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The Magdalenian open site of the Hauts de Buffon in Montluçon (Allier, France)

Jean-Francois Pasty, Michel Piboule et Philippe Alix
p. 127-131
Cet article est une traduction de :
Le site Magdalénien de plein air des Hauts de Buffon à Montluçon (Allier, France) [fr]

Résumés

La fouille du site de plein air « Hauts de Bufffon » a permis d’étudier une occupation magdalénienne constituée de deux concentrations séparées de quelques mètres. En l’absence de restes fauniques et organiques, l’étude s’appuie uniquement sur l’abondante industrie lithique mise au jour. Cette dernière est homogène au sein de chaque locus et les phénomènes postdépositionnels n’ont pas modifié l’organisation générale des vestiges conservés dans l’unique niveau archéologique identifié. Cette bonne conservation générale a permis de mettre en avant la complexité des activités réalisées sur place, ainsi que les différents comportements liés à l’acquisition des matières premières et aux activités techno-économiques. Les matières premières introduites sur le site montrent un approvisionnement en matériaux allochtones orienté vers les formations du sud du bassin parisien, mais également de la Limagne d’Auvergne. Un tel comportement dénote à la fois une forte anticipation des besoins au niveau de l’acquisition des matériaux, mais aussi une grande mobilité des occupants du site qui se traduit par des exportations de produits finis (bruts et retouchés) hors du site. Les différentes spécificités des matières premières introduites sur le site sont ensuite mises à profit au niveau des objectifs du débitage. L’industrie lithique associe ainsi les matières premières allochtones et de bonne qualité à la production de supports laminaires de belle facture, détachés au percuteur organique selon un schéma élaboré. Les matières premières locales et très accessibles sont réservées à une production laminaire simplifiée obtenue au percuteur tendre minéral. Les lamelles quant à elles résultent d’une production majoritairement autonome sur des petits modules. Ces objectifs technologiques se retrouvent ensuite au niveau de la gestion des supports, les lames servant de supports aux outils domestiques d’extrémité et les lamelles aux armatures. La panoplie des outils retouchés, outre le fait qu’elle permet un rattachement de l’occupation au Magdalénien récent, offre la possibilité d’identifier des activités cynégétiques et domestiques. Ces pôles d’activités prennent toute leur dimension lorsqu’on les aborde sur le plan spatial. Chaque locus montre ainsi une organisation plus ou moins complexe où se dessinent des aires d’activités spécifiques et d’autres plus polyvalentes, orientées vers la production et la consommation. La présence d’aménagements de blocs au sein du locus 2 permet d’envisager une certaine pérennité de l’occupation alors qu’à l’échelle du site, une récurrence des installations peut être envisagée.

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Notes de la rédaction

Received: 12 October 2016 – Admitted after revisions: 28 March 2017

Texte intégral

Presentation

1The site is located to the southwest of Montluçon town, on the southern slope of the granitic “Guineberts” hill. The excavation of the Magdalenian site led to the recovery of more than 24,000 lithic objects (tables I and II), spread over two concentrations, excavated respectively over 56 m2 (locus 1) and 245 m2 (locus 2; fig. 3). In spite of shallow burying, the site is surprisingly well-conserved and the foundations of the ancient sanctuary only very partially cover locus 2. The archaeological level is below the topsoil, 30-35 cm from the surface, for each of the two loci. It extends over a thickness of 15 to 25 cm, at the top of a level made of beige compact clayey-sandy silts, with very abundant granite centimetric gravel.

Table I. Locus 1, general breakdown of the industry by raw material

Locus 1 Turonien inférieur Tertiaire à ooïdes Tertiaire local Tertiaire à characées Quartz hyalin Silex Indét. Total
Éclat cortical 3 84 19 106
Éclat indifférencié 8 107 15 4 1 135
Mise en forme/ravivage 5 90 7 102
Lame 11 56 12 79
Lamelle 43 219 41 25 1 4 333
Nucléus 1 6 5 1 13
Chute de burin 47 35 1 27 110
Esquille 74 2865 235 108 1 3283
Support indéterminé 1 2
Total 192 3463 323 177 1 7 4163
% 4,6 83,2 7,8 4,2 0,02 0,1 100
Poids (en g) 250 2800 640 120 3810
Outils 29 35 10 14 88

Introduction of the raw materials

2The local raw materials are represented by silcretes, local Tertiary flint and flint with ooids (fig. 7 and 8). The first is a flint with a very irregular cortex, generally dark and opaque (grey-blue to black) or white. This material is present in a radius of 2 km around the site, but was not frequently used by the site occupants. Tertiary flint with ooids is by far the most frequently represented material at the site. It is a pale, opaque or transparent silcrete, often rich in small “oolites” with marked facies variability. The exact origin of this flint is unknown, but it appears to be local (Montluçon-Domérat basin) considering its management mode.

Fig. 7. Percentage of the different types of raw materials in each locus

Fig. 7. Percentage of the different types of raw materials in each locus

Fig. 8. Map of the provenance of the main types of flint identified at Hauts de Buffon

Fig. 8. Map of the provenance of the main types of flint identified at Hauts de Buffon

3The distant raw materials are represented by Lower Turonian flint from Touraine and Berry (region of the Indre and Cher valleys), by an Oligocene lacustrine flint with characeae from Limagne in Auvergne, by several objects in “jasper-type” Hettangian flint, where the closest outcrops are located to the southeast of the Indre department (region of La Châtre and Néret) and to the south of Cher (between Saint-Jeanvrin and Le Chatelet), as well as by a small batch of flint objects from the Upper Turonian of Grand-Pressigny.

4The methods of introduction and management of the main types of raw materials are very different for the local materials (local Tertiary and flint with ooids) and the distant flints (Tertiary with characeae and Lower Turonian; table III). The first are brought to the site as whole and tested blocks and pre-configured cores ready to be used. These are the only two materials for which all of the debitage chaîne opératoire took place on site with a very similar representation of the different categories of products in each locus. The only difference concerns the production aims; blades and bladelets for the flint with ooids and nearly only bladelets for the local flint. Refits on these two types of flint show a deficit in the intended products (blades and bladelets). The distant flint shows another type of management with again, similar behaviours in spite of very distant provisioning zones. The intended products are present in equivalent proportions to those of the other types of flint, although they are slightly higher in number for the flint with characeae. The difference with the local flints is due to the fact that these blanks were introduced to the site as retouched and non-retouched blanks. On site debitage activity is minimal and mainly concerns bladelet debitage, as well as the maintenance and shaping of the domestic and hunting toolkit.

Table III. Percentage of the main technological categories by raw material and by locus

Locus 1 Turonien inférieur Tertiaire à characées Tertiaire à ooïdes Tertiaire local
N % N % N % N %
Acquisition 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Décorticage 3 2,5 0 0 84 14 19 21,6
Éclats indif. 8 6,8 4 5,8 107 18 15 17
Lames 11 9,3 12 17,4 56 9,3 0 0
Lamelles 43 36,4 25 36,2 219 36,6 41 46,6
Nucléus à lamelles 1 0,8 0 0 6 1 5 5,7
Locus 2 Turonien inférieur Tertiaire à characées Tertiaire à ooïdes Tertiaire local
N % N % N % N %
Acquisition 0 0 0 0 3 0,1 6 0,3
Décorticage 66 4,8 7 1,2 432 11,8 226 27
Éclats indif. 136 10 53 9 984 27,6 240 28,7
Lames 117 8,6 61 10,4 346 9,7 22 2,6
Lamelles 506 37 175 29,9 779 21,8 239 28,6
Nucléus à lames 0 0 0 0 11 0,3 1 0,1
Nucléus à lamelles 8 0,6 1 0,1 30 0,8 31 3,7

Debitage characteristics: between elaborate and simplified productions

5The study of the industry brought to light two clearly dissociated production modes, one focusing on blade debitage and the other on bladelet debitage (fig. 69). No independent flake production has been clearly brought to light at the site, all of the flakes correspond to by-products from the laminar-bladelet chaîne opératoire.

Fig. 69. Summarized diagram of the production systems

Fig. 69. Summarized diagram of the production systems

6One of the aims of the laminar projects consists in producing large blades removed with a soft organic hammer, following an elaborate prismatic unipolar semi-turning “classical” schema, necessitating the creation of crests and the control of convexities (fig. 11, 13 to 15, 18 n° 2; Valentin, 1995; Pigeot, 2004; Bodu, 2006; Langlais, 2007). Apart from the ooid flint, most of this production is not carried out on site, but probably near the raw material provisioning zones. This is the case for all the blades in distant flint and for the largest elements in ooid flint, for which no refits were found. The lighter blades illustrating core reduction are more involved in refits. The second laminar project concerns the production of blades knapped with soft stones. The volumetric structure of the cores is identical, but the debitage is much less restrictive and therefore less rigid. The blades from this debitage are less standardized than the previous system and are smaller (fig. 18, n° 1). The question of the reduction of some laminar cores with organic percussion, then soft stone for the lighter blanks can be envisaged, but has not been confirmed by any refits. Based solely on the facts, the two laminar production schemas develop separately with specific objectives. Debitage with a soft h mmer, which is technically less demanding, seems to respond to more immediate needs destined to compensate for the lack of distant good quality materials. It is also very widely used for the Tertiary flint with ooids, which has intrinsic qualities facilitating elaborate debitage. On the other hand, it is more rarely used on the distant materials.

Fig. 11. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

Fig. 11. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

Refitting of shaping/trimming products on a blade core

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 13. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade cores with shaping ridge

Fig. 13. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade cores with shaping ridge

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 14. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade cores with shaping ridge

Fig. 14. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade cores with shaping ridge

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 15. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

Fig. 15. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

1: Blade cores with shaping ridge; 2: blade cores

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 18. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade refits

Fig. 18. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade refits

1: soft mineral hammer; 2: soft organic hammer

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

7Alongside these more or less elaborate laminar debitages with a high degree of technical investment, bladelet production is much more flexible. However, lamellar debitage is just as important as blade debitage. Backed bladelets are the main production aim. Bladelet production schemas on small nodules using prismatic unipolar exploitation and more rarely on flake edges are widely documented (fig. 35 to 42). Bladelet butts are mostly plain and sometimes abraded (37%). They present soft mineral percussion marks (fig. 43 and 44).

Fig. 35. Local Tertiary (n°2 and 4, locus 1), prismatic unipolar bladelet cores

Fig. 35. Local Tertiary (n°2 and 4, locus 1), prismatic unipolar bladelet cores

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 36. Locus 2, Local Tertiary, prismatic unipolar bladelet cores

Fig. 36. Locus 2, Local Tertiary, prismatic unipolar bladelet cores

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 37. Locus 2, Local Tertiary, prismatic unipolar bladelet cores with resolved product refits

Fig. 37. Locus 2, Local Tertiary, prismatic unipolar bladelet cores with resolved product refits

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 38. Locus 1, Tertiary with ooids

Fig. 38. Locus 1, Tertiary with ooids

1 and 3: unipolar bladelet cores; 2: unipolar bladelet core with opposed offset debitage

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 39. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

Fig. 39. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

1 and 3: unipolar bladelet cores; 2: unipolar bladelet core

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 40. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

Fig. 40. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids

1 and 2: unipolar bladelet cores; 3: unipolar bladelet core; 4 and 5: unipolar bladelet core on side of flake

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 41. Locus 2, Lower Turonian, bladelet core

Fig. 41. Locus 2, Lower Turonian, bladelet core

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 42. Unipolar bladelet cores

Fig. 42. Unipolar bladelet cores

n° 1 locus 1, Lower Turonian; n° 2 locus 2, Tertiary with characeae

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 43. Locus 1, Tertiary with characeae, bladelets

Fig. 43. Locus 1, Tertiary with characeae, bladelets

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 44. Locus 2, Tertiary with characeae, bladelets

Fig. 44. Locus 2, Tertiary with characeae, bladelets

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Typological study

8The retouched tools are relatively well represented in the two loci (541 objects, or 10% for locus 1 and 7% for 2). However, they are not very varied, and most of the toolkit is made up of backed bladelets and burins (tables IX and X). Logically, as is the case for most Upper Palaeolithic sites in the region, the distant raw materials are preferentially associated with tool making (Surmely and Pasty 2003). The Turonian flint from the Cher Valley has the highest transformation rate (17%), flowed by the Tertiary flint with characeae from Limagne (13.4%). The ooid flint is only rarely retouched (3.7%), as is the local Tertiary flint (2.9%).

Table IX. Locus 1, breakdown of the retouched tools by raw material

Locus 1 Turonieninférieur Tertiaire àooïdes Tertiairelocal Tertiaireà characées Total %
Grattoir 1 1 1,1
Burin 2 5 3 10 11,3
Outil multiple 3 2 1 6 6,8
Lamelle à dos 22 24 9 7 62 70,4
Lame retouchée 1 1 1,1
Troncature 1 1 1,1
Encoche 1 1 1,1
Pièce esquillée 2 1 1 1 5 5,7
Éclat retouché 1 1 1,1
Total 29 35 10 14 88 100
% 32,9 39,7 11,4 15,9 100

Table X. Locus 2, décompte des outils retouchés par matière première

Locus 2 Hettangien Turonien inférieur Turonien supérieur Tertiaire à ooïdes Tertiaire local Tertiaire à characées Silex indét. Total %
Grattoir 6 4 1 11 2,4
Burin 25 1 36 12 1 75 16,5
Perçoir 3 3 6 1,3
Outil multiple 10 9 6 25 5,5
Lamelle à dos 1 168 3 72 17 51 312 68,9
Lame/Lamelle retouchée 1 2 3 0,7
Troncature 8 1 9 2
Encoche/Denticulé 2 1 3 0,7
Pièce esquillée 1 1 2 4 0,9
Éclat retouché 1 2 1 4 0,9
Percuteur 1 1 0,2
Total 1 223 4 133 17 74 1 453 100
% 0,2 49,2 0,9 29,3 3,7 16,3 0,2 100

9Apart from several exceptions, the blades are associated with domestic tools and the bladelets are associated with armatures. Flakes are only exceptionally used for making tools and are mainly used for tools requiring little technical investment (retouched flake, notch, denticulate, pièce esquillée). The backed bladelets are made on rectilinear blanks with lengths oscillating between 15 and 46 mm with an average of 31.8 mm (fig. 48 to 51). The size of these armatures shows a very standardized population with a width between 6 and 7 mm (average 6.6 mm) and a thickness between 2 and 3 mm (average 2.5 mm). The back is mainly retouched with direct percussion, and only rarely pressure retouched. It is practically systematically associated with polishing, destined to regularize the edge (Pelegrin 2004).

Fig. 48. Backed bladelets with shallow retouch

Fig. 48. Backed bladelets with shallow retouch

1 to 7: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 8: local Tertiary, locus 1; 9 to 25: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 26 to 32: local Tertiary, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 49. Backed bladelets with shallow retouch

Fig. 49. Backed bladelets with shallow retouch

1 to 35: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 36 to 40: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 41: Upper Turonian, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 50. 1 to 30: backed bladelets; 31: backed bladelet roughout

Fig. 50. 1 to 30: backed bladelets; 31: backed bladelet roughout

1: local Tertiary, locus 1; 2: local Tertiary, locus 2; 3: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 4 to 10 and 31: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 11 to 29: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 30: Upper Turonian, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 51. 1 to 28: pressure flaked backed bladelets; 29 to 33: Double backed bladelets; 34 and 35: truncated backed bladelets

Fig. 51. 1 to 28: pressure flaked backed bladelets; 29 to 33: Double backed bladelets; 34 and 35: truncated backed bladelets

1 and 2 and 29: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 3 and 4: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 5 to 23, 31, 32 and 34: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 24 to 28 and 30: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 35: Hettangian, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

10The domestic tools make up 30.8% of the toolkit and are mainly made on blades in distant flint and Tertiary flint with ooids. They are mainly end tools (86.8% of the domestic toolkit), comprising burins and mainly dihedral burins (fig. 52 to 60). The other end tools (end scrapers, perforators, truncated objects or pièces esquillées) and lateral tools (retouched flakes, blades and bladelets, notches and denticulates) are more marginal in the series (13.1% of the domestic toolkit).

Fig. 52. Median dihedral burins

Fig. 52. Median dihedral burins

1: Lower Turonian, locus 1; 2: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 3 and 4: Tertiary with characeae, locus 1; 5 and 6: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig 53. Median dihedral burins

Fig 53. Median dihedral burins

Tertiary with ooids, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 54. Median dihedral burins

Fig. 54. Median dihedral burins

1: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 2 to 5: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 55. Median dihedral burins

Fig. 55. Median dihedral burins

1 to 3: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 4 to 7: Lower Turonian, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 56. Angled dihedral burins

Fig. 56. Angled dihedral burins

1: Lower Turonian, locus 1; 2 to 5: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 57. 1 to 4: angled dihedral burins; 5: truncation burin

Fig. 57. 1 to 4: angled dihedral burins; 5: truncation burin

1 to 3: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 4: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 6; Tertiary with characeae, locus 1

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 58. Truncation burins

Fig. 58. Truncation burins

1: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 2: Tertiary with characeae, locus 1; 3: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 4: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 59. 1 and 2: truncation burins; 3 to 5: burins on breaks

Fig. 59. 1 and 2: truncation burins; 3 to 5: burins on breaks

1 and 2: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 3 to 5: Tertiary with characeae, locus 1

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

Fig. 60. Burins on breaks

Fig. 60. Burins on breaks

1 and 2: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 3 to 5, Lower Turonian, locus 2

Drawings P. Alix, Inrap

11The typological composition of “Hauts de Buffon” is classical and can be compared to many sites attributed to the Middle-Upper Magdalenian in Velay or Limagne (Delporte, 1966, Surmely, 1998; Surmely et al., 2002). It offers in particular many similar features to recent Magdalenian levels from Rond du Barry (layer E) or Enval-Fond de l’Abri (Bayle des Hermens, 1972, 1983; Bourdelle, 1979; Bourdelle and Virmont, 1983). Like at Montluçon, the Recent Magdalenian laminar debitage of Rond du Barry seems to associate a large blade debitage with a smaller laminar production using soft mineral hammers.

The spatial analysis of locus 2

12The different characteristics of the lithic industry show that the assemblages from both loci can be attributed to the same individuals, but they are not strictly contemporaneous. The main characteristic of locus 2 is the existence of structures in quartz blocks, ranging in size from several centimetres to several tens of centimetres, taken from the immediate surroundings of the site (fig. 74 and 75). As no heating marks have been identified on these blocks, they do not represent combustion structures. Apart from these structures, the spatial organization of the habitat is mainly materialized by the presence of zones with high densities of objects separated by areas where objects are rarer (fig. 76).

Fig. 74. Locus 2, view of the structure F-G19-20

Fig. 74. Locus 2, view of the structure F-G19-20

Fig. 75. Locus 2, general view of structures L-M28-29 and M-N31-32

Fig. 75. Locus 2, general view of structures L-M28-29 and M-N31-32

Fig. 76. Locus 2, distribution of all the objects by raw material

Fig. 76. Locus 2, distribution of all the objects by raw material

13These dense sectors correspond to the main debitage areas with high quantities of remains (fig. 84). In addition, annex knapping areas located outside the occupation mainly include products from the first phases of the debitage chaîne opératoire. These may be made by apprentice knappers and confirm the existence of hierarchisation in the dwelling area or at least a scale of values between the intended products and the other types of blanks. Several concentrations of remains are interpreted as multi-purpose activity zones (fig. 84). These areas concentrate most of the activities carried out on site. They include debitage activities, but also retouching operations and the use of certain categories of tools (backed bladelets, burins). We can interpret the accumulation of certain types of domestic tools (end scrapers, pièces esquillées, etc.) in sectors poor in lithic remains as areas devoted to domestic activities (hide processing, animal carcass processing, etc.).

Fig. 84. Locus 2, identification of the activity areas

Fig. 84. Locus 2, identification of the activity areas

Conclusion

14The good general conservation of the site enabled us to underscore the complexity of the activities carried out on site, and the different behaviours linked to raw material acquisition and techno-economic activities. The raw materials brought to the site give us an idea of the extent of the acquisition territory and the mobility of these human groups over long distances. On a regional scale, this is the first time that the excavation of an Upper Palaeolithic occupation records distant raw material procurement that is not solely geared towards the marine formations south of the Paris Basin. This behaviour denotes the anticipation of raw material acquisition needs, but also the high mobility of the site occupants, which is also shown by the exportation of finished products (retouched and non-retouched) from the site. The different characteristics of the raw materials brought to the site are then utilised for the debitage aims. In this way, the lithic industry associates good quality distant raw materials with the production of well-made laminar blanks following an elaborate schema. The local and very accessible raw materials are reserved for simplified laminar production. As for bladelets, they mainly result from separate production on small modules. These technological aims are visible for blank management as the blades are used as blanks for domestic end tools and bladelets as armatures. The panoply of retouched tools shows that this is a Recent Magdalenian occupation and points to hunting and domestic activities. These activity poles show their true dimension when we assess them from a spatial perspective. Each locus shows a relatively complex organization with specific activity areas and other more multi-purpose zones, geared towards production and consumption. The presence of structures of blocks in locus 2 points towards a relatively long-term occupation, with recurrent installations.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 7. Percentage of the different types of raw materials in each locus
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 318k
Titre Fig. 8. Map of the provenance of the main types of flint identified at Hauts de Buffon
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 677k
Titre Fig. 69. Summarized diagram of the production systems
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 295k
Titre Fig. 11. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids
Légende Refitting of shaping/trimming products on a blade core
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,8M
Titre Fig. 13. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade cores with shaping ridge
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 957k
Titre Fig. 14. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade cores with shaping ridge
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 988k
Titre Fig. 15. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids
Légende 1: Blade cores with shaping ridge; 2: blade cores
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig. 18. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids, blade refits
Légende 1: soft mineral hammer; 2: soft organic hammer
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
Titre Fig. 35. Local Tertiary (n°2 and 4, locus 1), prismatic unipolar bladelet cores
Légende Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,6M
Titre Fig. 36. Locus 2, Local Tertiary, prismatic unipolar bladelet cores
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 37. Locus 2, Local Tertiary, prismatic unipolar bladelet cores with resolved product refits
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 38. Locus 1, Tertiary with ooids
Légende 1 and 3: unipolar bladelet cores; 2: unipolar bladelet core with opposed offset debitage
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 39. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids
Légende 1 and 3: unipolar bladelet cores; 2: unipolar bladelet core
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Titre Fig. 40. Locus 2, Tertiary with ooids
Légende 1 and 2: unipolar bladelet cores; 3: unipolar bladelet core; 4 and 5: unipolar bladelet core on side of flake
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 41. Locus 2, Lower Turonian, bladelet core
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,6M
Titre Fig. 42. Unipolar bladelet cores
Légende n° 1 locus 1, Lower Turonian; n° 2 locus 2, Tertiary with characeae
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 43. Locus 1, Tertiary with characeae, bladelets
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig. 44. Locus 2, Tertiary with characeae, bladelets
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 48. Backed bladelets with shallow retouch
Légende 1 to 7: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 8: local Tertiary, locus 1; 9 to 25: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 26 to 32: local Tertiary, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 49. Backed bladelets with shallow retouch
Légende 1 to 35: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 36 to 40: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 41: Upper Turonian, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
Titre Fig. 50. 1 to 30: backed bladelets; 31: backed bladelet roughout
Légende 1: local Tertiary, locus 1; 2: local Tertiary, locus 2; 3: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 4 to 10 and 31: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 11 to 29: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 30: Upper Turonian, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,8M
Titre Fig. 51. 1 to 28: pressure flaked backed bladelets; 29 to 33: Double backed bladelets; 34 and 35: truncated backed bladelets
Légende 1 and 2 and 29: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 3 and 4: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 5 to 23, 31, 32 and 34: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 24 to 28 and 30: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 35: Hettangian, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Titre Fig. 52. Median dihedral burins
Légende 1: Lower Turonian, locus 1; 2: Tertiary with ooids, locus 1; 3 and 4: Tertiary with characeae, locus 1; 5 and 6: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig 53. Median dihedral burins
Légende Tertiary with ooids, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 54. Median dihedral burins
Légende 1: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 2 to 5: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 55. Median dihedral burins
Légende 1 to 3: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 4 to 7: Lower Turonian, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,5M
Titre Fig. 56. Angled dihedral burins
Légende 1: Lower Turonian, locus 1; 2 to 5: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig. 57. 1 to 4: angled dihedral burins; 5: truncation burin
Légende 1 to 3: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 4: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 6; Tertiary with characeae, locus 1
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 902k
Titre Fig. 58. Truncation burins
Légende 1: Tertiary with ooids, locus 2; 2: Tertiary with characeae, locus 1; 3: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 4: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig. 59. 1 and 2: truncation burins; 3 to 5: burins on breaks
Légende 1 and 2: Lower Turonian, locus 2; 3 to 5: Tertiary with characeae, locus 1
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig. 60. Burins on breaks
Légende 1 and 2: Tertiary with characeae, locus 2; 3 to 5, Lower Turonian, locus 2
Crédits Drawings P. Alix, Inrap
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 74. Locus 2, view of the structure F-G19-20
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 75. Locus 2, general view of structures L-M28-29 and M-N31-32
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,8M
Titre Fig. 76. Locus 2, distribution of all the objects by raw material
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 992k
Titre Fig. 84. Locus 2, identification of the activity areas
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/543/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 622k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Jean-Francois Pasty, Michel Piboule et Philippe Alix, « The Magdalenian open site of the Hauts de Buffon in Montluçon (Allier, France) », Gallia Préhistoire, 57 | 2017, 127-131.

Référence électronique

Jean-Francois Pasty, Michel Piboule et Philippe Alix, « The Magdalenian open site of the Hauts de Buffon in Montluçon (Allier, France) », Gallia Préhistoire [En ligne], 57 | 2017, mis en ligne le 15 février 2018, consulté le 22 juin 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/543 ; DOI : 10.4000/galliap.543

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Auteurs

Jean-Francois Pasty

CNRS LAMPEA – UMR 7269 et Inrap Auvergne, 13b rue Pierre Boulanger, 63100 Clermont-Ferrand – jean-francois.pasty@inrap.fr

Michel Piboule

Inrap Rhône-Alpes, 1 rue d’Annonay, 69675 Bron cedex – philippe.alix@inrap.fr

Philippe Alix

Université Joseph Fourrier, 38000 Grenoble – piboulemichel@gmail.com

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Droits d’auteur

Gallia Préhistoire

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