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Code JEL

Le code JEL est la classification de référence en économie, édictée par le Journal of Economic Literature

A - General Economics and Teaching

A1 - General Economics

A10 - General
A11 - Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists
A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
A13 - Relation of Economics to Social Values
A14 - Sociology of Economics
A19 - Other

A2 - Economics Education and Teaching of Economics

A20 - General
A21 - Pre-college
A22 - Undergraduate
A23 - Graduate
A29 - Other

A3 - Multisubject Collective Works

A30 - General
A31 - Multisubject Collected Writings of Individuals
A32 - Multisubject Volumes
A39 - Other

B - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology

B0 - General

B00 - General

B1 - History of Economic Thought through 1925

B10 - General
B11 - Preclassical
B12 - Classical
B13 - Neoclassical through 1925
B14 - Socialist; Marxist
B15 - Historical; Institutional
B16 - Quantitative
B19 - Other

B2 - History of Economic Thought since 1925

B20 - General
B21 - Microeconomics
B22 - Macroeconomics
B23 - Econometrics; Quantitative Studies
B24 - Socialist; Marxist
B25 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian
B29 - Other

B3 - History of Thought: Individuals

B30 - General
B31 - Individuals

B4 - Economic Methodology

B40 - General
B41 - Economic Methodology
B49 - Other

B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches

B50 - General
B51 - Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian
B52 - Institutional; Evolutionary
B53 - Austrian
B59 - Other

C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

C0 - General

C00 - General

C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

C10 - General
C11 - Bayesian Analysis
C12 - Hypothesis Testing
C13 - Estimation
C14 - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods
C15 - Statistical Simulation Methods; Monte Carlo Methods; Bootstrap Methods
C16 - Specific Distributions
C19 - Other

C2 - Econometric Methods: Single Equation Models; Single Variables

C20 - General
C21 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
C22 - Time-Series Models
C23 - Models with Panel Data
C24 - Truncated and Censored Models
C25 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models
C29 - Other

C3 - Econometric Methods: Multiple/Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables

C30 - General
C31 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
C32 - Time-Series Models
C33 - Models with Panel Data
C34 - Truncated and Censored Models
C35 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models
C39 - Other

C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

C40 - General
C41 - Duration Analysis
C42 - Survey Methods
C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation
C44 - Statistical Decision Theory; Operations Research
C45 - Neural Networks and Related Topics
C49 - Other

C5 - Econometric Modeling

C50 - General
C51 - Model Construction and Estimation
C52 - Model Evaluation and Testing
C53 - Forecasting and Other Model Applications
C59 - Other

C6 - Mathematical Methods and Programming

C60 - General
C61 - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
C62 - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
C63 - Computational Techniques
C65 - Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
C67 - Input–Output Models
C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models
C69 - Other

C7 - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory

C70 - General
C71 - Cooperative Games
C72 - Noncooperative Games
C73 - Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games
C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory
C79 - Other

C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

C80 - General
C81 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data
C82 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data
C87 - Econometric Software
C88 - Other Computer Software
C89 - Other

C9 - Design of Experiments

C90 - General
C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
C92 - Laboratory, Group Behavior
C93 - Field Experiments
C99 - Other

D - Microeconomics

D0 - General

D00 - General
D01 - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D02 - Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations

D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics

D10 - General
D11 - Consumer Economics: Theory
D12 - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D13 - Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
D14 - Personal Finance
D18 - Consumer Protection
D19 - Other

D2 - Production and Organizations

D20 - General
D21 - Firm Behavior
D23 - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
D24 - Production; Capital and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity
D29 - Other

D3 - Distribution

D30 - General
D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D33 - Factor Income Distribution
D39 - Other

D4 - Market Structure and Pricing

D40 - General
D41 - Perfect Competition
D42 - Monopoly
D43 - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
D44 - Auctions
D45 - Rationing; Licensing
D46 - Value Theory
D49 - Other

D5 - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium

D50 - General
D51 - Exchange and Production Economies
D52 - Incomplete Markets
D57 - Input–Output Tables and Analysis
D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
D59 - Other

D6 - Welfare Economics

D60 - General
D61 - Allocative Efficiency; Cost–Benefit Analysis
D62 - Externalities
D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D64 - Altruism
D69 - Other

D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

D70 - General
D71 - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
D72 - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
D73 - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation
D79 - Other

D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

D80 - General
D81 - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information
D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge
D84 - Expectations; Speculations
D85 - Network Formation
D86 - Economics of Contract Law
D89 - Other

D9 - Intertemporal Choice and Growth

D90 - General
D91 - Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
D92 - Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing
D99 - Other

E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

E0 - General

E00 - General
E01 - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth

E1 - General Aggregative Models

E10 - General
E11 - Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary
E12 - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
E13 - Neoclassical
E17 - Forecasting and Simulation
E19 - Other

E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

E20 - General
E21 - Consumption; Saving
E22 - Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity
E23 - Production
E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages
E25 - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
E26 - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
E27 - Forecasting and Simulation
E29 - Other

E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

E30 - General
E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
E37 - Forecasting and Simulation
E39 - Other

E4 - Money and Interest Rates

E40 - General
E41 - Demand for Money
E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
E43 - Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates
E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E47 - Forecasting and Simulation
E49 - Other

E5 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

E50 - General
E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
E52 - Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)
E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies
E59 - Other

E6 - Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook

E60 - General
E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
E62 - Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation
E63 - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization
E64 - Incomes Policy; Price Policy
E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
E66 - General Outlook and Conditions
E69 - Other

F - International Economics

F0 - General

F00 - General
F01 - Global Outlook
F02 - International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations •Economic Integration and Globalization: General

F1 - Trade

F10 - General
F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade
F12 - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies
F13 - Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations
F14 - Country and Industry Studies of Trade
F15 - Economic Integration
F16 - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation
F18 - Trade and Environment
F19 - Other

F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business

F20 - General
F21 - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
F22 - International Migration
F23 - Multinational Firms; International Business
F29 - Other

F3 - International Finance

F30 - General
F31 - Foreign Exchange
F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements
F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems
F35 - Foreign Aid
F36 - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
F37 - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation
F39 - Other

F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

F40 - General
F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics
F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F43 - Economic Growth of Open Economies
F47 - Forecasting and Simulation
F49 - Other

G - Financial Economics

G0 - General

G00 - General

G1 - General Financial Markets

G10 - General
G11 - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
G12 - Asset Pricing
G13 - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies
G15 - International Financial Markets
G18 - Government Policy and Regulation
G19 - Other

G2 - Financial Institutions and Services

G20 - General
G21 - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Mortgages
G22 - Insurance; Insurance Companies
G23 - Pension Funds; Other Private Financial Institutions
G24 - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
G28 - Government Policy and Regulation
G29 - Other

G3 - Corporate Finance and Governance

G30 - General
G31 - Capital Budgeting; Investment Policy
G32 - Financing Policy; Capital and Ownership Structure
G33 - Bankruptcy; Liquidation
G34 - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
G35 - Payout Policy
G38 - Government Policy and Regulation
G39 - Other

H - Public Economics

H0 - General

H00 - General

H1 - Structure and Scope of Government

H10 - General
H11 - Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H19 - Other

H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

H20 - General
H21 - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
H22 - Incidence
H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
H24 - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
H25 - Business Taxes and Subsidies
H26 - Tax Evasion
H27 - Other Sources of Revenue
H29 - Other

H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

H30 - General
H31 - Household
H32 - Firm
H39 - Other

H4 - Publicly Provided Goods

H40 - General
H41 - Public Goods
H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods
H43 - Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate
H49 - Other

H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

H50 - General
H51 - Government Expenditures and Health
H52 - Government Expenditures and Education
H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
H54 - Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
H55 - Social Security and Public Pensions
H56 - National Security and War
H57 - Procurement
H59 - Other

H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

H60 - General
H61 - Budget; Budget Systems
H62 - Deficit; Surplus
H63 - Debt; Debt Management
H69 - Other

H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

H70 - General
H71 - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H72 - State and Local Budget and Expenditures
H73 - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
H74 - State and Local Borrowing
H77 - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism
H79 - Other

H8 - Miscellaneous Issues

H80 - General
H81 - Governmental Loans, Loan Guarantees, and Credits
H82 - Governmental Property
H83 - Public Administration
H87 - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
H89 - Other

I - Health, Education, and Welfare

I0 - General

I00 - General

I1 - Health

I10 - General
I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets
I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance Abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior
I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
I19 - Other

I2 - Education

I20 - General
I21 - Analysis of Education
I22 - Educational Finance
I23 - Higher Education Research Institutions
I28 - Government Policy
I29 - Other

I3 - Welfare and Poverty

I30 - General
I31 - General Welfare; Basic Needs; Living Standards; Quality of Life; Happiness
I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I38 - Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I39 - Other

J - Labor and Demographic Economics

J0 - General

J00 - General

J1 - Demographic Economics

J10 - General
J11 - Demographic Trends and Forecasts
J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped
J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
J17 - Value of Life; Foregone Income
J18 - Public Policy
J19 - Other

J2 - Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human Capital

J20 - General
J21 - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J23 - Employment Determination; Job Creation; Demand for Labor; Self-Employment
J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
J26 - Retirement; Retirement Policies
J28 - Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
J29 - Other

J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

J30 - General
J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.
J32 - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Private Pensions
J33 - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
J38 - Public Policy
J39 - Other

J4 - Particular Labor Markets

J40 - General
J41 - Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching Models, Efficiency Wage Models, and Internal Labor Markets
J42 - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets
J44 - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets
J48 - Public Policy
J49 - Other

J5 - Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

J50 - General
J51 - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
J52 - Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective Bargaining
J53 - Labor–Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
J54 - Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms
J58 - Public Policy
J59 - Other

J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

J60 - General
J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
J62 - Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
J63 - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
J64 - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
J65 - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
J68 - Public Policy
J69 - Other

J7 - Labor Discrimination

J70 - General
J71 – Discrimination
J78 - Public Policy
J79 - Other

J8 - Labor Standards: National and International

J80 - General
J81 - Working Conditions
J82 - Labor Force Composition
J83 - Workers' Rights
J88 - Public Policy
J89 - Other

K - Law and Economics

K0 - General

K00 - General

K1 - Basic Areas of Law

K10 - General
K11 - Property Law
K12 - Contract Law
K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability
K14 - Criminal Law
K19 - Other

K2 - Regulation and Business Law

K20 - General
K21 - Antitrust Law
K22 - Corporation and Securities Law
K23 - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
K29 - Other

K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law

K30 - General
K31 - Labor Law
K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33 - International Law
K34 - Tax Law
K35 - Personal Bankruptcy Law
K39 - Other

K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

K40 - General
K41 - Litigation Process
K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
K49 - Other

L - Industrial Organization

L0 - General

L00 - General

L1 - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

L10 - General
L11 - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
L12 - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
L13 - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks
L15 - Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility
L16 - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial Structure; Industrial Price Indices
L19 - Other

L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

L20 - General
L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm
L22 - Firm Organization and Market Structure: Markets vs. Hierarchies; Vertical Integration; Conglomerates
L23 - Organization of Production
L24 - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures
L25 - Firm Performance: Size, Age, Profit, and Sales
L29 - Other

L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

L30 - General
L31 - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs
L32 - Public Enterprises
L33 - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting Out
L39 - Other

L4 - Antitrust Issues and Policies

L40 - General
L41 - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
L42 - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
L43 - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
L44 - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
L49 - Other

L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy

L50 - General
L51 - Economics of Regulation
L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
L53 - Government Promotion of Firms
L59 - Other

L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing

L60 - General
L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics
L62 - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment
L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments
L65 - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
L66 - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco
L67 - Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather
L68 - Appliances; Other Consumer Durables
L69 - Other

L7 - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

L70 - General
L71 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
L72 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
L73 - Forest Products: Lumber and Paper
L74 - Construction
L78 - Government Policy
L79 - Other

L8 - Industry Studies: Services

L80 - General
L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing; e-Commerce
L82 - Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting, Publishing, etc.)
L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
L84 - Personal, Professional, and Business Services
L85 - Real Estate Services
L86 - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
L87 - Postal and Delivery Services
L88 - Government Policy
L89 - Other

L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

L90 - General
L91 - Transportation: General
L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation: Autos, Buses, Trucks, and Water Carriers; Ports
L93 - Air Transportation
L94 - Electric Utilities
L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
L96 - Telecommunications
L97 - Utilities: General
L98 - Government Policy
L99 - Other

M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting

M0 - General

M00 - General

M1 - Business Administration

M10 - General
M11 - Production Management
M12 - Personnel Management
M13 - Entrepreneurship
M14 - Corporate Culture; Social Responsibility
M19 - Other

M2 - Business Economics

M20 - General
M21 - Business Economics
M29 - Other

M3 - Marketing and Advertising

M30 - General
M31 - Marketing
M37 - Advertising
M39 - Other

M4 - Accounting and Auditing

M40 - General
M41 - Accounting
M42 - Auditing
M49 - Other

M5 - Personnel Economics

M50 - General
M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time, temporary workers, seniority issues)
M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options, fringe benefits, incentives, family support programs, seniority issues)
M53 - Training
M54 - Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks and authority, job satisfaction)
M55 - Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing; Franchising; Other
M59 - Other

N - Economic History

N0 - General

N00 - General
N01 - Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

N10 - General, International, or Comparative
N11 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N12 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N13 - Europe: Pre-1913
N14 - Europe: 1913–
N15 - Asia including Middle East
N16 - Latin America; Caribbean
N17 - Africa; Oceania

N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions

N20 - General, International, or Comparative
N21 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N22 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N23 - Europe: Pre-1913
N24 - Europe: 1913–
N25 - Asia including Middle East
N26 - Latin America; Caribbean
N27 - Africa; Oceania

N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

N30 - General, International, or Comparative
N31 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N32 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N33 - Europe: Pre-1913
N34 - Europe: 1913–
N35 - Asia including Middle East
N36 - Latin America; Caribbean
N37 - Africa; Oceania

N4 - Government, War, Law, and Regulation

N40 - General, International, or Comparative
N41 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N42 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N43 - Europe: Pre-1913
N44 - Europe: 1913–
N45 - Asia including Middle East
N46 - Latin America; Caribbean
N47 - Africa; Oceania

N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

N50 - General, International, or Comparative
N51 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N52 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N53 - Europe: Pre-1913
N54 - Europe: 1913–
N55 - Asia including Middle East
N56 - Latin America; Caribbean
N57 - Africa; Oceania

N6 - Manufacturing and Construction

N60 - General, International, or Comparative
N61 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N62 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N63 - Europe: Pre-1913
N64 - Europe: 1913–
N65 - Asia including Middle East
N66 - Latin America; Caribbean
N67 - Africa; Oceania

N7 - Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

N70 - General, International, or Comparative
N71 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N72 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N73 - Europe: Pre-1913
N74 - Europe: 1913–
N75 - Asia including Middle East
N76 - Latin America; Caribbean
N77 - Africa; Oceania

N8 - Micro-Business History

N80 - General, International, or Comparative
N81 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N82 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N83 - Europe: Pre-1913
N84 - Europe: 1913–
N85 - Asia including Middle East
N86 - Latin America; Caribbean
N87 - Africa; Oceania

N9 - Regional and Urban History

N90 - General, International, or Comparative
N91 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N92 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N93 - Europe: Pre-1913
N94 - Europe: 1913–
N95 - Asia including Middle East
N96 - Latin America; Caribbean
N97 - Africa; Oceania

O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

O1 - Economic Development

O10 - General
O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
O14 - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment
O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements: Legal, Social, Economic, and Political
O18 - Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses
O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

O2 - Development Planning and Policy

O20 - General
O21 - Planning Models; Planning Policy
O22 - Project Analysis
O23 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
O24 - Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy
O29 - Other

O3 - Technological Change; Research and Development

O30 - General
O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
O34 - Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues
O38 - Government Policy
O39 - Other

O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

O40 - General
O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
O42 - Monetary Growth Models
O47 - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity
O49 - Other

O5 - Economywide Country Studies

O50 - General
O51 - U.S.; Canada
O52 - Europe
O53 - Asia including Middle East
O54 - Latin America; Caribbean
O55 - Africa
O56 - Oceania
O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries

P - Economic Systems

P0 - General

P00 - General

P1 - Capitalist Systems

P10 - General
P11 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P12 - Capitalist Enterprises
P13 - Cooperative Enterprises
P14 - Property Rights
P16 - Political Economy
P17 - Performance and Prospects
P19 - Other

P2 - Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

P20 - General
P21 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P22 - Prices
P23 - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
P24 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P25 - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Housing; Transportation
P26 - Political Economy; Property Rights
P27 - Performance and Prospects
P28 - Natural Resources; Energy; Environment
P29 - Other

P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

P30 - General
P31 - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
P33 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P34 - Financial Economics
P35 - Public Economics
P36 - Consumer Economics; Health, Education, Welfare, and Poverty
P37 - Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
P39 - Other

P4 - Other Economic Systems

P40 - General
P41 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P42 - Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population
P43 - Public Economics; Financial Economics
P44 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P45 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P46 - Consumer Economics; Welfare and Poverty
P47 - Performance and Prospects
P48 - Political Economy •Legal Institutions; Property Rights
P49 - Other

P5 - Comparative Economic Systems

P50 - General
P51 - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
P52 - Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
P59 - Other

Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics

Q0 - General

Q00 - General
Q01 - Sustainable Development

Q1 - Agriculture

Q10 - General
Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q13 - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
Q14 - Agricultural Finance
Q15 - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation
Q16 - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Agricultural Extension Services
Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade
Q18 - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
Q19 - Other

Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation

Q20 - General
Q21 - Demand and Supply
Q22 - Fishery; Aquaculture
Q23 - Forestry
Q24 - Land
Q25 - Water
Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
Q28 - Government Policy
Q29 – Other

Q3 - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

Q30 - General
Q31 - Demand and Supply
Q32 - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Q34 - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
Q33 - Resource Booms
Q38 - Government Policy
Q39 - Other

Q4 - Energy

Q40 - General
Q41 - Demand and Supply
Q42 - Alternative Energy Sources
Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy
Q48 - Government Policy
Q49 - Other

Q5 - Environmental Economics

Q50 - General
Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q52 - Pollution Control Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
Q53 - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste • Recycling
Q54 - Climate; Natural Disasters
Q55 - Technological Innovation
Q56 - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounting
Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics
Q58 - Government Policy
Q59 - Other

R - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics

R0 - General

R00 - General

R1 - General Regional Economics

R10 - General
R11 - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes
R12 - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade
R13 - General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
R14 - Land Use Patterns
R15 - Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models
R19 - Other

R2 - Household Analysis

R20 - General
R21 - Housing Demand
R22 - Other Demand
R23 - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
R29 - Other

R3 - Production Analysis and Firm Location

R30 - General
R31 - Housing Supply and Markets
R32 - Other Production and Pricing Analysis
R33 - Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
R34 - Input Demand Analysis
R38 - Government Policies; Regulatory Policies
R39 - Other

R4 - Transportation Systems

R40 - General
R41 - Transportation: Demand; Supply; Congestion; Safety and Accidents
R42 - Government and Private Investment Analysis
R48 - Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies
R49 - Other

R5 - Regional Government Analysis

R50 - General
R51 - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
R52 - Land Use and Other Regulations
R53 - Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock
R58 - Regional Development Policy
R59 - Other

Z - Other Special Topics

Z0 - General

Z00 - General

Z1 - Cultural Economics

Z10 - General
Z11 - Economics of the Arts and Literature
Z12 - Religion
Z13 - Social Norms and Social Capital; Social Networks
Z19 - Other

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