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Determinants of Solidarity Financing of Agriculture in Remote Areas: The Case Study of Jean Rabel, Haiti

Déterminants du financement solidaire de l’agriculture en zones reculées : L’étude du cas de Jean Rabel, Haïti
Determinantes de la financiación solidaria de la agricultura en zonas remotas: el estudio de caso de Jean Rabel, Haití
Kervline Gabellus et Bénédique Paul

Résumés

L’agriculture est la principale activité des ménages ruraux dans la plupart des pays en développement. Cependant, les agriculteurs n’ont pas accès aux services bancaires pour financer leurs opérations agricoles. Dans le cas d’Haïti, ils ont été amenés à créer leurs propres organisations de solidarité financière autogérées appelées « Associations de Base de Cotisations et de Prêts (ABCP) ». Il a déjà été démontré que le financement de ces groupes d’entraide financière représente une alternative de financement importante. Mais peu d’études, voire aucune, s’est concentrée sur leur capacité à financer l’agriculture. Parallèlement, dans les zones reculées où les organismes financiers traditionnels sont absents, les ABCP étendent leurs services financiers aux pauvres, facilitant ainsi leurs activités agricoles et commerciales. Cette étude visait à étudier quelles caractéristiques sont associées à ce nouveau financement solidaire agricole sous-documenté. Nous avons enquêté deux cent deux (202) agriculteurs de la commune de Jean Rabel, en Haïti. Les résultats de l’analyse économétrique ont montré que la localisation de l’agriculteur, la taille de l’exploitation, le type de culture et les conditions de crédit étaient les principales caractéristiques significativement corrélées au montant du financement reçu des ABCP en 2021. L’étude a également révélé que le financement solidaire représentait 36 % de l’ensemble des dépenses agricoles de la commune. Ces résultats confirment des recherches antérieures selon lesquelles les ABCP sont des organismes de financement alternatifs. Ils sont donc une source importante de crédit agricole et rural. Enfin, nous proposons des recommandations pour les recherches futures sur le financement agricole solidaire et le refinancement des ABCP.

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Notes de l’auteur

Funding

The data collection for the research project has been made possible through the generous financial support of the Haitian Education and Leadership Program (HELP) and Welthungerhilfe (WHH).

Texte intégral

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the farmers and local leaders in the municipality of Jean Rabel for their availability during the data collection and fruitful exchanges. They also want to thank three anonymous reviewers and the editor of the journal for their helpful comments. The corresponding author would like to extend her heartfelt gratitude to the Haitian Education and Leadership Program (HELP) for the scholarship and Welthungerhilfe for its logistical and financial support during the data collection.

Introduction

1In developing countries, farmers are often financially excluded, particularly those in remote areas (Brulé-Françoise et al., 2016). Current policies of financial inclusion essentially reproduce the modalities of contemporary microfinance in urban environments. They remain inadequate to meet the financial needs of most agricultural farming. They tend to favor non-agricultural activities in rural areas instead of agricultural production (Morvant-Roux et al., 2010).

2In Haiti, the financially poorest country in America, agriculture receives less and less credit from the financial sector (The World Bank Group, 2019). In the last decades, the contribution of agriculture to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been continuously declining through a process of tertiarization which ended in an oversized informal sector (Paul, Daméus and Garrabé, 2011). Only 11% of the Haitian population aged 15 years and above was served by banks in 2017, and 46% of the same population was totally financially excluded (FinMark Trust, 2019). But, apart from public interventions in the past, Haitian farmers and rural communities were considered as unbankable (The World Bank Group, 2019). In the promise of microfinance development, those poor people dreamed of being financially included. But Haitian microfinance organizations took the same path as the banking sector. In reaction to this financial disappointment, farmers and other rural groups developed their own decentralized financial organizations. These local savings and credit self-help groups are called Associations de Base de Cotisations et de Prêts (ABCP), an adapted form of self-help groups in Haiti. As they created a new financial proximity circuit, they are considered as a potential alternative finance (Paul, 2020). In fact, in the most Haitian financially excluded areas such as the North-West geographic department, people had larger access to such services than banks (FinMark Trust, 2019). In this mostly rural area, a growing number of farmers are gathering into ABCP, as a form of solidarity financing (Paul et François, 2023). Their presence offers an opportunity to study the factors associated with solidarity financing of agricultural farming.

3Traditionally, research on the determinants of agricultural financing focuses on access to credit. In this study, access to credit was not an issue, as all ABCP members have potential access to credit within their group. When access is guaranteed, the issue is the amount of credit, because the amount may not be sufficient to allow the activity to be done profitably. We then investigated the following research question: When access is assured, what factors play a role in determining the amount of financing requested by farmers? Three hypotheses were tested: 1) When access is not constrained, agricultural finance is determined by location and market orientation; 2) Loan conditions are significant determinants of agricultural finance; 3) Farm size is an important factor of the loan amount. We used econometric analysis to test these hypotheses.

1. Background literature

1.1. ABCP as a form of alternative finance

4The so-called informal economy is an important part of developing countries. It covers a range of self-regulated and self-managed economic activities. To be sustainable, they shape their own institutional arrangements (called institutional capital by Paul 2009, 2011 and 2020). In the particular case of the financial sector, self-helps groups have identified as alternative finance in developing countries (Satish, 2001; Paul, 2020). This kind of proximity financing emerged in response to the commercialization of the microfinance organizations in Haiti (Julien and Cadet, 2013; Paul, 2020). It also represents an attempt to connect solidarity to finance and micro-entrepreneurship, contrary to what Lundahl (2010) argued, in a context of failure of the central bank’s financial inclusion strategy (BRH, 2015).

5The “Associations de Base de Cotisations et de Prêts” (ABCP) are self-regulated entities within the social and solidarity economy, functioning on the basis of geographical, social, and economic proximity. Promoted, at the beginning, by the “Konsèy Nasyonal Finansman Popilè” (KNFP), ABCPs provide an innovative financial solution to address challenges in rural areas, primarily engaging in activities related to savings and loans (Paul et al., 2016). Originating as a rural financing strategy, ABCPs in Haiti initially oriented their loans towards farmers, as emphasized in a study highlighting their contribution to financial inclusion and rural financing (Paul, 2019). ABCPs in Haiti manifest in various forms, including “Mutuelles Solidarité” (MUSO), “Banques Communautaires” (BC), “Banques Villageoises” (BV), and Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLA, or AVEC in French) (Paul et al., 2016). This research specifically focuses on two prominent ABCPs in the study area: VSLA and MUSO.

6MUSO serves as both a popular financing tool and a mutual aid group. Comprising socially homogeneous individuals, MUSO members pool financial resources based on trust, with the aim of achieving common goals or transforming collected sums into rotating credit (Ciguino and Paul, 2016). Established in Senegal in 1996, MUSOs were introduced in Haiti following Bernard Taillefer’s initiative and subsequent training of animators in 1997 by “Kolektif Finansman Popilè” (KOFIP). MUSOs, promoted especially in rural areas, operate around three funds: a green fund for savings and small credits, a red fund for emergency assistance, and a blue fund for refinancing. All members contribute equally to the green fund, and a MUSO typically consists of 10 to 35 members, managed by a volunteer committee (Paul et al., 2016).

7As MUSO, VSLA are self-managed groups that convene to save money and access small loans, targeting individuals excluded from formal financial services (Fils Aimé and Anwer, 2021). Originating in Niger in 1991 through CARE, this decentralized, community-based savings approach aims to empower the poorest by facilitating communal savings for income-generating activities, agriculture, education, or family health investments (Beyene, 2022). Introduced in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake by organizations like Mercy Corps, CARE International, and Fonkoze, VSLA have a management committee and operates around a gray fund with two main parts. Members save by purchasing one to five parts at each weekly meeting, and the associations have a renewal cycle lasting between nine and twelve months, with membership ranging from five to thirty (Paul, 2019).

1.2. The challenge of agricultural financing

8Agricultural financing is considered a key to economic development. Abdou (2010) in his study on the financing of agriculture found that farmers had a relatively strong credit need. This forces them to sell off their production just after the harvest, at the very time when prices are the lowest. This practice can only worsen their vulnerability in a situation of food insecurity. In developing countries like Haiti, agricultural finance is an appropriate means to target poverty, because about 50% of the working people are occupied in this sector (The World Bank Group, 2019) and most of them tend to be poor (Mérat, 2019). Paul (2016) used data from 2008 to 2009 agricultural census to discuss the importance of access to finance in the process of innovation and productivity in this key economic sector. More than before, agricultural financing is crucial to halt the decline of this sector as the food crisis worsens in Haiti (Paul, 2022; FSIN, 2023).

9In its report on the financing of Haitian farms, the World Bank (2019) suggested adopting sustainable financing mechanisms for the agricultural sector by Haitian financial institutions that could promote its development. According to central bank statistics, traditional banks contribute very little to the financing of the Haitian agricultural sector. For 2018, the share of credit allocated to the agricultural sector was around 0.51% of the total portfolio (BRH, 2018). In such contexts, the importance of agricultural financing to support the self-financing of family farming has been recognized and affirmed since the 2007–2008 food crisis (Wampfler, 2016).

1.3. Factors of agricultural finance in the literature

10Three groups of factors can be distinguished for operators and their activities that are relevant in the decision of the microfinance institution to finance or not the credit requested. These factors include the financial environment, the terms and conditions of lending imposed by lending institutions, and the social and economic characteristics of borrowers (Sossou, 2015). In view of the functioning of the ABCPs, it appears that there are agricultural and non-agricultural factors that determine the variation in the amount of funding. Agricultural factors are represented by the size of the agricultural holding, the type of practical crop, the monetary value of animal production, gross crop production and farm expenses. Non-agricultural factors are both sociodemographic and institutional. Those that are demographic are the gender of the household head, age, income from income-generating activities and the amount of transfer received from abroad. Institutional factors are related rules of management of the portfolio available within the group.

11Access to credit means that, regardless of the amount requested, a portion or the total amount of the loan has been granted to a borrower (Sossou, 2015). In the case of ABCP, access to credit is guaranteed because all members have access to it (Paul, 2020). However, there may be credit rationing. The latter consists of granting a member who asks for credit a lower amount than what he wished by referring to the institutional capital inside the groups.

12According to the existing literature, agricultural credit is determined by several factors. In the study of Sossou (2015) in Bénin, it is shown that the number of loan changes with the farm size. The larger the area a farmer manages, the more likely he/she is to receive credit for their agricultural activities. Anang and Dagunga (2023) studied the case of Ghana to identify the determinants of credit access and the amount accessed among rice products. According to their results, those variables such as sex, total land area, degree of specialization, farm capital and member of farmer groups are main significant variables in access to credit model. Age, farming experience, total land area, farm capital, off-farm employment and number of extension contacts are the significant factors in the model determining the amount of credit.

13In their research on informal finance, Falola, Mukaila, and Abdulhamid (2022) addressed the issue of limited access to finance for farm investment, which is a common challenge among farmers, particularly those in rural areas. According to the findings of their study, the factors that influenced farmers’ access to informal loans included the farmers’ age, farm size and income. Additionally, interest rates, the age of the farmers, their farming experience, household size, education, and loan duration were identified as key drivers affecting the amount borrowed from the informal financing sector.

14In their study, Awo et al. (2021), through an analysis of a binomial logit model, presented sex, age, membership of an organization, contacts with extension services and training in cashew production as key variables in accessing credit. In the same year, they achieved another study on the determinants of access to credit for corn producers. The results of their logistic regression showed that the age, sex, total area of corn, the time to obtain the credit, the amount requested and the income from the credit determine access to credit (Awo et al., 2021).

15Additionally, some studies aim to analyze the determinants of farmers’ decisions to access credit. Chitungo and Munongo (2013) concluded in their study that the type of crop, household size and gender of the household head positively affected households’ decisions to borrow.

16Many studies have attempted to shed light on the determinants of financing farms. The common factor between all is the farm size (Sossou, 2015; Anang and Dagunga, 2023; Awo et al., 2021). Those studies did not detail all the sources of financing, and they focus most of the time on the determinants of accessing farm financing. Our article aims to present not only the factors associated with solidarity financing of agricultural farming but also the various sources of farm financing in the municipality of Jean Rabel, a remote area in North-West of Haiti.

2. Methodology

2.1. Study area

17The study was conducted in the municipality of Jean Rabel located in North-West Haiti. Jean Rabel covers an area of approximately 484 square kilometres and lies at 19° 41’ to 19° 55’ north latitude and 72° 56’ to 73° 45’ west longitude. It is one of the most geographically remote and underdeveloped areas of Haiti. Jean Rabel is inhabited by individuals of all ages, including men, women and children. Most of these residents are involved in agricultural activities, along with animal husbandry to a somewhat lesser extent, while fishing plays a minor role. Daméus and François (2017) estimated 5942 family farms in Jean Rabel. They are commonly referred to as “peasants”, possibly due to their modest and restricted involvement in the global market (Schwartz, 1998; 2000). Farmers in Jean Rabel live in an extremely harsh environment, they depend heavily on manual labor to accomplish daily subsistence tasks. The technology used in agriculture is rudimentary, consisting mainly of machetes and hoes, with no use of plows (Schwartz, 2000).

18The municipality of Jean Rabel is divided into seven (7) municipal sections. Some of them (Dessources, Diondion, Grande Source) rely entirely on the town for the commercialization of agricultural products, while others (Guinaudée, La montagne, Lacoma, Vieille-Hatte) have independent open market separate from the town’s centralized market place.

19This study aimed to analyze the determinants of solidarity financing of agriculture by examining four main points: the characteristics of the farmer, the credit costs, the repayment capacity, and the production capacity. The farmer’s characteristics are delineated by the gender of the household head, their age, and geographical location. The credit pattern can be encapsulated by the credit cost, determined by the duration of the financing and the interest rate. The ability to repay the financing is influenced by land tenure, non-agricultural income and remittances. The production capacity is determined by factors such as farm size and the type of crops.

2.2. The data

20We collected primary data for the study. The data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from farmers and their farm’s outcomes during the months of November and December 2022. The data taken into account were for the agricultural year 2021, which encompasses the period from September 2021 to August 2022. We met the farmers face to face and the interviews lasted thirty (30) minutes on average.

21The present study used stratified and area sampling techniques. Two types of solidarity financing groups or ABCP coexist in all the seven municipal sections of Jean Rabel and therefore have been considered, including the Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLA) also called AVEC in Haiti, and the Mutuelle de Solidarité (MUSO). The survey was conducted in seventeen (17) MUSO groups and fourteen (14) VSLA groups. Overall, we surveyed thirty-one (31) solidarity groups in the municipality. The groups have an average of thirty (30) members. We only surveyed members of groups using solidarity financing in agriculture. Two hundred and thirty-three (233) farmers were surveyed. Because of missing data, only two hundred and two (202) were used in the analysis.

2.3. The model

22Analytical techniques and descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages were used to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers. In addition, we used an econometric model to analyze the predictors of agricultural solidarity financing in remote areas. For this reason, multiple regression analysis was adopted. The regression model is specified as follows:

Yi = β0+ β1 Locationi+ β2 Genderi + β3 Agei + β4 Farm sizei + β5 Land Tenurei + β6 Type of cropi + β7 Credit costsi + β8 Non agri – incomei + β9 Remittancei + ɛi

Where Yi is the total amount borrowed in 2021. β0 denotes the intercept, β1 β9, the estimation parameters, and ε the error term. The following table 1 presents the variables description.

Table 1: Variables description and statistics

Variable

Description

Value

Expected sign

Financing

Amount of the financing

Dependent variable: amount of financing in Haitian Gourdes

Location

Location of the farmer

Dummy variable: 1 If the farmer is located in a municipal section where market access is not difficult, otherwise 0.

+

Gender

Gender of the farmer

Dummy variable where Male = 1, Female = 0

-

Age

Age of the farmer

Age of the farmer in years

-

Farm size

Farm size or the used agricultural area

Farm size in hectare

+

Land tenure

System of land tenure of the

farm

Dummy variable where 1 if the farmer

is 100% owner of the land, otherwise 0

+

Type of crop

Production by type of crop:

Cash crop: Plantain and market gardening

Dummy variable where 1 for Cash crop, and 0 for otherwise

+

Credit costs

Cost of the financing in Haitian Gourdes

The condition of the financing represented by the cost of the financing based on the duration of the financing and the interest rate.

-

Non-Agri income

Non-agricultural income excluding transfer

Non-agricultural or Off-Farm income (excluding

Remittance) in Haitian Gourdes

-

Remittance

The amount of transfer received for the year

The amount received for the year 2021

in Haitian Gourdes

-

3. Results

23This section presents the descriptive statistics of the variables used and the econometric analysis of the factors associated with solidarity financing of agricultural farming.

3.1. Descriptive statistics

24The study analyzes a range of variables, encompassing both agricultural and non-agricultural aspects. The data analysis indicates that agriculture serves as the primary occupation for 86.13% of the farmers, with 13.85% relying only on agriculture for income generation. As a diversification strategy, many farmers are engaged in additional activities, such as trade, masonry, cabinetmaking, and fattening. Regarding crop cultivation, the most prevalent crops among farmers include beans, corn, peas, bananas and market gardening.

25This following table shows the description of the variables in the study.

Table 2: Statistical description of the variables

Variable

Mean (or frequency)

Standard deviation

Financing

13,589.00

8,516.85

Age

49

12.77

Location

0.88

0.32

Gender

0.48

0.5

Farm size

0.4365

0.34

Land tenure

0.42

0.49

Type of crop

0.079

0.27

Credit costs

1,278.00

1,110.34

Non-Agri income

48,968.47

73,249.64

Remittance

3,360.14

17,012.45

Source: Author’s calculations, R 4.1.3 software

3.2. Sources of financing of farmers

26Like other entrepreneurs, farmers had access to two distinct sources of financing: internal financing, also known as self-financing, and external financing. In our sample, the primary form of external financing is provided by ABCP groups. The scarce non-ABCP external financing was “rotative saving and credit” groups commonly “sòl” and other local groups called "groupement communautaire”. The figure 1 illustrates the repartition of the sources of financing available to the farmers in Jean Rabel. It shows no presence of traditional finance organization.

Figure 1: Sources of financing of the farmers.

Figure 1: Sources of financing of the farmers.

Source: The authors

27Self-financing represented the main source of financing (figure 1) for most farm expenses (63%). The second source is ABCP financing, which represents 36%. The non-ABCP solidarity financing represents only 1%.

3.3. Determinants of agricultural solidarity financing

28The results of econometric estimates of the above model, as presented in Table 3, highlight the significance of four variables: the farmer’s location, the farm size, the type of crop, and the credit costs. The explanatory variables collectively explain 66.43% of the variation in the dependent variable. The fulfilment of normality assumptions further validates the model. We did not use heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors test since we were not comparing ABCP members to non-members.

Table 3. Model estimates

Dependent variable : Log of the total amount of agricultural financing (or credit)

Coefficient

Std. Error

t-ratio

p-value

Signif codes

Constant

4.81193

0.446410

10.78

<0.0001

***

Location

0.326051

0.0943123

3.457

0.0007

***

Gender

0.0634697

0.0538750

1.178

0.2402

Age

0.0669868

0.103028

0.6502

0.5164

Farm size

0.317919

0.0944245

3.367

0.0009

***

Land tenure

−0.0593984

0.0585481

−1.015

0.3116

Type of crop

−0.283536

0.120907

−2.345

0.0200

**

Log of credit costs

0.573861

0.0348847

16.45

<0.0001

***

Log of Non-Agri income

−0.109942

0.0605310

−1.816

0.0709

*

Remittance

0.0572055

0.112842

0.5070

0.6128

N

202

Mean dependent var

9.316183

S.D. dependent var

0.654113

Sum squared residual

28.86462

S.E. of regression

0.387733

R-squared

0.664367

Adjusted R-squared

0.648634

F(9, 192)

57.60217

P-value(F)

7.69e-50

Log-likelihood

-90.11481

Akaike criterion

200.2296

Schwarz criterion

233.3123

Hannan-Quinn

213.6149

Test for normality of residual - Null hypothesis: error is normally distributed

Test statistic: Chi-square(2) = 0.234997 with p-value = 0.889142

4. Discussion

29Solidarity financing does not screen members like other traditional finance organizations. Therefore, access to financing is not the issue for members, but the amount of credit. Our empirical results show that socioeconomic factors associated with the amount of solidarity financing of agricultural farming in Jean Rabel are farmer’s location, farm size, type of crop and the credit costs. The latest factor reflects the credit conditions.

30The results of the regression model revealed that the size of the agricultural holding is the main factor associated with the amount of solidarity agricultural financing. This result confirms our third hypothesis and is consistent with Anang and Dagunga (2023) and Sossou (2015). Anang and Dagunga showed that the farm size is a significant determinant of the amount of financing. Sossou (2015) also showed a positive correlation between the amount of financing and the size of the farm. Although there are not strong, bureaucratic procedures in ABCP to systematically estimate the amount a member is worthy of, proximity between members may compensate for administrative procedures. In addition, farmers mostly do self-evaluation of the amount of credit and social pressure in ABCP mostly rely on farmers’ ownership of assets, particularly land, to estimate the amount of credit. Obviously, the amount granted to each loan applicant is also based on the total amount available for all applicants.

31Our result findings also indicate that type of crop is a significant variable in the determining of the amount of financing. This result confirms the first hypothesis but the expected sign was not found. Crop (cash or not) serves as a pivotal factor influencing the demand for credit, given its role as a key production factor. Initially, all farmers in Jean Rabel engage in the cultivation of corn and beans; nevertheless, a subset of them transitions towards the cultivation of cash crops such as bananas and horticultural crops. This phenomenon can be justified to the extent that these crops constitute high-value agricultural products and offer a production guarantee to the agricultural operator. They are also appropriate to face climate change. In previous research Chitungo and Munongo (2013) also identified the type of crop as a determinant variable in the determinants of farmers’ decision to access credit.

32The geographical location of the farmer was a significant variable in elucidating the factors influencing solidarity financing. This spatial determination is linked to the proximity to markets. The accessibility to markets plays a pivotal role, with those in closer proximity to commercialization sites potentially enjoying a more advantageous position and, to a certain extent, securing a higher amount of financing. This result also confirms the first hypothesis.

33The credit costs characterized by cost of financing, emerged as a decisive factor influencing the augmentation of agricultural financing, as affirmed by Soglohoun and Degla (2023) in their examination of credit demand determinants. However, the sign of the variable “Credit Cost” in our model estimate is different from the expected sign. We can understand that the cost of financing is positively correlated to the amount of financing in solidarity financing because the cost is settled by the members of the group, and the interest will be given back to them at the end of the year. In contrast to Soglohoun and Degla (2023), whose study was conducted on microfinance, where the cost serves as a gain to the institution. As credit costs reflect loan conditions, this result confirms our second hypothesis.

34Our study found no significant relationship between credit and factors like gender, age, land tenure, non-agricultural income and remittance. In ABCP, members are not discriminated by gender or age. In Jean Rabel, access to remittance was limited. Although most of the farmers earned Off-Farm income, this was not a criterion for the credit amount among ABCP members.

Conclusion

35The aim of the study was to analyze factors associated with solidarity financing of agricultural farming in remote areas. The research was conducted in the municipality of Jean Rabel, Haiti, where we gathered both quantitative and qualitative data from farmers. The results revealed that ABCP financing served as the second source of agricultural funding for the farmers.

36Through multiple regression analysis, we identified farmer’s location, farm size, type of crop, and credit costs as the main characteristics significantly linked with the amount of financing received from the ABCP in 2021. While the ABCP groups have been studied in Haiti, this particular study was the first to focusing on ABCP within the context of Jean Rabel. ABCP plays a crucial role in reducing financial exclusion in the rural areas. More specifically, they do not discriminate against farmers regarding their socioeconomic status, contrary to the traditional financial market system.

37Based on these results, we recommend educating farmers to create more ABCP in rural regions where there is no traditional finance, to reduce financial exclusion. Additionally, we suggest providing external financing to enlarge the credit portfolio within the ABCP. For future studies, it is advisable to conduct further studies on other factors in association with agricultural financing such as the level of education of the farmer, contacts with extension services, agricultural training, etc. We also suggest investigating factors influencing the income of farmers financed by solidarity groups. Furthermore, we advise exploring other possibilities to improve agricultural financing opportunities.

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Titre Figure 1: Sources of financing of the farmers.
Crédits Source: The authors
URL http://journals.openedition.org/etudescaribeennes/docannexe/image/29818/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 49k
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Kervline Gabellus et Bénédique Paul, « Determinants of Solidarity Financing of Agriculture in Remote Areas: The Case Study of Jean Rabel, Haiti »Études caribéennes [En ligne], 56 | décembre 2023, mis en ligne le 15 décembre 2023, consulté le 04 mars 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/etudescaribeennes/29818 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/etudescaribeennes.29818

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Auteurs

Kervline Gabellus

CHIBAS, Université Quisqueya, Haïti
kervline.gabellus@uniq.edu

Bénédique Paul

CHIBAS, Université Quisqueya, Haïti
UR 6-1 AIHP-GEODE Caraïbe, Université des Antilles

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