Navigation – Plan du site
Chronique Chinoise

Cybergeo en chinois

Cybergeo in Chinese language
Cybergeo中文版

Résumés

Nous publions ici la traduction chinoise des titres et des résumés des articles récemment publiés dans la revue

Haut de page

Plan

Haut de page

Texte intégral

Cyprien Richer, Etienne Come, Mohamed Khalil El Mahrsi et Latifa Oukhellou. La mobilité intermodale par les données billettiques. Analyses spatio-temporelles du réseau bus-métro de Rennes Métropole

1Article 854

2Title in English

3Intermodal mobility analysis with smart-card data. Spatio-temporal analysis of the bus-metro network of Rennes metropole

4Abstract in English

5This paper aims to analyse the intermodal practices of mobility in the bus-metro network of Rennes metropole. Intermodality being strongly linked to the use of urban public transport networks, the Rennes Métropole bus and metro network data provided by Keolis-Rennes provides a very significant part of daily intermodality. To compensate for the lack of information on destinations and correspondances in the ticketing data a reconstruction of trips was made on the basis of hypotheses provided by the literature. The research carried out in the "Mobilletic" project considerably deepened the understanding of the temporal and spatial dimensions of intermodal mobility within Rennes Métropole’s urban public transport network.

6Title in Chinese

7通过智能公交卡分析多式联运——雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络的时空模型分析

8Abstract in Chinese

9本论文旨在分析研究雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络的多式联运。由于联运需要充分利用城市公共交通系统,由法国凯奥雷斯集团(雷恩)提供的雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络运行数据包含非常重要的日常联运数据。尽管智能卡数据不能提供行程目的地和换乘信息,我们在由文献得出的假设的基础上重构了行程和目的地的模型。雷恩都市圈地铁公交网络多式联运的时空分析在学术上具有重要的意义,"Mobilletic"研究项目增强了我们对该研究领域的理解和分析。

Aurélien Martineau et Mathilde Plard. Les personnes âgées immigrées à l’épreuve du Successful Aging

10Revue de littérature sur les conditions de vieillissement des migrants âgés en France

11Article 853

12Title in English

13Are elderly immigrants meeting the challenges of successful aging? Review of literature on the aging of elderly migrants in France

14Abstract in English

15Since the mid-20th century, scientists have constantly examined the conditions for healthy aging. Successful Aging as a paradigm has gradually spread far beyond the scientific sphere. Access to « successful-aging » has become a collective purpose as a policy reference in our contemporary societies. As people get older in their host country, immigrants have to conform to the dominant gerontological models. Therefore, the « success » of elderly migrants’ aging in France represents a political and public health objective. This article aims at examining the links between migration and aging in order to better understand the social and spatial issues associated with the elderly immigrants « successful-aging » in France. To deal with this problem, a literature review on the aging conditions of immigrants in France (based on a corpus of 75 references) was completed. This article combines the results of this state of the art by analyzing the situations of elderly migrants through two of the main components of Successful Aging (1. Their health status and 2. Their social networks and commitment in social life)). The results demonstrate that the « success » of aging is more complex for elderly migrants compared to the normative ideal of « successful-aging ». While it is necessary to avoid a generalized view of their situations, the living conditions in France and the discontinuities encountered expose some of these groups to significant difficulties in old age. Research in geography is necessary to spatialize the different aging experiences of immigrants within their own territories.

16Title in Chinese

17老年移民面临“成功老化”的挑战?关于法国老年外来移民老龄化情况的文献综述

18Abstract in Chinese

19自从20世纪中期以来,科学家持续地进行了关于健康老化的研究。成功老化作为一种范式自从传播至科研之外的领域。普及“成功老化”因此也成为了当代社会的政策目标。移民在其所生活的国家逐渐步入老年,他们的老化过程也必须适应该国的老化模式。因此移民的成功老化成为法国的政治目标和公共健康的重要议题。本文旨在探索移民与老化之间的联系,从而加深关于移民“成功老化”的社会与空间要素的理解。针对该问题本文完成了一份关于法国移民老化的文献综述(基于75份参考文献)。本文总结了当前的研究成果,并从“成功老化”的两个基本点进行分析 (1.他们的健康状况;2.他们的社交网络与参与社交活动的状况)。研究结论证明移民的成功老化较之规范性的成功老化理想状况远为复杂。我们应该避免对移民老化的一种普遍化的认识,在法的生活状况与移民群体日常经历的不连续性使他们在老年时遇到相当多的困难。地理学科在该领域的研究当中必不可少,因为地理学能为我们提供一种空间的视角,从空间的角度分析移民在他们所在的区域的迥异的老化经历。

Jose Maria Feria Toribio, Gwendoline De Oliveira Neves et Claudia Hurtado Rodriguez. Une méthode pour la délimitation des aires métropolitaines. Application au système urbain espagnol

20Article 852

21Title in English

22A methodological essay for the definition of Spanish metropolitan areas

23Abstract in English

24This paper presents a detailed methodological proposal for the definition of Spanish metropolitan areas. The methodology is based upon a key variable, commuting, which is highly used internationally, and it is applied to 2011 census data. The contribution of the article deals with two questions : firstly, the explanation and detailed discussion of all the steps and decisions taken in the delimitation process, and secondly, a comparison between the results obtained and those produced by the delimitation of the OECD and the INE-Urban Audit. The conclusions demonstrate both the robustness of the methodological process adopted for delimiting metropolitan areas and the need to add morphological data in order to consider the new forms and organization of contemporary metropolitan areas.

25Title in Chinese

26方法论——定义西班牙都市圈

27Abstract in Chinese

28本文具体提出定义西班牙都市圈的一种方法。该方法论建立在通勤状况这一关键的变量上。通勤状况被国际学术界广泛采用作为界定都市圈的切入点,这一方法也适用于2011年西班牙的普查数据。本文的主要贡献在于解决了两个问题:首先,本文解释了界定都市圈过程当中的所有步骤和所做的选择;其次,本文比较了由该方法得出的结论和由OECD和INE-Urban Audit所做出的界定。结论证明了本文所提出的定义方法具有稳健性,另外本文也指出该方法仍需纳入形态学数据从而能够补充完善当代都市圈的新的型态和组织方式。

Nicolas Verdier et Ludovic Chalonge. La question des échelles en géohistoire. Les bureaux de la poste aux lettres du XVIIIe siècle à nos jours

29Article 851

30Title in English

31The issue of scales in geohistory. Post offices from the 18th century to the present day

32Abstract in English

33Starting from a practice of research that has been going back for years on the question of the use of scales in geohistorical works, this text offers a reflection on the plays of scale, as well as on the question of the MAUP (modifiable areal unit problem). By studying the history of the distribution of post offices in France during the last three centuries, it is a question of trying to place the questioning on the scale at the same level as those relating to space and time when studying social facts. In this framework, we offer to go through the idea of “scalable scalar profiles”, not only to insist on the necessary variations of scale in the analysis of spatio-temporal phenomena, but also to try to define evolutionary spatial templates to enable the widest possible understanding of processes.

34Title in Chinese

35从 18世纪至今的邮局看地史学中的尺度问题

36Abstract in Chinese

37有关地史学中的尺度问题的研究已开展了多年,本文回顾了在地史学中尺度这一概念的运用以及可调整地区单元问题(MAUP)。要研究法国过去三个世纪以来邮局分布的历史,一个重要的问题是要将尺度放置于与空间和时间同等重要的地位,从而能更好地反映社会现实。在此框架下,我们检验了“可缩放尺度模型 (scalable scalar profiles)”,本文不仅坚持在分析时空现象时运用不同的尺度,并且我们尝试运用开创性的空间模板从而提供对过程的更全面的理解。

Farid Rahal, Zahra Hadjou, Nadège Blond et Rahim Aguejdad. Croissance urbaine, mobilité et émissions de polluants atmosphériques dans la région d’Oran, Algérie

38Article 850

39Title in English

40Urban Growth, Mobility and Emissions of Air Pollutants in the Oran Region, Algeria

41Abstract in English

42Urbanism and mobility strongly constrain present and future environmental conditions in large urban centers. The disorganized expansion of Algerian cities now creates multiple risks related to the transport sector. Air pollution is one of those risks.
The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for assessing air pollutant emissions from road traffic. The methodology is based on a coupling between GIS and deterministic modeling to better represent the spatio-temporal distribution of emissions.
It is applied to the city of Oran in Algeria, which shows that the growth of the urban fabric, and in particular its peripheral spreading over the period 1966-2015, has led to a transfer of population from the city center to the peripheral poles of Bir El Djir, Es Sénia and Sidi Chahmi. This spread is confirmed by the study of a chronological series of satellite images.
This evolution of the urban form generates a greater need for mobility and aggravates the circulation and congestion problems of fossil-fueled vehicles that are sources of significant polluting emissions whose negative impact on health and environment is no longer to prove.
The implementation of a pollutant emissions cadastre is an essential step in order to evaluate the air quality in the Oran region. These emissions are here quantified in time and space thanks to the application of the EMISENS model, based on vehicle counts.
Given the evolution of the urban fabric and transport, these emissions should continue to increase because of the mobility needs induced by the uninterrupted spread of the city and by the high attractiveness of the city center to the Oran agglomeration citizens.

43Title in Chinese

44阿尔及利亚奥兰地区的城市增长,交通和大气污染物排放

45Abstract in Chinese

46城市化与交通极大地限制了大都市当今与未来的环境状况。阿尔及利亚城市的无序扩张造成了与交通相关的许多风险。其中空气污染是较为突出的一个。此项研究的目的是建立一套评估交通污染的方法 。为更好地呈现污染排放的时空分布,该方法结合地理信息系统(GIS)与确定性建模(deterministic modeling)。

47本文将该方法运用于阿尔及利亚奥兰地区,结果显示奥兰地区城市增长,尤其是1966年至2015年间城市边际的扩张已经使城市人口逐渐从中心城区转移至城市边缘的Bir El Djir, Es Sénia 和 Sidi Chahmi。通过对一系列不同时序的卫星图片的研究进一步证实了这一人口转移。

48城市形态的转变带来了对交通的需求,也恶化了机动车的拥堵问题。而这些使用化石燃料的机动车是空气污染物的主要来源,它们所造成的空气污染对人体和环境的危害无需赘述。

49污染排放物地籍的实施是评估奥兰地区空气质量的重要的举措。基于机动车数据的EMISENS模型从时间有空间两个角度量化了污染排放。

50基于城市结构与交通状况的转变,一方面持续扩张的城市带来新的交通需求,另一方面奥兰的中心城区保持其对居民的吸引力,由此可见奥兰地区的污染排放将持续上升。

Virginie Mobillion. Idéologie et pouvoirs en République Démocratique Populaire Lao. Enseignements tirés d’une lecture géographique du système de soins

51Article 849

52Title in English

53Ideology and powers in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Lessons from a geographical reading of the health-care system

54Abstract in English

55Since 1975, Laos is a People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R) with a socialist political line while also using authoritarian practices. This political regime is distinct by its opening to a market economy in the early 1980s. In this context, we consider ways of coexisting and potential links between authoritarianism, socialism and economic liberalization. The article offers to study this issue in Vientiane, the political and economic capital, through the analysis of the health-care system. As a state apparatus and a permeable device to political and economic developments, the health care system is able to reveal the power and expectations of the political sphere and the relationships between public and private actors. The proposed geographical approach is based on two complementary analyses: on one hand the development of the health-care system (public, private, traditional) as it was conceived and framed in the capital city, and on the other hand the spatial organization of health care provision and planning. A short socialist period providing for the development and the supervision of a large network of care is opposed to a rapid and liberal economic shift, in which the public care system is neglected by public authorities and private providers serving their own interests and by the same token the legitimacy of the leaders.

56Title in Chinese

57从医疗系统的地理分布看老挝人民民主共和国的意识形态与权力关系 

58Abstract in Chinese

59自1975年以来,老挝人民民主共和国结合了社会主义的政治传统与威权注意的政治实践。1980年老挝向市场经济转型之后,其政治体系凸显了其独特性。在这一背景之下,我们思考威权主义,社会主义和经济自由化是否能够共存,以及他们之间的潜在联系。本文通过研究老挝的政治与经济首都万象的医疗系统为此研究问题提供一个独特的视角。作为国家机器的重要组成部分,医疗系统受到政治与经济发展的渗透与影响,因此对医疗系统的研究也能揭示政治领域的权力结构和既定目标,以及公共部门与私营部门之间的关系。本文所提出的地理学方法基于两种分析方法:一方面分析医疗体系(公共的,私营的,传统的)的发展是如何被设计以适应首都的状况的,另一方面分析医疗服务的提供与规划的空间组织形式。本文将社会主义时期与之后的自由经济转型期相对照。在较短的一段社会主义时期,政府发展了大规模的医疗系统网络,而在经济转型期政府忽视公共医疗体系的发展,而私营医疗服务机构以逐利为主要目标,由此削弱了政治领导者的公信力。

Frédéric Roulier. Une adaptation de la régression bidimensionnelle aux polygones : un exemple en cognition spatiale

60Article 848

61Title in English

62One way of adapting bidimensional regression to polygons: an example with spatial cognition

63Abstract in English

64Bidimensional regression is a statistical method used to compare two surfaces. It is based on the adjustment of the positions of two clouds of homologous points structuring the two surfaces to compare. The results of the bidimensional regression only concern the clouds of points in question. The article presents a method to extend the results to polygons, especially in a mapping context. For this purpose, it complements the bidimensional regression by two successive interpolations. To illustrate its possibilities, the method is applied to the mapping of cognitive representations of forest fragments in Thiérache (France).

65Title in Chinese

66改进二维回归分析使试用与多边形的一种方法一个有关空间认知的例子

67Abstract in Chinese

68二维回归是一种比较两个平面的统计学方法。该方法调整两个由星云状的点组成的平面进行比较。二维回归的结果只涉及了组成平面的点。本文介绍了一种将结果扩展到多边形的方法,尤其能够被用于制图的过程中。 为此,它通过两个连续的插值来补充二维回归。 为了说明其可行性,本文应用该方法绘制了Thiérache(法国)的森林碎片化的认知表征(cognitive representation)。

Manuel Fuenzalida, Santiago Linares et Victor Cobs. Intra-territorial inequalities in children’s hospital admissions in the Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile

69Article 845

70Abstract in English

71This paper aims to unveil the behavior of inequalities in health among the children population according to socioeconomic groups living in the same territory. The main purpose of the research is to determine if hospital admissions for respiratory diseases present evidence of unequal effects on morbidity of the resident population in the municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile (MAS). The entropy index is used in order to present socio-spatial inequalities, proportional differences between mutually exclusive groups, and redistribution potential. Simultaneous observation of the spatial distribution of multiple socioeconomic groups within a territory provides a new lens for approaching the recent studies of inequality in the MAS, and allows to overcome an analysis based only on two antagonistic groups.

72The main findings show inequality of health damage in residents of different municipalities in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile. The data shows how the place of residence influences the health inequalities experienced, finding the following configurations: territorial balance; territorial imbalance; territorial inequality; extreme territorial inequality. The differences found in the proportionality of hospital admissions, according to the socioeconomic group do not follow a uniform trend in favor of least vulnerable groups.

73Title in Chinese

74智利圣地亚哥都市区区域内儿童入院的不平等现象

75Abstract in Chinese

76本文旨在根据居住在同一地区的社会经济群体揭示儿童人口中健康状况不平等的现象。该研究以智利圣地亚哥都市区Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile, MAS为研究样本主要目的是确定呼吸道疾病的住院记录是否反映了不同城市居民人口中病况的不平等现象。熵指数用于表示社会与地域的不平等互斥群体之间的比例差异以及再分配潜力。

77同时观察一个区域内多个社会经济群体的空间分布为圣地亚哥的不平等研究提供了新的视角并且能够克服仅基于两个拮抗群体的分析。

78主要调查结果显示,智利圣地亚哥都市区下辖的不同城市的居民健康状况存在不平等。数据显示居住地如何影响了健康状况的不平等,显示出以下特征:地域平衡; 地域不平衡; 地域不平等;极端的地域不平等。根据社会经济群体的不同,医院入院比例存在差异,但弱势群体并非总是最容易入院的人群。

Vinicius M. Netto, João Vitor Meirelles, Maíra Pinheiro et Henrique Lorea. A temporal geography of encounters

79Article 844

80Abstract in English

81Integrating social and spatial networks will be critical to new approaches to cities as systems of interaction. In this paper, we focus on the spatial and temporal conditions of encounters as a key condition for the formation of social networks. Drawing on classic approaches such as Freeman’s concept of segregation as ‘restriction on contact’, Hägerstrand’s time-geography, and recent explorations of social media locational data, we analysed the space-time structure of potential encounters latent in the urban trajectories of people with different income levels in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This approach allows us to estimate trajectories examining spatiotemporal positions in tweets, and assess spaces of potential encounter and levels of social diversity on the streets. Finally, we discuss the utility and limitations of an approach developed to grasp how clusters of encounters between groups with different income levels are produced.

82Title in Chinese

83相遇encounters的时间地理研究

84Abstract in Chinese

85在城市作为互动系统的新方法中整合社会和地域网络对于城市至关重要。 在本文中我们将重点放在个体间相遇encounters的空间和时间条件上作为社交网络形成的关键条件。 本文建立在一些经典的研究方法例如弗里曼 (Freeman)将社会隔离定义为接触限制 restriction on contactHägerstrand的时间地理以及近来对社交媒体位置数据的研究。我们分析了巴西里约热内卢的不同收入水平人群在城市轨迹中相遇的时空结构。 这种方法使我们能够估计推文中时空位置的轨迹,并评估不同个体在城市中相遇的空间性,和社会多样性的水平。 最后,我们讨论了一种方法的效用和局限性,该方法用于研究不同收入水平的群体之间如何产生稳定的相遇群系(clusters of encounters)。

Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch, Olivier Ninot et Emma Thébault. Watch this space! A Visual Essay on vacant land in Cape Town

86Article 843

87Abstract in English

88Vacant land has recently mostly attracted interest for its ecological and social importance, or its planning possibilities. In this paper, we investigate vacant land in a fast-growing city in an emerging country, namely Cape Town in South Africa. In so doing, we are also pleading for vacant land to be taken seriously as a theoretical notion. When investigating urban fragmentation, we need to examine what lies (and happens) between the urban splinters. We therefore use the Cape Town case as a lens to propose a working definition of vacant land (as space out of place that disrupts the urban fabric and its logic) and visual methods with which to approach it.

89Title in Chinese

90小心这个地方开普敦空置土地的可视化论文

91Abstract in Chinese

92近来空置土地引起了人们的兴趣其生态和社会重要性以及其规划可能性受到很多关注。 在本文中我们研究了新兴国家的处于快速发展中的城市即南非的开普敦的空置土地的状况。我们强调空置土地作为理论概念的重要性。 在研究城市碎片化时,我们需要检验城市碎片之间的存在(和发生的事)。 因此,开普敦案例为我们提供了一个视角,我们在此基础上提出空置土地的定义(错置了的扰乱城市结构及其逻辑的空间)和理解它的视觉方法。

Antoine Fleury. Les périurbains et leurs espaces publics : enquête sur les franges nord de la métropole parisienne

93Title in English

94Suburbanites and public spaces. A survey on the Northern fringes of Paris

95Article 841

96Abstract in English

97Peri urban areas are often viewed as spaces without city life due to a lack of public space. However, a lot of recent studies show that these areas are increasingly diverse and tend to become spaces of social practices. Based on a survey in the Northern fringes of the Parisian metropolis, this article analyses the inhabitant’s practices and representations in order to identify spaces which they use as public spaces, at some point or another. It presents the various types of practiced public spaces, both in terms of form and in terms of public interaction, and points out social differences in using public spaces. To summarize, the article shows that suburbanites in the Northern fringes of Paris use and visit diversified public spaces, according to practices and representations that combine, and at times oppose, geographical proximity versus distance, city versus countryside, quest of ‘nature’ versus ‘otherness’.

98Title in Chinese

99郊区居民与郊区的公共空间 巴黎北部边缘地区的一项调研

100Abstract in Chinese

101由于缺乏公共空间城市周边地区通常被认为没有城市生活。 然而最近的许多研究表明这些领域越来越多样化正在成为社会活动的空间。 根据巴黎大都市北部边缘地区的一项调查本文分析居民的活动和感知从而鉴别出在不同时间点被他们用作公共空间的空间。本文呈现了在形式和公共互动等方面各异的多种类型的公共空间并指出了使用公共空间的社会差异。 总而言之本文显示巴黎北部的郊区居民使用和访问多元化的公共空间。而公共空间的实践和感知有时使地理距离上的邻近与疏远,城市与乡村,“自然”与“他者”等相互对立,然而更多的时候是使其相互结合。

Beatriz Fernández Agueda. La fabrique politique et territoriale du Grand Madrid (1900-1939)

102Article 840

103Title in English

104The political and territorial fabric of the Greater Madrid (1900-1939)

105Abstract in English

106During the first decades of the 20th century, Madrid underwent crucial socio-economic and spatial transformations which reinforced its metropolitan role. These new dynamics coexisted and came into friction with the symbolic and political functions of the national capital. This paper aims to examine the double and sometimes conflictual role of Madrid as a historical capital and an emergent metropolis. The first section focuses on the study of these urban transformations in order to better comprehend the simultaneous process of metropolitan formation and of capital assertion. The second section deals with the spatial and political projects for Madrid of Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939). Furthermore, the diffusion at the national level of the notion of Greater Madrid, which had only been employed till the 1930s by local actors, will be discusses.

107Title in Chinese

108大马德里的政治和区域结构1900-1939

109Abstract in Chinese
20世纪的前几十年马德里历经重要的社会经济和空间的变革这增强了其作为大都市的作用。 这些新的活力与其国家首都的象征和政治功能共存并也发生了冲突和摩擦。 本文旨在研究马德里作为历史首都和新兴大都市的双重角色而这双重角色很多时候是相互冲突的。 本文第一部分重点研究城市转型的过程以便更好地理解两个同时进行的过程马德里大都市的形成与确立其国家首都地位的过程。 第二部分研究第二西班牙共和国1931-1939马德里的空间和政治。 此外本文还将讨论在国家层面推广大马德里概念的问题该概念在20世纪30年代之前都仅被地方所使用。

Atika Benazzouz-Belhai et Nadia Djelal. Les résidences fermées dans les périphéries d’Alger, produits d’un impératif sécuritaire et de disparités sociales

110Article 839

111Title in English

112Gated communities in the suburbs of Algiers, products of social disparities and a security imperative

113Abstract in English

114This research aims primarily to give persuasive highlights on the context causing the proliferation of closed and secure residences, in Algiers-city, and therefore to identify their specific characteristics. The insecurity and the political unrest incurred in Algeria, and in a particular way in Algiers and its suburbs areas, during a decade between 1988 and 1997 were mainly responsible of the development of these gated communities. However, the housing crisis and the important programs of property developers are at the origin of their significant evolution and their spread out to other prefectures of Algeria. Nowadays, living in luxurious residences is a sign of belonging to a certain social rank. These communities are often criticized for being an indication of rampant social segregation and sometimes carrier of germs of spatial inequality.

115Title in Chinese

116阿尔及尔郊区的封闭式社区(gated community),社会差异和安全需求的产物

117Abstract in Chinese

118这项研究的主要目的是为阿尔及尔市的封闭和安全住宅的扩散提供有力的解释从而确定其具体特征。 1988年至1997年的十年期间阿尔及利全国的不安全环境和政治动荡以及阿尔及尔市及其郊区的特殊性是这些封闭式社区发展扩散的主要原因。 然而房地产危机和房地产开发商的重要项目是封闭式社区的重大演变的根源也导致了其扩散到阿尔及利亚的其他省份。 如今居住在豪华住宅中是某种社会地位的标志。 这些社区经常被批评为是不受限制的社会隔离的表征更有时承载了空间不平等的毒瘤。

Victor Piganiol. Instagram, outil du géographe ?

119Abstract in English

120The article raises the question of the usefulness, or lack thereof, of a social network for sharing photographs and videos in class. Instagram is indeed a global platform that is ubiquitous in the daily lives of teenagers. Every day millions of pictures are posted from anywhere on the planet. These are resources that can potentially be mobilized by a teacher. But Instagram is not just that. What is geographical about the social network and its use and daily practice ? The latter raises many questions, including that of the relationship to the space held by the individuals who use it, as well as the impression of a certain form of a-spatiality.

121Title in Chinese

122Instagram可以作为地理学的工具吗?

123Abstract in Chinese

124本文提出了一个问题在课堂上分享照片和视频形成的社交网络是否有用。 Instagram确实是在青少年日常生活中无处不在的一个全球性平台。 每天都有数百万张照片分享它们可能来自地球上的任何地方。 这些资源可以被教师利用起来。 Instagram的潜力不仅如此。社交网络及其使用和日常实践中什么是地理的 后者引出了许多问题包括社交网络与其使用者所持有空间的关系以及某种形式的去空间性a-spatiality

Dante Flavio da Costa Reis Junior. A historiography of Brazilian theoretical and quantitative geography: The “Rio Claro case”, from flourishing to fall

125Article 837

126Abstract in English

127Based on the assumption that, in local contexts, scientific progress may manifest differently, this article aims to present to the European community of geographers aspects of the so-called « neo-positivist geography » in Brazil. In the 1970s, one institution was emblematic, acting as sounding board for the pragmatic and scientific thinking of the Theoretical and Quantitative Geography in the country: the former Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters of Rio Claro, São Paulo State. We acknowledge key characters associated with this institution, who did not only engage in apologetic speech but also produced texts with reflective and applied content. Furthermore, we describe the reasons underlying reproaches endured by Brazilian theoretical geographers. The virtual heirs to a geography engaged in defending technical and linguistic accuracy found themselves acting under a condition of exclusion that soon hastened the rise of a long season of decay for the Rio Claro institution.

128Title in Chinese

129巴西理论和定量地理学的历史:里约克拉罗(Rio Claro,从繁荣到堕落

130Abstract in Chinese

131基于在一定的地域环境下科学进步可能有不同的表现的假设本文旨在向欧洲地区的地理学家介绍巴西所谓的新实证主义地理学 20世纪70年代前圣保罗州里奥克拉罗哲学科学和文学系是一个标志性的机构充当了该国理论和数量地理学的实用和科学思想的扩音器。我们提及了与该机构相关的关键人物,他们不仅参与辩护言论,而且还写作了具有反思和应用内容的文本。 此外,我们介绍了巴西理论地理学家所承受的责备背后的原因。这一捍卫技术与语言准确性的地理学流派实际上的继承者很快发现他们受到了各方的排斥,由此很快加速了里约克拉罗(Rio Claro)机构的长期衰败。

Eva Thulin et Bertil Vilhelmson. Does online co-presence increase spatial flexibility? On social media and young people’s migration considerations

132Article 836

133Abstract in English

134The Internet facilitates new practices of social interaction at a distance, enabling online co-presence and potentially relaxing social constraints on geographical mobility. Conceptualizing the role of online co-presence, we examine whether and how Internet-based social contacts influence young people’s pre-migration considerations and decision making. Empirically, we use survey data on 750 Swedish young adults and a follow-up study comprising 24 in-depth interviews. The main findings suggest that interregional migration is becoming less costly to the individual in social terms. Survey data indicate that extensive online contacts relax respondents’ perceived need for geographical proximity to family and friends. The qualitative study differentiates the implications of online co-presence: for some interviewees, online interaction reinforces thoughts of migration – either permanent or temporary – and increases perceived spatial flexibility and choice. For others, it can never really compensate for spatial proximity to family and friends.

135Title in Chinese

136在线共存(online co-presence)是否会增加空间灵活性 关于社交媒体和年轻人的移民考虑

137Abstract in Chinese

138 互联网促进了远程社交互动的新实践,实现了在线共存并可能放松对地域流动性的社会约束。我们定义在线共存的作用,并研究基于互联网的社交联系是否以及如何影响年轻一代的移民前考虑和决策。在实证研究中,我们采用了750名瑞典年轻成人的调查数据和包含24次深度访谈的后续研究。主要调查结果表明,区域间移民对个人来说社会成本越来越低。调查数据表明,广泛的在线联系缓解了受访者对与家人朋友的地理临近性的主观需求。定性研究对在线共存的不同影响进行了分类:对于一些受访者而言,在线互动增强了移民(无论是永久的还是临时的)的考虑 ,并增加了主观的空间灵活性和自主选择。而对于其他人来说在线共存永远无法替代与家人朋友的空间临近性。

Joanne Hirtzel. Paramétrage d’un modèle de simulation individu-centré des mobilités résidentielles : enjeux, démarche et résultats

139Article 834

140Title in English

141Settings of an individual-based simulation model of residential mobility: issues, approach and results

142Abstract in English

143The parameters of an agent-based model, in social sciences, reproduce human behavior, and their quantification are often based on empirical data. Agent-based models are commonly used and described in the literature but the calibration protocol process is less documented. To broaden these ongoing discussions, this article presents an approach for calibrating an individual-based residential simulation model. The model is integrated in an agents-based LUTI simulation platform - Mobisim – which aims at simulating the impact of spatial change scenarios on daily and residential mobility. The simulation outputs can then be used to support land planning decision making. The model calibration has been designed according to the model formalization choice and to the objectives it has been developed for. The adopted procedure is iterative and empirical. It relies on a combination of different methods, related to the availability and quality. The relevance of the chosen values to estimate the parameters and the outputs consistency has been verified through exploratory analysis.

144Title in Chinese

145基于个体数据的居住流动性模拟模型的基本参数:问题,方法和结果

146Abstract in Chinese

147在社会科学中,代理人基模型agent-based model)的参数被用于模拟人的行为,其量化通常基于经验数据。代理人基模型经常为文献中所使用和描述,但校准流程的记录较少。为丰富学术界当前在该领域的讨论,本文介绍了一种校准基于个体的居住模拟模型的方法。该模型是运用代理人基模型的LUTI模拟平台Mobisim中的一部分,Mobisim旨在模拟空间变化情景对日常流动性和居住流动性的影响。然后,模拟模型的输出可被用于支持土地规划决策。模型校准是根据模型形式化选择和其开发目标设计的。该校准方法采用的步骤是迭代和经验的。它依赖于不同方法的组合,并根据可用性和质量进行调用。本研究通过探索性分析验证了所选值在估计参数和输出一致性方面的有效性。

Sandra Mallet et Cécilia Comelli. Politiques d’éclairage public et transformations des espaces urbains : une approche critique

148Article 833

149Title in English

150Urban lighting policies and their impact on space: a critical approach

151Abstract in English

152This article focuses on the political and social dimensions of urban lighting. It studies the role of public lighting and its importance in urban policy for the transformation of urban spaces. This analysis is based on a study of the urban policy led in Bordeaux over the past two decades. Indeed, the municipality has had an active urban-light policy since the mid-1990s, which has considerably modified its night-time life, landscape and public spaces. The text analyzes the diversity of urban planning tools and the geographical choices made in terms of public lighting, the gap between the geography of urban lighting and the uses of the city during the night, as well as the links between the social composition of spaces in Bordeaux and the lighting policy applied there. It highlights how urban lighting deeply affects the social geography of the city.

153Title in Chinese

154城市照明政策及其对空间的影响一种批评方法
Abstract in Chinese

155本文重点介绍城市照明的政治和社会影响。 本文研究了公共照明的作用及其作为改变城市空间的城市政策的一部分的重要性。 该分析基于过去二十年来波尔多的城市政策的研究。自20世纪90年代中期以来,市政府一直积极采用夜间照明的城市政策,极大地改变了城市的夜生活,城市景观和公共空间。 本文分析了城市规划方法的多样性和公共照明政策的地理选择,城市照明的地理区域与城市空间夜间的使用区域之间的差异,以及波尔多城市照明政策与城市空间社会构成之间的联系。本研究强调了城市照明如何深刻地影响了城市的社会地理。

Sébastien Munafò. Forme urbaine et mobilités de loisirs : l’« effet barbecue » sur le grill

156Article 832

157Title in English

158Urban form and leisure mobilities: testing the “barbecue effect” hypothesis

159Abstract in English

160Several studies have underlined so far that the residents of city centers, with similar income levels, tend to travel more during their leisure time than people in more peripheral areas. One hypothesis put forward to explain this phenomenon suggests that suburban residents enjoy a more pleasant environment for recreation (better prone to barbecue parties for instance) while central city dwellers are forced to travel more in order to enjoy nature and quietness. This hypothesis is framed as the “compensation effect” or “barbecue effect”. Due to the very high level of energy consumption of leisure mobilities, this effect would lead to deeply question the virtues of the compact city in terms of sustainable mobility.

161This article is focused on testing the compensation hypothesis on the cases of Geneva and Zurich. Our quantitative and qualitative data lead us to reject this hypothesis. The occasional mobility of city center inhabitants is actually very important and largely unknown but far from being strictly related to a desire of nature. It also doesn’t fit with any compensation idea. Moreover, its energy impact is not important enough to actually reverse the contrasts of sustainability between compact and suburban forms in terms of mobility.

162Title in Chinese

163城市形态和休闲流动leisure mobilities测试烧烤效应barbecue effect假设

164Abstract in Chinese

165目前有几项研究强调城市中心居民往往比收入水平相近的周边地区的居民在休闲时间更多地出游。有一个假设试图解释这一现象:郊区居民享受更舒适的休闲环境(例如,更容易组织烧烤派对),而中心城市居民被迫更多地旅行以享受自然和宁静。这一假设被称为“补偿效应”或“烧烤效应”。由于休闲流动性(leisure mobilities)的能源消耗非常高,这种影响将在可持续流动性方面对紧凑型城市的优点提出深刻质疑。

166本文的重点是检验日内瓦和苏黎世的补偿效应。基于定量和定性数据,我们否定了这一假设。城市中心居民偶尔的流动性实际上非常重要,而且其目的很大程度上是未知的,远非与渴求接近自然的愿望严格相关。它也不符合任何补偿理念。此外,它的能源影响并不足以实际扭转紧凑型和郊区型城市之间流动性可持续性的对比。

Antonin Montané, Freddy Vinet, Thomas Buffin-Bélanger et Olivier Vento. La simplification des Atlas de Zones Inondables par approche hydrogéomorphologique : une nécessité pour la pérennité de la méthode

167Article 831

168Title in English

169The simplification of floodplain atlas by hydrogeomorphological approach: a necessity for the sustainability of the method

170Abstract in English

171Are Flood Zones Atlas (AZI; Atlas de Zones Inondables) by hydrogeomorphological (HGM) approach effective in communicating flood hazard? What changes are possible to promote the dissemination of this approach? A survey carried out among semi-experts and non-experts and an analysis of legend contents of flood zone atlas allow us to highlight the main limitations of the actual maps. Such limitations include the type of geographic information created, graphic semiology, but also the possible gap between the interpretation of the field by geomorphologists and the understanding of the final mapping by non-experts. Highlighting these limits leads to the proposal of a simplified AZI legend which should allow a better understanding of geographic information and a faster achievement for geomorphologists.

172Title in Chinese

173通过水文地貌方法简化洪泛区地图集该方法可持续性的必要性

174Abstract in Chinese
洪水区地图集AZI; Atlas de Zones Inondables是否能通过水文地貌HGM方法有效地显示洪水发生的风险大规模地推广该方法将带来哪些方面的变革针对 半专家和非专家进行的一项调查以及对洪水区地图集图例内容的分析使我们能够指出地图的主要局限性。 这些限制包括所创建的地理信息的类型图形符号以及地貌学家对所绘制区域的解释与非专家的理解之间可能存在的差距。 鉴于这些限制我们提出简化AZI图例如此应该能够使普通读者更好地理解地理信息而地貌学家也能提高绘图的效率。

Elfie Swerts. A data base on Chinese urbanization: ChinaCities

175Article 830

176Abstract in English

177n China, the measurement of the cities’ population is confusing. Indeed, the administrative boundaries do not delineate a “strictly urban” unit, but include a territory composed both of urban and rural territories which are under the jurisdiction of a main city. This article describes the construction method and the content of a new harmonized database of the Chinese cities’ population, the ChinaCities database.

178Title in Chinese

179关于中国城市化的数据库中国城市数据库China Cities

180Abstract in Chinese

181在中国城市人口的衡量标准并不清晰。 实际上行政边界并没有划定严格意义上城市的单位而是包括一个由主要城市管辖的城市和乡村地区组成的区域。 本文介绍了一个全新的中国城市人口的统一数据库即中国城市数据库ChinaCities database的构建方法和内容。

Philippe Vidal, Thierry Joliveau, Danièle Sansy, Armelle Couillet et Philippe Jeanne. Approche géographique du géocaching comme opérateur de lien territorial : une illustration havraise

182Article 829

183Title in English

184A Geographical Approach of Geocaching as a Performer for Territory: The case of Le Havre

185Abstract in English

186With the rise of web 2.0, initiating and coordinating digital activities in local territories depends less and less on public authorities. The point can be illustrated by the practice of geocaching, a collaborative free-to-play game which connects a private company acting as the organizer, with a community of gamers. New relations to the local territory then emerge between Internet surfers, organized as a collective, and their living space. It is not essentially a matter of existing bandwith or 3G access, but of users being able to participate spontaneously and durably in simple digital services, which are co-constructed and self-regulated. Among the consequences on contemporary territorial dynamics, can be detected a beginning process of spontaneous designation of sites and objects as grass roots everyday heritage and visitable sites, potentially attractive for tourists. This calls for revisiting the definition of "connected territories". Geocaching shows that a territory can become connected, even if it is under-equipped in terms of telecommunications, if those who live in it pass through and discover it, reestablish contact with the local sites through digital services. In this case, geocaching is acting as the vector of this re-connection.

187Title in Chinese

188将地理藏宝Geocaching视作与地域建立联系的媒介的一种地理方法以法国勒阿弗尔为例

189Abstract in Chinese

190随着Web 2.0的兴起在地方开展和协调数字活动对公共机构的依赖程度越来越低。这一点可以通过地理藏宝Geocaching的实践来说明这是一种协作的免费游戏将作为组织者的私人公司与游戏玩家社区联系起来。然后,集体组织起来的互联网使用者和他们的生活空间之间建立起新的地域关系。它本质上与现有的带宽或3G接入的问题无关,而是由于用户能够自发地和持久地参与简单的数字服务,而这些服务是共同构建和自我管理的。在地理藏宝对当代地域动态的影响中,可以发现一个新的趋势,即自发地指定地点和物件作为民众的日常遗产和可游玩的地点,这些地点对游客具有潜在的吸引力。

191这要求我们重新审视联接的地域connected territories的定义。地理藏宝表明,如果当地居民经过并发现某一地点,通过数字服务重建与当地网站的联系,即使在电信设施发展较弱的情况下该地点也可以实现联接。在这种情况下,地理藏宝充当了重新建立这种联接的媒介。

Xavier Rochel, Anne Hecker et Alexandre Verdier. Un patrimoine pour la marche. Les sentiers vignerons de Nancy

192Article 828

193Title in English

194A heritage for pedestrians. The vineyards footpaths in Nancy, France

195Abstract in English

196The ancient footpaths around Nancy used to be frequented for the exploitation of vineyards. Nowadays, wine growing has utterly stopped but the footpaths have remained. They are a much-appreciated heritage for local inhabitants. Using a historical GIS, we mapped the network of footpaths as it is now and as it used to be at the beginning of the 19th Century, using the Napoleonian cadastre which was elaborated between 1809 and 1833. The original network amounted to a linear total of 92 km of footpaths, of which only 49 km remain. This dwindling process has nothing to do with the disappearance of vineyards, since they were replaced by family gardens, and the practice of an occasional pleasure walk has maintained the pedestrian traffic. But the urban and peri urban slopes where these footpaths are set are much coveted for urbanization, and they are the only available spaces for bypass routes between the densely-built city and the surrounding, protected natural spaces. The network of footpaths thus appears to be under a constant risk of dislocation.

197Title in Chinese

198游步道遗产 : 法国南希Nancy的葡萄园小径

199Abstract in Chinese

200南希周围古老的游步道曾经为经常探访葡萄园的游人提供便利。如今葡萄种植已杳无踪迹但这些游步道仍然存在。它们是当地居民非常喜爱的文化遗产。利用历史地理信息系统,我们基于1809年至1833年间成书的拿破仑地籍,绘制了现在和19世纪初的游步道网络。最开始的网络有线性总长度长达92公里的游步道,而其中仅49公里保存至今。游步道的逐渐缩减与葡萄园的消失无关,因为它们被家庭花园所取代,而偶尔的游乐活动则保持了游人的流通量。然而,分布着游步道的城市和城市周边山坡正为城市化所觊觎,因为这些山坡是密集的城区和周边受保护自然空间之间唯一可用的旁道。因此,游步道网络似乎处于不断被侵占的风险之中。

Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

« Cybergeo en chinois », Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography [En ligne], Débats, Chronique Chinoise, mis en ligne le 26 octobre 2018, consulté le 12 novembre 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/29317

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

© CNRS-UMR Géographie-cités 8504

Haut de page