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Geothermal energy slowly makes it entrance in the caribbean region

L’énergie géothermique fait lentement son entrée dans la région des Caraïbes
Lynn Manijean et Pascal Saffache
p. 108-119

Résumés

Depuis plusieurs années, la transition énergétique est au cœur de toutes les discussions des dirigeants de la Caraïbe qui souhaitent réduire leur dépendance au pétrole. En effet, la plupart des îles, particulièrement celles formant les Petites Antilles sont très dépendantes vis-à-vis du pétrole, alors que certaines d’entre elles possèdent un réel potentiel géothermique, jusqu’alors sous exploité. Malgré les obstacles qui entravent le processus menantvers une transition énergétique, plusieurs projets géothermiques se développent dans la région.

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Texte intégral

Introduction

1The Caribbean region is made up of 38 islands, eleven of which, Saba, St Eustatius, St Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenada, are volcanic islands. They were formed from the interaction between two tectonic plates, the North American plate sinks beneath the Caribbean plate in a process called subduction. As a result, these islands have geothermal potential. Surface manifestations include fumaroles, hot springs, mud pots, solfataras and steam vents. Globally, the Caribbean region enjoys a tropical climate and has only two seasons, the dry and wet seasons. It is important to point out that hurricane season runs from June to the end of November. During these months the islands are more vulnerable to cyclonic phenomenon, which may sometimes be devastating. Other natural hazards can affect the islands, such as the earthquakes which struck Haiti in 2010; volcanic eruptions on the island of Montserrat in 1995 and tsunami threats. Thus, we can conclude that the Caribbean region is not immune to natural disasters. But another phenomenon has been affecting the islands for a number of years, resulting in sea level rise, heat waves, droughts, heavy precipitations, more devastating hurricanes and many others; this climatic event is known as global warming.

The shoreline of Bouillante between Anse Machette and the Pointe à Lézard in Gaudeloupe

The shoreline of Bouillante between Anse Machette and the Pointe à Lézard in Gaudeloupe

Photo by Ville de Bouillante, 2015, Wikimedia commons

2Worldwide, global warming has become a major issue for humanity. The increased use of fossil fuel linked to human activities contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Many governments have decided to turn to cleaner energy sources, commonly known as renewable energy. These energies come from natural sources, which are available, sustainable and great alternatives to fossil energy. As a result, different types of renewable energy have been progressively developed and used. Despite this keen interest in renewable energy, only a small percentage of the world’s total production is generated from renewable energy as compared to fossil fuels. By opting for renewable energy, government leaders have embarked on the path of energy transition. With the prospect of achieving the goal of sustainable development for environmental protection. While some countries have a head start regarding energy transition, others, such as the Caribbean region, are struggling to replace diesel or fuel oil with renewable energy, which include geothermal power. Many years ago, the volcanic islands were the subject of numerous geological studies to assess their geothermal potential. Although the results obtained showed very high potential, the development of geothermal energy has been a slow process, prolonging the continued use of imported fossil fuel. Firstly, we will make analysis hindrances to this transition. Secondly, we will draw attention on the different geothermal projects that are on-going in the region.

Graphic 1: Electricity Tariff Survey, 2014

Graphic 1: Electricity Tariff Survey, 2014

Source: CARILEC, 2014

Fossil Fuel Importation

  • 1 Deriving nearly 90% of its primary energy resources from oil.
  • 2 With 83% of electrical production based on fuel oil, the price of electricity in Hawaii is also mor (...)

3The cost of electricity in the Caribbean region is estimated to be among the highest in the world (figure 1), and can be linked to their geographical location. A similar situation exists in the Pacific Ocean where the volcanic island of Hawaii also depends heavily on the import of fossil fuel1. Compare to other states in the USA. For example2 in 2014 the electricity rate was “33.43 cents per kWh” (EIA: US Energy Information Administration) in Hawaii, whereas the electricity rate in the state of California was “15.15 cents per kWh” (EIA: US Energy Information Administration). In fact, none of these islands are interconnected for, either natural gas, or by a submarine cable for electricity and it is necessary to use expensive generator systems.

Figure 1: Volcanoes in the Caribbean

Figure 1: Volcanoes in the Caribbean

Source: uwiseismic.com

4Another reason that can be put forward is the size of their market – the smaller the market, the higher the unit cost of fuel. IIt is worth stressing, that on June 29 2005 , an oil alliance was launched between the Caribbean islands and Venezuela, excluding Guadeloupe and Martinique, which purchase their oil from other nations. However, as the Caribbean Community Energy Policy of March 1st 2013 point outs “The PetroCaribe Agreements provide for the importing countries to be supplied with a stipulated amount of crude and refined oil products from Venezuela at intervals through its state owned oil company Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. (PDVSA). Based on the Agreements, a percentage of the payments for oil purchases are converted into a low interest long term loan with sliding rates of interest and repayment periods depending on the price of oil.” In other words, the fuel oil would be sold at a preferential price, meaning at a cheaper price. However, focusing their energy development on one single source of energy presents a tremendous risk for these islands. As a matter of fact, the price of oil on the international market is falling, affecting oil producing countries, like Venezuela, from whom most of the Caribbean islands are importing, weakening the established agreement. In one report published by the American Security Project dealing with the energy security in the Caribbean, it was said concerning Venezuela that: “Declining oil prices over the last year have significantly harmed the Venezuelan economy. A significant portion of these revenue streams come from the country’s involvement in the PetroCaribe program. Venezuela’s declining influence in the region, presents potential problems for Caribbean energy security; it also creates a unique set of circumstances for the US to take the lead”. If the oil price decline continues, it will have an impact not only on the cost of importation, but also on the cost of production, as well as on the sale price of electricity. As a result, the economic situation of the Caribbean islands has been plagued by external and internal issues, hindering their economic and social development, undermining regional integration and competitiveness, creating difficulties in attracting foreign capital and creating a constraint for the citizens.

5Furthermore, the Caribbean is undergoing societal changes. As the world’s population increases, The demand in electricity will continue growing, leading to more fuel import and financial difficulties. Therefore, the Caribbean islands must control their energy dependence on fuel import and oil products. According to the World Bank report issued July 25 2012 in Washington D.C, entitled Central America/Caribbean Can Reduce Their Oil Dependency:“Central American and Caribbean countries can reduce their oil dependency and shield themselves from high oil prices through a combination of renewable energy, energy efficiency programs and regional energy integration.” Adding to these statements, Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, World Bank Director for Sustainable Development in the Latin America and Caribbean region said “we estimate that the implementation of a strategy that combines a more diversified power system, better energy efficiency in electricity production and use, and regional integration can significantly reduce Central America and the Caribbean’s vulnerability to high and volatile oil price”. In effect, the Caribbean region has a great opportunity to counteract their dependence on diesel and heavy fuel oil by turning to renewable energy. The question to ask is “what are the impediments to this energy transition?”

A Slow Energy Transition

6Some analysts’ point out that oil reserves are dwindling, yet still a complete independence from fossil fuels is not possible for now, despite the desire for cleaner energy. During the different international conferences on the climate, the emphasis was put on the fight against global warming, goals to be achieved were avowed - developed countries committed themselves to limit the rise of the earth’s temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius, to reduce the emission of CO2 and to help developing countries turn to renewable energy. In this regard, now is the time to act against climate change, because the small islands, whether in the Pacific or in the Caribbean region, are the first to be concerned by rising sea levels, just one of the numerous effects of climate change, yet they are the countries emitting the lowest greenhouse gases.

7Thus, aware of their vulnerability, some islands have been engaged in energy transition, while others are in a slow process of energy transition:

8Guadeloupe is a French territory, and also part of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is located north of the Commonwealth of Dominica, and enjoys a tropical climate. Guadeloupe is made up of two islands, Grande Terre which is flat and limestone, and Basse-Terre which is mountainous and volcanic. Basse-Terre is dominated by La Soufrière, also called “the Old Lady” an active volcano located in the National Park, in the town of Saint-Claude. These two islands are connected by bridges, and viewed as a single island. Guadeloupe, just as the other Caribbean islands, is electrically isolated and remains heavily dependent on fossil fuels. The electric unity Electricité de France (EDF), the electric utility, transmits and distributes electricity on the island and operates a diesel power plant of about 220 MW. Faced with climate change, France is committed to the process of energy transition and promoting an energy mix. To this end, EDF has made the development of renewable energy a priority (table 1), with the aim of gradually reducing their dependence on fossil fuel.

Table 1: Distribution of energy production

Table 1: Distribution of energy production

EDF Guadeloupe, 2015

Graphic 2: Carbon dioxide emission for 2016

Graphic 2: Carbon dioxide emission for 2016

Global carbon Atlas, 2017

9Guadeloupe is the first and only island that currently possesses a geothermal power plant, located in the town of Bouillante in the west of Basse-Terre. The first power plant was put into operation in 1986 and a second unit in 2005, bringing the capacity of the plant to 15 MW and representing 4,7% of Guadeloupe’s electricity generation. Moreover, a project to expand the plant is under consideration. The Bouillante geothermal power plant was operated by EDF and the Bureau de Recherché Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), a French governmental geological survey company. However, due to financial difficulties, 60% of the company shares were acquired by the internationally known Ormat Technologies Inc. (Ormat), a world leader in the geothermal sector, and engaged in many geothermal projects worldwide. The inflow of foreign capital will help to renovate the plant in order to increase its capacity. Ormat’s aim is to attain a total of 45 MW by 2020, which would represent 20% of the electricity needs of Guadeloupe. Compared to the rest of the Caribbean islands, the energy transition is underway in Guadeloupe, although there is much to do in order to transition away from fossil fuel. Nevertheless, Guadeloupe is not the only island to be engaged in this energy transition, others are following the path. For some years, there has been a growing interest for geothermal energy in the Caribbean:

10Dominica is a former British colony located between Guadeloupe to the north and Martinique to the south. The island is crossed from north to south by a chain of mountains, most of which are volcanoes. The Boiling Lake, the second largest lake of its kind in the world after Frying Pan Lake in New Zealand, is situated in Morne Trois Pitons National Park. There also exists a three-peak volcano, bearing the same name as the park, and the Valley of Desolation, an area of “steaming vents, geysers, hot water, rivers and cascades, boiling grey mud and a crust of sulphur-stained rock” (Crask Paul 114), and other natural attractions. Studies were conducted in the Roseau Valley, in order to confirm the geothermal potential of this part of Dominica and it appears to far exceed the island’s own energy demands, thus offering the potential to export a valuable product in the form of electricity. Dominica Electricity Services (DOMLEC) mainly uses two types of energy, hydropower and diesel. However, other forms of energy are used, but are underdeveloped (table 2).

Table 2: Distribution of energy production

Table 2: Distribution of energy production

The National Renewable Laboratory – NREL, March 2015

11Decades ago, hydropower was widely used in Dominica. As a matter of fact “the first two hydro-turbines were introduced in 1952 to generate electricity in Roseau. These two generators, located at Trafalgar, have a capacity of 320 kW each […], in 1967 the second hydropower station was commissioned at Padu on the Roseau River downstream from Trafalgar” (The Caribbean Conservation Association 111). But, with the growth of the population and an increased demand of electricity, Domlec (Dominica Electricity Services) has relied on diesel fuel in order to satisfy the electricity needs of its customers. As a result, since 1984 the quantity of fuel used yearly has tripled. In“1978 almost 90% of total demand was met through hydro” (The Caribbean Conservation Association 116), however, today though diesel fuel is the primary source for electricity generation, hydropower is still being used, accounting for approximately 30% of the total electricity generated.

  • 3 The project is moving forward and… it’s not at a standstill.
  • 4 The project is on we will continue to sensitize as we move on so let’s embrace it because it is for (...)

12Recently, exploratory drilling has been carried out to confirm the quantity and quality of the geothermal resource, with an aim to build a small power plant that will generate 10-15 MW, to ensure energy independence in Dominica. A large power plant of 100 MW, for electricity export to Guadeloupe and Martinique via submarine cable, forms part of the long term plans. Following the passage of Tropical Storm Erika, the project had to be suspended due to damage to the road infrastructure, among other reasons. While Dominica was still recovering from Tropical Storm Erika devastation, two years after hurricane Maria, a category 5 hurricane severely damaged the island; jeopardizing the geothermal project’s progress. However, it was without counting on the determination of the government to complete the project, as highlighted by Dr. Collin McIntyre3 and added4. Therefore, we hopefully see the construction of a 7 MW geothermal plant in Laudat, as a production well, and probably a reinjection well in Wotten waven and other selected sites, by 2019.

13Realization of the project will make possible an interconnection between three islands, a first in the Caribbean region. As stated in the report Caribbean Regional Electricity Supply Options: Toward Greater Security, Renewable and Resilience for the Region Electricity interconnections can also unlock the potential of various large-scale renewable energy resources in the Caribbean. Through interconnections with other islands […], there is the possibility of gaining access to the needed markets in order to transform these investments into viable option”. Indeed, interconnection offers numerous opportunities to the Caribbean islands.

14For instance, the island of Leyte located in the Philippines archipelago is known for geothermal power plants. Owing to its geothermal potential, two interconnection projects were implemented in Leyte. The first project was a submarine interconnection between the islands of Leyte and Cebu. The second project was the same as the first one, except that interconnection is between Leyte and Luzon. The aim of these two projects is “to meet the rapidly increasing demand for electricity in Cebu and Luzon” (Francis M. Dolor). Other interconnection projects have been implemented in other parts of the world. For example, in Europe, there are electricity transmission connections linking Finland with Estonia via submarine cable. The objectives of these interconnections are to “improving power system security and enabling power market integration in the Baltic region” (Yuliya Pidlisna 39). Europe’s target is to increase electricity interconnection for unification of the European electricity market establishing a common electricity price zone. Thus, a similar interconnection can help Dominica to increase its market size, strengthen interregional links already existing, to supply the needs for electricity, decrease its dependence on fossil fuel, lessening the effect of fluctuations in the price of oil, to better develop the inter-island energy trade, and improve or strengthen intraregional cooperation.

15Saint Kitts and Nevis, like Dominica, was colonized by the British Empire. They are two separate volcanic islands, forming a federal state. Saint Kitts and Nevis is located northwest of Guadeloupe, and enjoys a hot and humid tropical climate. Both islands are characterized by a volcanic mountain chain, located at their center. Saint Kitts and Nevis is heavily dependent on fossil fuels for electricity generation and is confronted with the fluctuations in the price of oil faced by the rest of the Caribbean islands. As highlighted in (table 3), diesel fuel holds the first place, whereas wind and solar energy are more or less under-developed. Similar to Guadeloupe and Dominica, these two islands have geothermal potential. Exploratory wells on Nevis have verified the presence of a geothermal resource.

Table 3: Distribution of energy production

Table 3: Distribution of energy production

The National Renewable Laboratory - NREL, 2015

16In this regard, Nevis was among the first island- showing a keen interest in geothermal energy. A license was granted to West Indies Power Company to explore the geothermal resource on the islands. This same company was given a license for exploration works in Dominica and Saba, but they did not complete any exploration. The goal of the project was to ensure energy independence for Nevis, and export electricity by a submarine cable to the island of Saint Kitts. However, the company failed to honor its commitments because of financial difficulties. Therefore, the Nevisian geothermal project was suspended until the license was awarded to another contractor. Despite the hurdles that have hindered the progress of the project, in 2015 the geothermal project in Nevis was revived with the arrival of a new purchaser, Nevis Renewable Energy International (NREI), an associate of Texas-based Thermal Energy Partners LLC. (TEP), from since then, the project has made a significant move, for around December 2017 the exploratory drilling process had been undergoing, in view of planning the production well drilling early 2018.

  • 5 A clean, green fossil fuel free island.

17Their aim is not only to build a power plant that will produce 9-10 MW of electricity for the local market, and commercialize power to others islands, like Saint Kitts, it also to make Nevis as indicated by Nevis Deputy Premier Mark Brantley5.

18At the same time, the island of Saint Kitts, which is also interested in geothermal energy, has signed an exploration agreement with Teranov, a French engineering and services company for new and renewable energy established in Guadeloupe. From all this, it shows that both Saint Kitts and Nevis have the same goal, to generate clean energy , lower the cost of electricity, supply the needs of their population, and depend less on diesel fuel. Nevis, like Dominica, has the capacity of exporting electricity to other islands due to the quantity of resource it possess. These three islands we just examined are well advanced in their respective projects, and plan to build their power plant in the near future. However, French geothermal developer Teranov has received the exploratory license by the Executive Councils of the islands of Saba and of St Eustatius, in order to assess of their geothermal potential.

19Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a former British colony, located between Saint Lucia to the north and Grenada to the south. Like the previous islands, Saint Vincent is a volcanic island and is highly dependent on fossil fuels. VINLEC (St Vincent Electricity Services Ltd) is the only licensed utility to produce, transmit, and distribute electricity in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, including some dependencies. The other small islands are supplied by privately owned electricity systems. Two methods are used to produce electricity, fossil fuel and hydropower (table 4). The high percentage of petroleum used highlights their dependence on fossil fuel.

Table 4: Distribution of energy production

Table 4: Distribution of energy production

The National Renewable Laboratory - NREL, 2015

20Like many of the other volcanic islands, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has embarked on the development of geothermal energy. To successfully carry out its project, the government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has formed a partnership with the Icelandic firm Reykjavik Geothermal Ltd, who is experienced in geothermal development, Emera, a Scotia company, and assistance from the international community. With the St Vincent Geothermal Project on track to start-up in 2018, Peter Williams said “the aim of the project is to bring stable pricing and a lower cost to energy consumers”. If the project is a success, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines will have a geothermal power plant with a capacity of 10-15MW to supply the local market.

21The four islands that were examined are pursuing the same objective, taking full advantage of their natural resources, particularly geothermal energy, so as to promote clean energy, and at the same time be on the path to energy independency. However the road leading to this process requires profound changes in the energy system. This means giving more emphasis to renewable energy. It involves social, economic, behavioral changes both individually and collectively, and adopting the concept of sustainable development. The energy transition is a slow and lengthy process that must accommodate countries and territories. Although the Caribbean politicians acknowledge that the price of electricity is very high, the development of geothermal energy in the region can help to reduce not only the electricity rate, but also their dependence from fossil fuel. The question to ask is “what are the impediments to rapid energy transition, from oil to geothermal?”

22The Caribbean region is composed of 38 islands, each with a different status. Some are independent and, others are not independent. Nevertheless, they all share the same colonial past that, have left many footprints. However, when we closely observe the Caribbean, there exists a development disparity and a disproportionate distribution of natural resources. Indeed, among the four islands that were analyzed, Dominica appears to have the most geothermal resource. However, in the energy mix Guadeloupe has a long lead over the islands, which makes it a model in the energy field to the other islands. Due to its political status as a dependent of the state of France, Guadeloupe is engaged in the energy transition in developing projects based on renewable energy.

23However, for others the road to energy transition will be a slow and a lengthy process that should accommodate the countries. Energy transition requires profound changes in the energy system, which means giving more emphasis to renewable energy. Therefore, the implementation of projects related to the environment is mostly financed by European funds and governments. With these aids Guadeloupe could develop its energy mix.

24But others do not have these opportunities; such is the case for Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, all independent islands. In contrast to the Guadeloupe, these islands are poorly developed, and in addition do not have the financial means to develop large-scale projects, despite their potential in geothermal energy. Several reasons explain why geothermal energy is undeveloped. According to one participant of the geothermal project in Dominican, “the islands face challenges in particulate the high upfront cost for exploration and uncertainty of finding a geothermal resource”. Indeed, the development of geothermal can be a risky investment because proving that the existence of the geothermal resource requires high upfront capital expenditure. Furthermore, the demand in electricity for Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are low, as the participant said “this proportionally increases the drilling costs and makes it more important to be successful with early drilling. Also the total project costs become higher on a per megawatt basis than a larger project. The poor financial standing of some of the governments makes it harder to invest, or investors want a higher return on the investment”, and he adds “by switching to geothermal as a base load you take generation away from the utility, which means that they are less financially viable as a business. It is important to keep the utility viable as they are invested in by national insurance scheme, city councils and other local parties”. These islands have a small size market, unlike Guadeloupe whose market is bigger and can generate more electricity for a larger proportion per person.

  • 6 This funding will add momentum to our ongoing efforts to transform the energy sector in the Region, (...)

25Nevertheless, on November 20th 2017 at a meeting held in New York, in the presence of the President of Caribbean Development Bank, Dr Warren Smith, European Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica has announced a European financial contribution to geothermal energy development in Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia and Grenada, he said that6. This financial suppose represent a real boost to their desire not only to embrace energetic transition

26It is worth noting that to carry out energy transition, it is important to have environmental laws in order to know the principles and uses of geothermal energy. Guadeloupe has been under French governance and applies environmental laws enacted by France and Europe. The English speaking islands, with geothermal resources have implemented geothermal regulation, which was necessary as the geothermal project develops. Therefore the renewable energy sector and particularly that of geothermal energy is something new for them.

Conclusion

27In conclusion, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, are all heavily dependent on fossil fuel to generate electricity to satisfy the needs of their citizens. However, the use of fossil fuel contributes to the emission of CO2 in the atmosphere, causing greater impacts to global warming and the environment. After hearing the call of different scientists, who point out the need to act against the effects of climatic changes, political leaders’ have decided to turn to clean and renewable energy and to enter into the phase of energy transition. Though this transition is important for the planet and the human race, it is difficult to put in place in certain parts of the world, especially in the Caribbean. Indeed, in the Caribbean region, there exist inequality, which hampers the economic development and growth of the islands. The main reasons to explain the slowness of the process to energy transition include lack of financial means, the risk of not successfully locating the geothermal resource, and attracting investment capital .However, for some years geothermal development projects have been underway in the Caribbean, improving the awareness of the politicians and their desire to take full advantage of that resource in the hope of reducing electricity rates and producing green energy so as to fight against global warming. Furthermore, with the fluctuation of the oil prices, begin a big issue of the Caribbean islands, we can said that the energetic transition in Caribbean region is on the way, but the process will be long, and much remains to be done, in order to attain the objectives set during the COP 21. Yet, the withdrawal of the United States retreat from the Paris climate agreement could have serious environmental consequences. In addition, signatory countries may find it difficult to maintain their commitments made at COP21 and honor their financial support for developing countries, hinder energy transition to renewable energy sources. As a matter of fact, we are hoping that despite the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement that efforts will be made to continue promoting geothermal energy, and help countries engaged in this path.

View of Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat and its pyroclastic flows in the foreground

View of Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat and its pyroclastic flows in the foreground

Photo by Patrick Hawks, 2012, Wikimedia commons

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Notes

1 Deriving nearly 90% of its primary energy resources from oil.

2 With 83% of electrical production based on fuel oil, the price of electricity in Hawaii is also more than twice the U.S. average.

3 The project is moving forward and… it’s not at a standstill.

4 The project is on we will continue to sensitize as we move on so let’s embrace it because it is for us and it’s clean energy and the world is headed towards clean energy we do not produce fossil fuels in Dominica.

5 A clean, green fossil fuel free island.

6 This funding will add momentum to our ongoing efforts to transform the energy sector in the Region, and support our borrowing member countries in harnessing their renewable energy resources.

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Table des illustrations

Titre The shoreline of Bouillante between Anse Machette and the Pointe à Lézard in Gaudeloupe
Crédits Photo by Ville de Bouillante, 2015, Wikimedia commons
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 828k
Titre Graphic 1: Electricity Tariff Survey, 2014
Crédits Source: CARILEC, 2014
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Figure 1: Volcanoes in the Caribbean
Crédits Source: uwiseismic.com
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 424k
Titre Table 1: Distribution of energy production
Crédits EDF Guadeloupe, 2015
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 184k
Titre Graphic 2: Carbon dioxide emission for 2016
Crédits Global carbon Atlas, 2017
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 196k
Titre Table 2: Distribution of energy production
Crédits The National Renewable Laboratory – NREL, March 2015
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 88k
Titre Table 3: Distribution of energy production
Crédits The National Renewable Laboratory - NREL, 2015
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 100k
Titre Table 4: Distribution of energy production
Crédits The National Renewable Laboratory - NREL, 2015
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 92k
Titre View of Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat and its pyroclastic flows in the foreground
Crédits Photo by Patrick Hawks, 2012, Wikimedia commons
URL http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/docannexe/image/695/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 376k
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Lynn Manijean et Pascal Saffache, « Geothermal energy slowly makes it entrance in the caribbean region », Dynamiques environnementales, 38 | 2016, 108-119.

Référence électronique

Lynn Manijean et Pascal Saffache, « Geothermal energy slowly makes it entrance in the caribbean region », Dynamiques environnementales [En ligne], 38 | 2016, mis en ligne le 01 juillet 2017, consulté le 15 décembre 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/dynenviron/695 ; DOI : 10.4000/dynenviron.695

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Auteurs

Lynn Manijean

Université des Antilles

Pascal Saffache

Université des Antilles

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La revue Dynamiques environnementales est mise à disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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