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Les Finno-ougriens et la nature

“Setos pick russula and purovik, and not the red ones, they are slimy”

Cultural preferences in edible mushroom use of the Setos and Russians of Pechory District of Pskov Oblast, NW Russia
« Les Setos cueillent la russula et le purovik, et non les rouges, ils sont visqueux ». Préférences culturelles dans l’utilisation des champignons comestibles des Setos et des Russes du district de Pechory de l’oblast de Pskov, NW Russie
„Setod korjavad russulat ja purovikut, mitte punaseid, nad on limased“: Loode-Venemaa Pihkva oblasti Petseri rajooni setode ja venelaste kultuurilised eelistused söödavate seente kasutamisel
Olga Belichenko
p. 137-166

Résumés

La typologie des champignons, ainsi que les informations nécessaires à la cueillette et à la cuisson des champignons comestibles, constituent la base de l’ethnomycologie. La distinction populaire entre les champignons agaric et bolet comestibles (qui ne coïncide pas toujours avec la typologie scientifique) est connue de nombreuses cultures européennes. Cette distinction et la sémantique des noms de champignons en seto peuvent influencer la perception des champignons et les préférences gustatives. Dans la situation d’érosion linguistique, ces perceptions peuvent être préservées malgré la perte du vocabulaire original. D’autre part, la pratique de la commission des champignons introduite par l’économie soviétique et les valeurs attribuées aux champignons peuvent refléter la disponibilité locale, les qualités commerciales des champignons et les préférences locales mais ne peuvent pas les définir. Les matériaux pour cet article ont été recueillis au cours des étés 2018 et 2019, lorsque nous avons parlé à 25 habitants seto et 34 Russes du district de Pechory.

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Texte intégral

The field research for this article was financed by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (DiGe, grant agreement No. 714874). I am deeply grateful to the study participants who shared their knowledge with me. I would like to thank Valeria Kolosova, Kira Kovalenko, and Guslyana Kartyushova who assisted me in the field. Thanks also due to Mila Kalinina who instructed me before the mycological field and commented on the manuscript, to Tatiana Demenchenok who transcribed the newspaper data, to Kevin Jernigan who provided comments to the manuscript, to Mekhmet Muslimov who checked the Seto myconyms, and to the anonymous reviewers who helped to dramatically improve the initial draft.

Local ecological knowledge and ethnomycology

  • 1 Wasson & Wasson, 1957.
  • 2 Lévi-Strauss, 1970.
  • 3 Peninter et al., 2013.

1The concepts of mycophobia and mycophilia among ethnic groups, discussed by R.G. Wasson and V. P. Wasson in 19571 and then by Lévi-Strauss,2 is still driving the majority of discussions in current ethnomycology.3 In the European context, there are clearly mycophobic cultures like the English, German or Swedish, and mycophilic like the French, Italian and Slavic. For example, it was the striking difference in attitudes to mushrooms from repugnancy to tender admiration that sparked an interest in ethnomycology in the American banker Gordon Wasson and his wife of Russian origin, Vera Pavlovna.

2Cultural preferences towards mushrooms are not stable, and contact with a mycophilic culture can change the attitudes of an originally mycophobic culture.4 For example, mushrooms are regarded as a delicacy by an average Western consumer thanks to the esteemed culinary traditions of mycophilic France and Italy. In Sweden, a fashion for mushrooms was introduced in the 18th century by the king Karl Johan XIV who was of French origin.5 The menu of the Danish three-Michelin-star restaurant NoMa6 that reinvented Nordic cuisine exploiting, in particular, unusual ingredients from northern forests, suggests French selection of mushrooms and French ways of their cooking.7 For example, it lists Cantharellus cibarius, Boletus edulis, Polyporus frondosus (Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray) and unidentified wild mushrooms in preparations like macerating in oil, frying in butter or steaming in water with addition of white wine, which are the techniques of French cuisine. Mushroom lacto-fermentation is mentioned in The Noma guide to fermentation.8 However, according to this book, this technique is applied to Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and wood blewit Lepista nuda in order to extract the aromatic juice for sauce preparations. Moreover, the lacto-fermentation is suggested to be performed in matter of days, rather than months as the traditional recipe known in the Russian North prescribes. The mushroom fruit bodies are then dehydrated (Bolteus edulis) or simply discarded after the procedure, which would not make sense in a traditional preparation.

  • 9 Yamin-Pasternak, 2007.
  • 10 Härkönen, 1998. The popular division of edible mushrooms into agaric and bolete lacks scientific ri (...)
  • 11 Ibid.
  • 12 Arukask, 2021.

3The position of Finno-Ugric cultures towards mushrooms is not so easy to establish. One would expect that mushroom consumption would be affected by the contact with mycophilic Russian culture as was shown with the relatively recent example of the Chukchi.9 As shown by Härkönen, the western and eastern traditions of mushroom use collided in Finland. Western Finland was influenced by French tradition welcomed by the upper classes in neighbouring Sweden and cherishing boletes. Eastern Finland, populated by Karelians, on the contrary, preferred agaric mushrooms such as Lactarius spp. and this tradition was coming from the lower classes.10 Contrary to the case of western influence, it is difficult to describe the dynamics and direction of exchange of mushroom knowledge in the East, between contacting Finnic and Russian cultures. For example, Karelians and Estonians do pick mushrooms and have elaborate terminology for mushrooms. On the other hand, in each of these languages, mushroom terminology sometimes overlaps with Russian: for example, griba (cf. гриб, mushroom in Russian) in Tver Karelian,11 puravik in Estonian (cf. боровик, cep in Russian). Seto culture is sometimes called the most archaic Finnic culture12 and the Seto tradition of mushroom use can be instrumental in understanding the interaction between Finnic and Russian elements in the mushroom ecological knowledge.

  • 13 Maffi, 2005.
  • 14 Belichenko et al., 2021.
  • 15 Lozada et al., 2006.
  • 16 Belichenko et al., 2021.

4Cultural (mostly religious) and linguistic differences together with geographic isolation of the communities can favour hotspots of biocultural diversity.13 Food and medicinal wild plants of Seto and Russian communities of Pechory District, as they were not thought as significant ethnic markers, do not allow us to distinguish clearly “Seto” or “Russian” plants.14 One can rather find different adaptation patterns and different local ecological knowledge (LEK) dynamics. For instance, while Seto plant knowledge remains conservative and focused over multiple uses of a narrow plant list, Russian knowledge is more transformed by media applying wider number of various species. Such phenomena as formalized education, limited time budget of the generations of Soviet collective farm workers and replacement of vertical knowledge transmission15 by one-to-many transmission (media, books) became crucial for the local ecological knowledge dynamics. The present article is addressing the following hypotheses, in the same line as the studies on wild plants in the Pechory District:16

5Are there differences between Seto and Russian ecological knowledge about mushrooms?

6What were the changes in Seto and Russian mushroom use during the last several decades (as viewed by the living generations), and what triggered the change, if any?

Background

Seto, Petserimaa and the border

  • 17 Piho, 2017.
  • 18 Hurt, 1904.
  • 19 Trusman, 1890.
  • 20 Statistics Estonia, 2021.
  • 21 Koreinik, 2013.
  • 22 Vserossiiskaia perepis’ naseleniia 2010 goda Всероссийская перепись населения [All-Russian census o (...)

7The first mentions of Seto or “Setukene” date back to the beginning of the 19th century.17 According to the first comprehensive descriptions, made by Jacob Hurt18 and Juri Trusman,19 the Setos occupying lands around Pskov Pechory Monastery, shared the language with Estonians and the religion with Russians. Linguistically, Seto is considered a subdialect to Võro, a southern dialect of Estonian. While being mutually understandable with Estonian, Seto differs from it on all levels.20 Seto is the language of private sphere, unlike Estonian that has been the language of education for Setos since the 1920s. The Seto language in Estonia is spoken by ca. 25,000 people.21 The Seto community in Petserimaa (Pechory District, Pskov Oblast’, Russia) consists of 123 persons, according to a 2010 census.22

  • 23 Jääts, 2000.

8In 1920, according to the Tartu peace treaty, Petserimaa (the part of Setomaa, adjacent to Pechory) became part of Independent Estonia. Thanks to this, Petserimaa avoided the difficult decades of the Soviet collectivization and anti-religious campaign. However, this territory was occupied by the USSR in 1940, and later an administrative border divided Setomaa into Estonian and Russian parts in 1944.23 Thus, collective farming was introduced in Setomaa no later than 1949, tolerating the residues of khutor (isolated farmstead) farming that persisted until the collapse of the USSR in 1991. The continuity of farming was partly responsible for the fact that Petserimaa has not suffered from famines throughout the 20th century.

  • 24 Ibid.

9Education, that was conducted in Estonian, has pushed the younger generations of Seto to Estonia, where they could continue their studies after high school or obtain a professional qualification in Estonian. Later in the 1990s, the better economic situation in Estonia attracted a new wave of Seto emigration.24

Glacier traces: Haanja Upland and Lake Peipus

  • 25 Mikhailov & Liudvichenko, 1999, p. 56-58.
  • 26 Kapanen, 2007.
  • 27 Mikhailov & Liudvichenko, 1999, p. 56-58.
  • 28 Ibid.
  • 29 Palo, 2016.
  • 30 Mikhailov & Liudvichenko, 1999, p. 56-58.

10The Pechory District (1,251 km2) is a subdivision of Pskov Oblast located in northwestern Russia on the border with Estonia (see figure 1). The landscape was mainly formed during the Valdai glaciation, which created the main elevations and depressions.25 The study area lies between Lake Peipus (3,555 km2)26 to the north and the Haanja Upland to the south, with an elevation up to 200-340 m. The soils are sandy, sandy loam, clay loam with deposits of sand, clay, and limestone. The area is characterized by continental climate, slightly impacted by the Baltic Sea that brings mild winters and cool summers.27 The Pechory District encompasses the boreal and sub-boreal natural zones with coniferous (mostly pine and occasionally spruce), deciduous and mixed forests.28 The majority of pine woods are lichen pine forests that become ericetal at the logged areas and margins.29 River and lake banks are formed by peat, gley soil and podzol; pine birch and alder forests are water-logged.30

Figure 1—Study area.

Figure 1—Study area.

Map shape: European Commission, Eurostat (ESTAT), GISCO.

  • 31 Tammekan et al., 1928.
  • 32 Ibid.
  • 33 Sokolova, 2016.

11The natural conditions around Pechory were thoroughly studied in the 1920s when Petserimaa became part of Independent Estonia. According to Tammekan et al.,31 while the Pechory area belonged to the Pskov Governorate, the forests in that area were not managed in a sustainable way. Due to this, areas of low fertility were covered only by pine forest patches, while the fertile areas featured very small spruce-birch forests. Intensive management was evident by the fact that the forests were less than 50 years old, which means that relict forests were consumed due to agricultural exploitation. Most of the area at that time was arable land or semi-natural meadows.32 A comprehensive description of the natural conditions of the area showed that during a 10-year period (1990-2000), forested land, which was affected by frequent natural fires in the area, remained at the level of 19%. Pine trees (82%) dominate these forests, with a few other trees present in smaller numbers (8.5% birch and 8% spruce). A decrease in the species richness of common plants was also observed.33

Data and Methods

  • 34 Zambrana et al., 2018.

12The data on mushrooms were collected within a larger project dedicated to the dynamics of the ethnobotanical knowledge in Setomaa. We chose a combination of freelisting and semi-structured interviews and the most informative methods for the ethnobotanical fieldwork.34 We collected information about food, medicinal and other useful forest resources. In this article, our data on edible mushrooms will be discussed.

13The materials for this article were collected during fieldwork in the part of Pechory District of Pskov Oblast, Russia, which is known among the Setos as Petserimaa or the Russian part of Setomaa and is located in the triangle of Pechory, Panikovichi and Izborsk. In addition, we worked in the vicinity of Lavry village as well as in several villages around Krupp (see the map, on figure 1). During the summers of 2018 and 2019 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 Setos and 34 Russians who were available for conversation in the streets, on the land plots next to their houses etc. (convenience sampling) or were recommended to us by the locals or other interviewees (snowball method). All interviews were conducted with prior informed consent and strictly following the ISE Code of Ethics (2006).35 During the second year, apart from recruiting new participants, we interviewed the participants for the second time to clarify the details. The average age of Seto ethnic group participants was 56 years, and the Russian ethnic group, 65 years. We were asking to freelist the mushrooms collected by our interlocutors and their families, the dishes made from them, changes that they observe in the habitat and their favourite mushroom spots. For each use, we tried to understand the temporality of use, which was used in course of data analysis (see below).

14The interviews were conducted in Russian as all the Seto participants were bilingual. Nevertheless, this is the main limitation of this study. Moreover, many of the study participants experienced difficulties recalling mushroom names in Seto. Some were able to recall both Seto and Estonian names and to indicate this fact to the interviewers (see above about the compulsory school education in Estonian). Others sometimes mixed up Seto and Estonian mushroom names. The Seto myconyms were elicited in the end of each interview session (see table 2). In several cases, we recorded additional myconyms during follow-up interviews in the second year of the project.

15Apart from interviews, we conducted observations at local festivals (Seto family meetings in Sigovo village and The Dormition of the mother of God in Pechory, 28 August 2018) and religious processions (Maly / Mõla Sunday, 15 July 2018) in order to better understand the interaction of Seto and Russian groups as well as the ways of manifestation of the Seto identity. We visited local museums : Pechory local history museum, Linen Governorate (Льняная Губерния), the State museum and an unofficial Seto culture museum in Sigovo, a local history museum in Izborsk in Russia; Obinitsa and Värska Seto museums.

16As Pechory used to be the cultural centre of Setomaa, the Pechory market has always been a place of encounter and exchange. Even these days, Seto are trading the produce of their farms there. Some others also bring mushrooms: Boletus edulis, Leccinum aurantiacum and similar, as well as Cantharellus cibarius. We also performed observations at the market in Pechory interacting with the traders, taking photos of the forest products and conducted five full interviews there.

17One of the most informative ethnobotanical methods is ethnobotanical walks with the study participants. However, it was problematic in case of Setos and mushrooms. The mushrooms were often described as something rare and requiring special knowledge in sourcing. Therefore, the study participants were reluctant to participate in joint ethnobotanical walks with me and my colleague Valeria Kolosova. In case of doubt in mushroom identification, we used the pictorial materials. The mycological herbarium consisting of 22 specimens was collected in the beginning of August 2020 next to the village Davydov Konets together with an ecological knowledge enthusiast who settled in the area more than 10 years ago. The desiccated fruit bodies and spore prints are deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute in Saint Petersburg under the following codes: 331824-331846 (see appendix).

18The interviews were recorded with a voice recorder or, in the case when the participants refused voice recording, field notes were taken. The field notes were deciphered during the field session as close to the day of the interview as possible. The notes and audio interview transcriptions were anonymized and tabulated into Excel spreadsheets according to the following categories: informant code, ethnic group, mushroom names in local languages, ways of preparation, and time of use (all time, current, past). Each row in the spreadsheet corresponded to a use instance (UI): the use by a particular person of particular mushroom specie in particular preparation. Thus, if a dish mentioned by someone consisted of two mushroom species, it generated two UIs, one for each mushroom. If one mushroom was used by someone in three dishes, that generated three UIs. Based on the study participants’ responses about the temporality of use, we deducted the following categories: past (used by parents or grandparents and not observed by the participant), childhood only (used during the schoolyears), adulthood (learned after the school graduation or marriage), recently (learned in the last five years), all the time (acquired in family and still used). All the project materials will be published online after the end of the project in 2023.

  • 36 Convert Cyrillic, URL : https://convertcyrillic.com/#/convert.

19Romanization of the Cyrillic script of the original Russian words was done according to the ALA-LC (American Library Association—Library of Congress) Romanization without Diacritics set of standards.36 Russian geographic names are provided according to their English spelling.

Results: General observations

20We obtained information on 230 use instances (UIs) of 21 edible mushroom species from Setos and 478 UIs of 40 species—from Russians. The share of mushrooms in overall food uses was small but persistent. Every participant whom we asked about mushrooms was able to name at least three species, and only several incomplete interviews when we had not time to raise the topic were missing the information about mushrooms.

21Edible mushrooms reported during the study belong mainly to three families: Boletaceae (mentioned by 53% of Setos and 49% of Russians), Russulaceae (27% of Setos and 25% of Russians) and Cantharellaceae (15% of Setos and 8% of Russians; see figure 2).

Figure 2—Family distribution of mushrooms mentioned by Seto and Russians.

Figure 2—Family distribution of mushrooms mentioned by Seto and Russians.

Source: author’s field data.

22The most reported mushroom species were similar among the Seto and Russians (see figure 3 and table 1) but slight differences were observed in preferences. While Setos preferred various mushrooms of Russula genus (Seto makõsiin, Rus. сыроежки), Russians more frequently mentioned Leccinum species, such as Leccinum aurantiacum and Leccinum scabrum. This difference will be discussed further in the next section.

Table 1—The top edible mushrooms mentioned by Seto and Russians.

Top-5 edible mushroom species
Seto (n=25), % Russian (n=34),%
Boletus edulis 26.7 Boletus edulis 19.7
Cantharellus cibarius 16.6 Leccinum aurantiacum 14.3
Russula spp. 14.75 Cantharellus cibarius 9.6
Leccinum aurantiacum 12.0 Leccinum scabrum 9.5
Leccinum scabrum 10.1 Russula spp. 9.0

Source: author’s field data.

23It is important to mention that the number of use instances and the taste preferences do not always correspond. For example, Cantharellus cibarius was frequently mentioned by Seto and Russians due to the fact that it could be easily found in the area. However, our interlocutors complained about the culinary properties of these mushrooms, describing them as резиновые (rubbery):

  • 37 In the quotes from the interviews with participants, their gender, ethnic group and year of birth a (...)

Русская (ж, 1941): Лисички сушат, как-то я пробовала их это… сушить ладно, а солить – они невкусные, они как резиновые. Они не идут. И маринад, и в эту. А мне одна женщина и говорит: «Зря вы так говорите, их нужно отварить. Лисички. И через мясорубку пропустить, и добавить туда мясца, ну там опять, как в котлеты, это самое, лучку там и чесночку, и всего. И вы, – говорит, – попробуйте спеките эти котлеты – это вкуснятина ваша!» А я все думала, что это они невкусные. Это я их даже и не собирала, они вот, как один раз собрала, что они как резиновые, отварила. А она мне вот и сказала: «Ой, какие вкусные!» – говорит. И я попробовала, правда, вкусно было.37

Russian woman, 1941: “Chanterelles are to be dried. I tried once to dry them alright, and salting them—they are disgusting, as if rubbery. They do not go. Neither marinade, nor this. And one woman tells me: ‘You shouldn’t say this, you should parboil them. The chanterelles. And then process in the meat grinder, and add some meat, and then again, like in the cutlets, you know, some onion, some garlic and so on. And you, —she says,—try and make these cutlets—this’ll be your tastiest dish!’ I thought that they are tasteless. I even did not pick them. Once I did, they were rubbery when I parboiled them. And she told me: ‘Wow so delicious!’ And I tried—they were really delicious.”

Figure 3—Distribution of edible mushroom species mentioned by Seto and Russians.

Figure 3—Distribution of edible mushroom species mentioned by Seto and Russians.

Source: author’s field data.

24Apart from autumn mushrooms, the Seto and Russian participants sometimes mentioned spring mushrooms, such as Morchella esculenta and Gyromitra esculenta, commenting on the cautions needed for the correct cooking procedure.

Соб.: а вот сморчки и строчки, их же и не посолишь, и не засушишь. Что с ними делать?

Инф.1 Русская (ж, 1964): нет, мы их, во-первых, они же все весной, он их привез, когда они пилили лес, значит это были песчаные горки, сосновый бор какой-то там, они были все в песке. Мы их там мыли-мыли, отмачивали-отмачивали, потому что все эти складки были в песке. Вот, а потом варили

Инф. 2 Русская (ж, 1964): потом их как-то надо первый раз. Потом как-то два раза сливать воду, у меня друзья живут в лесу, и они вот занимаются этим. Весной ходят всегда за грибами. И они вот умеют их готовить, они очень сладкие, вкусные.

Interviewer: “And strochki [Gyromitra] and smorchki [Morchella], you cannot salt or dry them. What do you do with them?”

Interlocutor 1, Russian woman, 1964: “No, they grow in the spring, he [husband] brought them when they logged the forest, so there were sandy hills, some pinewood, they [mushrooms] were all covered in sand. So, we washed them again and again, soaked them again and again because all these wrinkles were all in sand. And then we boiled them”.

Interlocutor 2, Russian woman, 1964: “Then you have to do something at the first time. Then somehow remove the water two times. I have friends who live in the forest, and they are doing this. They always go mushroom picking in spring. So they know how to cook them so that they are very sweet, delicious”.

  • 38 Li et al., 2021.
  • 39 Vetelainen & Pehu, 2008.
  • 40 Li et al., 2021; Peintner et al., 2013.

25While Morchella (morel) is widely acknowledged as an edible species, Gyromitra is claimed poisonous in southern regions of Europe such as Italy and Spain.38 However, in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Sweden they are consumed with precautionary measures. Moreover, Gyromitra is one of the most widely sold mushrooms in Finnish markets.39 The toxins contained in Gyromitra should be destroyed by two sessions of blanching: boiling the mushrooms for several minutes in the water and removing it.40

26On average, one Seto mentioned five mushroom species and nine UIs, while an average Russian reported eight species and fourteen UIs. According to the figure 3, Seto demonstrated more conservative choices focusing on several well-known species, while Russians reported more diverse list of mushrooms, including, for example, Cortinarius caperatus, Lycopedron perlatum and Russula foetens.

Myconymy and folk mushroom classification

27This section speaks about the main tendencies in mushroom classification found in the field materials. The full list of Seto myconyms is provided in the Appendix, along with Latin names, Russian and English translations, and number of use instances.

28Like Estonian, Seto distinguishes boletes (Seto purovik or tatt) and agarics or mushrooms in general (Seto siin). While purovik primarily designates Boletus edulis (cf. Rus. боровик), tatt stands for other boletes bringing along the connotation of inferior texture properties. As one of participants put it, commenting on the Seto mushroom names:

Соб.: а как они на сето?

Сето (ж, 1960): Маслята, маслята... маслята, как же они называются? Ой-ой-ой, не вспомнить. Palotatt. Таtt– знаете, что значит? Сопля.

Interviewer: “What is their name in Seto?”

Seto woman, 1960: “Masliata, masliatamasliata, what is their name? Oh dear, I cannot remember. Palotatt. Tatt – do you know what it means? Snot”.

29Indeed, other participants confirmed that they do not like in particular the Leccinum mushrooms as they are too slimy (Rus. сопливые):

Сето (м, 1953): Сопливые это наоборот, что подосиновик, что подберезовик, они такие как вот лягушки куски такие.

Соб.: Ну у них губчатая такая нижняя часть.

Сето (м, 1953): Да, да, да. Вот это да. Ну не все любят такие.

Соб.: Но у вас не было такого деления?

Сето (м, 1953): Ну мы это нет, мы собирали такие молодые. Они крепенькие, а вот постарше уже, вот они именно такие вот слизистые такие. Не очень да.

Seto man, 1953: “On the contrary, the slimy are podosinovik, podberezovik; there are so as to say frog pieces”.

Interviewer: “But they have spongy bottom part.”

Seto man, 1953: “Yes, exactly like this. Not everybody likes these.”

Interviewer: “But didn’t you have such a distinction?”

Seto man, 1953: “Well, we—no, we picked them young. They are firm, but the older ones, they are totally slimy. Not very good.”

30The only occasion to enjoy the Leccinum mushrooms is when they are picked young, so that they are still firm after cooking. The next quote supports the claim elaborating on the general preference for the agaric mushrooms that are not as slimy and also abundant in the forest. The author of this description comes from a mixed family: Seto mother and Russian father.

Женщина сетуско-русского происхождения, 1955: Грузди, в основном. Черные. У нас их много. Хоть косой коси. Ну и в принципе пластинчатые. Я вообще люблю пластинчатые грибы. Я не люблю вот эти трубчатые. Сопливые.

Woman of mixed Seto-Russian origin, 1955: “Mainly gruzdi [Lactarius necator]. Black ones. There is a lot of them. You can make hay out of them [=there is plenty]. And the agarics at large. I generally prefer the agaric mushrooms. I do not like these boletes. They are slimy [literally snotty].”

31One Russian participant also indicated the distaste towards bolete mushrooms, but only to Leccinum scabrum, listing Leccinum aurantiacum and the likes as first choice mushroom together with cep.

Русская (ж, 1940): Лисички. Но я гриб этот не люблю. А белые, подосиновики. Подберезовики тоже не люблю, раскиснут как каша.

Russian woman, 1940: “Chanterelles. But I do not like this mushroom. On the contrary, [I like] ceps, podosinoviki [Leccinum aurantiacum etc.]. Neither do I like podberezoviki [Leccinum scabrum], they would become limp like gruel.”

32It is peculiar that the Russian woman compares the discarded mushrooms to gruel and not to snot, like the Seto interlocutors. It seems that the concept of “snottiness” persists in the vocabulary of Seto informants even though they do not speak Seto in everyday life. While the first participant, a Seto man born in 1953, could provide us with six mushroom names in Seto, the second participant, woman of mixed origin, could not remember anything in Seto.

Figure 4—Leccinum albostipitatum (Seto haavapurovik, Rus. подосиновик) in a spruce tree forest in Pesterimaa.

Figure 4—Leccinum albostipitatum (Seto haavapurovik, Rus. подосиновик) in a spruce tree forest in Pesterimaa.

© Olga Belichenko, August 2020.

33Boletus edulis, despite belonging to boletes is accepted both by Setos and Russians as the best mushroom for cooking and consumption thanks to the fact that it remains crunchy and does not change colour after the processing.

Сето (м, 1963): Белые грибы идут на засолку хорошо очень там. Сыроежка, грузди. Вот эти варианты.

Seto man, 1963: “Ceps go well in the salting. Russula, lactarius. These variants.”

34The next interlocutor, although he is an Estonian residing in Russia, confirms the general approval of ceps due to their firmness and indicates them as the top priority during mushroom hunting.

Эстонец (м, 1946): Грибы собирать терпения не хватает. Один раз заблудился, дошел до границы. Белые ищешь, а находишь подосиновики, подберезовики, лисички. Белые сваришь, он аж хрустит.

Estonian man, 1946: “I do not have the patience to pick mushrooms. Once I got lost and roamed up until the border. You look for the belye and you find podosinoviki, podberezoviki, lisichki… Once you boil the belye, they are so crunchy!”

35Russula (makõsiin, сыроежки) have been mentioned above next to cep as a perfect mushroom for salting. It preserves its crunchiness during the blanching and processing, which explains its high position in the mushroom hierarchy. The majority of locals uses the hot salting method when the mushrooms are parboiled in salted water and are then fermented during at least one and a half months.

Сето (ж, 1950): Сыроежки в прошлом году солила. Отварить в соленой воде. Дала настояться в отваре, промыть и закладывать в ведро. Смородиновый лист, укроп и слоями грибы. Мама чеснок не клала, он дает больше брожения, могут портиться быстро.

Seto woman, 1950: “I salted russula last year. You boil them in salted water. Then I let it macerate in the decoction, rinse them and put in the bucket. Blackcurrant leaves, dill and the mushrooms in layers. My mother did not put the garlic because it gives more fermentation, they can be spoiled quickly.”

Figure 5 —Russula sp. (Seto makõsiin, Rus. сыроежка) in a forest in Pesterimaa.

Figure 5 —Russula sp. (Seto makõsiin, Rus. сыроежка) in a forest in Pesterimaa.

© Olga Belichenko, August 2020.

Mushroom procurement

  • 41 Korelin, 2009.

36A network of procurement offices was operating in Pechory District from 1940 and up until the 2000s. Historically, procurement points were linked to the cooperative movement that emerged in Russia in the end of the 19th century. Tsentrosoyuz (Rus. Центральный союз потребительских обществ, Central Union of the Consumer Societies) inherited to Moscow Union of the Consumer Societies (Rus. Московский союз потребительских обществ), which was transformed in 1897.41 In most general cases, a consumer society (потребительское общество) was financed by its shareholders (пайщики) who later could be entitled to payoffs or other benefits. There were consumer societies for various activities such as construction works, traditional crafts and so on. In case of Pechory, this was a District Union of Consumer Societies or raipo (Rus. райпо, районный союз потребительских обществ) which was directed by the Regional Union of Consumer Societies (Rus. облпотребсоюз) located in Pskov.

37The Raipo of Pechory bought the “surplus of kolkhoz produce” (Rus. излишки колхозной продукции) and later, adapting to the khutor system with big number of private farms, started to commission the produce of this farm such as meat (pork, beef, rabbits), vegetables (mostly potatoes and onions) and fruits (apples, strawberries, plums, cherries, raspberry, etc.). Starting from the 1960s (according to the study participants), the Raipo started to commission as well the forest resources such as berries, mushrooms and medicinal plants. As the archive of this organization was not preserved, I could only trace the activity of Raipo thanks to Pechorskaia Pravda, the local newspaper. Announcements about procurement of wild resources were published there starting from 1976.

38The announcements for mushroom commission can help to trace the commercial value of mushrooms and to see whether it matched with the unofficial local hierarchy (of course given the limitations posed by the availability of mushrooms in the local forests). An announcement published in Pechorskaya Pravda on 1st September 1983 provides the following price list for the mushroom commission:

  • 42 Pechorskaia Pravda, «Заготконтора сообщает».

Table 2—Price list for edible mushrooms commissioned by Pechory Raipo. After announcement published in Pechorskaia Pravda, 1st September 1983.42

Mushroom name Nutritional value Latin name Price, rub. Cap diameter, cm Stipe length, cm
Cep boletes
1st grade
1 Boletus edulis 3-00 4.0 2.0
Cep boletes
2nd grade
1 2-00 7.0 3.0
Saffron milk caps 1st grade 1 Lactarius deterrimus, Lactarius deliciosus 1-50 4.0 2.0
Saffron milk caps 2nd grade 1 1-20 7.0 3.0
Milkcap 1st grade (грузди белые I сорт) 1 Lactarius resimus, Lactarius aquizonatus 1-50 5.0 2.0
Milkcap 2nd grade (грузди белые II сорт) 1 1-20 9.0 3.0
Golden chanterelles 3 Cantharellus Carcibarius 1-00 6.0 2.5
Red-capped scaber stalks 2 Leccinum aurantiacum etc. 0-90 6.0 2.0
Birch boletes 2 Leccinum scabrum etc. 0-70 6.0 2.0
Кufous milkcap 4 Lactarius rufus 0-40 6.0 1.0
  • 43 State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiology Surveillance of the Russian Federation, 1993, p. 15-42 (...)

Nutritional values are listed according to “Sanitary guidelines for mushroom harvesting, processing and trading”.43

  • 44 Ibid.

39The price list demonstrates that there is no direct connection between the price and nutritional value: for example, Leccinum spp. with nutritional value 2 are priced lower than Cantharellus cibarius with nutritional value 3. The highest price is assigned to the young mushrooms that remain firm and preserve their qualities after processing (boiling, lacto-fermentation, etc). For some reasons, Russula were not accepted at the Pechory procurement point. Probably, fragile Russula spp. would not resist industrial processing conducted at the premises. Nevertheless, the following Russula species used to be accepted for commerce by the federal legislation among 57 other species, their nutritional value being estimated at 3: Russula paludosa Britz., R. xerampelina (Schaeff.) Fr., R. obscura Rom [=R. vinosa Lindblad], R. claroflava Grove, R. aeruginea Lindblad ex Fr., R. virescens (Schaeff.) Fr., R. ochroleuca Fr., R. vesca Fr., R. grisea Fr., R. decolorans (Fr.) Fr., R. cyanoxantha (Schaeff.) Fr., R. integra (L.) Fr.44

  • 45 Kotowski, 2016.

40It has been shown before that there can be significant differences between the list of mushrooms accepted for commercial use and those picked by the locals for personal use.45 The list from the local procurement point could be regarded in this sense: it invited to trade some mushrooms at the local procurement point validating certain species and discarding others. The list contents and price were linked to the commercial and nutritional properties of the species.

Knowledge transmission

41The possibility of mushroom poisoning makes the mushroom pickers prudent and cautious. While nobody reported about the mushroom poisonings in the community, the chance of poisoning was used as reasoning to the narrow list of picked mushrooms—only those learned from the family and conservative choices throughout the life.

Соб.: а какие-то новые стали собирать, вот научились? Кто-то говорит – вот колпаки

Русская (ж, 1942): нет, я такое не делаю. Я только вот эти, которые в старину которые как бы все были. Ни опяток никаких ничего, мы как бы с этим ничего не делаем.

Interviewer: “and which new mushrooms have you started to pick? Somebody says, kolpaki [Cortinarius]?”

Russian woman, 1942: “No, I am not doing that. I just [take] those, that used to be in the olden times. Neither opiata [Armillaria], nothing, we are not doing anything with these.”

  • 46 Lozada et al., 2006.
  • 47 Svanberg & Lindh, 2019, see also Łuczaj et al., 2012 about parallel trend in wild plant use.

42Family picking is the main source of the ecological information about mushrooms, which is the traditional, vertical way of knowledge transmission.46 Svanberg and Lindh associate this way of mushroom knowledge retention and practice with the more traditional rural environment and older generations. They also speak of younger generations, usually city dwellers who practice picking of a much wider list of mushrooms and who are guided by field mushroom manuals and other media.47 A similar trend is also observed in Russia. Mushrooms used to substitute meat during the long orthodox fasting periods (about 200 days in the year) that used to be observed by both Setos and Russians of Petserimaa up until the 1950s and later thanks to the absence and/or low penetration of antireligious movement. This use is evident in the recipe of mushroom cutlets shared with us by several participants. However, nowadays, the global trend to recreational use has reached the studied communities. For example, one of our study participants proposed to add meat to the mushroom soup that used to be a fasting dish. Moreover, during my stay at a mixed Seto-Russian family in December 2020, there was a discussion about putting salted mushrooms on the New Year table, while this dish would be appropriate for the Advent when the discussion took place.

  • 48 Vishnevskii, 2009.

43Wider list of edible mushrooms comes to practice especially due to the figures of knowledge mediators who are at the same time involved in mushroom trade, like mycologist and entrepreneur Mikhail Vishnevskii (born in 1973), or biologist and naturopath Irina Filippova. Supporting the tendency to the recreational mushroom picking of the urban inhabitants, one of Vishnevskii’s numerous publications is called Какие съедобные грибы остались расти рядом с городом: новая реальность [Which edible mushrooms have left to grow next to the city: the new reality].48

New mushrooms and the ways to learn about them

44The interest towards new mushroom species, however, was demonstrated by some of the members of the local community and is linked to the industrialization and new professions involving exposure to the media. Two persons who worked at the post office and library admitted that they acquired new mushroom species from the newspapers, booklets and books while working there.

45The list of collected mushrooms remains relatively narrow, which is partially caused by safety considerations. Certain mushroom species have been claimed toxic and inappropriate for collection like Paxillus sp. (Rus. svinushki). Either thanks to the media or to the word of mouth, this took effect on the current practice. One of the study participants told us that they used to pick Paxillus but do not do it anymore.

Русская (ж, 1940-е): Свинухи мы не берем. Раньше брали и свинухи еще. Это такие массивные такие грибы.

Russian woman, 1940s: “We do not pick svinukhi [Paxillus]. We used to take also the svinukhi before. They are quite substantial.”

46Some “new” mushrooms popularized in the media do not enter the local tradition, like, for example, Hydnum sp. found in the local forest (see Appendix). However, other mushrooms, little by little, enter into practice. Among the mushrooms that were “learned” during the adulthood, the most popular were Cortinarius caperatus and Macrolepiota excoriata. There are not many ways by which one can discover new mushrooms after the childhood learning phase is passed, as there are several types of know-how that should be acquired at once: the outlook and the habitat of the mushroom, the way to tell it from the similarly looking poisonous mushrooms, and finally the appropriate mode of cooking that would destroy the toxins and preserve the taste qualities of the mushroom at the same time. If one of the elements is missing, the new information will not turn into a practice. For example, several participants reported that they tried the new mushrooms at their neighbours, but as they are unsure of its appearance in the forest, neither of the way of cooking, they did not reproduce the practice.

Соб.: а вы их пробовали?

Русская (ж, 1960-е): да, сама не делала, но мои вот да, кто любит, знакомые, я им собирала, я знаю, кто у меня любит. Если у меня попадались, да, я им отдавала просто так вот. они любят это готовить. Зонтики тоже очень вкусный гриб. Они мне дали попробовать. Вкусно, да.

Interviewer: “Have you tried them?”

Russian woman, 1960s: “Yes, I did not do it myself by my friends, I picked for them, I know who likes it among them. If I happen to pick them, I give them out to them just like that, they like to cook it. Zontiki [Macrolepiota] are a delicious mushroom. They let me try it. Tasty, yes.”

47However, for someone it was enough to see Cortinarius in the basket of a stranger in order to start picking it:

Русская (ж, 1950): не знаю, что нынче. Я, я открыла для себя колпак. Очень вкусное, вкусный грибочек. Вот это себе засаливаю и соседке. […]

Соб.: откуда вы о нем узнали?

Русская (ж, 1950): я библиотекарь, я же из книг […] ну и так, люди показали, что точно. А потом я уже другим показывала, что ребята, вот это колпак потому что, это не поганка. А так случайно увидала у одного мужчины поверх рыжиков, ну и в книгах потом, конечно, удостоверилась. А у него вот эти, вот эти колпачки поверх рыжиков. «Ой, зачем ты насобирал поганок к таким красивым грибам?». А он говорит: «Да ты что?» вот, лет пять уже точно солим.

Russian woman, 1950: “I don’t know [what they pick] these days. Myself, I discovered kolpak. Very tasty, tasty mushroom. I salt it for myself and for the neighbour.”

Interviewer: “Where did you learn about it?”

Russian woman, 1950: “I’m a librarian, I got it from the books […] and well, people showed to me what it is exactly. And then I was showing it to others. Look guys, this is kolpak, this is not a toadstool. Actually, I saw it by chance [in the basket] of one man on top of ryzhiki [Lactarius deterrimus etc.], and then of course I got reassured reading the books. And he’s got these kolpachki on top of ryzhiki. ‘Oh boy, why did you pick these toadstools with such beautiful mushrooms?’. And he says: ‘What’s wrong with you?’. So we are salting it for five years already.”

Conclusion

  • 49 Novozhilov, 2009.

48Edible mushroom consumption in the local communities of Seto and Russians is a living practice that is undergoing transformation caused by the availability of new technologies, the spread of the market economy and post-industrial society. The consumption of mushrooms in the studied ethnolocal community49 is changing its role in the culinary code from fasting and subsistence to a recreation and delicacy. The ways of mushroom preparation are affected by the availability of new storage conditions such as glass jars, conservation kits and later domestic freezers.

49The edible mushroom preferences reflected in the myconyms were presented by the majority of interviewers as their individual choices. The quote in the article title, describing the preferences of Setos, and not just individual preferences, belongs to the person who is professionally involved with the Seto culture and history and therefore feels empowered to make such generalizations. The choice of mushrooms is tightly linked with the preferred taste properties (crunchiness) and with the way of cooking (hot salting), that narrow down the choice to Boletus edulis and Russula. The inferior taste properties of Leccinum aurantiacum, Leccinum scabrum and some others is linked by the study participants to their name in Seto (tatt) and their characteristic in Russian (сопливый, slimy). This connotation is preserved even in case of language loss.

50The dynamic of knowledge transmission about mushrooms is more conservative than for edible wild plants but it is going along the same lines. Vertical transmission is becoming less available, especially between the Seto grandparents and grandchildren, and the grandchildren are raised in Estonia and only come for the school vacations. In addition, the Covid pandemic national lockdowns and the current border issues caused by the Russian attack on Ukraine have interrupted or limited the family reunions. Another quite important ecological factor is the fear of ticks and diseases transmitted by them as the situation has significantly aggravated during the recent years. The horizontal one-to-many knowledge transmission (periodicals, books, blogs, videos) is becoming more significant even in the rural areas.

  • 50 Brodskii, 2018.
  • 51 Härkönen, 1998.
  • 52 Arukask, 2017.

51The further study of Seto myconymy could take into account the field materials of other Finnic languages and cultures. Whereas some comparative works already exist, they stay within the limits of lexicography,50 mycology51 or anthropology.52 An interdisciplinary approach considering all these data will help to understand the role of mushrooms in given cultures, and the dynamics of ecological knowledge linked to them.

Appendix. List of mushroom names with corresponding Latin nomenclature53

Family
Latin name
Herbarium number
Local name English name Seto UI Russian UI
Agaricaceae     1 16
Agaricus sp. S – RU (луговой) шампиньон button mushroom   3
Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers. S RU чернильный гриб shaggy ink cap   1
Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. S RU дождевик, дедушкин табак, дымящийся гриб puffball   3
Macrolepiota excoriata (Schaeff.) Wasser, Chlorophyllum olivieri (Barla) Vellinga, Chlorophyllum rhacodes (Vittad.) Vellinga S зонтик (RU) RU (гриб-)зонтик, курочки - 1 9
Boletaceae     111 205
Boletus edulis Bull. LE331834 LE331839 S purovik, valgõsiin, valge puravik (EE), puravik (EE), белые (RU) RU белые (грибы), боровики cep 60 81
Suillellus luridus (Schaeff.) Murrill, Neoboletus erythropus (Pers.) C. Hahn S – RU дубовики     1
Boletus sp. S – RU колосовики     1
Imleria badia (Fr.) Vizzini S – RU польский гриб bay bolete   1
Leccinum aurantiacum (Bull.) Gray LE331825 Leccinum albostipitatum den Bakker & Noordel. LE331832 S haavatatt, haavapuravik (EE), palupuravik (EE), подосиновики (RU) RU подосиновики, красноголовики red-capped scaber stalk 27 62
Leccinum scabrum (Bull.) Gray LE331824 S kõotatt, kõosiin, kasepuravik (EE), kasihavat (EE), подберезовики (RU) RU подберезовики birch bolete 22 39
Leccinum sp. S обабки (RU) RU обабки   1 6
Tylopilus felleus (Bull.) P. Karst. (?) S – RU ложные боровики bitter bolete   1
Xerocomus spp.a S – RU моховики suede bolete 1 13
Cortinariaceae       10
Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. S – RU колпаки, лесной шампиньон -   10
Discinaceae     2 8
Gyromitra esculenta Pers. ex Fr. S huunisab, строчки (RU) RU строчки - 2 8
Gomphaceae       1
Ramaria sp. S – RU рогатики -   1
Hydnaceae     36 41
Cantharellus cibarius Fr. LE331838 S kikkaseene’, kukeseene’, leeväseseene’, лисички (RU), петушки (RU) RU лисички, петушки golden chanterelle 36 41
Hydnum sp. LE331828 - hydnum - -
Morchellaceae     2 13
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. S huunisa, сморчки (RU) RU сморчки morel 2 13
Paxillaceae       5
Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. S – RU свинушки, свинухи brown roll-rim   5
Physalacriaceae (?)     1 14
Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (?) S опята (RU) RU опята осенние honey fungus 1 14
Pleurotaceae     1
Pleurotus sp. S RU вешенки oyster mushroom 1
Russulaceae     63 125
Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray Lactarius deterrimus Gröger LE331831 S vahelik, рыжики (RU) RU рыжики saffron milk cap 6 16
Lactarius helvus (Fr.) Fr. LE331835 S RU молочники fenugreek milkcap   3
Lactarius necator (Bull.) Pers. S põdramokk (EE), черные грузди (RU) RU черные грузди ugly milk-cap 8 12
Lactarius resimus (Fr.) Fr., Lactarius aquizonatus Kytöv. S белые грузди (RU) RU белые грузди - 6 13
Lactarius rufus (Scop.) Fr. S pedajasiin, горькушки (RU), дуплянки (RU) RU горькушки, горькухи, дуплянки rufous milkcap 4 15
Lactarius sp. S грузди (RU) RU грузди - 4 5
Lactarius torminosus (Schaeff.) Pers.  S волнушки (RU) RU волнушки woolly milkcap 3 13
Russula adusta (Pers.) Fr. S RU подгрузди, подгруздки -   3
Russula foetens Pers. S RU валуи, кубышки, бычки stinking russula   5
Russula sp., LE331827, LE331829, LE331830, LE331840-331845 incl. Russula heterophylla (Fr.) Fr. LE331826, Russula decolorans (Fr.) Fr. LE331846 S makõsiin, makaseene’, pilvik (EE), сыроежки (RU), горяшки (RU) RU сыроежки, горяшки brittlegills 33 42
Suillaceae     12 30
Suillus sp. incl., Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel LE331836, Suillus variegatus (Sw.) Richon & Roze LE331833, Suillus bovinus (L.) Roussel, Xerocomus s.l. S lambatatt, lambasiin, palotatt, козьяки (RU), маслята (RU) RU маслята, козьякиc weeping bolete, velvet bolete 12 30
Tricholomataceae     1 2
Tricholoma equestre (L.)
P.Kumm. (?)
S RU зелёнки man on horseback 1
Tricholoma sp. S RU рядовки - 1
a. Also see Suillus on the next page.
b. Only one person provided the same myconym in Seto for both Morchella and Gyromitra, which is confirmed in the online Seto dictionary (Seto sõnastiku, URL : https://www.eki.ee/​dict/​setosonastik/​setosonastik.html). However, in Estonian these species are distinguished: kuhikmürkel (Morchella) and kevadkogrits (Gyromitra).
c. It seems that Suillus bovinus (козленок, козляк) and Suillus granulatus etc. (масленок) are not distinguished in local Russian (cf. definition of козьяк in the Dictionary of Pskov region dialects-14, 2004, p. 332-333). We need additional information to make conclusions about Seto myconyms for these species.
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Notes

1 Wasson & Wasson, 1957.

2 Lévi-Strauss, 1970.

3 Peninter et al., 2013.

4 Yamin-Pasternak, 2007.

5 Härkönen, 1998.

6 Michelin Guide UK Editorial Team, URL: https://guide.michelin.com/en/article/features/a-closer-look-at-the-new-three-michelin-star-restaurants-in-the-michelin-guide-nordic-countries-2021.

7 Redzepi, 2011, p. 251, 258, 325 & 335.

8 Redzepi & Zilber, 2018, p. 83-86.

9 Yamin-Pasternak, 2007.

10 Härkönen, 1998. The popular division of edible mushrooms into agaric and bolete lacks scientific rigor (Bolshakov et al., 2021) but we will use it here, not as strictly scientific, but as an ethnomycological classification.

11 Ibid.

12 Arukask, 2021.

13 Maffi, 2005.

14 Belichenko et al., 2021.

15 Lozada et al., 2006.

16 Belichenko et al., 2021.

17 Piho, 2017.

18 Hurt, 1904.

19 Trusman, 1890.

20 Statistics Estonia, 2021.

21 Koreinik, 2013.

22 Vserossiiskaia perepis’ naseleniia 2010 goda Всероссийская перепись населения [All-Russian census of 2010], URL: https://gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm.

23 Jääts, 2000.

24 Ibid.

25 Mikhailov & Liudvichenko, 1999, p. 56-58.

26 Kapanen, 2007.

27 Mikhailov & Liudvichenko, 1999, p. 56-58.

28 Ibid.

29 Palo, 2016.

30 Mikhailov & Liudvichenko, 1999, p. 56-58.

31 Tammekan et al., 1928.

32 Ibid.

33 Sokolova, 2016.

34 Zambrana et al., 2018.

35 ISE Code of Ethics (with 2008 additions), URL: http://www.ethnobiology.net/what-we-do/core-programs/ise-ethics-program/code-of-ethics/code-in-english/.

36 Convert Cyrillic, URL : https://convertcyrillic.com/#/convert.

37 In the quotes from the interviews with participants, their gender, ethnic group and year of birth are indicated.

38 Li et al., 2021.

39 Vetelainen & Pehu, 2008.

40 Li et al., 2021; Peintner et al., 2013.

41 Korelin, 2009.

42 Pechorskaia Pravda, «Заготконтора сообщает».

43 State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiology Surveillance of the Russian Federation, 1993, p. 15-42. This document ceased to be in force since 1st January 2021 but it provides the list of commercialized mushrooms that was authorized since 1993. Currently there is no unified list of commercialized mushrooms. The requirements for edible mushrooms are defined by industry-specific technical specifications, customs union regulations, as well as general sanitary guidelines.

44 Ibid.

45 Kotowski, 2016.

46 Lozada et al., 2006.

47 Svanberg & Lindh, 2019, see also Łuczaj et al., 2012 about parallel trend in wild plant use.

48 Vishnevskii, 2009.

49 Novozhilov, 2009.

50 Brodskii, 2018.

51 Härkönen, 1998.

52 Arukask, 2017.

53 According to Index Fungorum, URL : https://www.indexfungorum.org.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1—Study area.
Crédits Map shape: European Commission, Eurostat (ESTAT), GISCO.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/efo/docannexe/image/21868/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 295k
Titre Figure 2—Family distribution of mushrooms mentioned by Seto and Russians.
Crédits Source: author’s field data.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/efo/docannexe/image/21868/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 110k
Titre Figure 3—Distribution of edible mushroom species mentioned by Seto and Russians.
Crédits Source: author’s field data.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/efo/docannexe/image/21868/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 179k
Titre Figure 4—Leccinum albostipitatum (Seto haavapurovik, Rus. подосиновик) in a spruce tree forest in Pesterimaa.
Crédits © Olga Belichenko, August 2020.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/efo/docannexe/image/21868/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 457k
Titre Figure 5 —Russula sp. (Seto makõsiin, Rus. сыроежка) in a forest in Pesterimaa.
Crédits © Olga Belichenko, August 2020.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/efo/docannexe/image/21868/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 240k
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Olga Belichenko, « “Setos pick russula and purovik, and not the red ones, they are slimy” »Études finno-ougriennes, 54 | 2022, 137-166.

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Olga Belichenko, « “Setos pick russula and purovik, and not the red ones, they are slimy” »Études finno-ougriennes [En ligne], 54 | 2022, mis en ligne le 07 décembre 2023, consulté le 19 mai 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/efo/21868 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/efo.21868

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Auteur

Olga Belichenko

UMR 208 « Patrimoines locaux, Environnement et Globalisation (PALOC) », Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle / Université Ca’ Foscari

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