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Magdalenian occupations between 20000 and 15000 cal BP in the Pyrenean foothills: test-pitting the Paleolithic sequence of Laa 2 cave (Arudy, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France)

Jean-Marc Pétillon, Véronique Laroulandie, Myriam Boudadi-Maligne, Patrice Dumontier, Catherine Ferrier, Delphine Kuntz, Mathieu Langlais, Jean-Baptiste Mallye, Vincent Mistrot, Christian Normand, Olivia Rivero Vilá et Marta Sánchez de la Torre
p. 65-70
Cet article est une traduction de :
Occupations magdaléniennes entre 20 000 et 15 000 cal BP dans le piémont pyrénéen : la séquence paléolithique du sondage 4 de la grotte de Laa 2 (Arudy, Pyrénées-Atlantiques) [fr]

Résumés

Par sa richesse en sites magdaléniens, le bassin d’Arudy est un lieu privilégié pour étudier les dynamiques de repeuplement des vallées pyrénéennes après le Dernier Maximum glaciaire, mais les interprétations sont limitées par l’ancienneté de nombreux travaux de terrain. La grotte de Laa 2 contribue à combler cette lacune, même si la fouille des niveaux paléolithiques a dû se limiter à une surface très réduite. La couche C5 montre une réoccupation précoce (20000-19500 cal BP), mal caractérisée, suivant sans doute de peu la déglaciation de la vallée. Les couches C4 à C2 (18500-15000 cal BP) documentent l’évolution du Magdalénien moyen et supérieur, dans un milieu frais, humide et découvert (bien que des signes de fermeture du paysage apparaissent en couche C2). D’abord marqué par une présence importante des ongulés de montagne, le tableau de chasse donne ensuite plus de place au cheval et au renne. Oiseaux et renards sont aussi exploités, et la question de la présence de chiens est posée. Les sources de matières lithiques semblent se diversifier dans le Magdalénien supérieur, en parallèle avec une évolution du gabarit des armatures. L’industrie osseuse aussi montre des indices de transformation du design des armatures (avec notamment des éléments fourchus), à côté d’un unique témoignage d’art mobilier (une scapula gravée).

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Notes de la rédaction

Received: 12 October 2016 – Admitted after revisions: 21 March 2017

Texte intégral

1Thanks to its rich record of Magdalenian sites (fig. 1), the Arudy Basin is a key case for the study of hunter-gatherer resettlement dynamics in the Pyrenean valleys after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Interpretations are, however, hampered by the very old date of many excavations and the incomplete publication of others. The recently acquired data from Laa 2 cave contribute to filling this gap, although the excavation had to be interrupted (for non-scientific reasons) while the Paleolithic layers had been excavated over just a small surface.

Fig 1. Location of Paleolithic sites in the Arudy basin

Fig 1. Location of Paleolithic sites in the Arudy basin

1: Malarode 1 and Malarode 2; 2: Laa 2; 3: Poeymaü; 4: Espalungue; 5: Bignalats; 6: Saint-Michel; 7: Tastet cave in Sainte-Colome. Bottom left: location of the Arudy basin in the Pyrenean isthmus

Map: IGN (www.geoportail.gouv.fr)

Site description

2The Arudy basin is located at the point where the Gave d’Ossau river exits the northernmost Pyrenean massifs and enters the foothills; it lies at about 400 m ASL and is surrounded by hills, the summits of which are about 150 m higher. Laa 2 cave opens at 457 m ASL in a small limestone massif west of Arudy town. The cave is 43 m long with two opposite entrances, each of which hosts a large debris cone (fig. 2 and 3). The excavations were carried out between 2006 and 2010 and yielded evidence of occupation during the Late Iron Age and Late Antiquity (northern half of the cave: salles 1 to 3 on fig. 3) as well as the Mesolithic and the Late Neolithic (southern part of the cave: Laa 3). The Paleolithic layers were excavated in the lowermost part of the cave (salle 4) over 2.5 m2 and a maximum depth of 1.2 m; the bedrock was not reached.

Fig. 2. Section of Laa 2 cave before the beginning of the excavations, showing the location of the Paleolithic test pit

Fig. 2. Section of Laa 2 cave before the beginning of the excavations, showing the location of the Paleolithic test pit

Topography: M. Douat (CDS64) with M.-C. Douat, M. Lauga, P. Dumontier

Fig. 3. Topography of Laa 2 cave before the beginning of the excavations, showing the location of the Paleolithic test pit

Fig. 3. Topography of Laa 2 cave before the beginning of the excavations, showing the location of the Paleolithic test pit

Topography: M. Douat (CDS64) with M.-C. Douat, M. Lauga, P. Dumontier

Stratigraphy

3During the excavation, several stratigraphic units (US) were distinguished. The sequence was also divided into three lithostratigraphic ensembles (1 to 3). Finally, post-excavation work on the archeological material led to the identification of five archeological layers (from C5 at the bottom to C1 at the top: table I). The lithostratigraphy (fig. 4 and 5) begins with Ensemble 1, which is over 50 cm thick and rich in pebbles (limestone, ophite-type dolerite, and igneous rocks) likely accumulated through alluvial processes (e.g., fluvio-glacial). The top of this ensemble is mainly composed of angular limestone blocks (fig. 6), originating from the cave’s ceiling, walls and exterior cliffs, mixed with pebbles probably resulting from the reworking of old material. Ensemble 2 (fig. 7) is ca. 50 cm thick and is made of limestone blocks accumulated from the outside by gravity (and maybe also other processes such as surface runoff and solifluxion). Ensemble 3 is a polyphased stalagmite floor with a maximum thickness of 30 cm; its formation reflects a reduction in the detritic supply and a change in outside climate conditions. The archeological stratigraphy (fig. 8) begins with layer C5 (base of Ensemble 1), which is 30 cm thick and which has little diagnostic cultural material but with a faunal spectrum characterized by its scarcity of reindeer. The overlying layer C4 (top of Ensemble 1) is 10-15 cm thick and is separated from C5 by an archeologically poor level. Layer C3 (the base of Ensemble 2) is also separated from C4 by a level with very little archeological material, especially since the material at the bottom of C3 probably migrated there by gravity from the top of the layer. Layer C3 has yielded lithic and osseous industry pertaining to the Middle Magdalenian and a faunal spectrum with an abundance of reindeer. At the top of Ensemble 2 and base of Ensemble 3, layer C2 (25 cm thick) is not separated from C3 by a sterile layer but the archeological material indicates changes in the lithic and osseous industry (Upper Magdalenian) and in the faunal spectrum (evidence of climate warming). Finally, layer C1 (10 cm thick), which is not included in this study, lies within the stalagmite floor Ensemble 3 and is characterized by the almost complete disappearance of lithic and osseous tools and the presence of ceramic sherds mainly from the Late Antiquity. Eleven radiocarbon dates (table II; table III; fig. 9) place the occupations of layer C5 ca. 20000-195000 cal BP, layer C4 ca. 18500-18000 cal BP, layer C3 ca. 18000-16500 cal BP and layer C2 ca. 16500-15000 cal BP.

Table I. Equivalence between the lithostratigraphic units, the stratigraphic units (“US”) identified during the excavation in 2006 and in 2009-2010, and the archeological layers defined after the study of the material

Lithostratigraphie US 2006 US 2009-2010 Archéostratigraphie
Ensemble 3 2001 surface C1
2002 et 2005 4001
2003a 4002
2003 4003 sommet
Ensemble 2 2004 4003 base C2
2006 sommet 4006 et 4006b
2006 et 2007 4008
2008 et 2009 4009
2010 4010 C3
2011 4011 sommet
Non atteint 4011 base C4
Ensemble 1 4012 sommet
4012 base C5
4013

Fig. 4. View of the I28/I29 section and partial view of square I29.

Fig. 4. View of the I28/I29 section and partial view of square I29.

1: surface of Ensemble 1 (US 4012); 2: Ensemble 2 (blocks); 3: Ensemble 3 (stalagmite floor). Scale: 50 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)

Picture J.-M. P.

Fig. 5. I30/I31 profile, showing US 4003, 4011, 4012, 4013

Fig. 5. I30/I31 profile, showing US 4003, 4011, 4012, 4013

4003: stalagmite floor; 4011: limestone debris with semi-open structure; 2012: filled limestone debris; 4013: alluvial material and blocks collapsed from the ceiling. Scale: 50 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)

Pictures C. F.

Fig. 6. I30/I31 profile, US 4012

Fig. 6. I30/I31 profile, US 4012

Lens with semi-open structure (a) resulting from the leaching of the fine-grained fraction below water drippings from the ceiling. Scale: 37 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)

Picture C. F.

Fig. 7. I30/I31 profile, US 4011. Semi-open structure of US 4011

Fig. 7. I30/I31 profile, US 4011. Semi-open structure of US 4011

Scale: 50 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)

Picture C. F.

Fig. 8. Vertical plot of all remains with 3D coordinates in squares I29 and I30, along the north-south axis

Fig. 8. Vertical plot of all remains with 3D coordinates in squares I29 and I30, along the north-south axis

The radiocarbon-dated bones are indicated. The 16070 ± 75 BP date is linked to two objects because the bone dated could be refitted with another. As indicated in the text, the material at the bottom of layer C3 –and thus the bone that yielded the date of 14570 ± 75 BP– probably migrated here from the upper part of the layerNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)

Table II. Bone samples submitted for radiocarbon AMS dating

ID échantillon US Carré Année fouille Couche Élément Taxon Traces anthropiques Long. (mm) Masse (g)
C2_Cer 2007 H30 2006 22 C2 métatarsien cerf stries 110 NC
C2_Ran1 4003 I30 2009 37 C2 dent (LP4) renne néant 21 3,66
C2_Ran2 4008 I29 2009 490 C2 métatarsien renne stries 76 10,06
C3_Cap 4010 I30 2009 203 C3 métatarsien bouquetin néant 75 6,21
C3_Equ 2010 I30 2006 121 C3 radius cheval stries 100 NC
C3_Cer 4011 I30 2009 271 C3 tibia cerf stries 112 45,93
C4_Rup 4012 I29 2010 628 C4 tibia isard stries, percussion 90 NC
C4_Bov 4012 I30 2010 156 C4 coxal boviné stries, percussion 150 NC
C4_Cap 4012 I29 2010 622 C4 tibia bouquetin percussion 86 12,5
C5_Cap1 4012 I30 2010 198 C5 phalange 1 bouquetin percussion 48 4,38
C5_Cap2 4012 I30 2010 181 C5 humérus bouquetin percussion 53 43,62
C5_Equ 4013 I30 2010 277 C5 fémur cheval néant 136 86,3

NC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)

Table III. Results of the radiocarbon dates. Calibration with the OxCal 4.2 software (Bronk Ramsey, 2009), IntCal13 dataset (Reimer et al., 2013)

ID échantillon Code labo Date BP Date cal BP (95,4 %) Masse collag. (mg) Taux collag. (%) %C d13C d15N C:N Activité 14C (%)
C2_Cer Erl11112 12552 ± 83 15160-14320 NC NC NC -20,6 NC 2,6 20,96 ± 0,22
C2_Ran1 Poz52969 13370 ± 70 16296-15842 NC NC NC NC NC 3,4 NC
C2_Ran2 OxA26674 13550 ± 60 16566-16107 13,34 2,6 43,7 -19,3 4,1 3,1 NC
C3_Cap OxA26673 13665 ± 60 16755-16247 48,93 8 43,4 -19,3 2,5 3,1 NC
C3_Equ Erl11113 14252 ± 94 17625-17069 NC NC NC -21,3 NC 2,6 16,96 ± 0,20
C3_Cer OxA26672 14570 ± 65 17951-17556 18,19 3,1 44 -19,9 3,3 3,1 NC
C4_Rup Lyon11706 (SacA39177) 14880 ± 120 18411-17814 NC NC NC NC NC NC 15,69 ± 0,23
C4_Bov Lyon11707 (SacA39178) 15240 ± 120 18772-18211 NC NC NC NC NC NC 15 ± 0,22
C4_Cap non daté : échec au test d'azote
C5_Cap1 OxA26671 16070 ± 75 19609-19165 26,81 5,2 43,4 -19,4 2,7 3,2 NC
C5_Cap2 OxA27935 16380 ± 80 20010-19549 13,7 5,7 45,6 -19,7 2,4 3,2 NC
C5_Equ OxA29934 16555 ± 75 20203-19708 25,81 4,3 41 -21,1 4 3,3 NC

For the dates Lyon11706 (SacA39177) and Lyon11707 (SacA39178), the laboratory indicates that the physical-chemical reliability of the samples was “very good”. NC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column in table II)

Fig. 9. Calibrated radiocarbon dates for the Paleolithic sequence in Laa 2 cave

Fig. 9. Calibrated radiocarbon dates for the Paleolithic sequence in Laa 2 cave

Calibration with the OxCal 4.2 software (Bronk Ramsey, 2009), IntCal13 dataset (Reimer et al., 2013). One sigma (68.2%) and two sigma (95.4%) intervals are shown

Lithic industry

4A sample of 485 lithic artifacts (fig. 10; table IV) has been analyzed for raw material sourcing. Almost all the artifacts (98 %) are made of flint, four types of which could be distinguished (fig. 11). Type 1 is the most common type in all the layers (fig. 12 and 13, table V) and has direct parallels with the Cretaceous Flysch formations observed in the northern Pyrenees from the Atlantic coast to the central part of the range (fig. 14). In the current state of knowledge and given the high variability of this type, it is not possible to locate the supply source of the Flysch flints in Laa 2 more precisely. The three other types are less common but seem to become more and more frequent from layer C5 to layer C2. Type 2 represents 4-10% of the artifacts from C4, C3 and C2. It is similar to the Chalosse flint found north of Arudy on the left bank of the Adour river (fig. 14) and might originate from the Bastennes-Gaujacq outcrop some 60 km north of the site. Type 3 (3%) is similar to the Upper Cretaceous flint from Hibarette and Montgaillard and the Maastrichian flint from Montsaunès, both of which come from outcrops ca. 40 km east of Laa 2. Type 4 (3%) is a lacustrine variety unlike any of the flint sources around Laa 2, but found in the Miranda-Treviño basin 200 km to the southwest and more generally in the Ebro basin (fig. 14). It was brought to Laa 2 in the form of a few tools and blanks and demonstrates contact with the southern part of the Pyrenean range.

Fig. 10. Distribution per layer of analyzed lithic industry

Fig. 10. Distribution per layer of analyzed lithic industry

Table IV. Analyzed lithic elements: Distribution per layer compared with the whole of the material

couche NR lithique analysé NR total lithique % analysé / total % couche / corpus analysé
C5 15 19 78,9 3,1
C4 58 278 20,9 12,0
C3 298 1041 28,6 61,4
C2 114 168 67,9 23,5
Total 485 1506 32,2 100,0

Fig. 11. Macroscopic view with the more representative micropalaeontological content of the four analyzed cherts

Fig. 11. Macroscopic view with the more representative micropalaeontological content of the four analyzed cherts

Pictures M. S.

Pictures M. S.

Fig. 12. Distribution, in percentage per layer, of the analyzed lithic industry after characterization

Fig. 12. Distribution, in percentage per layer, of the analyzed lithic industry after characterization

Fig. 13. Flint count per blank and per layer

Fig. 13. Flint count per blank and per layer

Table V. Distribution per layer of analyzed lithic industry, after identification

Matière C5 C4 C3 C2 Total
Silex T1 8 35 156 40 239
Silex T2 0 6 13 12 31
Silex T3 0 0 13 4 17
Silex T4 0 1 7 6 14
Silex indet. 6 15 98 51 170
Autres roches 1 1 11 1 14
Total 15 58 298 114 485

Fig. 14. Main flint outcrops with similarities in the archaeological assemblage of Laa 2

Fig. 14. Main flint outcrops with similarities in the archaeological assemblage of Laa 2

Blue: flysch type; lilac: Chalosse type; pink: Montgaillard / Montsaunès type; brown: lacustrine type. 1: Bidache. 2: Iholdy. 3: Salies-de-Béarn. 4: Précilhon. 5: Meillon. 6: Turbón. 7: Tercis. 8: Audignon. 9: Hibarette. 10: Montgaillard. 11: Montsaunès. 12: Treviño. 13: “Monegros”. 14: Peraltilla. 15: Serra Llarga

5The lithic industry (tables 6 and 7, fig. 15-18) has been subject to a typological and technological analysis. The assemblage from layer C5 is too poor to be precisely characterized but is broadly compatible with a Magdalenian attribution. Layer C4 has yielded a few tools on blades, and an assemblage of narrow backed bladelets made on flake (or blade) edge, a characteristic that suggests an attribution to the Middle Magdalenian. Layer C3 is the richest of the sequence and has yielded evidence of a standardized blade production along with a few tools on blades. The main type of microlith is a population of straight, narrow and standardized backed bladelets made on flake edge, similar to those identified in several Late Middle Magdalenian assemblages from the northern Pyrenees. Layer C2 has also yielded a small set of tools on flakes and blades, but in this layer the bladelets are wider, made on blocks (not on flake cores) and accompanied by two backed points made on small blades. This evolution in the design of armatures can be attributed to the transition from the Middle to the Upper Magdalenian.

Fig. 15. Examples of tools from the sequence of Laa2

Fig. 15. Examples of tools from the sequence of Laa2

Layer C2: 1, burin; 2-3, endscrapers. Layer C3: 4-5, blades with lateral retouch; 5, endscraper. C4: 7, burin

Drawings S. Pasty, CAD ML

Fig. 16. Examples of backed bladelets from the sequence of Laa 2

Fig. 16. Examples of backed bladelets from the sequence of Laa 2

Layer C4: narrow backed bladelets. Layer C3, top row: simple backed bladelets. Layer C3, middle and bottom rows: narrow backed bladelets. Layer C2: backed points and bladelet. Grey silhouettes: scale 1:1; drawings: scale 2:1

Drawings S. Pasty, CAD ML

Fig. 17. Layer C3: examples of sub-products from blade and bladelet knapping on blocks or on the edge of a flake

Fig. 17. Layer C3: examples of sub-products from blade and bladelet knapping on blocks or on the edge of a flake

Drawings S. Pasty

Fig. 18. Layer C3: examples of bladelet cores on the edge of a flake (1-3) and “enveloppants” on block, pyramidal (4-5) and prismatic (6-7) types

Fig. 18. Layer C3: examples of bladelet cores on the edge of a flake (1-3) and “enveloppants” on block, pyramidal (4-5) and prismatic (6-7) types

Drawings S. Pasty

Table VIII. Typological and technological composition of the osseous industry

C4 C3/C4 C3 C2 total
BdC déchets de déb. de baguettes 2 2 4
déchets de faç. de baguettes 2 2
support (baguette) 1 1
objets finis sur baguette baguette demi-ronde 1 1
pointe 1 1
pte mono-barbelée 1 1
ptes à base fourchue 2 2
os déchet de débitage longitudinal 1 1
objets finis poinçon 1 1
lissoirs 1 1 1 3
aiguille à chas 1 1
outils sur éclat : retouchoir 2 2
os travaillés 1 3 2 6
os décoré 1 1
total 1 2 15 9 27

Fig. 19. Layer C4, bone industry: spatula on half-section of rib

Fig. 19. Layer C4, bone industry: spatula on half-section of rib

Pictures J.-M. P.

Fig. 20. Layer C3, antler industry

Fig. 20. Layer C3, antler industry

1: piece of manufacturing waste indicating splinter production with the groove and splinter technique (GST, multiple longitudinal grooving), with anatomical origin and detailed view of the blunting on the distal extremity. 2: piece of shaping waste on a splinter produced with the GST. 3: self-barbed point, with detailed view of the incisions on the lower side and reconstitution of its probable hafting. 4: fork-based point. 5: tine of fork-based point. For artifacts 1 and 2 the arrows indicate groove edges

Pictures J.-M. P.

Fig. 21. Layer C3, bone industry

Fig. 21. Layer C3, bone industry

1: piece of GST manufacturing waste on a half-section of rib; grooves are indicated by arrows. 2: eyed needle. 3: retoucher on radius flake, with detailed view of the two used zones. 4: spatula on horse hyoid bone

Pictures J.-M. P.

Fig. 22. Layer C3: engraved scapula

Fig. 22. Layer C3: engraved scapula

Picture (assemblage of x20 microphotographs) and drawing of the engravings and parasite lines

Pictures and drawing: O. R.

Fig. 23. Layer C3: engraved scapula

Fig. 23. Layer C3: engraved scapula

Microphotographs (x50) of the technical details described in the text. 1: slipping of the tool in the upper line of the tail. 2: lines with flat section, made by a single stroke of the tool, in the buttock line. 3: multiple incisions at the top of the back leg. 4: strokes representing the hair on the hump, made from right to left (or from bottom to top). The arrows indicate the direction of the strokes

Pictures O. R.

Fig. 24. Layer C3: engraved scapula

Fig. 24. Layer C3: engraved scapula

Probable chronology of the engraving of the different parts of the figure according to the technical analysis

Drawing O. R.

Fig. 25. Layer C2, antler industry

Fig. 25. Layer C2, antler industry

Piece of manufacturing waste on unshed red deer antler, showing splinter production with the GST (multiple longitudinal grooving) with indication of anatomical origin. The arrows indicate groove edges

Pictures J.-M. P.

Fig. 26. Layer C2, antler industry

Fig. 26. Layer C2, antler industry

Piece of manufacturing waste on shed reindeer antler, showing splinter production with the GST with indication of anatomical origin, and detailed view of the part showing a groove edge (indicated by an arrow) and traces of sectioning by scraping

Pictures J.-M. P.

Fig. 27. Layer C2, antler industry

Fig. 27. Layer C2, antler industry

1: splinter produced with the GST, with detailed view of one extremity; the arrows indicate groove edges. 2: fragment of object on splinter, with detailed view of the scraping marks on the fracture surface. 3: half-round rod with forked extremity: fragment of bivalve foreshaft

Pictures J.-M. P.

Fig. 28. Layer C2, bone industry

Fig. 28. Layer C2, bone industry

1: reindeer metapodial with incipient longitudinal grooving (shown by the arrow). 2: crude awl on rib, with detail of the distal extremity. 3: spatula on half-section of a rib, with detail of the transversal incisions

Pictures J.-M. P.

Faunal remains

Species present

6The excavations at Laa 2 have yielded several thousand faunal remains that can be attributed to nearly 40 bird and mammal taxa (table IX). The assemblage of micromammals is rich, the most abundant taxa being shrews (Sorex sp.) and several species of vole (M. œconomus, M. arvalis, C. nivalis, Terricola sp.). The medium-sized mammals include, in decreasing order of frequency, the red fox, the arctic fox, the hare, and the stoat. Four teeth from layers C3 and C3/C4 can be attributed to a small-sized canid of undetermined species; the lower premolar from layer C3/C4 has dimensions incompatible with both wolves and foxes and may suggest the presence of a small dog (fig. 29), although this evidence alone is not conclusive. The large mammals are represented by several species of ungulate, the proportion of which vary from one layer to another (table X): horse, reindeer, red deer, ibex, Pyrenean chamois, bovines, and two roe deer bones in layer C2. Bird remains belong to 7 orders, small passerines being the most abundant, followed by corvids (Alpine chough, red-billed chough and common raven) and galliformes (ptarmigans, grey partridge and black grouse); nocturnal raptors are documented as well as diurnal ones (an eagle ulna and several bones from small falcons), and four goose bones were found in layer C4.

Table IX. Faunal spectrum per layer expressed in the number of identified (NRD) or unidentified (NID) remains

C5 C4/C5 C4 C3/C4 C3 C2/C3 C2 Total
Talpa sp. (3) (1) (4) (3) (11)
Sorex sp. (26) (8) (49) (3) (86)
Sorex minutus (1) (2) (3)
Neomys sp. (3) (2) (5) (1) (11)
Crocidura sp. (1) (1) (2)
Glis glis (2) (2)
Eliomys quercinus (2) (2)
Clethrionomys glareolus (2) (2)
Arvicola sp. (11) (9) (19) (3) (42)
Microtus arvalis (70) (19) (94) (2) (185)
Microtus agrestis (1) 10 (1) (12)
Microtus oeconomus (27) (7) (41) (2) (77)
Microtus gregalis (1) (1)
Terricola sp. (9) (5) (18) (2) (34)
Chinomys nivalis (6) (4) (18) (6) (34)
Apodemus sp. (1) 5 12 (18)
Total micromammifères (158) (56) (269) (39) (522)
Vulpes vulpes 1 (1) 6 (2) 1 14 (2) 3 (2) 24
Alopex lagopus 2 (1) 2 (1) 4
Vulpes/Alopex 3 1 26 9 43
Canidé indéterminé 1 3 (1) 4
Mustela erminea 1 (1) 1
Mustela erminea/nivalis 1 (1) 1
Lepus sp. 1 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) 3
Mésomam. indéterminée 2 2
Total mésomammifères 5 7 2 50 15 82
Equus caballus 37 (3) 1 7 (2) 173 (6) 193 (5) 415
Rangifer tarandus 2 (1) 1 (1) 3 117 (6) 1 81 (4) 206
Capra pyrenaica 12 (2) 1 16 (2) 2 76 (3) 2 24 (2) 133
Rupicapra rupicapra 8 (1) 1 26 (2) 1 34 (2) 9 (2) 79
Capriné 4 4
Cervus elaphus 3 (1) 23 (3) 39 (2) 69
Cervidé 1 3 2 6
Bison priscus 4 (2) 5 (1) 8 (3) 1 (1) 18
Capreolus capreolus 2 (1) 2
Total Ongulés 68 3 58 6 434 3 351 932
Mam. très petite taille 1 8 15 26
Mam. petite taille 4 4 8
Mam. petite/moy. taille 5 14 80 147 251
Mam. moy. taille 21 28 142 2 134 328
Mam. grande/moy. taille 26 21 87 88 224
Mam. grande taille 7 16 1 34 32 91
Total mam. indéterminés 60 0 79 1 355 2 420 928
Total grande faune 128 3 137 7 789 5 771 1860
Anser sp. 4 (1) 4
cf. Aquila 1 (1) 1
Falco sp. 1 (1) 1 (1) 6 (1) 8
Perdix perdix 2 (1) 2
Lyrurus tetrix 2 (1) 2
Lagopus mutus 1 (1) 1
Lagopus sp. 1 (1) 7 (1) 1 (1) 9
Galliformes 1 4 5
Columba sp. 4 (1) 3 (1) 7
Bubo sp. 1 (1) 1
Strigiformes 9 (1) 1 (1) 10
Pyrrhocorax cf. pyrrhocorax 1 (1) 1
Pyrrhocorax graculus 1 (1) 1 (1) 5 (3) 7
Corvidés (taille Chocard) 12 8 17 1 3 41
Corvus corax 1 (1) 1
Passériformes (petits) 13 (5) 3 12 (4) 3 30 (4) 61
Aves indéterminés 7 8 3 33 1 1 53
Total oiseaux 34 3 38 6 117 2 14 214

The minimal number of individuals appear in parentheses

Fig. 29. Measurements of the first lower premolar in foxes (light blue), dogs (black dots), wolf (red) and measurements of the individual from Laa 2 (blue diamonds)

Fig. 29. Measurements of the first lower premolar in foxes (light blue), dogs (black dots), wolf (red) and measurements of the individual from Laa 2 (blue diamonds)

The crosses indicate the individuals from late Pleistocene deposits

Table X. Number of identified ungulate remains and MNI per taxon for each layer

C5 C4 C3 C2
NRD %NRD NMI NRD %NRD NMI NRD %NRD NMI NRD %NRD NMI Total
cheval 37 58,7 3 7 12,1 2 173 40,1 6 193 55,3 5 410
renne 2 3,2 1 1 1,7 1 117 27,1 6 81 23,2 4 201
bouquetin 12 19,0 2 16 27,6 2 76 17,6 3 24 6,9 2 128
isard 8 12,7 1 26 44,8 2 34 7,9 2 9 2,6 2 77
cerf 0 0,0 0 3 5,2 1 23 5,3 3 39 11,2 2 65
bovinés 4 6,3 2 5 8,6 1 8 1,9 3 1 0,3 1 18
chevreil 0 0,0 0 0 0,0 0 0 0,0 0 2 0,6 1 2
total 63 100 9 58 100 9 431 100 23 349 100 17 901

Taphonomy

7The excellent preservation of the faunal remains (including bone refittings: fig. 34) has facilitated their taphonomic study. For the micromammals, the digestion rate of the teeth (tables 11 and 12, fig. 33) indicates an accumulation by owls. For the ungulates, concretions and longitudinal cracks are the most common postdepositional alterations (tables 15 and 16), and the accumulation is clearly of anthropic origin, although carnivore traces are rather frequent (fig. 30: 1.9% of the remains, distributed among almost all taxa) and sometimes indicative of large carnivore species (canids?). For the medium-sized mammals, anthropic traces (cutmarks and distal burning marks) have been observed on several fox remains from layers C3 and C2, showing that humans accumulated at least part of the bones from this species. On medium-sized mammals, however, traces of non-human predators are more numerous (fig. 31: digestion traces and pitting, observed on bones from layers C5, C3 and C2); the size of some digested bones might suggest scavenging by a small canid (dog?). For the bird remains, only two bones bear traces of human modification: a goose carpometacarpus and an ulna possibly attributed to an eagle. Other bird remains from small and medium-sized species show digestion marks indicating accumulation by large nocturnal raptors, and pit marks demonstrating the intervention of small carnivore mammals (tables 13 and 14, fig. 32). Only the Alpine chough remains are devoid of predation marks and are characterized by a large proportion (80%) of bones from juveniles, thus suggesting that the individuals from this species died in the cave without the intervention of predators.

Fig. 30. Distal part of horse humerus (C3) and ibex proximal phalanx (C2) with marks related to carnivore action

Fig. 30. Distal part of horse humerus (C3) and ibex proximal phalanx (C2) with marks related to carnivore action

Pictures D. K.

Fig. 31. Chewing and digestion marks

Fig. 31. Chewing and digestion marks

1: partially digested third phalange of a fox. 2: left talus of a fox with acid attacks. 3: semi-digested third upper incisor of a fox. 4: first phalange of a fox with digestion marks. 5: distal part of a left tibia of a fox with digestion marks. 6: semi digested first phalange of a hare. 7: femoral head of a fox with digestion marks. 8: left calcaneus of a fox with chew marks. 9: femoral head of a fox with digestion marks. 10: second phalange of a hare with digestion marks

Fig. 32. Example of non-human predator marks observed on bird bones

Fig. 32. Example of non-human predator marks observed on bird bones

1: Light digestion on a pigeon humerus proximal fragment, layer C2. 2: Chew marks on a ptarmigan tibiotarsus, layer C3. 3: Gnaw marks on the deltoid crest of a humerus from a black grouse, layer C2

Pictures V. L.

Fig. 33. Digestion rate of the micromammal assemblages (%)

Fig. 33. Digestion rate of the micromammal assemblages (%)

Pictures D. K.

Fig. 34. Layer C3: articular restitution of two thoracic vertebrae and two extremities of ibex ribs found in anatomical connection (z=-955 to -960)

Fig. 34. Layer C3: articular restitution of two thoracic vertebrae and two extremities of ibex ribs found in anatomical connection (z=-955 to -960)

Pictures D. K.

Paleoenvironmental indications

8Paleoenvironmental data can be inferred from the faunal record. The assemblages of micromammals from layers C5 to C3 belong to the same biozone (2a, 2b, 2c: fig. 35): a cool and humid climate with very open landscapes. Layer C2 represents biozone 1: a more temperate, dryer climate with a more closed landscape (sparse forest). Among the ungulates, species from arctic and steppe milieu (horse and reindeer) are the most common in all the layers, except in layer C4, which is dominated by ibex and Pyrenean chamois. Ungulates from more closed environments (red deer and roe deer) are absent in layer C5 but become more frequent with time, especially in layer C2, which has yielded the only roe deer remains (fig. 36). Among the medium-sized mammals, the identification of the arctic fox in layers C3 and C2 indicates a rather cool and open environment. Several species of bird are also indicative of open, cold landscapes: ptarmigans (layers C4 to C2) and the Alpine chough (layers C5 to C3). However, in layer C2, the presence of two other bird species (grey partridge and black grouse) indicates the development of forest cover.

Fig. 35. Micromammals of layers C2 to C5 (minimum number of individuals)

Fig. 35. Micromammals of layers C2 to C5 (minimum number of individuals)

Fig. 36. Ecological groups in each layer, in %MNI

Fig. 36. Ecological groups in each layer, in %MNI

Exploitation of animals by humans

9There is no evidence of bird consumption in Laa 2 and only two bones document the non-alimentary exploitation of avian fauna (fig. 37): a goose carpometacarpus with cutmarks probably indicating the removal of feathers (C4); and a fragment of ulna possibly attributed to an eagle, the surface of which is covered with scraping marks, indicating the use of the bone as raw material (C2). In the other Magdalenian sites in the Arudy basin, the exploitation of birds is also limited, while other contemporary sites in the Pyrenees show the much more systematic hunting of certain avian species. This specificity of the Arudy Magdalenian remains to be explained.

Fig. 37. Bird bones with marks resulting from human activity

Fig. 37. Bird bones with marks resulting from human activity

1: Cutmarks on a goose carpometacarpus, layer C4. 2: Worked ulna from cf. Eagle, layer C2

Pictures V. L.

10Among the bones of medium-sized mammals, 6 fox remains from layers C3 and 2 from layer C2 show either cutmarks or burn marks (fig. 38). These marks indicate that foxes (including one artic fox) were skinned, defleshed (removal of fleshy parts such as the tongue), and cooked.

Fig. 38. Anthropogenic marks on fox remains

Fig. 38. Anthropogenic marks on fox remains

1: left half of a fox mandible with cut marks on the medial border. 2: right half of a fox mandible with cut marks on the lateral border. 3: half mandible of an arctic fox with cut marks on the symphysis. 4: fifth metatarsal of a fox and schematic drawing of the location of the marks (skinning). 5: first phalange of a fox with heating marks on the distal part. 6: shaft fragment of a fox ulna with burn marks on the distal part. Scale bar is 1 cm

Pictures J.-B. M.

11The age at death based on tooth eruption and wear could be determined for most ungulates in the two main layers (C3 and C2). The hunters mainly targeted young and prime age individuals, except several very old horses, especially in layer C2. The hunting season is rather poorly documented. The presence of a few fetal bones from large ungulates in layers C4 to C2 indicates the capture of pregnant females during the winter and/or the beginning of spring; a rib from a newborn horse and deciduous reindeer incisors in layer C3 are also compatible with winter/spring hunts. The skeletal part profiles of the two main ungulates in the two main layers (horse and reindeer in C3 and C2: fig. 39) suggest that only incomplete carcasses were brought to the site, favoring the parts rich in marrow, while all or part of the axial postcranial skeleton might have been discarded offsite.

Fig. 39. Layers C3 and C2: skeletal representation of horse and reindeer with test results of Spearman correlation for bone density, sFUI ranks and marrow indices

Fig. 39. Layers C3 and C2: skeletal representation of horse and reindeer with test results of Spearman correlation for bone density, sFUI ranks and marrow indices

1: horse, layer C3. 2: reindeer, layer C3. 3: horse, C2 layer. 4: reindeer, C2 layer

CAD D. K.

12On the ungulate remains, butchery traces are frequent and well preserved (cutmarks and percussion marks: table XVII). Traces on the bones from layer C5 document the defleshing of the limb bones and ribs of large ungulates, and the skinning of ibex and Pyrenean chamois. In layer C4, the bones of ibex and Pyrenean chamois show abundant traces of skinning, disarticulation, defleshing and marrow collection, while traces of defleshing and marrow collection are documented on large ungulates (horse and bison). In layers C3 and C2 (fig. 40 to 44), skinning, disarticulation and defleshing traces are documented on all major ungulate species, and marrow collection is especially intensive, as indicated by the high frequency of percussion marks on marrow-rich limb bones and mandibles.

Table XVII. Percentage of ungulate remains with butchery marks (cutmarks and percussion impact marks) per taxon and layer

Digestion (NR)
Couche 0 1 2 3 4 Total
C2 81,2 11,1 6,0 1,7 0 100
C3 95,2 1,0 3,1 0,3 0,3 100
C4 78,6 15,5 3,9 1,5 0,5 100
C5 82,8 9,6 5,5 1,8 0,3 100
Total 88,2 6,2 4,2 1,1 6 100

Bold: species for which the number of identified remains (NRD) is greater than 30

Fig. 40. Layer C3: schematic representation of the butchery activities on the main ungulates

Fig. 40. Layer C3: schematic representation of the butchery activities on the main ungulates

CAD D. K.

Fig. 41. Layer C3: percussion impact on a horse mandible

Fig. 41. Layer C3: percussion impact on a horse mandible

Pictures D. K.

Fig. 42. Layer C3: distal end of an ibex humerus with disarticulation cutmarks and percussion impact marks

Fig. 42. Layer C3: distal end of an ibex humerus with disarticulation cutmarks and percussion impact marks

Pictures D. K.

Fig. 43. Layer C2: schematic representation of the butchery activities on the main ungulates

Fig. 43. Layer C2: schematic representation of the butchery activities on the main ungulates

CAD D. K.

Fig. 44. Layer C2: split barrel horse teeth, resulting from the fracturing of the mandibles

Fig. 44. Layer C2: split barrel horse teeth, resulting from the fracturing of the mandibles

CAD D. K.

Summary and discussion

13Stratigraphic sequences such as that at Laa 2 are rarely found in the northern Pyrenean Magdalenian. Geological and radiocarbon data from layer C5 suggest that this layer represents the earliest human reoccupations of the cave at the end of the LGM. These are the oldest dates for human presence in the Arudy basin and they correspond to the Lower Magdalenian, a little-known phase in the northern Pyrenees. Layer C4 is attributed to the Middle Magdalenian and radiocarbon dates point to the early part of this phase. This Early Middle Magdalenian might be documented locally in the Arudy basin at Tastet and Espalungue caves; elsewhere in the Pyrenees, it is usually related to the presence of a specific type of antler single-beveled point, the Lussac-Angles point. Layers C3 and C2 are attributed to the Late Middle Magdalenian and Upper Magdalenian, both of which correspond to the major development of the Magdalenian occupation of the northern Pyrenees. Specifically, lithic and osseous armatures (narrow, straight bladelets “on flake edge”; forked points and foreshafts) point to obvious links with other Magdalenian sites, both locally in Arudy and beyond in the Pyrenees.

14One of the interests of the Laa 2 sequence is that it documents coeval changes in the environment and in the hunting, technical and economic choices of the human groups. The faunal record from layers C5 to C3 indicates a very open, humid and cool landscape, but evidence of reforestation appears in layer C2, an evolution that can be related to the beginning of GI-1e (Bølling). While many aspects of human behavior remain stable throughout the sequence (non-alimentary use of birds in layers C4 and C2; exploitation of fox in layers C3 and C2; possible presence of dogs in the same layers; evidence of winter/spring hunts in several layers), changes are visible in the ungulates hunted: mountain species are dominant in the lower layers but then lose importance in favor of horse and reindeer; red deer becomes increasingly present throughout the sequence; conversely, bovines almost totally disappear in layer C2. Although these changes can theoretically result from purely anthropic choices (shift of preferred hunting grounds), it is tempting to interpret them as an echo of the coeval environmental fluctuations. In the lithic and osseous industries, only layers C3 and C2 have yielded assemblages large enough for comparison. Although the flysch flint (type 1) is dominant in all the assemblages, the proportion of the other types clearly increases from C3 to C2, suggesting a more diversified flint supply. At the same time, the design of the lithic armatures changes, possibly towards a more integrated blade and bladelet production. An evolution of armature technology is also visible in the antler industry (i.e., forked implements present only at the C3/C2 interface, and the presence in C3 of a self-barbed point that has no equivalent in C2).

15These results must be considered in terms of the small surface excavated, an unfortunate situation that probably accounts for the scarcity of certain categories of material (absence of personal ornaments and almost complete absence of portable art) and the underrepresentation of certain activities. Nevertheless, this excavation has yielded important information for our understanding of population dynamics in the northern Pyrenees after the LGM. Unexpectedly ancient resettlement episodes occur shortly after the deglaciation in a cool, humid and very open environment. They are followed by several occupation episodes over five millennia in a foothill zone that was obviously attractive to hunter-gatherers; a zone that was progressively impacted by the local consequences of global climate changes. Similarly, the changes documented in the industries offer a local reflection of the evolution affecting hunter-gatherer societies in the last millennia of the Upper Paleolithic.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig 1. Location of Paleolithic sites in the Arudy basin
Légende 1: Malarode 1 and Malarode 2; 2: Laa 2; 3: Poeymaü; 4: Espalungue; 5: Bignalats; 6: Saint-Michel; 7: Tastet cave in Sainte-Colome. Bottom left: location of the Arudy basin in the Pyrenean isthmus
Crédits Map: IGN (www.geoportail.gouv.fr)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,6M
Titre Fig. 2. Section of Laa 2 cave before the beginning of the excavations, showing the location of the Paleolithic test pit
Crédits Topography: M. Douat (CDS64) with M.-C. Douat, M. Lauga, P. Dumontier
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 3. Topography of Laa 2 cave before the beginning of the excavations, showing the location of the Paleolithic test pit
Crédits Topography: M. Douat (CDS64) with M.-C. Douat, M. Lauga, P. Dumontier
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 198k
Titre Fig. 4. View of the I28/I29 section and partial view of square I29.
Légende 1: surface of Ensemble 1 (US 4012); 2: Ensemble 2 (blocks); 3: Ensemble 3 (stalagmite floor). Scale: 50 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)
Crédits Picture J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 5. I30/I31 profile, showing US 4003, 4011, 4012, 4013
Légende 4003: stalagmite floor; 4011: limestone debris with semi-open structure; 2012: filled limestone debris; 4013: alluvial material and blocks collapsed from the ceiling. Scale: 50 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)
Crédits Pictures C. F.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
Titre Fig. 6. I30/I31 profile, US 4012
Légende Lens with semi-open structure (a) resulting from the leaching of the fine-grained fraction below water drippings from the ceiling. Scale: 37 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)
Crédits Picture C. F.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
Titre Fig. 7. I30/I31 profile, US 4011. Semi-open structure of US 4011
Légende Scale: 50 cmNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)
Crédits Picture C. F.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,8M
Titre Fig. 8. Vertical plot of all remains with 3D coordinates in squares I29 and I30, along the north-south axis
Légende The radiocarbon-dated bones are indicated. The 16070 ± 75 BP date is linked to two objects because the bone dated could be refitted with another. As indicated in the text, the material at the bottom of layer C3 –and thus the bone that yielded the date of 14570 ± 75 BP– probably migrated here from the upper part of the layerNC: unknown. The name of the sample indicates which species was dated (see the “taxon” column)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 748k
Titre Fig. 9. Calibrated radiocarbon dates for the Paleolithic sequence in Laa 2 cave
Légende Calibration with the OxCal 4.2 software (Bronk Ramsey, 2009), IntCal13 dataset (Reimer et al., 2013). One sigma (68.2%) and two sigma (95.4%) intervals are shown
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 162k
Titre Fig. 10. Distribution per layer of analyzed lithic industry
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 191k
Titre Fig. 11. Macroscopic view with the more representative micropalaeontological content of the four analyzed cherts
Crédits Pictures M. S.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,1M
Titre Fig. 12. Distribution, in percentage per layer, of the analyzed lithic industry after characterization
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Titre Fig. 13. Flint count per blank and per layer
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 201k
Titre Fig. 14. Main flint outcrops with similarities in the archaeological assemblage of Laa 2
Légende Blue: flysch type; lilac: Chalosse type; pink: Montgaillard / Montsaunès type; brown: lacustrine type. 1: Bidache. 2: Iholdy. 3: Salies-de-Béarn. 4: Précilhon. 5: Meillon. 6: Turbón. 7: Tercis. 8: Audignon. 9: Hibarette. 10: Montgaillard. 11: Montsaunès. 12: Treviño. 13: “Monegros”. 14: Peraltilla. 15: Serra Llarga
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 651k
Titre Fig. 15. Examples of tools from the sequence of Laa2
Légende Layer C2: 1, burin; 2-3, endscrapers. Layer C3: 4-5, blades with lateral retouch; 5, endscraper. C4: 7, burin
Crédits Drawings S. Pasty, CAD ML
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 475k
Titre Fig. 16. Examples of backed bladelets from the sequence of Laa 2
Légende Layer C4: narrow backed bladelets. Layer C3, top row: simple backed bladelets. Layer C3, middle and bottom rows: narrow backed bladelets. Layer C2: backed points and bladelet. Grey silhouettes: scale 1:1; drawings: scale 2:1
Crédits Drawings S. Pasty, CAD ML
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 749k
Titre Fig. 17. Layer C3: examples of sub-products from blade and bladelet knapping on blocks or on the edge of a flake
Crédits Drawings S. Pasty
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 243k
Titre Fig. 18. Layer C3: examples of bladelet cores on the edge of a flake (1-3) and “enveloppants” on block, pyramidal (4-5) and prismatic (6-7) types
Crédits Drawings S. Pasty
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 846k
Titre Fig. 19. Layer C4, bone industry: spatula on half-section of rib
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 721k
Titre Fig. 20. Layer C3, antler industry
Légende 1: piece of manufacturing waste indicating splinter production with the groove and splinter technique (GST, multiple longitudinal grooving), with anatomical origin and detailed view of the blunting on the distal extremity. 2: piece of shaping waste on a splinter produced with the GST. 3: self-barbed point, with detailed view of the incisions on the lower side and reconstitution of its probable hafting. 4: fork-based point. 5: tine of fork-based point. For artifacts 1 and 2 the arrows indicate groove edges
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 809k
Titre Fig. 21. Layer C3, bone industry
Légende 1: piece of GST manufacturing waste on a half-section of rib; grooves are indicated by arrows. 2: eyed needle. 3: retoucher on radius flake, with detailed view of the two used zones. 4: spatula on horse hyoid bone
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 636k
Titre Fig. 22. Layer C3: engraved scapula
Légende Picture (assemblage of x20 microphotographs) and drawing of the engravings and parasite lines
Crédits Pictures and drawing: O. R.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1000k
Titre Fig. 23. Layer C3: engraved scapula
Légende Microphotographs (x50) of the technical details described in the text. 1: slipping of the tool in the upper line of the tail. 2: lines with flat section, made by a single stroke of the tool, in the buttock line. 3: multiple incisions at the top of the back leg. 4: strokes representing the hair on the hump, made from right to left (or from bottom to top). The arrows indicate the direction of the strokes
Crédits Pictures O. R.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 24. Layer C3: engraved scapula
Légende Probable chronology of the engraving of the different parts of the figure according to the technical analysis
Crédits Drawing O. R.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 133k
Titre Fig. 25. Layer C2, antler industry
Légende Piece of manufacturing waste on unshed red deer antler, showing splinter production with the GST (multiple longitudinal grooving) with indication of anatomical origin. The arrows indicate groove edges
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 831k
Titre Fig. 26. Layer C2, antler industry
Légende Piece of manufacturing waste on shed reindeer antler, showing splinter production with the GST with indication of anatomical origin, and detailed view of the part showing a groove edge (indicated by an arrow) and traces of sectioning by scraping
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 661k
Titre Fig. 27. Layer C2, antler industry
Légende 1: splinter produced with the GST, with detailed view of one extremity; the arrows indicate groove edges. 2: fragment of object on splinter, with detailed view of the scraping marks on the fracture surface. 3: half-round rod with forked extremity: fragment of bivalve foreshaft
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 28. Layer C2, bone industry
Légende 1: reindeer metapodial with incipient longitudinal grooving (shown by the arrow). 2: crude awl on rib, with detail of the distal extremity. 3: spatula on half-section of a rib, with detail of the transversal incisions
Crédits Pictures J.-M. P.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 808k
Titre Fig. 29. Measurements of the first lower premolar in foxes (light blue), dogs (black dots), wolf (red) and measurements of the individual from Laa 2 (blue diamonds)
Légende The crosses indicate the individuals from late Pleistocene deposits
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 201k
Titre Fig. 30. Distal part of horse humerus (C3) and ibex proximal phalanx (C2) with marks related to carnivore action
Crédits Pictures D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 601k
Titre Fig. 31. Chewing and digestion marks
Légende 1: partially digested third phalange of a fox. 2: left talus of a fox with acid attacks. 3: semi-digested third upper incisor of a fox. 4: first phalange of a fox with digestion marks. 5: distal part of a left tibia of a fox with digestion marks. 6: semi digested first phalange of a hare. 7: femoral head of a fox with digestion marks. 8: left calcaneus of a fox with chew marks. 9: femoral head of a fox with digestion marks. 10: second phalange of a hare with digestion marks
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 451k
Titre Fig. 32. Example of non-human predator marks observed on bird bones
Légende 1: Light digestion on a pigeon humerus proximal fragment, layer C2. 2: Chew marks on a ptarmigan tibiotarsus, layer C3. 3: Gnaw marks on the deltoid crest of a humerus from a black grouse, layer C2
Crédits Pictures V. L.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 544k
Titre Fig. 33. Digestion rate of the micromammal assemblages (%)
Crédits Pictures D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 106k
Titre Fig. 34. Layer C3: articular restitution of two thoracic vertebrae and two extremities of ibex ribs found in anatomical connection (z=-955 to -960)
Crédits Pictures D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 758k
Titre Fig. 35. Micromammals of layers C2 to C5 (minimum number of individuals)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 364k
Titre Fig. 36. Ecological groups in each layer, in %MNI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 167k
Titre Fig. 37. Bird bones with marks resulting from human activity
Légende 1: Cutmarks on a goose carpometacarpus, layer C4. 2: Worked ulna from cf. Eagle, layer C2
Crédits Pictures V. L.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 834k
Titre Fig. 38. Anthropogenic marks on fox remains
Légende 1: left half of a fox mandible with cut marks on the medial border. 2: right half of a fox mandible with cut marks on the lateral border. 3: half mandible of an arctic fox with cut marks on the symphysis. 4: fifth metatarsal of a fox and schematic drawing of the location of the marks (skinning). 5: first phalange of a fox with heating marks on the distal part. 6: shaft fragment of a fox ulna with burn marks on the distal part. Scale bar is 1 cm
Crédits Pictures J.-B. M.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 496k
Titre Fig. 39. Layers C3 and C2: skeletal representation of horse and reindeer with test results of Spearman correlation for bone density, sFUI ranks and marrow indices
Légende 1: horse, layer C3. 2: reindeer, layer C3. 3: horse, C2 layer. 4: reindeer, C2 layer
Crédits CAD D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 354k
Titre Fig. 40. Layer C3: schematic representation of the butchery activities on the main ungulates
Crédits CAD D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 860k
Titre Fig. 41. Layer C3: percussion impact on a horse mandible
Crédits Pictures D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-41.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
Titre Fig. 42. Layer C3: distal end of an ibex humerus with disarticulation cutmarks and percussion impact marks
Crédits Pictures D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-42.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 976k
Titre Fig. 43. Layer C2: schematic representation of the butchery activities on the main ungulates
Crédits CAD D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 318k
Titre Fig. 44. Layer C2: split barrel horse teeth, resulting from the fracturing of the mandibles
Crédits CAD D. K.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/588/img-44.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 721k
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Jean-Marc Pétillon, Véronique Laroulandie, Myriam Boudadi-Maligne, Patrice Dumontier, Catherine Ferrier, Delphine Kuntz, Mathieu Langlais, Jean-Baptiste Mallye, Vincent Mistrot, Christian Normand, Olivia Rivero Vilá et Marta Sánchez de la Torre, « Magdalenian occupations between 20000 and 15000 cal BP in the Pyrenean foothills: test-pitting the Paleolithic sequence of Laa 2 cave (Arudy, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France) », Gallia Préhistoire, 57 | 2017, 65-70.

Référence électronique

Jean-Marc Pétillon, Véronique Laroulandie, Myriam Boudadi-Maligne, Patrice Dumontier, Catherine Ferrier, Delphine Kuntz, Mathieu Langlais, Jean-Baptiste Mallye, Vincent Mistrot, Christian Normand, Olivia Rivero Vilá et Marta Sánchez de la Torre, « Magdalenian occupations between 20000 and 15000 cal BP in the Pyrenean foothills: test-pitting the Paleolithic sequence of Laa 2 cave (Arudy, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France) », Gallia Préhistoire [En ligne], 57 | 2017, mis en ligne le 15 février 2018, consulté le 21 juin 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/588 ; DOI : 10.4000/galliap.588

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Auteurs

Jean-Marc Pétillon

UMR 5608 TRACES – CNRS, Université de Toulouse Jean-Jaurès, maison de la recherche, 5 allées A. Machado, 31058 Toulouse cedex 9 – petillon@univ-tlse2.fr

Véronique Laroulandie

UMR 5199 PACEA – CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac cedex – veronique.laroulandie@u-bordeaux.fr

Myriam Boudadi-Maligne

UMR 5199 PACEA – CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac cedex – myriam.boudadi-maligne@u-bordeaux.fr

Patrice Dumontier

4 rue Auguste Peyré, 64400 Oloron-Sainte-Marie – patrice.dumontier@orange.fr

Catherine Ferrier

UMR 5199 PACEA – CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac cedex – catherine.ferrier@u-bordeaux.fr

Delphine Kuntz

UMR 7041 ArScAn – Maison René-Ginouvès, 21 allée de l’Université, 92023 Nanterre cedex, – delphine.kuntz@mae.u-paris10.fr

Mathieu Langlais

UMR 5199 PACEA – CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac cedex – mathieu.langlais@u-bordeaux.fr

Jean-Baptiste Mallye

UMR 5199 PACEA – CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac cedex – jean-baptiste.mallye@u-bordeaux.fr

Vincent Mistrot

Musée d’Aquitaine, 20 cours Pasteur, 33000 Bordeaux – v.mistrot@mairie-bordeaux.fr

Christian Normand

UMR 5608 TRACES – CNRS, Université de Toulouse Jean-Jaurès, maison de la recherche, 5 allées A. Machado, 31058 Toulouse cedex 9 – cpjnormand@wanadoo.fr

Olivia Rivero Vilá

Universidad de Cantabria – Instituto internacional de investigaciones prehistóricas de Cantabria, edificio interfacultativo, av. de los Castros 52, 39005 Santander, Espagne – olivia.rivero@unican.es

Marta Sánchez de la Torre

UMR 5060 IRAMAT-CRP2A – CNRS, univ. Bordeaux Montaigne, maison de l’archéologie, esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac cedex – marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr

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Droits d’auteur

Gallia Préhistoire

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