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Diagram from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Diagram from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Source: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Circular economy systems diagram (February 2019) www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org
Drawing based on Braungart & McDonough, Cradle to Cradle (C2C)

1The diagram illustrates different strategies for looping material and energy flows to reduce resource extraction (top half) and avoid waste creation (bottom half). Two types of circularity strategies are depicted: for technical inputs from non-renewable resources (right-hand side) and for biochemical inputs from renewable resources (left-hand side).

2In principle, the shorter the loop (e.g.: maintenance, reuse), the greater the likelihood of maintaining economic value and minimizing environmental impacts.

European countries with a circular economy strategy

European countries with a circular economy strategy

Source: Kazmierczyk, P., & Geerken, T. (2020). Resource efficiency and the circular economy in Europe 2019: even more from less; an overview of the policies, approaches and targets of 32 European countries.

3This map, taken from a European Environment Agency study, shows countries which had adopted a national resource efficiency or circular economy strategy or action plan as of 2019. The color legend indicates the state of progress with these measures.

4The map does not show countries that have simply indicated an intention to take action in the future. In total, 21 of the 32 countries in the study stated they had begun work on drafting national policies relating to the circular economy.

Measuring circularity

5The Circularity Gap is a global indicator measured annually by the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy, a collaboration between over 70 private and public sector actors established by the World Economic Forum and currently hosted by the World Resources Institute. This indicator is obtained from the ratio between the quantity of material recycled and the total quantity of material inputs into the global economy each year. In 2020, the Circularity Gap was assessed at 8.6%, down from 9.1% in 2018.

6As well as a global indicator, an annual report also assesses the quantities of resources used per category of material (mineral, ores, fossil fuels, biomass and waste), greenhouse gas emissions caused by the extraction of these resources, the quantity of materials used per activity sector (housing, communication, mobility, healthcare, services, consumables and nutrition) and their carbon impacts.

Circular economy and employement in France

Jobs sustained by various waste management activities

Jobs sustained by various waste management activities

Sources: ADEME (2014). Fact sheet. Circular Economy: Notions

Job breakdown by pillar and sector in 2017 in terms of number of people employed

Job breakdown by pillar and sector in 2017 in terms of number of people employed

NB: vehicle repairs and computer repairs were classified as domestic repairs even though they also involve services to professionals.

Source: Eurostat. Processing: SDES, 2020

7This is one of 11 indicators used to track circularity in the French economy. It seeks to quantify the number of jobs associated with economic activities within the circular economy. Only activities relating to “extended life” and “recycling” are studied here, i.e. reuse and repair of goods, waste collection and materials recovery. These activities create more jobs per unit managed than activities relating to waste disposal (landfill and incineration).

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List of illustrations

Title Diagram from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation
Caption Source: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Circular economy systems diagram (February 2019) www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org Drawing based on Braungart & McDonough, Cradle to Cradle (C2C)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/docannexe/image/6515/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 264k
Title European countries with a circular economy strategy
Credits Source: Kazmierczyk, P., & Geerken, T. (2020). Resource efficiency and the circular economy in Europe 2019: even more from less; an overview of the policies, approaches and targets of 32 European countries.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/docannexe/image/6515/img-2.png
File image/png, 156k
Title The Circularity Gap
Credits Source: https://www.circularity-gap.world/​2021
URL http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/docannexe/image/6515/img-3.jpg
File image/jpeg, 248k
Title Jobs sustained by various waste management activities
Credits Sources: ADEME (2014). Fact sheet. Circular Economy: Notions
URL http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/docannexe/image/6515/img-4.png
File image/png, 12k
Title Job breakdown by pillar and sector in 2017 in terms of number of people employed
Caption NB: vehicle repairs and computer repairs were classified as domestic repairs even though they also involve services to professionals.
Credits Source: Eurostat. Processing: SDES, 2020
URL http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/docannexe/image/6515/img-5.jpg
File image/jpeg, 141k
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References

Bibliographical reference

« Circular economy: strategies and policies », Field Actions Science Reports, Special Issue 23 | 2021, 4-7.

Electronic reference

« Circular economy: strategies and policies », Field Actions Science Reports [Online], Special Issue 23 | 2021, Online since 23 November 2021, connection on 28 January 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/6515

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Copyright

Licence Creative Commons
Field ACTions Science Reports est mise à disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

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