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Guidelines to Contributors

Contributors are requested to submit an electronic copy of their papers by email (in English or French). Papers should be no longer than 30 (A4) pages or about 15,000 words.

The title will be followed by the complete name of the author(s), their title, occupation, host institution and address (include an e-mail address).

The text is to be typed preferably in a Sans Serifs font, double-spaced, with a margin of 1.5 cm. Subtitles should be typed in sentence case, and numbered serially, e.g; 2; 2.1; 2.1.1. All vernacular words or those in a language other than English/French should be italicised, with a clear explanation of the term where first used in the text. All acronyms are to be fully spelt out when first used (which can be translated if need be).

Where footnotes are included, they should be on the same page as they appear in the text. These are to be brief and limited to expanding a point in the manuscript. Footnotes should not be combined with references to literature.

The Chicago or APA format (“Author-Date”) should be used for all references cited within the text, into brackets (e.g. Hartley and Walsh 1980; Paivio 1975). In case there are three or more authors, the surname of the first one should be listed, and the rest referred to as et al. e.g. (Ndegwa et al. 1987).

Sketch maps and diagrams should be drawn to a standard suitable for reproduction in black and white. Accurate citations of source should be given in cases where originals of maps/diagrams are not used. Where graphs are used, they should be generated in MS Excel, with a copy on disk or by e-mail, and the accompanying table attached.

Immediately after the text, and under the heading Bibliography, complete reference citations (only those referred to in the text) should be listed in alphabetical order. The bibliography must respect the Chicago Author-Date norm:

In the event that the EndNote software or Zotero software has been used to generate the bibliography, kindly send to us the file corresponding to the bibliographical references in the text.

Any articles not following these guidelines will be refused.

For texts in English, we assure the compliance with the standard spelling, grammatical and punctuation rules, as specified in the English Oxford Dictionaries (

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