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Establishing a Panoptic Prison: An Examination of Fremantle Gaol, 1831-1841

Créer une prison panoptique : Le cas de la prison de Fremantle, 1831-1841
Emily Lanman

Résumés

Bien que la colonie du fleuve Swan en Australie-Occidentale ait été fondée en 1829 pour être la première colonie libre du continent australien, cette colonie expérimentale n'était pas exempte de criminalité. Les écrits de Jeremy Bentham sur la punition, en particulier sur le panoptique, ont eu une influence significative sur le système carcéral dans la colonie, en particulier à la prison de Fremantle. En effet, dans la ville portuaire émergente de Fremantle, la prison a été conçue par Henry Willey Reveley, un personnage qui avait été associé aux premières heures du projet panoptique, et elle intègre des éléments cruciaux du panoptique dans son architecture et ses opérations. S'il faut noter que la prison n'est pas conforme à l'intégralité de la conception du panoptique, elle peut être considérée comme une réponse pratique dans un cadre colonial caractérisé par des ressources limitées. Les écarts par rapport projet décrit par Bentham sont attribuables au besoin des autorités d'étendre leur contrôle sur des colons européens déçus par le potentiel de la colonie, et sur des populations aborigènes cherchant à défendre leur terre. Ainsi, la prison offre un aperçu intéressant de l'état de la criminalité, de la société et des tendances pénales qui ont émergé au début de la colonie entre 1831 et 1841. À travers l’analyse d'archives, cet article étudie la prison de Fremantle comme un exemple du panoptique de Bentham, en particulier la façon dont son architecture et ses opérations reflétaient ce modèle

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This research has been made possible through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.

Introduction

  • 1 Fremantle Gaol is now commonly referred to as Fremantle Round House however, the former was its off (...)
  • 2 Reece, Bob Glimpses of Fremantle 1829-1929 , in Voices from the West End: Stories, People and Event (...)
  • 3 Adams, Simon, Capital Punishment and the Spectacle of Death in Colonial Fremantle in The Voice from (...)
  • 4 Phillips, David and Davies, Susanne, A Nation of Rogues? Crime, Law and Punishment in Colonial Aust (...)
  • 5 Martens, Jeremy, Government House and Western Australian Society 1829-2010 (Crawley, UWA Publishing (...)
  • 6 Bavin, Louise J., Punishment, Prisons and Reform: Incarceration in Western Australia in the Ninetee (...)
  • 7 Whitaker, Reg, The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance is Becoming a Reality (New York, The New (...)

1The Fremantle Gaol1 was constructed on Arthur Head in the emerging port town of Fremantle in 1831.2 In the fragile Swan River Colony, the jail was viewed as a permanent symbol of British authority by disgruntled settlers who felt the potential of the colony had been lost and thus felt trapped.3 This feeling was compounded by the unrest of the Indigenous population who resented the British takeover of their homeland.4 Thus, the consolidation of power and authority became paramount for the privileged settlers who sought to recreate the class structure they had left in Britain.5 The design of the Fremantle Gaol was significant as it was built on the principles of the panopticon (1791), Jeremy Bentham’s model prison.6 Following Bentham’s core philosophy, reformation of morals was paramount to the functionality of the panopticon, which sought to do this through constant surveillance by a centrally placed inspector.7

  • 8 Convict transportation was used in Western Australia from 1850-1868.
  • 9 Cameron, J.M.R., The Foundation of Western Australia Reconsidered, Studies in Western Australia His (...)

2This paper aims to identify the panoptic elements of the Fremantle Gaol, exploring the architecture and operations in the institution, and investigating life within the prison. The panoptic features of the Fremantle Gaol have been widely overlooked for detailed analysis by the literature on crime in the early years of the Swan River Colony. To achieve this examination, limitations have been placed on the study: firstly, to encompass the era in which the Fremantle Gaol was the main prison in the colony, the period under consideration has been restricted to 1831-1841. It has also been limited to remove the Parkhurst boys and later convicts8 from consideration, to examine the prison in the context of a strictly non-penal colony.9 Secondly, other penal institutions established during this era, including Perth Gaol and Rottnest Island (Wadjemup), will not be discussed in detail, although referred to when relevant, as a paper in the present issue studies them. For an analysis into the panoptic qualities of the Fremantle Gaol to occur certain aspects must be examined: firstly, the foundation of the Swan River Colony, including the implementation of a penal system, must be analysed; from this, a comparison can then be drawn between the Fremantle Gaol and its panoptic qualities, namely, through its architecture and operations. This paper argues that whilst Fremantle Gaol embodies some of Bentham’s panoptic features, it cannot be argued as a true representation of the model. Instead, Fremantle Gaol is a colonial response to achieve obedience and reformation of prisoners’ characters.

Foundation of a colony

  • 10 Petchell, Bill, The Swan River Colony: Did the British Government want it to Survive? (Rivervale, S (...)
  • 11 Cameron, J., The Foundation of Western Australia Reconsidered, p.2.
  • 12 Maude, Phil, Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill during the Early Colonial Period, 1826–1 (...)
  • 13 Peel M. and Twomey C., A History of Australia, p.52; Bolton G., Land of Vison and Mirage, p.9.
  • 14 Peel M. and Twomey C., A History of Australia, p.52.
  • 15 Vanden Driesen, I.H., Essays on Immigration Population in Western Australia 1850-1901 (Nedlands, Un (...)
  • 16 Haast, Alyce. Convicts and Commodities: An Archaeological Approach to the Economic Value of the Wes (...)
  • 17 Haast, A., Convicts and Commodities, pp.138-139; Winter, S. Coerced Labour in Western Australia, p. (...)
  • 18 Tanner, William., Letter from William Tanner to his Mother and Sisters, December 1831, in The Tanne (...)
  • 19 Hanson, J., “Colonel Hanson’s Pamphlet”, Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, January 19, (...)

3To understand the Fremantle Gaol’s role in the colony, the society which it operated in must be examined. The coast of Western Australia had been navigated in 1802-1803, but it was not until the late 1820s when Captain James Stirling began to argue for expansion that a colony was considered. Stirling was less interested in a settlement for British benefit than as an attempt to recoup the money lost by his family in the American cotton industry.10 The British government was unconvinced about the establishment of a new colony due to the vast cost. However, with increasing concerns over an exponentially growing population and increased urbanisation, this scepticism was abandoned.11 The Swan River Colony was established on 1st June 1829 as a non-penal colony, the first of its kind in Australia, and the granting land to settlers was based on the assets they could bring to the colony, thus reducing the financial burden on Britain.12 Land grants would eventually be deemed a failure, considering shortly after their arrival settlers felt that the colony’s potential had been oversold.13 Indeed, for the settlers, the agricultural endeavours were unlikely to succeed due to issues such as sandy soil, misrepresented in Stirling’s reports.14 As unflattering reports about the state of the colony were sent back to Britain, the rates of immigration started to decrease starkly.15 This created a stagnated population growth, leading to labour shortages, in turn causing economic problems due to limited cash flow.16 In some instances, for example, in 1830, the poor reports sent back to Britain caused some potential settlers en route to Swan River to transfer the other colonies, such as South Africa or New South Wales, which had been positively commented on in letters and newspapers at the time.17 In December 1831, William Tanner in a letter to his family in England noted that, whilst he was at the Cape of Good Hope, “passengers in the last two vessels […] have been deceived, […] some have remained there and others have sold off their property”, even stating that from that encounter he had considered rerouting to New South Wales.18 A similar picture was presented by Colonel Hanson in the Perth Gazette in 1833, in which he states that the public had received an unnecessarily negative overview of the colony. Hanson recollected the events in which a wealthy settler sold off his livestock in fear of unexpected hardships at the colony.19 Understanding the formative years of the Swan River Colony can provide an insight as to why the colony was concerned about crime.

  • 20 Appleyard, R.T., Manford, Toby, The beginning: European discovery and early settlement of Swan Rive (...)
  • 21 Vanden Driesen, I.H., Essays on Immigration Population in Western Australia , p.14.
  • 22 White, Michael, Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia 1831-1870 , History of Educati (...)
  • 23 White, M., Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia, p.7; Peel M. and Twomey C., A Hist (...)
  • 24 Strong, Rowan, Church and State in Western Australia: Implementing New Imperial Paradigms in the Sw (...)

4By 1832, the colony’s economy was deteriorating. Captain James Stirling, Governor of the colony from 1829-1839, attempted to gain financial support from the Colonial Office was unsuccessful.20 The decline is credited to the lack of cash brought by the settlers, as their assets decided their eligibility. Therefore precedence was given to investing in equipment and livestock.21 The lack of circulating money became such a huge concern that influential settlers considered opening a bank to allow farmers to borrow against their coming harvest.22 Thus, the colony in its precarious state depended mainly on wealthier settlers.23 This reliance resulted in the stunted growth of the colony and economic depression in the 1840s, from which it did not recover until 1848.24

The establishment of a gaol

  • 25 Maude, P., Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill, p.398.
  • 26 Williams, Brad, The Archaeological Potential of Colonial Prison Hulks: The Tasmanian Case Study , B (...)
  • 27 Bavin-Steding, Louise J., Crime and Confinement: The Origins of Prisons in Western Australia (Perth (...)
  • 28 Maude, P., Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill, p.398.
  • 29 Lewis, Richard, Letter from Richard Lewis to Peter Broun, August 6, 1830. Colonial Secretary’s Corr (...)
  • 30 Letter from Richard Lewis to Peter Broun, August 6, 1830.
  • 31 Bavin-Steding L.J., Crime and Confinement, p.54; “Report of the Committee of Correspondence, Appoin (...)
  • 32 Godfrey, B., Prison Versus Western Australia , p.1141.

5With tension and unrest prevalent, criminal activity began to surface in the colony leading to the need to implement a method of imprisonment. Crime was an ongoing concern in the formative years of the colony, despite its non-penal status. This is demonstrated through the implementation of incarceration within the first year of settlement. As was the practice for many prisoners in Britain, imprisonment was initially in the hulk The Marquis of Anglesea which housed twenty-seven prisoners off the coast of Fremantle between December 1829 and July 1830.25 A hulk was an out-of-service or unseaworthy ship that was permanently moored and acted as a place of confinement for British prisoners, especially as a stop-gap measure after the collapse of transportation and overcrowding of the prison system.26 Governor Stirling communicated the proposed construction of a jail in Perth to the Magistrates in April 1830. However, the Magistrates argued that Fremantle would be a more suitable location.27 This need for a jail was also conveyed at the first Quarter Sessions in July 1830. It was argued the hulk was not a permanent solution as the transportation of prisoners to and from the hulk was dangerous and difficult.28 Tenders were called for the construction of a jail, and in August 1830, the successful Contractor, Richard Lewis, began work on what would be known as Fremantle Gaol.29 The plans for the jail had been drawn up by the colony’s civil engineer Henry Willey Reveley, whose father had worked alongside the Bentham brothers to formulate the 1791 plans for the panopticon prison. Reveley appears to have been influenced by this design as the panopticon is mirrored in the architecture of the Fremantle Gaol. There had been discussion over where to build the prison in Fremantle with the options to build on the flat or on Arthur Head, where it would ultimately be constructed out of local limestone.30 By January 1836, 101 people, who had been convicted of felonies, and 15 others with misdemeanours had spent time within the confines of the prison.31 It should be noted, however, that not all prisoners carried out the entirety of their sentences in Fremantle Gaol as the colony practised transportation to the Australian penal colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land.32

Figure 1

Entrance to Fremantle Gaol

Credits: Emily Lanman (2020)

  • 33 Bentham, Jeremey, Principles of Penal Law (London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1843), p.422.
  • 34 Barteaux, Jillian, Urban Planning as Colonial Marketing Strategy for the Swan River Settlement, Wes (...)
  • 35 Litchfield, John, The Round House and its Question About Community in Fremantle, in Imagined Places (...)
  • 36 Litchfield, J. The Fremantle Gaol and its Questions About Community in Fremantle, p.34.

6Before investigating the panoptic qualities of the building itself, the location of the prison deserves mentioning as Bentham argues a prison needs to be visible to awaken a sense of terror by emitting a sense of seclusion, restraint and a sense of removal of hope to the wider population.33 The Fremantle Gaol fulfils this requirement as its position atop of Arthur Head means it towered over the colony.34 This feeling would be heightened as, at the time of construction, it was the only permanent stone building, not only in Fremantle but in the entire colony. Arthur Head also had significance to the local Nyungar people who used the area for many social and cultural purposes at specific points of the year. This area was known as Manjaree to the Indigenous population and facilitated meetings for different groups and as a trading area, primarily because of the abundance of food and access to fresh water.35 Litchfield argues that “[…] the function of the Fremantle Gaol marks a perverse mimicry of the traditional use of the area,” primarily as it still brought people together, but for vastly different reasons.36

The Architecture of Fremantle Gaol

  • 37 Bentham, Jeremey, Panopticon; or the Inspection-House: Containing the Idea of a New Principle of Co (...)
  • 38 Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1837. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA (...)
  • 39 Bavin-Steding, L.J., Crime and Confinement, p.55.
  • 40 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.38.
  • 41 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.69.
  • 42 Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to Charles Simmonds, September 9, 1831. Colonial Secretary’s (...)
  • 43 Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to Richard Broun, December 9, 1835. Colonial Secretary’s Corr (...)
  • 44 Bavin-Steding, L.J., Crime and Confinement, p.65; Bentham, Jeremey, Postscript Part I – Containing (...)
  • 45 Steadman, Philip, The Contradictions of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon Penitentiary, Journal of Bentha (...)
  • 46 White, M., Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia, p.14
  • 47 Blue Book, 1837, p.173.
  • 48 Broun, Peter, Rules and Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail at Fremantle Established (...)

7Fremantle Gaol conforms to the stereotype of the panopticon model with its dodecagon design, resembling the circular plan, with the centrally placed inspectors’ quarters. It should be noted that Bentham concluded that the shape was not the defining feature of the panopticon, but rather any shape could be used providing the inspector was central in the building.37 Fremantle Gaol was comprised of twelve sections; one used as an entrance and ward room, one for the Jailer, one as a kitchen, two privies and seven for prisoner cells, under the steps leading up to the prison there was also a bakehouse.38 In Fremantle Gaol, the Jailer was housed on the wall closest to the townsite, with the majority of prisoners housed on the opposite wall, allowing for the observance required for a panoptic prison. The only prisoners not housed in these cells were the women and children who were kept adjacent to the warder’s quarters allowing for closer observation to occur.39 The closed cells of the Fremantle Gaol does not lead to a conflict with its panoptic structure as inmates of Bentham’s panopticon would be afforded some privacy in cases where they were naked, such as changing or washing, under the caveat that they could be asked to come back into the sight of the inspector.40 Thus, the architecture of the Fremantle Gaol conforms to the design of the panopticon as Bentham had determined it: “The apartments of the prisoners occupy the circumference. The apartment of the inspector occupies the centre…”, most likely this resemblance stems from Reveley’s acquaintanceship with Bentham.41 As Bentham’s panopticon, the jail was multipurpose. Indeed, the jail was primarily used “as both a common gaol and house of correction” but also served as an asylum, with strong cells set aside for those who had a mental illness.42 Interestingly it also served as a makeshift workhouse or poorhouse as it occasionally was home to paupers who found themselves in a state of destitution.43 Prisoners of all races, ages and gender were confined in Fremantle Gaol, two per cell in normal times and up to three in times of emergency; this is mirrored in Bentham’s Postscripts which stipulated four inmates could be housed per cell if necessary.44 The panopticon model, however, was intended to be built on a far bigger scale, spanning six stories, compared to just the seven cells of the Fremantle Gaol.45 This can be attributed to not only the finite resources of the colony but most importantly, to the size of the colony, which by 1839 had only reached 2154 inhabitant.46 The small size of the jail did mean that classification of prisoners, other than confinement in separate cells was impossible.47 However, prisoners could be classified in these cells as much as possible by age, gender and character. For example, felons would not be locked with those awaiting trial.48

Figure 2

The Jailer’s quarters (left) and two surviving cells (centre)

Credits: Emily Lanman (2020)

Rules and Regulations of Fremantle Gaol

  • 49 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.36-39; Broun, P. Regulations for the Management of the Common (...)

8The panoptic qualities of the Fremantle Gaol were also present with the day-to-day operations, evidenced through the rules and regulations outlined in the years 1831 and 1835, as communicated through the Colonial Secretary’s Office correspondence and in The Perth Gazette.49 Both sets of rules and regulations can be seen to follow Bentham’s panoptic philosophy. These rules deal with the duties of the keepers and officers involved in the running of the jail; and the regulations surrounding the treatment of the prisoners. This will be discussed through the following sub-headings: general management of prisons, Magistrates, Jailers, health, cleanliness, provisions, diet, separation, visitation, auxiliary punishments, labour and morality.

General management of prisons

  • 50 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36.
  • 51 Broun, P. Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.
  • 52 Causer, Tim, ‘The Evacuation of that Scene of Wickedness and Wretchedness': Jeremy Bentham, the Pan (...)
  • 53 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.36-38.
  • 54 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.

1831

1835

Panopticon

English law relative to the management of prisons and their inhabitants would be applied to the prisons of the colony.50

English law would be applied to the prisons of the colony unless local provisions have been made.51

The panopticon would be compliant with English law.52

The Lieutenant Governor would have to approve of any changes to the regulations of the jail.

No fees would be taken from the prisoners.53

No fees would be taken from the prisoners.54

  • 55 Causer, T., 'The Evacuation of that Scene of Wickedness and Wretchedness': Jeremy Bentham, the Pano (...)
  • 56 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.
  • 57 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations, pp.36-37; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common (...)

9There is very little difference between the overarching management of the panopticon and Fremantle Gaol as both would fall under the jurisdiction of English law.55 However, in 1835 it was stipulated that English law was the default position for issues not covered by “local provision”.56 This demonstrates growth in the colony to allow for further penal development suited to the colonial needs. The omission of the Governor’s right to approve any changes to the regulations in 1835 also shows how strong control over the prison system was no longer necessary as the colony became more established.57

Magistrates

  • 58 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36.
  • 59 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.
  • 60 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.46.
  • 61 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

1831

1835

Panopticon

Magistrates would visit the prison monthly and report any neglect or misconduct on the part of the officers to the next Quarter Sessions.58

Magistrates would visit the prison monthly and report any neglect or misconduct on the part of the keepers to the next Quarter Sessions.59

Independent contractors deal with the day-to-day operations to ease the burden on the Magistrates.60

In cases of extreme neglect, Magistrates would report it immediately to the Colonial Secretary.

Magistrates shoulder the general management and interior economy.

The Magistrates would direct instructions to the keeper.61

  • 62 Broun, P. Rules and Regulations , p.36; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jai (...)
  • 63 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.46.
  • 64 Bentham, Jeremy, Postscript Part – II. Principles and Plan of Management , in The Works of Jeremy B (...)
  • 65 Bentham, J., Postscript - Part II, p.215.
  • 66 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.67.
  • 67 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)

10Central to the management and governance of the jail was the Magistrates who were appointed annually.62 This shows deviation from the panopticon model as Bentham envisioned the Contractor being wholly responsible for the daily routine.63 For Bentham, this would empower the Contractor to ensure the panopticon’s success as all reward and punishment would fall to him.64 This would not negate the role of Magistrates or higher governance as they would still be required to act as a balance on the power of the Contractor.65 The jail also had strict regulations surrounding the necessary steps to report the death of inmates, this does not feature heavily in Bentham’s works, however, as he states that contractors would be punished for each prisoner that died in his custody, it can be assumed that a system of communication would be in place.66 Permission would also have to be sought by the Jailers by the Magistrates if prisoners required additional punishments, no such accommodation appears to be made in Panopticon; or the Inspection House.67

Jailers

  • 68 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36.
  • 69 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, pp.42-43.
  • 70 Bentham, J. Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.46.
  • 71 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.
  • 72 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.44.

1831

1835

Panopticon

The Superintendent was responsible for the day-to-day management.68

The Jailer was responsible for day-to-day management.69

The Contractor was responsible for the day-to-day management.70

The Jailer must reside in the jail.71

The Contractor must reside in the panopticon.72

  • 73 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)
  • 74 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42; Bentham, J., Panoptic (...)

11The Jailers of Fremantle Gaol and the Contractor of the panopticon had similar roles in their institutions. This is because they were responsible for the day-to-day operations of the jail and the panopticon.73 Both systems made it mandatory for the Jailer to live in the institution; Bentham saw this as an advantage as the family of the inspector would act as an extra level of surveillance whilst only paying one salary.74

Health

  • 75 Broun, P. Rules and Regulations , p.36.
  • 76 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.
  • 77 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.48.
  • 78 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.
  • 79 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II , pp.267, 269-270.

1831

1835

Panopticon

Superintendent was to report disease to the medical attendant.75

The Jailer was to report accidents and death to the medical attendant.76

The panopticon would also function as a hospital.77

All prisoners should receive adequate air and exercise.78

Prisoners should have regular access to air and exercise.79

  • 80 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , pp.21, 46-47.
  • 81 Broun, Richard, M.B, Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, August 28, 1835. Colonial Secretary’ (...)
  • 82 Crichton, James, Letter from James Crichton to Peter Broun, July 4, 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Corr (...)
  • 83 Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA (...)
  • 84 Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun , January 3, 1840.

12The preservation of health is essential to both the panopticon and the Fremantle Gaol as covered by the general duties of the keepers and officers through the checking and enforcing of cleanliness, which is something Bentham saw as necessary to health. The medical needs of the prisoners were attended to by the Colonial Surgeon: in Panopticon; or the Inspection House Bentham stressed the importance of maintaining a healthy workforce.80 The Colonial Surgeon was required to assist both colonial and Indigenous prisoners with some frequency, which falls in line with how Bentham envisioned to panopticon caring for the medical needs of its inmates.81 In most instances the Colonial Surgeon would be dealing with the sickness and injuries incurred by prisoners; however, he would also be required to assist those who found themselves inside because of their destitute condition or unable to procure healthcare by other means.82 In 1839 an Indigenous man would be taken into the jail to recover from a fight he had with another Indigenous man, although he would die.83 In other instances, paupers would be admitted to receive medical treatment for example in 1840 a boy named Stanley who was “in a most destitute state” had been taken to the jail where it was deemed necessary to offer him treatment on account of him “suffering great agony.”84

Cleanliness

  • 85 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 86 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.266.
  • 87 Broun, J., Rules and Regulations , p.39.
  • 88 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.
  • 89 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations, p.39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jai (...)
  • 90 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39.
  • 91 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.
  • 92 Bentham, Postscript Part -II, p.265.

1831

1835

Panopticon

All prisoners needed to be bathed before admittance.85

Bathing before admittance formed part of a symbolic ritual where the prisoner would become integrated with the institution.86

The prison would regularly be cleaned.87

The prison would regularly be cleaned.88

Bentham states that cleaning can be built into the daily routine, preferably at the cessation of work.89

Prisoners and their clothes were to be washed regularly.90

Prisoners were to wash daily, and their clothes were to washed weekly.91

Regular bathing and the washing of clothing was to occur.92

  • 93 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.37, 39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Comm (...)
  • 94 Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, 267, 269-270.
  • 95 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)
  • 96 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39; Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39; Broun, P., Regula (...)

13Cleanliness was an essential aspect in the routine of both the panopticon and the Fremantle Gaol, and it would fall upon the Jailers to ensure this was kept.93 The preservation of cleanliness was something Bentham saw as pertinent within a penal institution and essential to maintaining a healthy workforce.94 Prisoners were also expected to air their bedclothes daily and wash their bodies and prison uniform weekly, usually on a Saturday afternoon, for which they would be provided with towels, combs and a ¼lb of soap.95 In Bentham’s plan thorough cleaning would also occur on a Saturday, although there were some differences between the two institutions: firstly, in the panopticon, prisoners would be expected to wash their hands, face and feet multiple times a day, something that was not stipulated in the rules for the jail; secondly, in the jail prisoners would wash their bodies daily whereas in the panopticon the frequency of bathing, in the summer it would be weekly and in winter they would bathe monthly, with the remaining months cleaning themselves once a fortnight. Finally, Bentham stipulates how frequently different items of clothing and bedding should be cleaned; however, the rules for the jail do not give any timeframe other than weekly. The desire for routine cleaning extended to the prison itself. Each day the prisoners would be expected to sweep the prison yard, privies and cells, which Bentham had incorporated into his plan for the panopticon which would be carried out at the cessation of work.96

Provisions

  • 97 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39.
  • 98 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 99 Bentham, J., The Principles of Penal Law, p.422.
  • 100 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.38-39.
  • 101 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.
  • 102 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.265.
  • 103 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39.
  • 104 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.
  • 105 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- I, pp.198-199.

1831

1835

Panopticon

No list is provided, except for an allowance of soap for cleanliness.97

Each prisoner was afforded a bedstead, a mattress, one blanket, one rug or coverlet, two shirts and trousers, a jacket and a pair of shoes. They were also allocated a ¼lb of soap for washing.98

Bentham insisted sufficient clothing to protect against the extremes of climate should be provided to prisoners.99

Prisoners under trial were allowed to purchase articles except for alcohol.100

Prisoners under trial could purchase articles except for alcohol.101

Bentham did not dictate the type of bedding. Instead, he left it up to the prison to determine what mode of bedding would be the cheapest.102

Water was to be kept in sufficient quantities for consumption and hygiene at all times.103

Water was to be kept in sufficient quantities at the jail at all times.104

Water would be supplied to each floor.105

  • 106 Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun , January 21, 1841. Colonial Sec (...)
  • 107 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.265; Bentham, J., The Principles of Penal Law, p.422.
  • 108 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.126; Lewis, Richard., Le (...)
  • 109 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- I, pp.198-199.
  • 110 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.38-39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Commo (...)

14The provisions supplied to inmates of both Fremantle Gaol and the panopticon show a strong similarity. The clothing afforded to the prisoners at Fremantle were sufficient at protecting the prisoners from the “extremes of climate” and were repaired or replaced when necessary.106 Indeed, this was something that Bentham insisted upon for penal institutions. The bedding utilised in Fremantle Gaol also appears to conform to Bentham’s principles, because despite not dictating what should be used, he does insist that the most economical bedding should be utilised.107 The bedding used appears to have cost £1.15.0 per prisoner between July 1835 and June 1836, and the surviving records do not indicate that it needed frequent replacement.108 Access to water was also vital for both institutions. This was achieved by a communal well in Fremantle Gaol, compared to the panopticon which was to have access to water on each floor.109 This would have been impossible to implement in the colony due to the lack of existing infrastructure. The only apparent deviation between the two prison systems is that prisoners awaiting trial in Fremantle could purchase additional provisions, except for alcohol.110

Diet

  • 111 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.
  • 112 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.
  • 113 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.261.
  • 114 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.
  • 115 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.38-39.
  • 116 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.
  • 117 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.228.

1831

1835

Panopticon

All prisoners would receive 1½ lb of bread and a pint of gruel for breakfast or 2lb of bread with ½ lb of meat on Sundays with good behaviour.111

Those awaiting trial or not sentenced to labour would receive 1½ lb of bread with

½ lb of meat or 1lb of fish on Sundays on good behaviour.112

Food must be cheap, nourishing and consistent.113

Prisoners sentenced to hard labour would receive 1½lb bread with ½lb meat or 1lb fish daily.

Females under sentence of hard labour were entitled to

1lb of bread and ½lb meat daily.114

No alcohol permitted.115

No alcohol permitted.116

No alcohol permitted.117

  • 118 Reece, Bob, Eating and Drinking at Early Swan River Colony, Studies in Royal Western Australian His (...)
  • 119 See Henderson, Fergus, Annie Guy and Tim Causer, Jeremy Bentham’s Prison Cooking: A Collective of U (...)
  • 120 Bentham, Postscript Part- II , 258; Reece, B., Eating and Drinking at Early Swan River Colony , pp. (...)
  • 121 Reece, B., Eating and Drinking at Early Swan River Colony , pp.464-466.
  • 122 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.261.

15The food provided, and its quantity, provided to prisoners under the panopticon and the Fremantle Gaol show significant differences; however, this can be attributed to the limited resources in the colony.118 The diet in the panopticon was something Bentham gave great attention to, creating a plethora of recipes suitable for use in his penitentiary.119 Bentham stipulates that inmates should have free access to food, and not necessarily a prescribed diet, this would have been difficult to implement in the Swan River Colony as access to food amongst the free settlers was scarce in the early days of the colony.120 The recipes created for the panopticon would be challenging to utilise within Fremantle Gaol because of the fresh ingredients necessary which were not always available, but also because it would have led to a scenario where the prisoners were eating much better than the majority of the rest of the free population.121 One element of the prison diet which both institutions are in complete agreement with was the prohibition of alcohol as it was thought to lead to corruption. Prison diet at its core, according to Bentham, should provide sufficient nourishment whilst being economical and consistent.122 So, whilst Fremantle Gaol deviates from Bentham’s overall plan for a prison diet, it does conform to this crucial principle surrounding quality and cost.

Separation

  • 123 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.
  • 124 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 125 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.
  • 126 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 127 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, pp.233, 238; Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.140.
  • 128 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.
  • 129 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 130 Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.134.

1831

1835

Panopticon

Men and women were to be kept separate.

Children were to be kept from adults.123

Men and women were to be kept separate.

Children were to be kept from adults.124

Separation by conviction would also occur.125

Separation by conviction would also occur.126

By keeping prisoners of different convictions separate, it removes the opportunity for corruption to spread.127

Solitary confinement if used, should be strictly adhered to.128

Solitary confinement if used, should be strictly adhered to.129

Solitary confinement is an effective way of breaking the spirit.130

  • 131 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)
  • 132 Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1840. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA (...)
  • 133 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)
  • 134 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44; Bentham, J., Postscri (...)

16How separation was utilised within the Fremantle Gaol mirrors its application in the panopticon. In Fremantle Gaol, men and women were to be kept as separate as possible, and children were to be kept away from adults.131 This would also occur when prisoners attended divine service in the Fremantle courthouse, as women would have a separate section to maintain segregation.132 Both institutions also kept inmates separated by their conviction as it prevented the opportunity for the further corruption of lesser criminals to occur.133 Solitary confinement was also used as a way of controlling inmates’ behaviour in the panopticon and Fremantle Gaol.134

Visitation

  • 135 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.37-38.
  • 136 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 137 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.214.

1831

1835

Panopticon

Under certain circumstances, prisoners may receive visitors.135

Under certain circumstances, prisoners may receive visitors.136

Visitors are permitted to enter the panopticon to observe the prisoners.137

  • 138 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)
  • 139 Bozovic, Miran. “An Utterly Dark Spot”: The Fiction of God in Bentham’s Panopticon, Qui Parle 8 2 ( (...)
  • 140 “The Western Australian Journal”, Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, April 16, 1836.
  • 141 Green, Neville, Aboriginal and White Settlers in the Nineteenth Century in A New History of Western (...)

17Under these schemes, prisoners were largely excluded from society. However, by allowing visitors, it was possible to make an example of the incarcerated and thus was a way of discouraging future offenders.138 In Bentham’s panopticon, visitors would be permitted to enter the prison to observe the inmates, who would be masked, in what could be described as a sombre spectacle.139 An example of an occasion where the prisoners were put on public display in Fremantle was in 1836, in which they were included in a public celebration for the wedding of Stephen George Henty; this could have been used as a way of highlighting the consequences of dissent to the free settlers.140 Whilst the prison sought to keep prisoners separate from each other and from broader society it was not always successful as prisoners could call through the walls to people outside or have brief exchanges with people whilst they were labouring.141 However, as these interactions with free settlers were limited, it would not severely undermine the separation of prisoners from the rest of the colony.

Auxiliary punishments

  • 142 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.
  • 143 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.
  • 144 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.67; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.223.
  • 145 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.
  • 146 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.

1831

1835

Panopticon

No other punishment would be inflicted without the permission of a Magistrate.142

No other punishment would be inflicted without the permission of a Magistrate.143

Inspector is wholly responsible for administering punishment.144

Under extreme circumstances and permission could not be sought, the Superintendent was to report it to the next Petty Sessions.145

If under exceptional circumstances permission could not be sought, it needed to be reported to a Magistrate as soon as possible.146

  • 147 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.67; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.223.

18The method in which auxiliary punishment was handled differed between Fremantle Gaol and the panopticon. In the former, prior permission would have to be sought from a Magistrate before any additional punishment could be carried out. This differed to the panopticon model, which left this decision solely in the hands of the Contractor.147

  • 148 Blue Book, 1837, p.174; Blue Book, 1840, p.201; Blue Book, 1841, p.194.
  • 149 Daniels, Richard, Letter from Richard Daniels to Peter Broun, January 17, 1834. Colonial Secretary’ (...)
  • 150 Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, April 6, 1837. Colonial Secretary’s (...)
  • 151 Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, October 21, 1839.
  • 152 Davids, Richard, Letter from Richard Davids to Peter Broun, October 12, 1833. Colonial Secretary’s (...)

19Auxiliary punishments were used on the prisoners in the Fremantle Gaol for such refractions as assault on the Jailer, refusal to work, escape and escape attempts.148 In times of emergency, for example, where escape attempts had occurred, it was sometimes deemed necessary to employ the military as an additional security measure.149 Commonly used as auxiliary punishments were leg irons and handcuffs which were commonly sourced from Van Diemen’s Land.150 A list of items required for the jail in 1839 indicates that twenty-four pairs of light leg irons, six heavy leg irons, twelve pairs of standard handcuffs and eighteen pairs of spring handcuffs. The quantity required indicates that these were commonplace in prison discipline.151 Other punishments included stocks, the forced sale of property, transportation, and indigenous people could be subjected to execution.152

Labour

  • 153 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.
  • 154 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.
  • 155 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, 290.
  • 156 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.
  • 157 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.
  • 158 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.78
  • 159 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.
  • 160 Broun, Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.
  • 161 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.66.

1831

1835

Panopticon

Prisoners were to work for ten hours a day.153

Prisoners were to work eight hours a day in winter and nine hours in summer.154

Prisoners could be kept in sedentary labour for up to fourteen hours.155

Prisoners not yet convicted were not compelled to work.156

Prisoners not yet convicted were not compelled to work.157

Prisoners not yet convicted were not compelled to work.158

If a prisoner refused to work, he was to report him to the next Petty Sessions.159

If a prisoner refused to work, he was to be reported a Magistrate.160

Prisoners who refused to work would be confined in his cell.161

  • 162 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, pp.124-125.
  • 163 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.127; “Report of the Comm (...)
  • 164 Henderson et. al, Jeremy Bentham’s Prison Cooking: A Collective of Utilitarian Recipes, p.25.
  • 165 Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, June 3, 1839. Colonial Secretar (...)
  • 166 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, pp.124-125; Broun, Peter, (...)
  • 167 “The Western Australian Journal”, Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, April 18, 1835; Rev (...)

20Labour was central to the panopticon and Fremantle Gaol. Labourers would be kept at work for eight hours in winter and nine in the summer, except Saturdays to allow time for prisoners to wash their clothes and their persons; this was the only exception to what was stated in the regulations. Those sentenced to hard labour, or to transportation, would be compelled to work, anyone awaiting trial or not sentenced to labour could volunteer for work in order to receive an increase in their rations.162 Prisoners would be kept in gender-specific tasks, women were employed in domestic duties, such as washing and cooking, alongside the Jailer’s wife.163 This was endorsed by Bentham who had suggested that women and children be solely responsible for cooking within the panopticon.164 Male prisoners had been involved with projects within the jail, such as maintenance, well digging, and construction of new steps.165 They were also employed in public works such as construction, cranking a hand mill to grind flour, repairing government buildings and macadamising the streets of Fremantle.166 Others suggested that their labour could be used for improving the burial grounds at Fremantle or forming stores and vaults in the rock in Arthur Head under the jail.167

  • 168 Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, pp.246, 256, 258; Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Pri (...)
  • 169 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.125.
  • 170 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, pp.55-6, 68-9; Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, (...)

21Whilst Bentham outlined that prisoners should receive some of the profit from their labour, that did not always occur in the Swan River Colony as their labour was often on account of the local government.168 However, in one instance where they were employed in erecting a jetty on a private account, they did receive payment for their work – they did not receive it immediately; instead, it was held until their release to help them readjust to life outside of confinement.169 The employment and training received by inmates in the panopticon would help them transition into gainful employment after their sentence; one way Bentham envisioned this could occur could be in a “subsidiary panopticon” used as a factory for former offenders.170

Morality

  • 171 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.
  • 172 Bentham, J., Postscript - Part I, p.144; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.214.
  • 173 Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.144; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.214.
  • 174 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.
  • 175 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.228.

1835

Panopticon

Prisoners would be provided with a Bible and Prayer Book.171

Religion would be central in the daily routine.172

Prisoners would hear divine service.173

All instruments of gaming were to be destroyed.174

Gaming was to be prohibited.175

  • 176 Bentham, J., Postscript - Part I, p.144; Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, p.214.
  • 177 Bentham, Postscript - Part I, 209.
  • 178 “Report of the Committee of Correspondence.” Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, June 18, (...)
  • 179 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.128.
  • 180 Blue Book 1837 , p.174; Blue Book 1838 , p.174; Blue Book, 1839 , p.174; Blue Book, 1840 , p.200; B (...)
  • 181 Blue Book, 1840, p.200; Blue Book, 1841, p.193.
  • 182 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, 228.

22Despite his own agnostic beliefs, Bentham saw the benefit of utilising religious teachings in penal institutions, particularly as a way of reforming morals. This included having divine services and chaplains being made available to the inmates. The panopticon was also to have a chapel within the building as a core element of the design, which he concluded was “…a point to be assumed than argued…”.176 Bentham did suggest that an inmates cell would also be used for prayer as well.177 However, due to the limited number of clergy from the Established Church, a Chaplain could not always be made available, but concessions were made for religious education.178 The Chaplain was always one of the visiting Magistrates for the Fremantle Gaol.179 The Blue Books for 1837-9 indicate that a Magistrate would occasionally instruct the jail; from 1840 the Government Resident Fremantle performed for the prisoners in the neighbouring courthouse.180 The provision for the colony’s dissenting minister (a Wesleyan) is also accounted for in 1840-1841 stated he could visit “at any reasonable hour…by order of the resident visiting Magistrate”.181 The panopticon and Fremantle Gaol both prohibited gaming on moralistic grounds, as it was thought it would lead to vice and further corruption of the incarcerated criminals.182

Conclusion

  • 183 Steadman, P., The Contradictions of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon Penitentiary, Journal of Bentham St (...)
  • 184 Blue Book 1837, p.172.
  • 185 Barteaux, J., Urban Planning as Colonia Marketing Strategy for the Swan River Settlement, Western A (...)
  • 186 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Ja (...)
  • 187 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.46.

23Examination of the Fremantle Gaol reveals the panoptic elements of its architecture and operations. The architecture of the prison mirrors Bentham’s model prison on a much smaller scale holding at most twenty-one prisoners compared to the hundreds or thousands that the panopticon could hold. The difference in capacity can easily be attributed to the colonial question the institution was answering as the panopticon was to house criminals from a rapidly changing urban England.183 In contrast, Fremantle Gaol was to house those who disobeyed the rules of an infant colony with a small population.184 Despite the difference in size, Fremantle Goal still contains a lot of the architectural feature of the panopticon through the visibility of the prison by land and sea, the centrally placed Jailer’s quarters which overlook the cells and the below-ground bakehouse.185 The panoptic legacy of the jail is also evident through the rules and regulations that structured the jail’s operations. Once again, there are deviations from Bentham’s ideal, but this once again is attributable to the difference in society in which the institutions were to be operated. Most notably, this is evidenced through the administration of Fremantle Gaol wherein the formative years the local government maintained a level of involvement in the running of the jail before transitioning over to the magistrates.186 This differs from Bentham’s scheme as he envisioned the operations falling squarely on the inspector as to relive burden from the Magistrates and government.187 However, in terms of other aspects of the operations of the jail, it still mirrors the panopticon scheme, for example, labour is still central to the reforming of prisoners, the physical health, moral reform and religious character of the inmates were still paramount. So, whilst Fremantle Gaol cannot be classified as a true panopticon, it embodies enough of the principles to be recognised as a colonial response to the model.

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Mackie, William. H., Letter from William H. Mackie to Peter Broun, April 9, 1833. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/39/2, State Records Office, Western Australia.

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Maude, Phil, Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill during the Early Colonial Period, 1826–1865, Australasian Psychiatry 21 4 (2013), pp.397-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/1039856213492863.

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Notes

1 Fremantle Gaol is now commonly referred to as Fremantle Round House however, the former was its official name during the period under consideration.

2 Reece, Bob Glimpses of Fremantle 1829-1929 , in Voices from the West End: Stories, People and Events that Shaped Fremantle, eds. Paul Longley Arthur and Geoffrey Bolton (Welshpool, Western Australia Museum, 2012), p.24; Pitt Morison, Margaret, Settlement and Development: The Historical Context , in Western Towns and Building, eds. Margaret Pitt Morison and John White (Nedlands, University of Western Australia Press, 1979), p.11.

3 Adams, Simon, Capital Punishment and the Spectacle of Death in Colonial Fremantle in The Voice from the West End: Stories, People and Events that Shaped Fremantle, eds. P. Longley Arthur and G. Bolton (Welshpool, Western Australia Museum, 2012), pp.87-88; Peel, Mark and Christina Twomey A History of Australia (London, Palgrave, 2018), p.52; Bolton, Geoffrey Land of Vision and Mirage: Western Australia Since 1826 (Crawley, University of Western Australia Press, 2008), p.9.

4 Phillips, David and Davies, Susanne, A Nation of Rogues? Crime, Law and Punishment in Colonial Australia, (Carlton, Melbourne University Press, 1994), pp.3-4.

5 Martens, Jeremy, Government House and Western Australian Society 1829-2010 (Crawley, UWA Publishing, 2011), p.27.

6 Bavin, Louise J., Punishment, Prisons and Reform: Incarceration in Western Australia in the Nineteenth Century, Special Issue: Historical Refractions, edited by Charlie Fox- Studies in Western Australian History 14 1 (1993), p.126; Arnstein, Walter L., Britain Yesterday and Today: 1830 to the Present (Lexington, D.C. Heath and Company, 1971), p.43.

7 Whitaker, Reg, The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance is Becoming a Reality (New York, The New press, 1999), pp.32-33.

8 Convict transportation was used in Western Australia from 1850-1868.

9 Cameron, J.M.R., The Foundation of Western Australia Reconsidered, Studies in Western Australia History 3 0 (1978), pp.1-2; Inglis, K.S., The Australian Colonists: An Exploration of Social History 1788-1879 (Clayton, Wilke and Co. Ltd., 1974), p.5.

10 Petchell, Bill, The Swan River Colony: Did the British Government want it to Survive? (Rivervale, Stone’s Publishing, 2017), pp.4, 15.

11 Cameron, J., The Foundation of Western Australia Reconsidered, p.2.

12 Maude, Phil, Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill during the Early Colonial Period, 1826–1865 Australasian Psychiatry 21 4 (2013), p.397; Pitt Morison, M., Settlement and Development , p.11; Statham, Pamela, Contrasting Colonies, or a Tale of Three Colonies , in Beyond Convict Colonies, ed. Barrie Dyster (Sydney: Department of Economic History University of New South Wales, 1996), p.34.

13 Peel M. and Twomey C., A History of Australia, p.52; Bolton G., Land of Vison and Mirage, p.9.

14 Peel M. and Twomey C., A History of Australia, p.52.

15 Vanden Driesen, I.H., Essays on Immigration Population in Western Australia 1850-1901 (Nedlands, University of Western Australia Press, 1986), p.14.

16 Haast, Alyce. Convicts and Commodities: An Archaeological Approach to the Economic Value of the Western Australian Penal System , Archaeology in Oceania 50 3 (2015), pp.138-139; Winter, Sean., Coerced Labour in Western Australia during the Nineteenth Century Australasian Historical Archaeology 34, (2016), p.4.

17 Haast, A., Convicts and Commodities, pp.138-139; Winter, S. Coerced Labour in Western Australia, p.4.

18 Tanner, William., Letter from William Tanner to his Mother and Sisters, December 1831, in The Tanner Letters: A Pioneer Saga of Swan River & Tasmania 1831-1845, ed. Pamela Statham (Nedlands. University of Western Australia Press, 1981), pp.17-18.

19 Hanson, J., “Colonel Hanson’s Pamphlet”, Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, January 19, 1833.

20 Appleyard, R.T., Manford, Toby, The beginning: European discovery and early settlement of Swan River Western Australia (Nedlands, University of Western Australia Press, 1979), p.199; Staples, A.C., Spanish Colonial Influence on Sir James Stirling , Early Days 10 6 (1994), p.593.

21 Vanden Driesen, I.H., Essays on Immigration Population in Western Australia , p.14.

22 White, Michael, Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia 1831-1870 , History of Education 29 1 (2000), p.7.

23 White, M., Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia, p.7; Peel M. and Twomey C., A History of Australia, p.52; Haast, A., Convicts and Commodities, pp.138-139.

24 Strong, Rowan, Church and State in Western Australia: Implementing New Imperial Paradigms in the Swan River Colony, 1827-1857 , Journal of Ecclesiastical History 61 3 (2010), pp.518, 531; Godfrey, Barry, “Prison versus Western Australia: Which Worked Best, the Australian Penal Colony or the English Convict Prison System? Brit. J. Criminol 59 0 (2019), pp.1140-1141.

25 Maude, P., Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill, p.398.

26 Williams, Brad, The Archaeological Potential of Colonial Prison Hulks: The Tasmanian Case Study , Bulletin of the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology 29 (2005), p.7.

27 Bavin-Steding, Louise J., Crime and Confinement: The Origins of Prisons in Western Australia (Perth, Stone’s Publishing, 1996), p.55.

28 Maude, P., Treatment of Western Australia’s Mentally Ill, p.398.

29 Lewis, Richard, Letter from Richard Lewis to Peter Broun, August 6, 1830. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/8/64, State Records Office, Western Australia; Lewis, Richard, Letter from Richard Lewis to Peter Broun, December 31, 1830. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/11/128, State Records Office, Western Australia.

30 Letter from Richard Lewis to Peter Broun, August 6, 1830.

31 Bavin-Steding L.J., Crime and Confinement, p.54; “Report of the Committee of Correspondence, Appointed at a General Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Colony of Western Australia, on the Present State of the Settlement up to 1835.” Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, June 18, 1836

32 Godfrey, B., Prison Versus Western Australia , p.1141.

33 Bentham, Jeremey, Principles of Penal Law (London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1843), p.422.

34 Barteaux, Jillian, Urban Planning as Colonial Marketing Strategy for the Swan River Settlement, Western Australia , Australasian Society for Historical Archaeology 34 0 (2016), p.27; Pitt Morison M., Settlement and Development , p.11.

35 Litchfield, John, The Round House and its Question About Community in Fremantle, in Imagined Places: The Politics of Making Space, eds. Christopher Houston, Fuyuki Kurasawa and Amanda Watson (Bundoora, La Trobe University, 1998), p.34.

36 Litchfield, J. The Fremantle Gaol and its Questions About Community in Fremantle, p.34.

37 Bentham, Jeremey, Panopticon; or the Inspection-House: Containing the Idea of a New Principle of Construction Applicable to Any Sort of Establishment, in Which Persons of any Description are to be Kept Under Inspection; and in Particular to Penitentiary Houses , in The Panopticon Writings, ed. Miran Bozovic (London, Verso, 1995), p.43.

38 Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1837. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA S4148-cons1855 01, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.172.

39 Bavin-Steding, L.J., Crime and Confinement, p.55.

40 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.38.

41 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.69.

42 Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to Charles Simmonds, September 9, 1831. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/5/20, State Records Office, Western Australia.; Reveley, Henry, Letter from Henry Reveley to Peter Broun, May 10, 1831. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/15/73, State Records Office, Western Australia.

43 Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to Richard Broun, December 9, 1835. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/7/339-340, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, January 3, 1840. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSF/85/1-2, State Records Office, Western Australia.

44 Bavin-Steding, L.J., Crime and Confinement, p.65; Bentham, Jeremey, Postscript Part I – Containing Further Particles of Construction Applicable to Any Sort of Establishment, in Which Persons of Any Description are to be Kept Under Inspection; and in Particular to Penitentiary Houses , in The Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. J. Bowring (Edinburgh, 1843), vol.VI, p.209; Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1838. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA S4148-cons1855 02, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.170

45 Steadman, Philip, The Contradictions of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon Penitentiary, Journal of Bentham Studies 9 1:2 (2007), p.9.

46 White, M., Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia, p.14

47 Blue Book, 1837, p.173.

48 Broun, Peter, Rules and Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail at Fremantle Established by the Magistrates in General Quarter Sessions Assembled at Fremantle Aforesaid on the 4th Day of April, April 8, 1831. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/4/36-39, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.38; Broun, Peter, Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail at Fremantle in the Colony of Western Australia Recommended by His Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the Said Colony and Approved by His Excellency the Governor , February 26, 1835. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/10/41-46, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.42.

49 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.36-39; Broun, P. Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , pp.42-46.

50 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36.

51 Broun, P. Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

52 Causer, Tim, ‘The Evacuation of that Scene of Wickedness and Wretchedness': Jeremy Bentham, the Panopticon and New South Wales, 1802-1803 , in Journal of Australian Colonial History 21 (2019), p.1; Guy, Josephine M., The Victorian Age: An Anthology of Sources and Documents (London, Routledge, 2002), p.27.

53 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.36-38.

54 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.

55 Causer, T., 'The Evacuation of that Scene of Wickedness and Wretchedness': Jeremy Bentham, the Panopticon and New South Wales, 1802-1803, p.1; Guy, J.M., The Victorian Age: An Anthology of Sources and Documents, p.27.

56 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

57 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations, pp.36-37; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.42.

58 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36.

59 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

60 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.46.

61 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

62 Broun, P. Rules and Regulations , p.36; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.42.

63 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.46.

64 Bentham, Jeremy, Postscript Part – II. Principles and Plan of Management , in The Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. J. Bowring (Edinburgh, 1843), vol.VI, p.223.

65 Bentham, J., Postscript - Part II, p.215.

66 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.67.

67 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.43.

68 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36.

69 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, pp.42-43.

70 Bentham, J. Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.46.

71 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

72 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.44.

73 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , pp.42-43; Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.46.

74 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42; Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.44.

75 Broun, P. Rules and Regulations , p.36.

76 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.

77 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.48.

78 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.

79 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II , pp.267, 269-270.

80 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , pp.21, 46-47.

81 Broun, Richard, M.B, Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, August 28, 1835. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/42/79, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, December 8. 1836, Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/49/182, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to James Crichton, December 8, 1836. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/8/96-97, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, April 7, 1837. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/53/39, State Records Office, Western Australia.; Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.31.

82 Crichton, James, Letter from James Crichton to Peter Broun, July 4, 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/71/85, State Records Office, Western Australia, Broun. Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, October 10, 1837. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/56/29, State Records Office, Western Australia.

83 Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA S4148-cons1855 03, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.171.

84 Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun , January 3, 1840.

85 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

86 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.266.

87 Broun, J., Rules and Regulations , p.39.

88 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.42.

89 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations, p.39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.45; Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, 274.

90 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39.

91 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.

92 Bentham, Postscript Part -II, p.265.

93 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.37, 39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , pp.42-3.

94 Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, 267, 269-270.

95 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.45; Mackie, William H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia as called for by His Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies in a Circular Dated 18 September 1835, September 25th, 1836. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/48/123-128, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.125; Broun, Richard M.B, Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, January 4, 1836. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/44/26, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to Richard M.B. Broun , December 10, 1838. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/12/56-57, State Records Office, Western Australia.

96 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39; Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.45; Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, 274.

97 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39.

98 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

99 Bentham, J., The Principles of Penal Law, p.422.

100 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.38-39.

101 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.

102 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.265.

103 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.39.

104 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.

105 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- I, pp.198-199.

106 Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun , January 21, 1841. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/99/102, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun , October 21, 1841. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/99/168, State Records Office, Western Australia.

107 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.265; Bentham, J., The Principles of Penal Law, p.422.

108 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.126; Lewis, Richard., Letter from Richard Lewis to Peter Broun, June 22, 1831. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/16/81, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, November 27, 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/73/100, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, September 10, 1840. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/85/40, State Records Office, Western Australia.

109 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- I, pp.198-199.

110 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.38-39; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.45.

111 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.

112 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.

113 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.261.

114 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.45.

115 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.38-39.

116 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.

117 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, p.228.

118 Reece, Bob, Eating and Drinking at Early Swan River Colony, Studies in Royal Western Australian Historical Society 13 4 (2010), p.464.

119 See Henderson, Fergus, Annie Guy and Tim Causer, Jeremy Bentham’s Prison Cooking: A Collective of Utilitarian Recipes (London, UCL Centre for Publishing, 2015).

120 Bentham, Postscript Part- II , 258; Reece, B., Eating and Drinking at Early Swan River Colony , pp.462-463; Hetherington, Penelope, Paupers, Poor Relief & Poor Houses in Western Australia 1829-1910 (Crawley, UWA Publishing, 2009), pp.5-6, 8-9.

121 Reece, B., Eating and Drinking at Early Swan River Colony , pp.464-466.

122 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.261.

123 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.

124 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

125 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.

126 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

127 Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II, pp.233, 238; Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.140.

128 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38.

129 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

130 Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.134.

131 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.44.

132 Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1840. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA S4148-cons1855 04, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.200; Blue Book (Statistical Return for the Swan River Colony), 1841. Colonial Secretary’s Office, AU WA S4148-cons1855 05, State Records Office, Western Australia, p.193.

133 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.38; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.44; Bentham, J., Postscript Part- II , pp.233, 238; Bentham, J., Postscript Part I , p.140.

134 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44; Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.134.

135 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , pp.37-38.

136 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

137 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.214.

138 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.44; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II , 214.

139 Bozovic, Miran. “An Utterly Dark Spot”: The Fiction of God in Bentham’s Panopticon, Qui Parle 8 2 (1995), p.86.

140 “The Western Australian Journal”, Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, April 16, 1836.

141 Green, Neville, Aboriginal and White Settlers in the Nineteenth Century in A New History of Western Australia, ed. C.T. Stannage (Nedlands, University of Western Australia Press, 1983), p.93.

142 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.

143 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.

144 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.67; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.223.

145 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.

146 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.43.

147 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.67; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.223.

148 Blue Book, 1837, p.174; Blue Book, 1840, p.201; Blue Book, 1841, p.194.

149 Daniels, Richard, Letter from Richard Daniels to Peter Broun, January 17, 1834. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/30/86, State Records Office, Western Australia.

150 Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, April 6, 1837. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/51/161, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, October 21, 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/73/162-164, State Records Office, Western Australia; Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.66

151 Letter from Richard Broun to Peter Broun, October 21, 1839.

152 Davids, Richard, Letter from Richard Davids to Peter Broun, October 12, 1833. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/35/85, State Records Office, Western Australia; Stone, George, Letter from George Stone to Peter Broun, July 27, 1840. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/89/18, State Records Office, Western Australia; Stone, George, Letter from George Stone to Peter Broun, July 28, 1835. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/41/154, State Records Office, Western Australia; Stone, George, Letter from George Stone to Peter Broun, January 11, 1836. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/44/47, State Records Office, Western Australia.

153 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.

154 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.

155 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, 290.

156 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.

157 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.

158 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.78

159 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.37.

160 Broun, Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.44.

161 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House , p.66.

162 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, pp.124-125.

163 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.127; “Report of the Committee of Correspondence.” Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, June 18, 1836.

164 Henderson et. al, Jeremy Bentham’s Prison Cooking: A Collective of Utilitarian Recipes, p.25.

165 Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, June 3, 1839. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/73/120, State Records Office, Western Australia; Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia , p.124.

166 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, pp.124-125; Broun, Peter, Letter from Peter Broun to the Government Resident Fremantle, October 3, 1831. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Outward, CSF/5/31, State Records Office, Western Australia; Mackie, William. H., Letter from William H. Mackie to Peter Broun, April 9, 1833. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/39/2, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, May 11, 1836. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/46/37, State Records Office, Western Australia; Broun, Richard M.B., Letter from Richard M.B. Broun to Peter Broun, December 8, 1840. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/85/67, State Records Office, Western Australia.

167 “The Western Australian Journal”, Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, April 18, 1835; Reveley, Henry, Letter from Henry Reveley to Peter Broun, January 18, 1836. Colonial Secretary’s Correspondence Received, CSR/44/65, State Records Office, Western Australia.

168 Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, pp.246, 256, 258; Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.125.

169 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.125.

170 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, pp.55-6, 68-9; Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, 282.

171 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.

172 Bentham, J., Postscript - Part I, p.144; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.214.

173 Bentham, J., Postscript Part I, p.144; Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.214.

174 Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle, p.46.

175 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, p.228.

176 Bentham, J., Postscript - Part I, p.144; Bentham, J., Postscript Part - II, p.214.

177 Bentham, Postscript - Part I, 209.

178 “Report of the Committee of Correspondence.” Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, June 18, 1836.

179 Mackie, W.H., A Report on the State of the Prisons in Western Australia, p.128.

180 Blue Book 1837 , p.174; Blue Book 1838 , p.174; Blue Book, 1839 , p.174; Blue Book, 1840 , p.200; Blue Book , 1841, p.193.

181 Blue Book, 1840, p.200; Blue Book, 1841, p.193.

182 Bentham, J., Postscript Part – II, 228.

183 Steadman, P., The Contradictions of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon Penitentiary, Journal of Bentham Studies 9 1:2 (2007), p.9.

184 Blue Book 1837, p.172.

185 Barteaux, J., Urban Planning as Colonia Marketing Strategy for the Swan River Settlement, Western Australia. , p.27; Pitt Morison, M., Settlement and Development , p.11; Blue Book 1837, p.172.

186 Broun, P., Rules and Regulations , p.36; Broun, P., Regulations for the Management of the Common Jail Fremantle , p.42.

187 Bentham, J., Panopticon; or the Inspection-House, p.46.

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Emily Lanman, « Establishing a Panoptic Prison: An Examination of Fremantle Gaol, 1831-1841 », Revue d’études benthamiennes [En ligne], 19 | 2021, mis en ligne le 30 janvier 2021, consulté le 16 mai 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/etudes-benthamiennes/8465 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/etudes-benthamiennes.8465

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Emily Lanman

Notre Dame University Australia

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