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Cyprien Richer, Etienne Come, Mohamed Khalil El Mahrsi et Latifa Oukhellou. La mobilité intermodale par les données billettiques. Analyses spatio-temporelles du réseau bus-métro de Rennes Métropole

1Article 854

2Title in English

3Intermodal mobility analysis with smart-card data. Spatio-temporal analysis of the bus-metro network of Rennes metropole

4Abstract in English

5This paper aims to analyse the intermodal practices of mobility in the bus-metro network of Rennes metropole. Intermodality being strongly linked to the use of urban public transport networks, the Rennes Métropole bus and metro network data provided by Keolis-Rennes provides a very significant part of daily intermodality. To compensate for the lack of information on destinations and correspondances in the ticketing data a reconstruction of trips was made on the basis of hypotheses provided by the literature. The research carried out in the "Mobilletic" project considerably deepened the understanding of the temporal and spatial dimensions of intermodal mobility within Rennes Métropole’s urban public transport network.

6Title in Chinese

7通过智能公交卡分析多式联运——雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络的时空模型分析

8Abstract in Chinese

9本论文旨在分析研究雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络的多式联运。由于联运需要充分利用城市公共交通系统,由法国凯奥雷斯集团(雷恩)提供的雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络运行数据包含非常重要的日常联运数据。尽管智能卡数据不能提供行程目的地的和换乘信息,我们在由文献得出的假设的基础上重构了行程和目的地的模型。雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络多式联运的时空分析在学术上具有重要的意义,"Mobilletic"研究项目增强了我们对该研究领域的理解和分析。

Aurélien Martineau et Mathilde Plard. Les personnes âgées immigrées à l’épreuve du Successful Aging

10Revue de littérature sur les conditions de vieillissement des migrants âgés en France

11Article 853

12Title in English

13Are elderly immigrants meeting the challenges of successful aging? Review of literature on the aging of elderly migrants in France

14Abstract in English

15Since the mid-20th century, scientists have constantly examined the conditions for healthy aging. Successful Aging as a paradigm has gradually spread far beyond the scientific sphere. Access to « successful-aging » has become a collective purpose as a policy reference in our contemporary societies. As people get older in their host country, immigrants have to conform to the dominant gerontological models. Therefore, the « success » of elderly migrants’ aging in France represents a political and public health objective. This article aims at examining the links between migration and aging in order to better understand the social and spatial issues associated with the elderly immigrants « successful-aging » in France. To deal with this problem, a literature review on the aging conditions of immigrants in France (based on a corpus of 75 references) was completed. This article combines the results of this state of the art by analyzing the situations of elderly migrants through two of the main components of Successful Aging (1. Their health status and 2. Their social networks and commitment in social life)). The results demonstrate that the « success » of aging is more complex for elderly migrants compared to the normative ideal of « successful-aging ». While it is necessary to avoid a generalized view of their situations, the living conditions in France and the discontinuities encountered expose some of these groups to significant difficulties in old age. Research in geography is necessary to spatialize the different aging experiences of immigrants within their own territories.

16Title in Chinese

17老年移民面临“成功老化”的挑战?关于法国老年外来移民老龄化情况的文献综述

18Abstract in Chinese

19自从20世纪中期以来,科学家持续地进行了关于健康老化的研究。成功老化作为一种范式自从传播至科研之外的领域。普及“成功老化”因此也成为了当代社会的政策目标。移民在其所生活的国家逐渐步入老年,他们的老化过程也必须适应该国的老化模式。因此移民的成功老化成为法国的政治目标和公共健康的重要议题。本文旨在探索移民与老化之间的联系,从而加深关于移民“成功老化”的社会与空间要素的理解。针对该问题本文完成了一份关于法国移民老化的文献综述(基于75份参考文献)。本文总结了当前的研究成果,并从“成功老化”的两个基本点进行分析 (1.他们的健康状况;2.他们的社交网络与参与社交活动的状况)。研究结论证明移民的成功老化较之规范性的成功老化理想状况远为复杂。我们应该避免对移民老化的一种普遍化的认识,在法的生活状况与移民群体日常经历的不连续性使他们在老年时遇到相当多的困难。地理学科在该领域的研究当中必不可少,因为地理学能为我们提供一种空间的视角,从空间的角度分析移民在他们所在的区域的迥异的老化经历。

Jose Maria Feria Toribio, Gwendoline De Oliveira Neves et Claudia Hurtado Rodriguez. Une méthode pour la délimitation des aires métropolitaines. Application au système urbain espagnol

20Article 852

21Title in English

22A methodological essay for the definition of Spanish metropolitan areas

23Abstract in English

24This paper presents a detailed methodological proposal for the definition of Spanish metropolitan areas. The methodology is based upon a key variable, commuting, which is highly used internationally, and it is applied to 2011 census data. The contribution of the article deals with two questions : firstly, the explanation and detailed discussion of all the steps and decisions taken in the delimitation process, and secondly, a comparison between the results obtained and those produced by the delimitation of the OECD and the INE-Urban Audit. The conclusions demonstrate both the robustness of the methodological process adopted for delimiting metropolitan areas and the need to add morphological data in order to consider the new forms and organization of contemporary metropolitan areas.

25Title in Chinese

26方法论——定义西班牙都市圈

27Abstract in Chinese

28本文具体提出定义西班牙都市圈的一种方法。该方法论建立在通勤状况这一关键的变量上。通勤状况被国际学术界广泛采用作为界定都市圈的切入点,这一方法也适用于2011年西班牙的普查数据。本文的主要贡献在于解决了两个问题:首先,本文解释了界定都市圈过程当中的所有步骤和所做的选择;其次,本文比较了由该方法得出的结论和由OECD和INE-Urban Audit所做出的界定。结论证明了本文所提出的定义方法具有稳健性,另外本文也指出该方法仍需纳入形态学数据从而能够补充完善当代都市圈的新的型态和组织方式。

Nicolas Verdier et Ludovic Chalonge. La question des échelles en géohistoire. Les bureaux de la poste aux lettres du XVIIIe siècle à nos jours

29Article 851

30Title in English

31The issue of scales in geohistory. Post offices from the 18th century to the present day

32Abstract in English

33Starting from a practice of research that has been going back for years on the question of the use of scales in geohistorical works, this text offers a reflection on the plays of scale, as well as on the question of the MAUP (modifiable areal unit problem). By studying the history of the distribution of post offices in France during the last three centuries, it is a question of trying to place the questioning on the scale at the same level as those relating to space and time when studying social facts. In this framework, we offer to go through the idea of “scalable scalar profiles”, not only to insist on the necessary variations of scale in the analysis of spatio-temporal phenomena, but also to try to define evolutionary spatial templates to enable the widest possible understanding of processes.

34Title in Chinese

35从 18世纪至今的邮局看地史学中的尺度问题

36Abstract in Chinese

37有关地史学中的尺度问题的研究已开展了多年,本文回顾了在地史学中尺度这一概念的运用以及可调整地区单元问题(MAUP)。要研究法国过去三个世纪以来邮局分布的历史,一个重要的问题是要将尺度放置于与空间和时间同等重要的地位,从而能更好地反映社会现实。在此框架下,我们检验了“可缩放尺度模型 (scalable scalar profiles)”,本文不仅坚持在分析时空现象时运用不同的尺度,并且我们尝试运用开创性的空间模板从而提供对过程的更全面的理解。

Farid Rahal, Zahra Hadjou, Nadège Blond et Rahim Aguejdad. Croissance urbaine, mobilité et émissions de polluants atmosphériques dans la région d’Oran, Algérie

38Article 850

39Title in English

40Urban Growth, Mobility and Emissions of Air Pollutants in the Oran Region, Algeria

41Abstract in English

42Urbanism and mobility strongly constrain present and future environmental conditions in large urban centers. The disorganized expansion of Algerian cities now creates multiple risks related to the transport sector. Air pollution is one of those risks.
The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for assessing air pollutant emissions from road traffic. The methodology is based on a coupling between GIS and deterministic modeling to better represent the spatio-temporal distribution of emissions.
It is applied to the city of Oran in Algeria, which shows that the growth of the urban fabric, and in particular its peripheral spreading over the period 1966-2015, has led to a transfer of population from the city center to the peripheral poles of Bir El Djir, Es Sénia and Sidi Chahmi. This spread is confirmed by the study of a chronological series of satellite images.
This evolution of the urban form generates a greater need for mobility and aggravates the circulation and congestion problems of fossil-fueled vehicles that are sources of significant polluting emissions whose negative impact on health and environment is no longer to prove.
The implementation of a pollutant emissions cadastre is an essential step in order to evaluate the air quality in the Oran region. These emissions are here quantified in time and space thanks to the application of the EMISENS model, based on vehicle counts.
Given the evolution of the urban fabric and transport, these emissions should continue to increase because of the mobility needs induced by the uninterrupted spread of the city and by the high attractiveness of the city center to the Oran agglomeration citizens.

43Title in Chinese

44阿尔及利亚奥兰地区的城市增长,交通和大气污染物排放

45Abstract in Chinese

46城市化与交通极大地限制了大都市当今与未来的环境状况。阿尔及利亚城市的无序扩张造成了与交通相关的许多风险。其中空气污染是较为突出的一个。此项研究的目的是建立一套评估交通污染的方法 。为更好地呈现污染排放的时空分布,该方法结合地理信息系统(GIS)与确定性建模(deterministic modeling)。

47本文将该方法运用于阿尔及利亚奥兰地区,结果显示奥兰地区城市增长,尤其是1966年至2015年间城市边际的扩张已经使城市人口逐渐从中心城区转移至城市边缘的Bir El Djir, Es Sénia 和 Sidi Chahmi。通过对一系列不同时序的卫星图片的研究进一步证实了这一人口转移。

48城市形态的转变带来了对交通的需求,也恶化了机动车的拥堵问题。而这些使用化石燃料的机动车是空气污染物的主要来源,它们所造成的空气污染对人体和环境的危害无需赘述。

49污染排放物地籍的实施是评估奥兰地区空气质量的重要的举措。基于机动车数据的EMISENS模型从时间有空间两个角度量化了污染排放。

50基于城市结构与交通状况的转变,一方面持续扩张的城市带来新的交通需求,另一方面奥兰的中心城区保持其对居民的吸引力,由此可见奥兰地区的污染排放将持续上升。

Virginie Mobillion. Idéologie et pouvoirs en République Démocratique Populaire Lao. Enseignements tirés d’une lecture géographique du système de soins

51Article 849

52Title in English

53Ideology and powers in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Lessons from a geographical reading of the health-care system

54Abstract in English

55Since 1975, Laos is a People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R) with a socialist political line while also using authoritarian practices. This political regime is distinct by its opening to a market economy in the early 1980s. In this context, we consider ways of coexisting and potential links between authoritarianism, socialism and economic liberalization. The article offers to study this issue in Vientiane, the political and economic capital, through the analysis of the health-care system. As a state apparatus and a permeable device to political and economic developments, the health care system is able to reveal the power and expectations of the political sphere and the relationships between public and private actors. The proposed geographical approach is based on two complementary analyses: on one hand the development of the health-care system (public, private, traditional) as it was conceived and framed in the capital city, and on the other hand the spatial organization of health care provision and planning. A short socialist period providing for the development and the supervision of a large network of care is opposed to a rapid and liberal economic shift, in which the public care system is neglected by public authorities and private providers serving their own interests and by the same token the legitimacy of the leaders.

56Title in Chinese

57从医疗系统的地理分布看老挝人民民主共和国的意识形态与权力关系 

58Abstract in Chinese

59自1975年以来,老挝人民民主共和国结合了社会主义的政治传统与威权注意的政治实践。1980年老挝向市场经济转型之后,其政治体系凸显了其独特性。在这一背景之下,我们思考威权主义,社会主义和经济自由化是否能够共存,以及他们之间的潜在联系。本文通过研究老挝的政治与经济首都万象的医疗系统为此研究问题提供一个独特的视角。作为国家机器的重要组成部分,医疗系统受到政治与经济发展的渗透与影响,因此对医疗系统的研究也能揭示政治领域的权力结构和既定目标,以及公共部门与私营部门之间的关系。本文所提出的地理学方法基于两种分析方法:一方面分析医疗体系(公共的,私营的,传统的)的发展是如何被设计以适应首都的状况的,另一方面分析医疗服务的提供与规划的空间组织形式。本文将社会主义时期与之后的自由经济转型期相对照。在较短的一段社会主义时期,政府发展了大规模的医疗系统网络,而在经济转型期政府忽视公共医疗体系的发展,而私营医疗服务机构以逐利为主要目标,由此削弱了政治领导者的公信力。

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« Cybergeo en chinois », Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography [En ligne], Débats, Chronique Chinoise, mis en ligne le 08 septembre 2018, consulté le 24 septembre 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/29317

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