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Geo-economic perspectives for construction on speed roads in Bulgaria

Perspectivas geoeconômicas para construção em autoestradas na Bulgária
Perspectivas geoeconómicas para la construcción de vias rápidas en Bulgaria
Perspectives géo-économiques pour la construction de routes rapides en Bulgarie
Kamen Petrov


Este artigo apresenta a estrutura territorial do espaço nacional na Bulgária. Foram identificadas as necessidades para melhorar a integração no espaço nacional e regional. Justifica-se a necessidade de construção de novas estradas que possam contribuir para o desenvolvimento sustentável da economia regional. Trata-se de oferecer em regiões distintas a construção de meios de transporte e facilidades de essencial importância no desenvolvimento regional do país. Em maior medida, esse sistema de transporte para a Bulgária ajudará a rápida integração do país no processo de integração da União Europeia. A exposição propõe a implementação de políticas de desenvolvimento regional relacionadas com a conectividade dos transportes e que tenham um efeito no desenvolvimento econômico regional das regiões da Bulgária.

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1In 2020, European leaders are shaping the future of the development of the European Union in the period 2021-2027. It is clear that cohesion policy and its resources will undergo changes, and it seems that the changes will be in the direction of reducing the budget for this policy both as an absolute amount and as a share of the total EU budget. It is expected that cohesion policy will no longer support transition regions and more developed ones, but will continue to support less developed regions and cohesion countries.

2In this situation, however, the South-West region already has a GDP per capita of 78% of the European average, if it remains within its current limits. At the same time, however, the economic picture is very contrasting in the region itself, because there is an impressive difference in living standards in Sofia and other settlements in the Southwest region. This presupposes Sofia (a large Sofia municipality) to be separated as an independent region at NUTS-2 level. For 2018, the capital already has a GDP / head of 105% of the EU average, which makes it one of the more developed regions, if separated into a separate region.

Figure 1 : planning regions in Bulgaria

Figure 1 : planning regions in Bulgaria

Source: MRRB, NSI

3Of course, this will mean the need to set new priorities and restructure the North-West and South-West Planning Region into a new Western Planning Region. Thus, in the national space, new priorities will be identified, especially with the achievement of effective regional connectivity. This means works on defining the area for active interaction of the population with a population of less than 100 thousand people related to the implementation of policies for development of the system of settlements in the area for active interaction and multifaceted connection (infrastructural, economic and managerial) with other settlements. context. This also means bringing out a new dynamic of the development of the connections between the municipalities and the territories, setting a new dynamics of the movement of goods, services and resources between Sofia and the other planning regions[1]. This means, in practice, the creation of conditions for new infrastructure security and transport accessibility. At this stage of socio-economic development, it is most realistic for Bulgaria to rely on the construction of crossroads that will create the necessary conditions for improving regional cooperation.


4In the modern nation-state, it is extremely important to achieve a high level of connectivity and accessibility, as well as opportunities for the sustainability of transport infrastructure. Thus, for countries like Bulgaria, it is necessary to work on building an efficient transport system in which high-speed roads can have a significant place. Prioritizing the construction of highways is important for both business and the population, because it will stop the depopulation of most areas and attract investment. This class of road is usually designed and marked for the movement of only high-speed motor vehicles with motorway-like characteristics, but without a special emergency stop lane. Instead, they have emergency stops.

5Another difference is that the connections to the adjacent territories are through a local lane. The maximum speed is 120 km / h. Through the highways at the national level can be created prerequisites to overcome the deficit of interaction between highly urbanized areas (municipalities with large and medium-sized cities) and peripheral, sparsely urbanized areas - municipalities with centers of small towns and villages [2]. Peripheral areas are the most vulnerable areas from a socio-economic point of view. Most are border, mountain and rural at the same time - with catastrophic demographic characteristics, poor technical infrastructure, lack of employment and difficult access to social services.

6In this direction, through the priority construction of more highways, conditions will be created for reducing regional disparities, and at the same time attracting funds from the Cohesion Funds to improve the state of regional infrastructure. In this direction, it is most realistic to seek funds for the construction of expressways, initially in the direction of European transport corridors[3]. In Bulgaria, you can apply for roads on transport corridors №4, 8 and 9 in the programming period 2021-2027. In this direction, the first efforts should be directed in this direction, because in some corridors there is a part of the road network and in efforts should be made to complete the new period in the least attractive and underdeveloped areas.

Figure 2: Transport corridors passing through Bulgaria

Figure 2: Transport corridors passing through Bulgaria

Source: Ministry of Transport and Information Technologies, Bulgaria.

7In Bulgaria, you can apply for roads on transport corridors №4, 8 and 9 in the programming period 2021-2027. In this direction, the first efforts should be directed in this direction, because in some corridors there is a part of the road network and in efforts should be made to complete the new period in the least attractive and underdeveloped areas. The construction of the Sofia-Gueshevo expressway, which is 85 km long, is of strategic importance for the full and real functioning of the transport corridor №8. In practice, the section of the Dragichevo road junction on the Lyulin Motorway / Struma Motorway, through Pernik to Radomir, has already been built. The construction of the rest of the route is delayed mainly due to its current peripheral importance for the national economy[5].

8This may change mainly with the increase of investment interest in the cities of Pernik, Radomir and Kyustendil in connection with the construction of the transport corridor №8. In practice, the three cities can play a key role in building an integration economy with Macedonia and Albania, as logistics and production centers with a complementary role to the economy of the Bulgarian capital. In addition to the modernization of the railway line in the direction Radomir-Kyustendil-Gueshevo, it is necessary to build a gas pipeline and modernize the road infrastructure. It is of paramount importance to design and build a new 4-lane road in the direction Radomir-Kyustendil-Gyueshevo. does not meet the requirements for security of passage. The construction of a new route will reduce the current 43.46 km between Radomir and Kyustendil to about 35 km, on the other hand, the construction of a new more modern accompanying infrastructure can be planned. The new road will strengthen the economic ties between Pernik-Radomir and Kyustendil, as well as a condition to create preconditions for the development of tourism in the region. Such positive change and development will create conditions for a city like Radomir with its current peripheral importance to become a connecting geoeconomic center between Pernik and Kyustendil. Moreover, the connection of Radomir with the Struma highway will make it an important transport hub in the region. This requires Radomir to be established as a regional secondary investment center. The road in the direction Kyustendil-Gueshevo is also important in the direction. It is necessary to approach it strategically, as the route is divided into two. The first part should include the construction of a new ring road in Kyustendil and the construction of the road to the village of Vratsa. This road should be a highway with 4 lanes and one local lane in each direction. The purpose of this gauge will be in the future around Kyustenidl to create a new economic and logistics area of ​​the city, in which to build warehouses, shops and production sites, so that most economically active people in the region to locate their activities in the region. This will encourage economic activity along the transport corridor №8.

9Around Kyustendil it is necessary to build an alternative core with the formation of a second economic zone in the direction of Kyustendil-Nevestino, where it is also necessary to design a 4-lane road with local lanes. This will allow for the strengthening of the economic activity in the district and the connection of Kyustendil with the Struma Motorway.
In practice, the town of Kyustendil will be able to become a local economic center, which can attract new investments that will allow it to generate resources for the development of trade, industry and tourism, as well as to promote the agricultural profile of other settlements in the area. . Provided that the railway is also modernized. the line from Radomir-Kyustendil-Gyueshevo, new real preconditions will be created to radically improve in a positive direction the socio-economic climate of the region. Improving transport accessibility will reduce the poor condition of the villages in the district as the most vulnerable areas from a socio-economic point of view. They, in turn, due to the connection with Corridor №8, will create conditions for the development of tourism, the regional economy and the revival of the strong agricultural profile of the region. To a large extent, they will also prove to be a significant factor in reducing migration and depopulation in the region as a whole. Of course, at a later stage, opportunities can be sought for the construction of highways in the direction Pernik-Trun-Srezimirovtsi, as well as the highway Kyustendil-Dupnitsa, but this can be done with the efforts of the Bulgarian state when it introduces the toll system. Important for the regional development of Southwestern Bulgaria is the realization of a highway in the direction Dupnitsa-Samokov-Ihtiman-Vakarel-Elin Pelin-AM Hemus. This road from Dupnitsa, through Samokov to Ihtiman, will increase transport accessibility between these cities, which are peripheral to the capital, and at the same time will make them areas for new investment and regional development. On the other hand, this road can have a good development for Sapareva Banya and the resort "Panichishte", as well as Belchin Banya, Borovets, Malyovitsa and other settlements that have great opportunities for rural tourism. In the conditions of dynamic development, the region around Sofia in the southeastern direction needs infrastructural modernization and improved regional connectivity. To a large extent, the region needs to modernize the electricity transmission, water supply and housing infrastructure, so that by building this new road, conditions will be created for the development of all settlements [6]. Since in strategic terms the southern direction of the capital needs new roads for pulling development, we can emphasize that the northern direction has an even greater need to improve its transport accessibility. In the first place of fundamental strategic importance is the construction of the road Vidin - Botevgrad. It is 185 km long. The important sections from Vidin to Montana and from Vratsa to Botevgrad are practically financed under the operational programs, but the construction is slowing down and does not have the necessary efficiency, let alone completion. In recent years, the settlements in the area have catastrophic demographic characteristics, poor technical infrastructure, lack of employment and difficult access to social services. In practice, the improvement of the infrastructure seeks to lay a new foundation and condition for the revival of these regions. To a large extent, a lot of efforts are needed related to the planning and programming of the territory in Northwestern Bulgaria in order to establish new spaces and territories to attract investment and create production. These economic zones may begin to have a direct effect on the regional development of settlements in the affected areas. The town of Mezdra is of fundamental key importance in this direction. Apart from being an important railway junction, the town of Mezdra can also play the role of a logistics and market center of the region. A role that can help strengthen the economic ties in the direction Botevgrad-Mezdra-Vratsa, and from there to create the necessary foundation for new regional development. In this direction, the infrastructure is an essential element in the formation of a new economic core of the three cities, which can become an important strategic milestone for the revival of Northwestern Bulgaria This economic core can have a strong effect on the towns of Pravets, Etropole and Yablanitsa. In strategic terms, a new regional role can be assigned to the city of Vratsa. This can be obtained as a natural continuation of the development of the city of Vratsa as an important industrial, transport and logistics center, which will be the new industrial heart of the Northwest. This role can become a reality with the construction of a highway in the direction Vratsa-Varshets-Berkovitsa-Petrohan-Kostinbrod. This time will make a quick connection of the region with the capital, which will allow attracting more investment, an opportunity for a new sectoral structure of individual settlements. Simultaneously with the economic revival of the region, it will be possible to create conditions for additional focus of efforts to modernize tourism in cities such as Varshets, Berkovitsa, Vratsa and especially the development of rural tourism in the settlements of the northwest.

Figure 3: Bulgarian road map 2020

Figure 3: Bulgarian road map 2020

Source: Road Infrastructure Agency - Bulgaria

10The removal of the city of Vratsa as a leader of the Northwest raises the need to strengthen regional ties with the city of Pleven. The distance between Pleven and Vratsa is 88 km. In this direction, efforts should be made for the construction of a 4-lane highway starting north of Vratsa, passing with a ring road at Borovan, which has a fork to Oryahovo. The main route from Borovan should continue to Byala Slatina, Kneja, Iskar, Dolni Dabnik and flows into the ring road of Pleven.

11This highway will allow to overcome the periphery of the cities in the region and to strengthen the economic ties between them. At present, the two cities are in industrial decline, but have the opportunity to develop the food industry, education, instrumentation, wine, textile, oil and chemical industries. Creating conditions for regional connectivity between the regional centers will create conditions for building a strong regional market with its competitive advantages. Thus, the region will be opened to the Danube River and the indicated settlements will become attractive for investments and new productions. Construction of this expressway will strengthen the regional significance of the settlements, better connectivity with the future new part of the Hemus highway and, above all, the possibility of retaining the population in the region. On the other hand, near Borovan is the deviation to Oryahovo, where there is a ferry with Romania and a new bridge over the Danube is planned. The Borovan-Oryahovo route is only 41.42 km away, and the construction of a highway will have a positive impact on settlements such as Mizia, Kozloduy, Hayredin and others.

12In Northern Bulgaria, another road deserves attention, which needs to be turned into a high-speed one. This is the road from Pleven to Koilovtsi-Somovit (30.58 km) with a total length of 49.08 km. The development of agriculture in Northern Bulgaria also goes through the revitalization and modernization of our Danube ports. Of strategic importance for the city of Pleven is the port of Somovit. It can be the most direct route of production from Pleven region to the European, Ukrainian and Russian markets. It is important to look for modernization of the road between Somovit-Belene-Svishtov. Moreover, the suspensions are at some point to start building the Belene NPP. In this part of Bulgaria the economic development is in complete decline and the settlements are in a very bad condition [7].

13In recent years, we can see that an important educational and scientific center like Svishtov is gradually dying out. There are many reasons, but in order to give a breath of fresh air to this Bulgarian strategic city, the transport accessibility to it must undoubtedly be improved. This means building a highway in the Byala-Svishtov direction. This road should start from the town of Byala, Ruse region, pass around Tsenovo, Karamanovo, Vardim and enter Svishtov from the east. Thus, in a natural way, Svishtov will be able to connect with the future Hemus highway, which, in turn, will allow by launching a ferry in the direction Svishtov-Zimnich, will give a completely different horizon to a city like Svishtov by turning it into an important Danube port. for the whole Veliko Tarnovo region. Consideration should also be given to adding an engineering faculty to the DA Academy of Economics. Tsenov in connection with the future construction of the nuclear power plant around Belene. In general, the regional development of this part of the country requires strong state support not only with road and railway infrastructure, but also the restoration of the river fleet and navigation on the Danube.

14Naturally, Corridor №9 is also of strategic importance, mainly with the Ruse-Makaza road. The highway from Ruse to Makaza is 261 km long and crosses Bulgaria from north to south, connecting the Danube bridge on the Romanian border with the Makaza pass on the Greek border. In this direction, first of all, it is necessary to build a new ring road around Ruse, and from there the construction of a new modern and highly cracked bridge over the Danube. To a large extent, Ruse lags behind economically because it does not realize in practice any of its advantages as an important transport center [8].

15The port has not been renovated, there is no thought of building a new river station, changing the route of the railway that runs inside the city, lack of development and around the airport in Shtraklevo. In practice, a bright ray in the development of Ruse is the realization of the highway Ruse-Veliko Tarnovo, whose approximate length is 133 km. It is divided into three subdivisions. These are Ruse - Byala (40 km), bypassing the town of Byala (almost 36 km), as well as Byala - Veliko Tarnovo (just over 58 km). The combined version now approved by the Supreme Expert Ecological Council envisages the road to have a gauge of 27 meters. At it, starting 3 km east of the Danube bridge, the road crosses the road Ruse - Silistra and continues in a south-southwest direction. The highway continues in a southwesterly direction, then crosses the road Ruse - Varna and heads in a southerly direction. Then it passes over the Yantra River with a large bridge structure southeast of the village of Beltsov. Further, at the 102nd kilometer, this highway is planned to cross "Hemus" - near the village of Paskalevets, where it continues straight south. The construction of the Ruse-Veliko Tarnovo highway is among the priority sites, as the route provides transit traffic along Corridor IX and the international road E-85. With its construction the transport service of the international and domestic traffic will be improved, the traffic safety will be increased and the transit traffic will be taken out of the settlements. The indicative value of the entire project is around EUR 600 million, which, however, has not yet been secured. The other important part is the construction of the route after Debelets to the bypass of Gabrovo and the possibility of building a tunnel under Shipka.

16The Gabrovo bypass project with a tunnel under Shipka fulfills two main tasks: to take the traffic that now passes through the center of Gabrovo out of the city and to make an alternative, faster connection between northern and southern Bulgaria (between Gabrovo and Shipka). The designed bypass road starts from a road junction near the village of Popovtsi. Then it passes through the Gabrovo neighborhoods Chehlevtsi, Velchevtsi, grandfather Dyanko, walks around Smirnenski and reaches Radetski.

17From there the road enters the Bulgarka Nature Park along the Panicharka River and the Goat River. After that, the beginning of a tunnel under Shipka Peak, with a length of 3220 m, is planned. In Southern Bulgaria, however, it is also necessary to build a highway in the direction of Shipka-Kazanlak-Stara Zagora (57 km.) Trakia highway. Following the implementation of Corridor №9, the road Stara Zagora-Dimitrovgrad-Haskovo-Kardzhali (111.42 km) came to the fore and its transformation into a highway requires larger investments, especially around the ring road around Dimitrovgrad, Haskovo and Kardzhali.

18Problematic at this stage is the overall design of the highway in the direction of Haskovo-Kardzhali, as well as the provision of detours around the settlements. The efforts made for the construction of the section from Kardzhali to Podkova do not have the necessary effect, although it is a step in the right direction. The deficit is that the road from Kardzhali to Makaza is two-lane, the planned railway is not built. In general, a lot of effort and funds are needed here to turn it into a four-lane, as well as a significant expansion of the Makaza pass.

19Returning to Northern Bulgaria, we cannot fail to note the strategic importance of the roads Ruse-Silistra (120 km.), Silistra-Shumen (112.35 km.) And especially the inner Ruse-Kubrat-Isperih-Dulovo-Tervel-Karapelit-Dobrich-Varna. . To a large extent, the construction of a highway between Ruse and Silistra will increase investment interest in the region, promote local economic development and, in practice, give new impetus to the economic development of cities such as Tutrakan, Alfatar and others.

20On the other hand, the roads Ruse-Kubrat (51.45 km) and Kubrat-Isperih (34.20 km), Dulovo-Tervel (31.67 km) are especially important, which can create conditions for improving the regional development and modernization of the entire Dobruja region. In order to complete the puzzle in Northern Bulgaria, the road Ruse - Razgrad - Shumen is of strategic importance. It is 105 km long. At the end of 2012 the widening of the road began, but it was not necessary enough to look for opportunities to expand with 2 new lanes so that it became four-lane.

21No expropriation procedures are required, when the section is built, it is left a little wider and now the banquets will reach the new lane. However, I think that the fourth lane and the increase in its permeability should be considered in order to improve the regional development of the adjacent cities along the route such as Popovo. In the new conditions the city of Shumen is emerging as a new transport hub in Northeastern Bulgaria. This will undoubtedly support its socio-economic development.

22In the future, we must think about attracting funds to improve connectivity in the direction Shumen-Smyadovo-Veselinovo-Rishki Pass. In practice, the Rishki Pass is especially important for the connection between the northern and southern cities in the eastern part of the country. The view in the northeast highlights the importance of the city of Varna. Unfortunately, the city is practically deindustrialized, which hinders its dynamic development. However, it needs new roads and connections with other settlements in the Northeast. Thus, in recent years, the road Varna - Durankulak is of great strategic importance. Varna - Durankulak to be built as a highway with a length of 110 km, connecting Varna and the highways Hemus and the Black Sea with the Romanian border, and from there with Constanta and Molodova, Ukraine and Belarus. In practice, in the new conditions Varna turns out to be an important transport direction, which, however, is not listed as a priority. This comes from the relatively large consumer market that forms our maritime capital. For this reason, it is necessary to build a semi-ring around the city itself, which will connect with the future Black Sea highway with the Hemus highway and the road to Durankulak. Of course, this ring must be at least 10 kilometers outside the city of Varna. On the other hand, the construction of the Black Sea highway should connect the cities of Varna and Bourgas, moving panoramically along the sea 20-30 kilometers inland. It is part of Pan-European Transport Corridor 8 (Drach - Tirana - Skopje - Sofia - Burgas - Varna). The total length of the section Burgas-Varna is 103 km. As of February 2020, only 10 km of the section, which starts from the Asparuhov Bridge in Varna and ends before the village of Priseltsi, have been completed. However, according to most experts, a connection should be built to the town of Beloslav and from there to the Hemus highway in order for the route to have the necessary efficiency. The Black Sea highway is expected to greatly facilitate transport links between Black Sea towns, resolving difficulties with the Stara Planina crossing, which has severely slowed traffic between Obzor and Nessebar. The most realistic is for the highway to pass through the Dyulin pass and pass around the village of Tankovo, the town of Kableshkovo and exit the bypass of the village of Aheloy. Important in Southern Bulgaria is the design and construction of a highway in the direction Bulgarovo-Kameno-kv. Meden Rudnik-Sredets (44 km.), Which will allow the area around Burgas to acquire a new industrial profile and an opportunity for new socio-economic development. On the other hand, it is necessary to build a new highway between Yambol and Sredets with a distance of 65.45 km. This will allow the formation of a new core of industry in Bulgaria in the area around Strandzha, which will fulfill the regional development of the southeastern part of the country. In addition to this strategic road, one can also think about building a highway between Yambol-Sliven-Kazanlak-Karlovo. In practice, a high-speed route between Sliven and Yambol will create conditions for new regional development of the two regional centers and their closer connection. On the other hand, the Sliven-Karlovo route will lay the foundations for a new spatial development of the settlements in the sub-Balkan valleys and an alternative to the road to the capital. In Southern Bulgaria there is currently a need to design highways, for example in the direction Topolovgrad-Svilengrad, Plovdiv - Rudozem, a brand new road from Asenovgrad - Orehovo-Zagrazhden-Monastery-Haidushki Polyani-Rozhen-Smolyan, also in the direction Smolyan-Devin -Gotse Delchev, as well as a highway between the village of Trud and the town of Karlovo, but these projects can be implemented with national funding. They may become a reality faster than expected, but those in Northern Bulgaria are in danger of never seeing their realization. This is related to the looming decline of the northern part of the country, the strongly negative demographic trends, the problems with the investments and especially the poor transport accessibility and the unfavorable climatic conditions [9]. In this direction, the highways are an important milestone for the socio-economic revival of Northern Bulgaria and an opportunity to rediscover the great potential of the regions in it for geo-economic revival.


23In this presentation we have outlined the possible improvements on transport connections in Bulgaria and the possible geoeconomic effect on them. This means that integrated management and maintenance is needed the Bulgarian transport system with the single European transport space. It is necessary to provide quality and affordable transport in all areas of the country.
Improving the regional level of access to national transport network and transport corridors.
Reconstruction and modernization of sections of networks with insufficient capacity. With the construction of highways in Bulgaria to seek complementarity with a functioning and covering the entire EU multimodal core network on TEN-T program until 2030. Transport connections are important for the socio-economic development of Bulgaria. In this direction, it is necessary to define the construction of expressways as a priority for the development of transport sector to seek their implementation in the medium term by 2030. This will surely lead to positive changes in the regional development of Bulgaria and better connectivity within Southeast Europe.

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[1] Bakalova, V, Nikolova, Hr. "Transport Economics", publishing complex Stopanstvo S., 2010, p. 26.

[2] Dimov, N. (2007) - Regional Sustainable Development of Bulgaria: Advantages, Limitations and Synergetic Effect, In Collection: European Integration and Sustainable Development, Fr. Ebert Foundation - Institute of Sociology, BAS, Ed. "East-West", S.

[3] Dokova, S, K Petrov, Geoeconomics and Regional Development. publishing complex UNWE,2015.

[4] Kolev, B. The National Geographical Space of the Republic of Bulgaria: Use and Preservation, Sofia, 2008.

[5] Mutafchiev, L. - The transport system of Bulgaria and guidelines for its improvement, Ed. Economy Sofia, 2006, p. 3.

[6[ Nikolova, Hr. (2013) Sustainable transport development in Bulgaria - analysis and evaluation of key indicators. UNWE Publishing Complex.

[7] Patarchanov, P. Theoretical and methodological bases and development of regional geographical research. - GSU, book 2 - Geography, 2005.

[8] Petrov, K. Geourbanistics and urban development. Ed. Economy.2015.

[9] Parvanov, Hr. and Manoilova, Iv. - Transport Markets, publishing complex Economy - UNWE S., 2007, p. 67.

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Índice das ilustrações

Título Figure 1 : planning regions in Bulgaria
Créditos Source: MRRB, NSI
Ficheiro image/png, 120k
Título Figure 2: Transport corridors passing through Bulgaria
Créditos Source: Ministry of Transport and Information Technologies, Bulgaria.
Ficheiro image/png, 141k
Título Figure 3: Bulgarian road map 2020
Créditos Source: Road Infrastructure Agency - Bulgaria
Ficheiro image/png, 60k
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Referência eletrónica

Kamen Petrov, «Geo-economic perspectives for construction on speed roads in Bulgaria»Espaço e Economia [Online], 20 | 2020, posto online no dia 28 dezembro 2020, consultado o 06 agosto 2021. URL:; DOI:

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Kamen Petrov

Associate Professor Doctor at University of National and World Economy – Sofia, Bulgaria. Vice Dean in the Faculty Management and Administration; Department Regional Development. Corresponding author:,,

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Espaço e Economia – Revista brasileira de geografia econômica est mise à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale - Partage dans les Mêmes Conditions 4.0 International.

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