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Open Education Research

A Historical Overview of Chinas Learning City Construction: Since the 1990s

Open Education Research, vol. 1, No. 1, 2015
Ye Zhonghai, Zhang Yong et Ma Lihua


Learning city is an indigenous concept in China, which refers to a development approach that centres on peoples development in order to improve civilization, build learning culture, and enhance a citys comprehensiveness. This paper aims to demonstrate the historical processes and stages of Chinas learning city construction, as well as its basic features and development patterns. This construction has three stages: preparation stage, exploration stage and development stage. Its basic characteristics are analysed from the perspectives of operating mechanism, promoting strategies, key construction, and protection measures. The development of learning city depends on the level of economic knowledge and vitality of the city. At the same time, the development of learning city is limited by the development of modern city and geographical conditions.

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1Nothing can develop without certain time- space conditions, which means they all depend on special time-space environment and can be influenced by it. This is also true for the construction of learning city, because its development has been rooted in the social and historical background of China, and tied to the historical changes of it. In 2002, the Chinese government called for the construction of learning society, which is an urgent request for the construction of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

2For more than ten years, the development of learning city construction has been focused on four areas: promoting the notion of education for enforcing strong nation, the construction of innovative country, the advancing of harmonious society, and achieving the Chinese nations bright prospect on the road to revival. Chinas reform and opening and socialist modernization strategy provide a fertile environment for the development of learning city.

I. The Historical Processes and Stages

3Throughout the last 10 years, some important historical events have had great impact on the construction of Learning cities: in November of 2002, the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC formally put forward to construct the learning society, and in July of 2010, the government promulgated Outline of National Medium - and Long-Term Program for Education Reform and Development plan outline (2010-2020). Based on these two historical events, the development of construction of Chinese learning city can be divided into three stages: preparing stage, actively exploring stage, developing and improving stage.

1 . Preparing to start stage (1990s-2002)

4In 1990s, mankind entered the era of knowledge economy, which became the primary factor to promote the development of economy and society. With the opportunities and challenges brought by knowledge economy, lifelong education and lifelong learning became the focus of education in this stage. As far as it was concerned in China, there was no exception, and the construction of Chinese Learning cities was on the stage of preparing to start.

1) The theories

5In 1990s, inspired by the thoughts of lifelong learning, some scholars in China began to of related academic research reports. However, most of them focused on discussing the theories of lifelong education and lifelong learning, little discussed about learning cities. At the beginning of this century, research about learning society and learning city has increased, some representative subject research includes: Hao Keming hosted the key project funded by the national social science, named as "Research on Building the System of Learning Society and Lifelong Learning (2001)", Ye Zhonghai hosted the key project issued by Shanghai philosophy and social sciences department, named as "Research on Shanghai Creating Lifelong Education System and Learning City (2001)", Li YiXian hosted the key project issued by the national education science department, named as "Theory and Experimental Research of Learning Community and Learning Organization (2001)", and so on.

2) The policies

6Since 1990s, China promulgated a series of relevant laws, regulations and policies about life long education and lifelong learning, such as The Education Law of the Peoples Republic of China (1995) and Action Scheme for Invigorating Education towards the 21st Century (1999), both of them proposed to establish and improve lifelong education system step by step. At the beginning of this century, the general secretary of the Communist Party and President Jiang Zemin brought up the notion of building the lifelong education system and creating learning society in the APEC summit of human resource (2000). Then, in November of 2002, the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC proposed the notion of forming the learning society where everyone will learn and pursue lifelong education, promoting the all-round development of people, which was addressed in the report of discussing the grand goal of building a well-off society in an all-round way. This is the first time that the Communist Party put forward the construction of a learning society in a formal document. After that, both the Party and society started to construct learning cities featuring urban space configuration.

3) The practices

7On the basis of theoretical research and policies, the construction activities of developing learning city started to spread in every city. Cities such as Shanghai (1999 ), Beijing (2001 ), Dalian (2001), Changzhou (2001) and Nanjing (2002) were the first to put forward the construction of learning cities, opening the prelude to the construction of learning city in China. The local policies in these cities include the connotation of the learning city, the necessity to construct, the goal, task, content and measures of construction of learning cities. In short, at this stage, China just started theory research in construction of learning city. However, policies of building learning society and lifelong education system have been presented building learning cities has also been launched. All of these made good preparation for Chinas future construction of learning cities.

2. The active exploring stage ( 2003 - 2010)

8The Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC marked that Chinas learning city construction has entered a new stage. This stage is a key period for building a well-off society all in an all-round way in China, and also an active exploration period to promote the learning city construction.

1) The theories

9In this period, theoretical research about the learning city construction had new exploration, and a number of related research results have sprung up, which had a tendency to become the hotspot in theory research. Representative work include: Creating Chinese Characteristics of Learning Society by Zhang Shengxiong (2003), The Theory and Practice of Creating Learning City by Ye Zhonghai (2005), Enter Learning Society - Study of Building Lifelong Learning System and Learning Society by Hao Kemin (2006), Building Learning City by Ma Zhongliang & Wu Xiaochuan (2008), Knowledge Has No Limit, Study of Building Learning Society by Gu Mingyuan & Shi Zhongying (2010), The Learning Society by Learning Society Construction Research Team (2010), to name a few.

2) The promulgation of policy

10At this stage, China successively promulgated a series of relevant policies and documents, clearly putting forward the construction of learning society and learning city. For example,2003 - 2007 Education Revitalization Action Plan approved by the state council (2004), The State Education Development of the Cause of "Eleven Five" Planning Outline approved by the state council ( 2007) and the report of The Seventeenth National Congress of the CPC (2007). In addition, National Medium and Long-term Educational Reform and Development Plan (2010 - 2020) (2010) emphasized again that "carrying out community education extensively in urban and rural areas, speeding up the construction of all kinds of learning organization, building a learning society in which all people will learn and pursue life-long education". Furthermore, "building a learning society "became one of the three strategic goals in Chinas education for the next ten years.

3) The practices and exploration

11Based on the above theoretical exploration and enacted policies, and under the influences of the first group of constructed learning cities, other cities such as Chongqing, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Changzhou, Nanjing, Taiyuan, Qingdao, Zhuhai, Kunshan successively set up goals of constructing the learning cities and exploring the learning cities with Chinese characteristics in great passion. This big movement of constructing learning city gradually expanded and extended from the eastern coastal region to the central and the west. In summary, the relevant theoretical research gained more and more attention in this phase. In the policy level, the central authorities not only stressed several times to begin creating learning city, but also launched a series of policies for the local cities; in the practical level, the exploration of learning city, learning enterprise, and learning community enhanced the development of learning society.

3. The developing and promoting stage (2011- present)

12With the growing popularity of lifelong education and learning society, Chinas construction of learning city, marked by the enactment of the National Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Education Reform and Development, and started with the implementation of the Twelfth Five - Year Plan, especially after the Chinese Dream movement was put forward by the Partys Central Committee, is reaching a new stage rapidly. China Dream describes a set of personal and nation ideals in China and for the Communist Par ty, and the role of individual in Chinese society as well as the goal of Chinese nation.

1) The improvement of theory

13After 2011, lifelong education in China started to spread through documentary case studies and practical explorations. The development of the case studies not only contributed sharing experience and learning between cities, but also improved the relative theory of constructing learning cities, such as Learning Make City More Wonderful-Documentary of Constructing Learn ing City in Suzhou by Zhuyongxin (2011), Research and Exploration of Constructing The Learning Society by Ye Zhonghai (2013). Especially in recent years, based on the discussion of relationship between learning city and the China Dream movement, the lifelong education community helps elevate constructing learning city to a new level regarding its implication and the strategic significances, that is, learning city is the "cornerstone" to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

2) The improvement of policy

14In 2011, the Twelfth Five-Year Plan further emphasized the construction of learning cities. In 2012, the Report of Eighteenth Chinese Communist Party, especially The General Secretary Xi at the first meeting on the 12th National Peoples Congress conference, summoned all Chinese people to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the construction of learning city was ascended to a new level that was tied to realize the great rejuvenation of the entire nation.

3) The ascending of practice

15Under the guidance of realizing "China Dream", inspired by China Road, China Spirit and China Force, all cities were confident and determined to construct learning cities, and adjusted measures to local conditions in terms of political, economic, cultural and social realities. The construction of learning cities demonstrated multiple targets and modes, presenting regional specialties. In summary, although it has been only two years, from the aspect of theory, policy and practice, promoting learning city construction is closely linked to the historical mission of the new era of China, and the construction of learning city has further developed into a new level.

II. Basic Features

1. Operating mechanism: Double driving mechanism

16China is the most populous country in the world, and has the largest number of people receiving lifelong education services. In the process of learning city construction, the ruling Party and government with the mission of serving people should play a leading role, making full use of the political superiority of the socialist system in China. China is a developing country with relatively vulnerable economic foundation, the request for input from the Party and the government is still limited. Moreover, as mentioned earlier, the construction of learning city is a complicated social system project, and it is imperative that all people participate enthusiastically. Additionally, all people should adhere to the leading role of the Party and government, and combine the promotions from government and society in order to operate mechanism. In China, the successful practice of creating a learning city suggests that, first, it needs strong support from the Party and government, which shows the political superiority and basic features of the learning city construction in China. Second, it needs to create an "all in one" operating mechanism, that is, supports from the Party and government force, market regulation force, social participation force, educational support force, local community and union autonomous force, societal common people force are united to holistically promote the construction of learning city.

17- The Party and government-led force plays a macroeconomic regulation role in the construction of learning cities. The specific functions include planning, legislation, policy making, coordinating, funding support, supervising and e valuating. It has shifted from organizing learning activities on a micro level to regulating and securing on a macro level, and mobilizing all forces to get involved in the construction activities. Moreover, the construction of learning Party and government in China also becomes the leader in the learning city construction, and play an exemplary role, strongly promoting the construction of learning city. - Market regulation force plays a fundamental regulatory role in the construction of learning cities. Specifically, through internal mechanism of the market, it adjusts the relationship between supply and demand in the process of building learning cities, and adjusts the coordinated development between the learning city construction and other social construction.

18- Social participation force plays a boosting and mediating role in the construction of learning cities. Social forces can stimulate the creativity of society, and it can also make use of its own resources, participate in the learning city construction projects and education programs. The boosting role of social forces accelerates the pace of construction. At the same time, social organization can also play a mediating role between the government management and local autonomy, helping them connect effectively and interacted positively.

19- Educational support plays an education base and professional support role in the construction of learning cities. The educational resources of school are open to society (community), so that community people can share. This is particularly true when universities are open to public, which brings more adult learners back to schools to receive further education after junior college. The school should actively communicate with the community, so that schools and communities integrate with each other to support the construction of the learning community. Particularly, universities should cooperate with industries (enterprises) actively, assist them to formulate job specifications and training standards, and conduct professional courses recognition and certification for approval. Educational institutions, especially universities, should accept commissions from government and industry so that experts and scholars can be gathered together to discuss the issues regarding communication a mong different types of education, different levels of education and professional connections.

20- Local community and union autonomous force plays a central role for local communities and union autonomous in the construction of learning cities. In building the learning community and units, with the guidance of local Party, local community and unions adequately plays the role of self-organizing, self-education, self-management, self-monitoring and self-service. These help build foundation for the construction of learning cities.

21- In a society people play an irreplaceable role in the construction of learning cities. The ultimate value orientation of creating a learning city lies in promoting the comprehensive development of the city population. The construction must rely on the majority of the community. The city people, as an important body, make use of their creativity to involve in the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the process of construction. In summary, the holistic advancing operating mechanism of "all in one" in the lead of the Party and government, is essential in the construction of learning cities. The promotion of the learning city construction is the synergy effect of many forces under the lead of the party and government. China is a country with large population, multi-ethnics and complicated geographical environment, therefore, the development between different regions, urban and rural is still very unbalanced. In order to construct the learning city scientifically and effectively, it is necessary to consider Chinas national conditions to make the following strategies.

1) The strategy of implementation

22From the perspective of System Theory, the main system that is used to promote the socialist modernization construction is a comprehensive one, which includes sub -systems of economy, political, culture, society and ecology. Learning city reflects one of dimensions of modern city, and is also sub -system of Chinas modernization construction. Moreover, learning city is the product of the transformation from the industrial society to knowledge society, its survival back ground and developmental space relies on knowledge economy and knowledge society. The formation of learning city depends on the development of knowledge industry and the process of social modernization. Therefore, we cannot deviate from the socialist modernization, the general background, power and conditions. We should not discuss education just for education, study just for study. We should construct learning cities in the promotion of socialist modernization. We should connect the construction of learning cities with accelerating modernization of socialism, hastening social and economic trans formation and development, promoting the social information level, enforcing the strength of constructing a harmonious society, and extending the level of openness and the internationalization pace.

2) The strategy of the east promoting the west

23The different economic and social development of China results in unbalanced regions, that is, the east coast is higher, while the west, lower. This regional imbalance fundamentally restricts the construction of learning cities in China, so the strategy that the east promoting the west must be implemented. The overall planning of the construction of learning city has made across eastern, central and western regions of China. It is imperative to establish an internal mechanism to construct learning cities from the east to the west, for example, letting the westerner of China take a temporary post in the east, establishing relationship between the east and the west, arranging study and inspection to the east for the westerners, increasing the investment to the central and western regions, actively exploring the construction of learning cities in minority ethnic areas, establishing and improving the long - term mechanism of overall consideration between all regions.

3) The strategy of collaboration

24Based on the imbalance of the construction of learning cities around the country, it is needed to take the strategy of collaboration for promo ting construction of learning cities effectively. This strategy has multiple level and forms. In terms of multi -level, there is collaboration between cities, such as establishing National League of Construction of Learning City. Each area has established regional cooperation organization successively to promote the development of the construction of learning city and community education, including The Yangtze River Delta Region, Bohai Rim Region, Pearl River Delta Region, The Western Region, The Central Region, The Three Northeast Provinces of China and Inner Mongolia Region. In addition, there are all kinds of collaborations among the cities, for example, building lifelong learning communities like public community, enterprise and university, to promote the construction of learning cities. In terms of multi -form, internal operation mechanisms of collaboration are not the same. There are covenant operation mechanism, conference consultation mechanism, interaction mechanism, project cooperation mechanism and platform docking mechanism. It is proved that collaboration strategy can effectively promote the construction of learning city in China.

3. The key point of construction: three key points

25To understand from the dimensions of learning city itself, learning city represents an open, innovative and vigorous new city, which is centred on social learners based on lifelong education system, lifelong learning service system and learning organization, and symbolized by forming lifelong learning culture. Learning city is able to secure and satisfy the social memberslearning rights and lifelong learning needs, thus, effectively helping social members to fully develop themselves and maximum their social value. Accordingly, there are three key points to consider constructing learning city scientifically and effectively.

26First, the learning organization is corner stone of learning city. The establishment of learning organizations should be one of the important parts of constructing a learning city. In order to create a learning organization, it is necessary to make an endeavour to the conditions (shared vision, organizational learning, and learning effectiveness). Organizational learning is key to the construction of learning organization, and is also the essential intermediary from the individual learning to the learning organization.

27Second, the lifelong education system and lifelong learning service system are the architecture of learning city. Building lifelong education system and lifelong learning service system scientifically becomes the second key to learning city. For the former, we should not only develop various educational factors to achieve the basic requirements of learning city; more importantly, we should make great efforts in cohesion (vertical), communications (horizontal), integration (vertical and horizontal), coordination (inside and outside), optimization (overall). Therefore, we must establish and optimize "Three education system", namely, the educational communication system, recurrent education system and community education system. For the latter, the main thing is to work on the construction of social learning network platform and social learning resources.

28Third, lifelong culture learning is the soul of learning city. Building lifelong culture learning is the third key to construct a learning city. In order to create lifelong culture learning environment, the three levels of the learning culture structure should be considered: lifelong material culture learning, lifelong system culture learning and lifelong spiritual culture learning. Through construction of lifelong culture learning, learning became one of the core ideas of the society. The value of learning becomes social consensus, learning activities become social fashion, leading more and more social members to join lifelong learning consciously.

4. Security measures: Six kinds

29The first is the organization security. In or der to promote the construction of learning cities, all cities, especially the advanced cities, set up special departments to ensure work running effectively. The function is associated with planning, guiding, evaluating, coordinating, super vising and securing. In addition, it is better to make use of experts wisdom for democratic and scientific decisions. For example, Shanghai CPC committee and government set up "The Council for Promoting the Construction of Learning Society and Lifelong Education in Shanghai", and Shanghai Deputy Secretary of CPC served as director of the council, standing committee member of the CPC of Shanghai, director of Publicity Department of CPC of Shanghai and vice mayor of the municipal government served as deputy di rectors. Around 20 people from related municipal government served as members of the council. For promoting the construction of learning society and lifelong education in Shanghai, the council helped with a series of planning, deciding, coordinating and guiding work.

30The second is legal guarantee. Laws and regulations issued from central and local government include promotion rules, planning summary, governmental documents, all kinds of developing programs and job standards. Firstly, central and local governments constituted mid and long-term plans for educational development, aiming at guiding educational work for innovation with the concept of lifelong learning; secondly, a few advanced learning cities enacted the Promotion Rules to provide legal protection for creating work; thirdly, local government enacted municipal documents ensure that constructing blueprint to be completed through top-level designers; fourthly, local government formulated all kinds of development programs in order to promote sustain able development for constructing learning city work; lastly, the central and local governments formulated job standards for organizations and communities to ensure the constructing work is developed regularly and consistently.

31The third is base guarantee. Both central and local governments are focused on the base construction of learning city. Around the cities, four - level network including open university, community college, community School and community educational is open. On July 31, 2012, Open University was founded in China at the Hall of the People. Yandong Liu, the CPC Central Committee and State Council or, unveiled for The Open University and gave an important speech entitled "Do Our Best To Build Open University With Chinese Characteristics". She stressed that open university should be supported by modern information technology, integrated and shared with advanced educational sources, and innovate education teaching model, ultimately, build the open university with Chinese characteristics. Therefore, we can provide more convenience and fairer learning platform such as diverse educational services for members of society. This will contribute to building learning society, as well as building a strong country and human resources.

32The fourth is fund guarantee. The state and local governments pay attention to the implementation of fund investment of the construction of learning cities. Basically, the fund from government is the main source, other collaborators participating funds from adult education institutions, enterprises and institutions, urban and rural communities, social organizations and founders are followed. The practical explorations in China include: first, setting up the special fund for lifelong education, and establishing sustain able investment system. Second, carrying out the facultys educational funds and other additive funds, and strengthening the security force of enterprise funds.

33The fifth is team guarantee. Professionals play a backbone role in the construction of learning cities. The professional team of learning city construction refers to those lifelong education workers who are engaged in informal education, including community education workers, corporate trainer, cadres trainer, social trainers, and so on. In the process of exploration, all parties are to build up countermoves: first, solving the problems with professionalization of lifelong education workers, including setting up the professional post, making the post quotas, formulating series of professional titles for posts and. These are the premise of professionalization for lifelong education workers. Second, strengthening the professional standard research and construction of the professional community of lifelong education workers. Third, establishing professional education and training system of lifelong education workers, setting up and implementing training projects for lifelong education workers. In addition, the learning city construction also pays attention to expand channel of sourcing part-time workers, clarifying their career quality and service ability. It also aims to innovate construction pattern for volunteer team, making up for the weaker part of learning city construction.

34The sixth is theory guarantee. The idea has been held for the construction of learning cities in China, where experiment and demonstration should start off first, and promoting and expanding follow on such basis. In this process, the theory and practice research of learning city play an irreplaceable role. The research of learning city in China is based on national conditions, and it is people-oriented. It investigates the conditions of people, the will of people and the livelihood of people. The research is rooted in abundant practices of lifelong education and lifelong learning, and focuses on new problems in the construction of learning city. State and local governments have been paying attention to establish and optimize the relative research institution and academic community, strengthen academic degree program of adult education, and give full play to existing adult educational research institution and academic community.

III. Basic Regularities

35There is regularity for every emergence and development. No matter what the developmental form it takes, regularity constrains. There is no exception for development of learning cities, even though it seems to be a special movement. The regularity of the development of learning cities determines the development of learning cities fundamentally, thus, stipulating its practical building activities. In order to build learning cities scientifically and effectively, it is necessary to understand and follow the regularities that are potentially going to promote and accord with the construction of learning cities.

361. The development of learning city de pends on the development of knowledge economy, and the development knowledge industry is the radical strategy for the development of constructing learning cities

37The history of Chinese city development shows that social productivity is the fundamental power to the formation and development of cities. A citys emergence and development de pends on the level of social productivity. Cities with different characters, configurations and qualities are the product of different stages of social productivity. With the new development of a citys value form and the new level of quality - there is no exception for learning cities. Learning cities are the product of developmental transformation from industrial economy to knowledge economy. The formation and development of learning city indeed depends on the development of knowledge economy. Therefore, developing knowledge industry is the radical strategy for learning city construction. The knowledge industry includes knowledge production (research and innovate industry), knowledge communication industry (education, information and culture industry), and knowledge service industry (professional services). Only in this way can we accelerate the process of building and developing learning cities. ShenZhen, and some other citiesexperience, have proved it.

382. The development of learning city de pends on the stimulation of a citys social vitality, and its construction should focus on cultivating peoples subjectivity and sociality

39Learning city is a city where learning concepts have so deeply penetrated in peoples mind, learning behaviours spread and last a life time, and learning activities become a type of social fashion. Promoting the development of learning city is an unprecedented innovation in the history of a city; moreover, it is a wide, deep and complicated educational and social revolution, which involves every aspect and all kinds of people in the city. Furthermore, China is in the state of unprecedented social change, a large number of people are flowing and unorganized. In order to build the aforementioned learning cities, it requires not only the power from the Party and government, but also the union power from the vast citizens. Therefore, the stimulation of a citys social vitality is the motive power in promoting the construction of learning cities. To advance the construction of learning cities, we must focus on cultivating the peoples subjectivity and sociality. All success of the construction of learning city relies on this.

403. The development of learning cities is subjected to the process and level of the development of modernized cities, it is demanded that promoting the construction of learning cities be enforced when serving the development of modernized cities

41From the perspective of System Theory, the development of modernized city is the core system in the scope of city. As one of dimensions of modernized city, the development of learning city is the sub -system when it reflects the basic features of learning and education. The development of the core system is based on the development of sub system; while the development of sub-system is restrained and subjected to the development of core system. In details, we should build overall concept and focus on the development of modernized city, then insist that promo ting the construction of learning city when serving the development of modernized city. Those who built a city by "implementing strategy" will be likely to get more attention and support from governments at all levels. Therefore, it will enhance coordination, increase input of resources and then receive better results on construction.

424. The development of learning city is subjected to the specific region and space; the construction of learning city should have its own characteristics

43Nothing can develop without the certain time-space conditions, its development is caused and subjected to the specific environment of space and time, and marked by them at the same time. Similarly, the development of learning city is subjected to the specific time and space. The uneven humanistic and natural phenomena in each region, as well as the governments preference of selecting, result in diversities in building learning city. Therefore, constructing learning cities in different regions should have their own characteristics. Only have own characteristics, can it attract attention, make influences, obtain vitalities and be competitive. Most successful practices of building learning cities can prove this viewpoint.

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Research Group of the Construction of Learning Society (2010). The Theory and Practice of the Construction of Learning Soci ety [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press.

Ye Zhonghai (2011). The learning city construction research / The Second Selected Works of Learning and Education by Ye Zhonghai [M]. Shanghai:Tongji University Press.

Ye Zhonghai (2013). Research and exploration of learning society construction / The Ninth Selected Works of Learning and Education by Ye Zhonghai [M]. Shanghai: Tongji University Press.

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Ye Zhonghai, Zhang Yong et Ma Lihua, « A Historical Overview of Chinas Learning City Construction: Since the 1990s »Distances et médiations des savoirs [En ligne], 23 | octobre 2018, mis en ligne le 10 août 2018, consulté le 05 décembre 2023. URL : ; DOI :

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Ye Zhonghai

East China Normal University, China
Professor of the Faculty of Earth Sciences, East China Normal University, Director of the academic committee of the China Adult Education Association

Zhang Yong

East China Normal University, China
PhD, Associate professor of the Faculty of Earth Sciences

Ma Lihua

East China Normal University, China
Lecturer of Faculty of Earth Sciences

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