法解释这一转折。如今它们包括一个专业技术领域,这一领域处于专业知识库和职业标准化之间,并且处于城市研究所联合会(the federation of Instituts d’urbanisme)和全国大学委员会(Comité National des Universités)的知识标准化之间。

241
在20世纪70年代和80年代围绕着重要思想构建的多学科性(pluridisciplinarity)和实践知识之间的联系,无论是作为一个地位还是一个形成过程,取代了另一对概念:城市规划(hyper-urbanism,基于制造流程及其管理) ,技术知识及倾向经济发展的立场(基于项目及其工具)。由于这一转变,目前法国的城市研究发展十分有限(虽然在国外应用非常广泛)。此外,城市规划的训练受到广泛存在的社会和生态层面错误观念的影响。

Laure Casanova Enault. Des acteurs de poids sur le littoral : les petits propriétaires immobiliers. Application au littoral provençal et azuréen

242Article 823

243Title in English

244Small homeowners as major players on coastal areas. A case study on the French Mediterranean coast

245Abstract in English

246Given that the Mediterranean coastal urbanization has mainly resulted from housing construction, this paper gives an analysis of the weight of individual homeownership in the process, from the analysis of MAJIC documents. Once the complexity of the exploitation of this fiscal source is overcome, the source offers detailed information on the property. Thus, we show that property owners are mostly individuals, who only possess a single dwelling, which is generally an apartment and owner-occupied. Beyond this average profile, data show that individual property owners have heterogeneous characteristics depending on the location, this being also true in the coastal areas, where characteristics are supposedly homogeneous. The article emphasizes the stakes of privatization of space produced by small individual homeowners, to better inform planning issues and coastal areas management.

247Title in Chinese

248小型房产者作为沿海地区的重要行为者以法国地中海沿岸为例

249Abstract in Chinese

250823

251鉴于住房建设是地中海沿海城市化的主要原因本文利用MAJIC文件作为信息源分析了该过程中个人住房所有权的重要性。 一旦克服了利用该税务信息资源的复杂性该文件就能提供有关该财产的详细信息。研究表明业主大多是个人并且他们只拥有一套住宅通常是业主自住的公寓。 在这一平均化的信息之外数据显示个体业主由于位置的不同具有相异性在沿海地区也是如此尽管沿海地区的特征此前被认为是同质的。 本文强调了小型个体房主所带来的空间私有化的风险以便更好地为规划问题和沿海地区治理提供参考。

Somsakun Maneerat et Éric Daudé. Agent-based simulation study of the intra-urban discontinuity effects in Delhi on dispersal of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses

252Article 819

253Abstract in English

254In order to fight against the transmission of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses, significant resources were allocated to the process of restricting the propagation of their main vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Research on this mosquito’s living areas is thus necessary to characterize more precisely the areas that need to be monitored and treated. An alternative to field surveys consists of evaluating the characteristics of these living areas through spatialized models. It is in this context that we developed the simulation model MOMA (Model Of Mosquito Aedes aegypti), an agent-based model which integrates a vast set of biological and behavioral knowledge about the mosquito in a simulation environment based on the needs and constraints specific to Aedes aegypti. In this paper, we present MOMA and a study of the effects of local configurations on the dispersion capacity of mosquito cohorts. The simulations in this study were carried out using data from an urban neighborhood in the city of Delhi (India). This virtual laboratory, constructed in collaboration with entomologists, thus makes it possible to represent the mosquito’s living areas, which are either restricted or facilitated by spatial amenities conditioning its needs and its capacity of movement during its lifetime.

255Title in Chinese

256运用基于代理的模拟研究埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti),登革热,基孔肯雅病毒(chikungunya)和寨卡(Zika)病毒载体的传播的市域内不连续效应,以德里为例

257Abstract in Chinese

258为了对抗登革热,黄热病,基孔肯雅病毒和寨卡病毒的传播,大量的资源被用于限制其主要载体埃及伊蚊的繁殖。因此,要准确地描述需要监测和进行干预的区域,我们必须对这种蚊子的生存区域进行研究。实地调查的替代方案包括通过空间模型评估这种蚊子生活区域的特征。正是在这种背景下,我们开发了模拟模型MOMA(埃及伊蚊模型),这是一种基于代理的模型,并基于针对埃及伊蚊的特定的需求和限制,在模拟环境中整合了大量关于蚊子的生物学和行为学知识。在本文中,我们介绍了MOMA和关于地域特征对蚊群的扩散能力的影响的一项研究。本研究中的模拟是使用德里市(印度)城市社区的数据进行的。这个虚拟实验室是与昆虫学家合作建造的,因此可以代表蚊子的生活区域,这些生活区域受到空间设施的限制或促进,而这些空间措施决定了蚊子的一生中的需求和运动能力。

Grégory Vandenbulcke, Luc Int Panis et Isabelle Thomas. On the location of reported and unreported cycling accidents: A spatial network analysis for Brussels

259Article 818

260Abstract in English

261This paper aims to compare the spatial distributions of road accidents involving a cyclist that are officially reported to the police with those not reported (user-sourced dataset). We show that reported and unreported cycling accidents have similar spatial patterns and exhibit similar locational tendencies with respect to specific infrastructures and facilities. We illustrate the importance of defining the study area in the interpretation of the (cross) K-function results and show that cycling accidents are more likely to be unreported in areas where a small speed difference between slow and fast modes is imposed (traffic-calming areas). Because safety measures influence both accident rate and reporting rate, evaluation of their effect on cycling accidents requires careful spatial analysis.

262Title in Chinese

263关于经报告和未报告警方的自行车事故的空间分布布鲁塞尔的空间网络分析

264Abstract in Chinese

265本文旨在比较正式报告警方的涉及自行车骑行者的交通事故与未报告的交通事故用户来源数据集的空间分布。 研究表明经报告和未报告的自行车事故具有相似的空间模式并且在特定的基础设施和其他设施方面表现出类似的位置分布倾向。 我们说明了在解释交叉K函数结果时定义研究区域的重要性并表明在慢速和快速模式之间速度差异较小的区域平静交通区域traffic-calming areas),涉自行车的交通事故不被报告警方的可能性更大。安全措施既会对事故发生率也会对报告率产生影响,因此评估它们对自行车事故的影响需要精细的空间分析。

Philippe Gervais-Lambony. Temps maîtrisé, espace refondé : l’expérience humaine de l’espace selon Blaise Cendrars. Étude des Rhapsodies gitanes (L’homme foudroyé, 1945)

266Article 817

267Abstract in English

268The paper is based on a study, from a social science point of view, of a book of Blaise Cendrars (L’Homme foudroyé) in which this writer develops a theory of the human experience of space. This is also to argue that this method is, in general, fruitful ; it implies considering seriously that writers do take part in theoretical debates and that their œuvre is also a tool for transmission of knowledge. After presenting the book which is here the « field » for research, the author of the paper analyses more specifically the Rhapsodies gitanes (last part of the book). The originality of Cendrars as a writer is that he creates a space which is a network of places while he destructures the chronology and continuity of time, he defines this method as a « prochronie ».

269Title in Chinese

270时间掌握空间重建: Blaise Cendrars的人类空间体验关于吉普赛狂想曲”(Rhapsodies gitanes《被雷击之人》L’homme foudroyé ,1945)之一章的研究

271Abstract in Chinese

272本文是基于社会科学观点的关于Blaise Cendrars所著《被雷击之人》(L'Hommefoudroyé)的研究本作者发展了一种人类空间体验理论。 本文认为这种方法通常是富有成效的; 它主张应该认真考虑作家确实参与到理论辩论中而且他们的作品也是传播知识的工具。本文首先 介绍了《被雷击之人》也即本文的研究领域接下来本文更具体地分析了吉普赛狂想曲 Rhapsodies gitane本书的最后一部分 作为作家的Cendrars的独创性在于他创造了一个空间一个地点的网络同时他更解构了时间顺序和时间的连续性他将这种方法定义为prochronie

Violaine Jolivet et Marie-Noëlle Carré. Métabolisme urbain et quartiers péricentraux dans la métropolisation. L’exemple du quartier de Saint-Michel à Montréal

273Article 816

274Title in English

275Urban metabolism and inner suburbs in metropolitan areas. The case of Saint-Michel in Montreal

276Abstract in English

277Debates on territorial marketing at an international scale pay more and more attention to quality of life and urban sustainability as competitive advantages to attract international investments. Yet few studies have provided insights into the entanglements between cities’ globalization and urban metabolism at the local scale. This paper aims to understand their long-term impact on the transformations of Saint-Michel, an inner suburb in Montréal (Quebec, Canada). Local extraction (quarries) and accumulation (garbage) have always had a significant place in the more general shaping of the metropolitan area. Those issues question the economic, political and environmental challenges of the globalization process through a situated and contextualized point of view.

278Title in Chinese

279城市新陈代谢和大都市区近郊以蒙特利尔圣米歇尔区为例.

280Abstract in Chinese

281有关在国际范围内进行区域推广的辩论越来越强调以生活质量和城市可持续发展作为吸引国际投资的竞争优势 然而很少有研究能够深入分析地方层面上城市全球化与城市新陈代谢之间错综复杂的关系。 本文旨在理解城市全球化与城市新陈代谢对蒙特利尔魁北克省加拿大近郊圣米歇尔区Saint-Michel的转型的长期影响。 地方开采采石场和堆积垃圾一直是塑造大都市形态的重要力量。从情景化并植根于具体背景的角度 这些问题使我们思考全球化进程中的经济政治和环境方面挑战。

Antonine Ribardière et Jean-François Valette. Géographie des prix immobiliers à Mexico : variabilité et hétérogénéité des valeurs enregistrées dans les annonces en ligne

282Article 814

283Title in English

284Geography of real estate prices in Mexico City: Variability and heterogeneity of values recorded in online advertisements

285Abstract in English

286The purpose of this article is to explore an original database, built from on-line real estate listings during the summer of 2014. The database allows us to capture the housing market visible by this way, at the scale of the metropolitan area and at two observation levels: the level of the census units on the one hand, the level of the types of settlement on the other. Primarily, we remind the context of the housing market in the early 2000s in Mexico City, in particular the different forms of housing production. Secondly, we examine the spatial variability of the prices, reflecting the classical patterns of the social division of urban space in Mexico City, and highlighting the internal subdivisions in each types of settlement. All in all, the very wide price brackets demonstrate the substantial pressures on the residential space in the Mexican capital.

287Title in Chinese

288墨西哥城房地产价格地理在线广告中记录的价格的可变性和异质性

289Abstract in Chinese

290本文的目的是探索一个独创的数据库该数据库是2014年夏天在在线房地产列表的基础上构建的。该数据库使我们可以通过这种方式使住房市场可视化。我们研究大都市区层级和两个观察层面的房产价格:一方面是普查单位的层面,另一方面是住房类型的层面。 首先,我们回顾了21世纪初墨西哥城房地产市场的背景,特别是不同形式的住房产出。 其次,我们研究了价格的空间变异性,反映了墨西哥城城市空间社会分化(social division)的经典模式,并突出了每种类型住房的内部细分。 总而言之,幅度变化非常大的价格区间表明了墨西哥首都住宅空间的巨大压力。

Antoine Lefebvre. Pékin entre patrimoine et modernité : une mutation de la morphologie urbaine observée par satellite depuis 50 ans

291Article 813

292Title in English

293Beijing between heritage and modernity: a mutation in urban morphology observed by satellite over the past 50 years

294Abstract in English

295Urban areas in China have dramatically changed since its opening to a market economy in 1978. In Beijing, the transformation of the old city reflects modifications in society, politics and economy. The old urban pattern, that has a unique architectural and social heritage, has been demolished at the expense of business centers, shopping malls and luxury housing. This article proposes to monitor these changes using satellite images. The results allow us to date, quantify and spatialize morphological changes. Results are compared with bibliographic references and highlight urban development policies such as housing reform in 1991 and preparation for the 2008 Olympic Games. It is estimated that over half of the old urban pattern was demolished, and it is showed that Chinese authorities have difficulties to preserve its heritage while meeting the needs of urban modernity.

296Title in Chinese

297 北京在遗产与现代之间:50年以来卫星观测到的城市形态变化

298Abstract in Chinese

2991978年开放市场经济以来中国的城市地区发生了巨大变化。在北京,旧城改造反映了社会,政治和经济的变化。 具有独特建筑和社会遗产的旧的城市模式已经被拆除,让位于商业中心,购物中心和豪华住宅。 本文建议使用卫星图像记录这些变化。 卫星图像显示的结果使我们能够对城市形态变化进行日期的确定,量化和空间化。研究结果与参考文献进行了比较,并且该研究结果强调了城市发展政策的影响,如1991年的住房改革和2008年奥运会的筹备工作。 据估计,旧的城市模式的一半以上已被拆除,这表明了中国政府难以在满足城市现代化需求的同时保护其遗产。

Kawtar Najib. Inégalités socio-spatiales dans les villes et leurs évolutions récentes : comparaison de Besançon, Mulhouse et Strasbourg

300Article 808

301Title in English

302Socio-spatial inequalities in the cities and their recent evolutions: comparison between Besançon, Mulhouse, and Strasbourg

303Abstract in English

304This paper describes and analyzes socio-spatial inequalities in the cities of Besançon, Mulhouse, and Strasbourg and their evolutions, both from the categorization of spaces and from the urban heritage. The idea is not only to better understand how inequalities develop in cities, but also to measure and track the dynamics of these inequalities between 1990 and 2007, which reveal specific socio-spatial structures and evolutionary factors. Each of the three study areas has its own specific characteristics (from a geohistorical, cultural, socio-economic and political point of view) and its own evolutionary trends (towards varying degrees of socio-spatial mix). More exactly, the mobilization of spaces took place mainly around the historical center especially in Besançon and Strasbourg, but also within the most attractive zones initially favoured by the bourgeoisie. As for the recent general evolutionary trend, it is towards the improvement of the socio-economic conditions of Besançon, to the pauperization of Mulhouse and finally both to the gentrification and the degradation of Strasbourg.

305Title in Chinese

306城市社会空间不平等及其近来的演变贝桑松Besançon),米卢斯Mulhouse和斯特拉斯堡Strasbourg之间的比较

307Abstract in Chinese

308本文从空间分类和城市遗产两个方面介绍和分析了贝桑松米卢斯和斯特拉斯堡的城市社会空间不平等及其演变。本文主张我们不仅要理解不平等是如何在城市中产生的,还要衡量1990年至2007年间这些不平等的发展动态,揭示出具体的社会空间结构和演化因素。这三个研究领域从地史学,文化,社会,经济和政治的角度看都有自己的具体特点和自己的演化趋势(朝向不同程度的社会空间的混合(socio-spatial mix))。更确切地说,空间的调用主要是围绕贝桑松和斯特拉斯堡的历史中心,同时也发生在资产阶级最初青睐的最具吸引力的区域。至于最近的一般演化趋势,贝桑松呈现出社会经济条件的改善,米卢斯显示出贫困化(pauperization)的趋势,而斯特拉斯堡则兼备了高档化(gentrification)和衰退(degradation)的特征。

Sandrine Berroir, Nadine Cattan, Frédéric Dobruszkes, Marianne Guérois, Fabien Paulus et Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo. Les systèmes urbains français : une approche relationnelle

309Article 807

310Title in English

311French urban systems: a relational approach

312Abstract in English

313This article explores the interactions between the French cities from a multi-dimensional and multi-scale approach. Most of the time, these relations are analyzed in a segmented way, focusing solely on one dimension among a multifaceted reality. To take into account the great diversity of exchanges, we simultaneously consider several types of inter-city links, reflecting individual mobility, economic relations and scientific partnerships, on which we apply flows selection methods and a scoring approach. These methods also allow distinguishing several interdependent scales of territorial dynamics: first, twenty six local urban systems are identified. Comparisons between these systems are conducted according to their more or less polarized organization and to the nature of the flows within these systems. On the other hand, the horizontal relations between regional urban centers are analyzed taking into account the range and diversity of interactions and also according to the way local and regional urban systems connect to each other. Finally, relations with Paris are highlighted depending on the specialization of these links and the size of the cities involved.

314Title in Chinese

315法国城市系统分析城市间联系的一种方法

316Abstract in Chinese

317本文以多维度和多尺度(multi-scale)的方法探讨了法国城市之间的相互作用。大多数时候,这些相互作用是以分段的方式分析的,因此只考虑到多维度现实当中的一维。考虑到交流的多样性,我们同时分析了几种类型的城市间联系,包括个人的流动性,经济关系和科学伙伴关系等。我们采用流量选择方法(flows selection methods)和评分方法(scoring approach)来研究城市间联系。这些方法还能够鉴别出几种相互依赖的地域动态尺度:首先,我们确定了二十六个局部城市系统 (local urban systems)。这些系统之间的比较是根据它们一定程度上极化的组织形式(polarized organization)和系统内部的流动性进行的。另一方面,我们也分析了区域中心城市之间的横向关系。我们需要考虑到相互作用的范围和多样性,并根据局部和区域城市系统之间相互联系的方式对这一横向关系进行分析。最后,考虑到城市间联系的专业化和所涉及城市的规模,我们着重强调了各城市与巴黎的关系。

Sylvain Rode. Reconquérir les cours d’eau pour aménager la ville

318Article 806

319Title in English

320Reclaiming the rivers to develop the city

321Abstract in English

322The analysis of current development projects for the two rivers flowing through Perpignan (a city in the South of France) highlights a close association between the (re)development of rivers and a number of major urban planning issues. The reclaiming of the riverbanks and their redevelopment as quality public spaces are meant to contribute to change the image of urban riverbanks, as well as of surrounding neighborhoods. But that raises the question of the relationships between the city, city-dwellers and nature. This development is ambiguous. It is encouraged by public authorities to serve planning objectives considered as major (nature in the city, urban densification, urban renewal and mitigation of socio-spatial contrasts, etc.). It is also used for their benefit by private stakeholders conducting urban development operations. It therefore appears that the development of rivers, focusing on the banks and on urban riparian areas, and mostly taking into account urban development issues, only moderately contributes to a more ecological management of rivers.

323Title in Chinese

324夺回河流以发展城市

325Abstract in Chinese

326对流经佩皮尼昂Perpignan法国南部城市的两条河流的当前开发项目的研究指出了河流的发展与一些主要城市规划问题之间的密切联系。夺回河岸并重建优质公共空间旨在改变城市河岸以及周边社区的形象。但这引出了城市,城市居民和自然之间关系的问题。这种发展是不清晰的。政府鼓励这一发展从而服务于主要的规划目标(城市绿化区,城市密集化,城市更新(urban renewal)和缓解社会空间的对立等)。私人利益相关者也可以利用这一趋势进行城市发展活动。河流的发展主要集中在河岸和城市河滨地区,并且大多数情况考虑到城市发展问题,然而河流的发展只能在有限程度上促进河流生态化管理的进步。

Benjamin Motte-Baumvol, Carlos David Nassi, Gregório Coelho de Morais Neto, Larissa Lopes et Patrícia de Aquino Lannes Brites. Motorisation croissante et évolution des déplacements domicile-travail à Rio de Janeiro entre 2002 et 2012

327Article 805

328Title in English

329Increasing motorization and evolution of home-to-work commutes in Rio de Janeiro between 2002 and 2012

330Abstract in English

331This paper analyses the general increase in distances and duration of commuting based on the Household Surveys of 2002 and 2012 from the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This increase is unequal between populations, depending in particular on the area of residence and level of education. However, even if the populations with low educational levels and residing in the poorest neighborhoods experience high commute durations, the most significant increases in travel times concern the inhabitants of new neighborhoods or towns occupied by the upper middle class, such as Barra da Tijuca and Niterói.

332Title in Chinese

3332002年至2012年里约热内卢的机动化增长和通勤演变

334Abstract in Chinese

335本文根据2002年到2012年里约热内卢都市圈的住户调查分析了通勤距离和通勤时间普遍增加的情况。通勤距离和时间的增加在人口之中呈现出不平等,这一不平等尤其取决于居住地区和教育水平的不同。 然而,虽然教育程度较低且居住在最贫困社区的人口对应着很长的通勤时间,通勤时间呈现出最显著增长的是上层中产阶级居住的新街区或城镇,比如Barra da Tijuca和Niterói。

Sophie Bourgarel, Amélie Etchegaray et Hubert Mazurek. Optimiser l’accès aux ressources sur les territoires dans un contexte contraint. Exemple des services de soins pour jeunes handicapés

336Article 804

337Title in English

338Optimizing the access to resources on territories in a restricted context. Example of care services for young disabled people

339Abstract in English

340The geographical locations of care services for disabled children (called by the acronym Sessad in French) in the region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur seem to be in agreement with the need for support: 93 % of accompanied children live within 30 minutes of a specialized service. However, only 69 % of the children are followed by a service situated less than 30 minutes away from their town of residence. The analysis of the travel, using GIS modelling, allowed offering an optimization of the relationship children - Sessad, using several scenarios. This geographical approach allowed new affectations for those children, according to their town of residence, and new locations for zones with low rates of specialized care services (Sessad) to be proposed. Improving access to those specialized services is possible, while releasing time for therapy or education.

341Title in Chinese

342优化对区域资源的获取途径以为年轻残疾人提供护理服务为例

343Abstract in Chinese

344普罗旺斯 - 阿尔卑斯 - 蓝色海岸地区残疾儿童护理服务法语缩写为Sessad)的地理分布似乎与対该服务的需求相一致:93%的需陪同儿童生活在专业服务机构的30分钟路程内。然而,只有69%的儿童所接受的后续服务在距离他们的住所30分钟路程之内。通过使用GIS建模分析行程数据,我们提出了几种优化残疾儿童 与Sessad之间关系的方案,并模拟了具体情境。根据残疾儿童的居住城镇和特殊服务欠缺地区新建立的服务中心的位置,这种地理方法能够为残疾儿童提供新的服务机会。综上所述,该方法可以改善对残疾儿童专业服务的获取途径,同时给予治疗或教育更多的时间。

Laura Clevenot, Cédissia De Chastenet, Nathalie Frascaria, Philippe Jacob, Richard Raymond, Laurent Simon et Pierre Pech. Do Linear Transport Infrastructures provide a potential corridor for urban biodiversity? Case study in Greater Paris, France

345Article 803

346Abstract in English

347Recent studies have emphasised the increasing impact, both negative and positive, of Linear Transport Infrastructures (LTIs) on biodiversity. A significant body of scientific and technical knowledge is more and more available to help guide restoration practices concerning especially urban areas. This study explores a comprehensive approach to estimating restoration potential along the LTI edges in the Greater Paris region (in France) in terms of potential biodiversity. Our work consists in inventorying and analysing the Potential Biodiversity Index, PBI, on sites along two LTIs crossing a forest in the northern part of this district. The study concerns a Natura 2000 area, La Poudrerie Park. A total of 84 surveys were carried out corresponding to the 33 hectares surveyed. We studied sites along the LTIs. For this purpose, we chose 84 sites in the traffic corridors. Biodiversity parameter evaluations were performed for each site. These parameters are related to functional traits that make it possible to determine the Potential Biodiversity Index (PBI). These site assessments by PBI may reveal the positive impact of the LTI edges in developing biodiversity. We may establish that there is a positive impact of LTIs edges for ecological restoration and revegetation in an urban context.

348Title in Chinese

349线性交通基础设施是否为城市生物多样性提供了潜在的走廊以法国大巴黎地区为例

350Abstract in Chinese

351最近科学研究强调了线性运输基础设施LTI对生物多样性影响越来越大而这一影响可能是负面的也可能是正面的。越来越多的科学和技术知识可以帮助指导恢复生物多样性的实践,尤其是在城市地区。本研究探讨了一种综合方法,用于估测大巴黎地区(法国)LTI沿线地区潜在生物多样性的恢复潜力。我们的工作包括详细记录和分析该地区北部森林的两条LTI沿线地区潜在生物多样性指数PBI。该研究涉及Natura 2000地区,La Poudrerie Park,对所研究的33公顷土地进行了总共84次调查。我们为研究LTI沿线地点,在这一交通走廊中选择了84个站点,并对每个站点进行了生物多样性参数评估。这些参数与功能特征相关,可以用于确定潜在生物多样性指数(PBI)。 PBI的实地评估一定程度上揭示了LTI沿线地带在发展生物多样性方面的积极影响。我们可以确定LTI沿线地带对城市环境中的生态恢复和植被恢复有积极影响。

Pierre Navarith Ratsombath, Gilles Morel, Hipolito Martell-Flores et Maxime Berton. Modélisation de la pollution particulaire liée au trafic routier à l’échelle de la rue et étude des leviers d’atténuation

352Article 802

353Title in English

354Modelling of particulate matter pollution from road traffic at the street scale and assessment of mitigation levers

355Abstract in English

356In recent years, many studies have shown a link between the level of particulate matter (PM) pollution in big cities and various health problems, including a large number of cardiorespiratory diseases such as asthma or lung cancer. In order to know to what extent proximity to PM pollution is involved in these diseases and how to efficiently reduce the impact of this pollution, the University of Technology of Compiègne, the University of Pierre and Marie Curie and the INSERM (Institut National de Santé Et Recherche Médicale) have launched the Partless project. This project aims at modelling particle matter dispersion in an urban area and its consequences on human health. This paper focuses on a new approach of the emission model that consists in fitting together different existing methods. This will allow us to assess the benefits and disadvantages of several combinations of PM pollution mitigation levers in a street of Paris. The wide-ranging levers are related to engine combustion, urban morphology and vehicles circulation strategies.

357Title in Chinese

358街道尺度的交通颗粒物污染建模以及对降低污染的方法的评估

359Abstract in Chinese

360近年来许多研究表明大城市的颗粒物(PM)污染水平与各种健康问题之间存在联系包括众多心肺疾病如哮喘或肺癌。为了解多大程度上这些疾病与接触PM污染相关联以及如何有效减少这种污染的影响,the University of Technology of Compiègne,皮埃尔和玛丽居里大学(the University of Pierre and Marie Curie)以及国家健康与医疗研究所(INSERM)推出了Partless项目。该项目旨在模拟城市地区的颗粒物质扩散及其对人类健康的影响。本文重点介绍了建立排放物模型的一种新方法,该方法综合了现存的几种模型。该方法使我们能够评估巴黎街道上缓解颗粒物污染的几种方法组合的利弊。各种不同的应对方法与发动机燃烧,城市形态和车辆流通策略(vehicles circulation strategies)有关。

Johnny Douvinet, Béatrice Gisclard, Jules Sekedoua Kouadio, Clotilde Saint-Martin et Gilles Martin. Une place pour les technologies smartphones et les Réseaux Sociaux Numériques (RSN) dans les dispositifs institutionnels de l’alerte aux inondations en France ?

361Article 801

362Title in English

363A place for smartphone technologies and Digital Social Networks (DNS) in institutional flood warning systems in France?

364Abstract in English

365Information given on flash floods in real time should undoubtedly correspond to the citizens needs as well as to the politics and the safety guidelines. To supply this objective, Numerical Social Networks (NSN) and smartphone applications could positively complete the official institutional system, especially by means of the dynamic nature of shared contents, and with the social interactions they support. Nonetheless, even if several countries (United States or Philippines for example) already use these systems to warn the population in case of future floods, and even if the French government launched a specific app the 2016 June 8th (namely SAIP), the French citizens and stakeholders do not always use them during the alert process. This is generally explained by the French protection system on individual data, the lack of validation over information shared by citizens in real time and by the technical locks the official services have to remove. Then this paper aims to address the benefits and limits from the use of NSN and smartphones during flood warnings in France, to discuss their place in relation to existing mechanisms and to identify research avenues that could be explored by scientists, going beyond a simple contextual opportunity.

366Title in Chinese

367智能手机技术和数字社交网络(DNS)在法国洪水预警的制度安排中是否占有一席之地

368Abstract in Chinese

369实时提供洪水爆发的信息无疑应契合公民的需求以及政治和安全准则。为了实现这一目标得益于共享内容的动态性质以及它们所支持的社交互动数字社交网络NSN和智能手机应用程序可以作为官方制度化的系统之外的有效补充。尽管有几个国家(例如美国或菲律宾)已投入使用该系统用以在未来洪水爆发时警告相关人口,并且法国政府在2016年6月8日推出了一个特定的应用程序(即SAIP),法国公民及其他利益相关者并不总是在警报过程中使用它们。这一现象通常可以由几个原因来解释:法国的个人数据保护系统的存在,对公民实时共享信息的不信任,对国际标准的漠视,以及官方服务必须删除的技术锁。其次,本文旨在指出在洪水警报期间使用NSN和智能手机的优点和限制,讨论其在当前系统当中的位置,并尝试指出科学家可以超越特定的情境机遇进行进一步探索的研究领域。

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« Cybergeo en chinois », Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography [En ligne], Débats, Chronique Chinoise, mis en ligne le 27 novembre 2018, consulté le 20 janvier 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/29317

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