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A collective grave from the 6th to 5th millennia transition BCE: Mougins – Les Bréguières (Alpes-Maritimes, France)

Excavations Maurice Sechter 1966-1967
Suzon Provost, Didier Binder, Henri Duday, Gilles Durrenmath, Gwenaëlle Goude, Lionel Gourichon, Claire Delhon, Ilenia Gentile, Manon Vuillien et Aurélie Zemour
p. 289-292
Cet article est une traduction de :
Une sépulture collective à la transition des VIe et Ve millénaires BCE : Mougins – Les Bréguières (Alpes-Maritimes, France) [fr]

Résumés

Fouillé au milieu des années 1960 par M. Sechter, le site des Bréguières à Mougins présente un intérêt patrimonial et scientifique primordial en raison de l’abondance et de la conservation exceptionnelle des restes humains qui y furent découverts, de la singularité des mobiliers archéologiques qui y étaient associés et de la spécificité du lieu, une faille, où ils ont été déposés. Dans le cadre du Projet collectif de recherche ETICALP, des datations directes sur collagène osseux ont été entreprises afin de préciser le contexte chrono-culturel de ces dépôts. Onze des douze dates ainsi obtenues placent l’utilisation du site comme sépulcre à la fin du VIe et au début du Ve millénaire BCE, justifiant la mise en œuvre d’une analyse anthropologique détaillée. Cette dernière a conclu à un assemblage présentant tous les aspects d’une sépulture collective qui s’avère de fait comme étant l'une des plus anciennes du Néolithique ouest-méditerranéen, dans un contexte social caractérisé par un profond renouvellement des paradigmes symboliques à l’échelle de l’Europe occidentale. L’analyse biologique indique que les 61 individus qui composent cet assemblage appartiennent à toutes les classes d’âge, exception faite des périnataux. Les premières analyses isotopiques mettent en valeur le potentiel considérable de cette série pour aborder la variabilité des régimes alimentaires au sein de la population et au cours de la vie des individus.

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Notes de la rédaction

Received: 5 December 2016 – Admitted after revisions: 31 March 2017 – Modified: 29 June 2017

Texte intégral

1The Bréguières burial is in a rocky fault line exposed by a quarry (fig. 1 and 2) and yielded a funerary assemblage consisting of at least 61 individuals and presenting all the aspects of a collective grave (Leclerc and Tarrête, 1988). The collection appears to accurately reflect remains in primary position at the time of discovery, in a sector extending over a length of 7 to 8 m, and a width of at least one metre, corresponding to the back of a cavity. The layout of this cavity in relation to the original entrance is unknown.

Fig. 1. Geological context of Bréguières at Mougins

Fig. 1. Geological context of Bréguières at Mougins

Metamorphic bedrock: 1ζ, augen stratified gneiss, para-gneiss; δ, amphibolites; λ, leptynites; 2ζ, black gneiss; Secondary formations: ti, sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites from the Lower Triassic; tm, Middle Triassic limestone and dolomites; ts, clays and evaporites from the Upper Triassic; Ii, Hettangian dolomites and limestone; j1-2, Bathonian-Bajocian clayey limestone; jD, Jurassic of dolomitic facies; Tertiary formations: ei-m, clays, sands and limestone from the Lower and Middle Eocene; em-s, limestone from the Lutetian and Priabonian; mα, andesitic breccia; p, Pliocene marls, sands and conglomerates; Quaternary formations: M, non-differentiated marine formations and dunes; Œ, loess; Fx, Fz, alluvial deposits

Geoportail, BRGM

Fig. 2. View of the fault and the Bréguières quarry during extraction (on the right) and extension of the cavity in section (on the left)

Fig. 2. View of the fault and the Bréguières quarry during extraction (on the right) and extension of the cavity in section (on the left)

Photo M. Sechter; CAD SP and GD, after a sketch by M. Sechter

2The site documentation (photographs, film and sketches) comes from a short-duration operation. It illustrates the distribution of the human remains in a formation with abundant blocks about 5 m thick (C2 to C9), covered by calcite scree (C1) (fig. 3). Only part of these remains were separated, numbered and positioned in section or top view. The excavator suggested that some corpses were deposited in connection, in different positions, then covered with stones, sometimes with offerings. These hypotheses cannot be validated on the basis of the available documentation (fig. 4); however, anatomical connections were clearly observed (annex 1) (fig. 4, n° 2 and 5).

Fig. 3. Stratigraphic log of the funerary deposits, showing the location of some of the discovered skulls

Fig. 3. Stratigraphic log of the funerary deposits, showing the location of some of the discovered skulls

The skulls dated by SMA are marked by an asterisk

CAD SP and GD, after a sketch by M. Sechter

Fig. 4. Funerary deposit under excavation

Fig. 4. Funerary deposit under excavation

1, view of deposits C1, C2, C3 with, on the right against the wall, skull BR09 (10 November 1966); 2, in the foreground “skeleton” BR19 (C5), described by the excavator as “facing the ground, stretched out, the body is lying from left to right”; top right, fragment of skull BR20 (C5; 25 November 1966); 3, view taken towards the back of the cavity: top right, against the wall, skull BR22 (C5); below, skull BR23 (C6) and its skeleton in the centre; bottom left, flint blade “in position” on white paper (25 November 1966); 4, view taken towards the cave entrance: on the left against the wall, skull BR22 (C5); in the centre, skull and skeleton BR23 (C6); on the right, blade “in position” near skeleton BR25 (C6; 25 November 1966); 5, view of the remains from layer 9 (including maybe skull BR36; end February 1967)

Photos M. Sechter

Fig. 5. Stratigraphic model of the Neolithic events dated with ®ChronoModel

Fig. 5. Stratigraphic model of the Neolithic events dated with ®ChronoModel

(The constraints of theoretical stratigraphic superpositions are indicated by arrows)

CAD, DB

3The dates obtained by Mass Spectrometry Acceleration, between the end of the 6th and the middle of the 5th millennia BCE, show that this is the oldest known Neolithic collective grave in the north-western Mediterranean.

4The radiocarbon analyses were carried out at the University of Salento (CEDAD), on human and animal collagen extracts or on charred plant matter (tab. I). The analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ruled out the hypothesis of older ages due to a deferred reservoir effect, with one exception. Data modelling using ®ChronoModel (Lanos, Philippe and Dufresne, 2015) is based on clustering the 11 Neolithic dates into five distinct events (fig. 5). The modelled dates for these events are consistent with a posteriori models (MAP) between 5047 BCE for C8 and 4724 BCE for C1 (tab. II). Given the excavation conditions, only two successive phases were distinguished (fig. 6). The MAP for the beginning and the end of the funerary phase are respectively placed at 5048 and 4756 BCE whereas the age of the top of the deposit with pottery is placed between 4849 and 4400 BCE, with MAP at 4724 BCE (tab. II).

Fig. 6. Histograms of the Neolithic phases and events of Bréguières modelled with ®ChronoModel

Fig. 6. Histograms of the Neolithic phases and events of Bréguières modelled with ®ChronoModel

HPD, Highest Probability Density region to 95%; MAP, a posteriori Mode

CAD, DB

Table I. Radiometric dates

Réf. CEDAD Age BP σ Réf. Sechter N/Réf. Événement Phase Matériau Nature
LTL-12318A 1579 45 BRE#F1 Indéterminé Indéterminée Collagène Equus caballus ; P4 inférieure droite
LTL-15033A 5966 45 C1 BRE#CH1 C1 Céramique Charbon Matière végétale carbonisée indéterminée
LTL-13783A 5581 45 BR09 BRE#H3256 C2 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de voûte crânienne
LTL-12317A 5870 45 BR06 BRE#H3368 C2 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de pariétal droit
LTL-8484A 6144 45 BR03 BRE#H3386 C2 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de voûte crânienne
LTL-12316A 5964 45 BR28 BRE#H3220 C5 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de temporal droit
LTL-12315A 5864 45 BR20 BRE#H3236 Indéterminé Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de pariétal gauche
LTL-8483A 5971 45 C5 BRE#F2B C5 Funéraire Collagène Bos taurus ; M2 inférieure droite
LTL-8479A 6032 45 C5 BRE#F3 C5 Funéraire Collagène Ovis aries ; M2 inférieure gauche
LTL-8482A 6104 45 BR19 BRE#H19 C5 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de voûte crânienne
LTL-13780A 6101 45 BR33 BRE#H33 C8 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de voûte crânienne
LTL-13784A 6151 45 BR32 BRE#H3260 C8 Funéraire Collagène Homo sapiens ; fragment de voûte crânienne

Table II. Results of the Bayesian modelling of the events dated with ®ChronoModel

Événements HPD MAP Moyenne σ
BREG_C1 [-4849; -4400] -4724 -4664 114
BREG_C2 [-4931; -4606] -4779 -4780 82
BREG_Cindet [-4998; -4594] -4773 -4790 99
BREG_C5 [-5004; -4822] -4922 -4913 47
BREG_C8 [-5231; -4940] -5047 -5080 77

HPD, Highest Probability Density region to 95%; MAP, a posteriori Mode

5Taking into consideration the long duration of the use of the grave and the possibility of distinct operational phases separated by periods of abandonment, the number of deposited individuals greatly exceeds those in geographically and chronologically close graves (Bosch Lloret and Tarrus i Galter, 1990; Zemour, 2013; Vaquer, 2014; Oms et al., 2017) or bone assemblages of similar age, with evidence of cut marks, but with controversial status (Mafart et al., 2004; Voruz et al., 2004; Zemour, 2013; Le Bras-Goude et al., 2010).

6The pottery collected from above the funerary complex (layer C1), includes at least seven recipients (fig. 7). Due to severe alteration, only elementary observations can be made about shaping, finishing and firing processes. On the other hand, the analysis of the pottery with a stereomicroscope led to the identification of four groups of clay pastes (fig. 8). Two of them (A, B) indicate a dual metamorphic (gneiss formations west of Cannes) and dolomitic origin (Triassic to Jurassic formations from the hinterland), while the best-represented group (C, with glauconite) comes from different Cretaceous facies from several kilometres to the north and the north-east of the site, or further again to the east of the Var. Lastly, paste D comes from the use of weathered earth from andesitic volcanism, with the nearest outcrops near Villeneuve-Loubet and Antibes (Dardeau et al., 2010). The typology of the elements present is related to contexts ranging between the end of the Impresso-Cardial and the beginning of the early Chassey culture, between ca 5100 and 4400 BCE, in Emilia and Liguria (Maggi and Starnini, 1997; Tiné, 1999; Mazzieri, 2010) or in eastern Provence (Binder and Sénépart, 2010; Remicourt et al., 2014). In keeping with these comparisons, the use of crushed calcite as a temper is indicative of the technical changes occurring in these regions (Echallier and Courtin, 1994; Basso et al., 2006; Binder and Sénépart, 2010; Manen et al., 2010).

Fig. 7. Main ceramic specimens identified in layer C1

Fig. 7. Main ceramic specimens identified in layer C1

The labels of the ceramic specimens are formed by the letter attributed to the petrographic group followed by a letter. A1, bowl or deep dish; B1, handle in isolated ribbon; C1, bowl or deep dish; C2 and C3, vases with sinuous profile; D1, isolated strip

CAD, IG and GD

Fig. 8. Thin section views of the petrographic groups of the pottery from layer C1, identified with a polarizing microscope (LPA)

Fig. 8. Thin section views of the petrographic groups of the pottery from layer C1, identified with a polarizing microscope (LPA)

Groupe A: 1 to 3; groupe B: 4 to 6; groupe C: 7 to 9; groupe D: 10 to 13

Photos and CAD, GD

7The very low number of artefacts associated with the human remains in relation to the number of individuals may suggest that the deposited corpses were linked to different statuses. At the top of the sequence (C2), a sickle element taken from a large prismatic blade (fig. 9, n°1 and 2) and pressure-flaked using a lever (Pelegrin, 2012) is part of a complex of elements dating from the first half of the 5th millennium in the South of France and the north of Italy (Mazzieri, 2010; Pons et al., 2016; Binder, 2016). This flint object of lacustrine origin (fig. 10, n°1 and 2), and a prismatic blade fragment removed by indirect percussion or by pressure (fig. 9, n°3; fig. 10, n°3 and 4) discovered in the middle of the deposit (C5-C6), indicate the variability of Oligocene materials from the Apt-Forcalquier basin. On the other hand, a laminar flake (fig. 9, n°4; fig. 10, n°5), removed with a hard hammer, is made in Upper Jurassic flint from the Pre-Alps of Grasse (Tomasso et al., 2016).

Fig. 9. Knapped lithic industry

Fig. 9. Knapped lithic industry

1, large pressure-knapped blade using a lever with sickle gloss (layer C2); 2, detail of the bulb and the intra-bulbar line of the large blade (layer C2); 3, fragment of a small blade, pressure-flaked or flaked by indirect percussion (layer C5); 4, laminar flake knapped by direct percussion with a hard hammer (layer C5)

Photos and CAD, DB

Fig. 10. Knapped lithic industry

Fig. 10. Knapped lithic industry

1 and 2, aspects of the Oligocene lacustrine flint with characeae used for the large blade (layer C2); 3 and 4, aspects of the Oligocene lacustrine flint with ostracods used for the small blade (layer C5); 5, aspect of the bioturbated flint from the Upper Jurassic used for the flake (layer C5)

Photos and CAD, DB

8The industry in hard animal matter includes a blowing horn made in a gnarled triton shell, in C6 (fig. 11) and a tool preform in a red deer metatarsal, with no indication of the layer (fig. 12). Gnarled triton shell horns are known in Sardinia in Mesolithic funerary and Impresso-Cardial or post-Cardial contexts (Puddu, 2015). In Liguria (Cortese et al., 2004), well dated specimens are attributed to the early and formative stages of the SMP (Maggi, 1997; Tiné, 1999).

Fig. 11. Blowing horn in triton shell, Charonia lampas (layer C5 or C6)

Fig. 11. Blowing horn in triton shell, Charonia lampas (layer C5 or C6)

1, general views; 2; close up view of the apex shaping

Photos and CAD, DB

Fig. 12. Tool preform in red deer metatarsal, Cervus elaphus

Fig. 12. Tool preform in red deer metatarsal, Cervus elaphus

1, general view; 2, detail of grooving or sawing longitudinal marks

Photos and CAD, LG and MV

9Although the objects deposited in the grave are limited in number, they are thus in keeping with the dates obtained for the two phases of the site.

10The exceptionally well-conserved faunal assemblage contains nearly a thousand bones, including 660 determined bones (12 taxa; tab. IV). These are mainly suids (wild boar), followed by caprinae (five sheep and one goat). Some of these remains result from the anthropogenic consumption of mainly domestic animals (fig. 14), but also game (fig. 15), whereas others (leporids, very young suids or caprinae) could have been accidentally deposited at the site or left there by predators. The presence of virtually whole animal skulls and the relative abundance of dog canines is in keeping with the hypothesis of offerings. These multiple origins would explain the distinctive nature of the assemblage in relation to other sites from Provence dating from the 6th and 5th millennia BCE (Rowley-Conwy et al., 2013).

Table IV. Breakdown of the faunal assemblage

Taxons NR NMI
Cervus elaphus 2 1
Bos taurus 73 5
Sus scrofa 6 1
Sus spp. 244 13
Ovis aries 74 6
Capra hircus 13 2
Ovis/Capra 114 7
Caprinés 17 3
Canis familiaris 10 2
Canis sp. 3 2
Vulpes vulpes 1 1
Erinaceus europaeus 16 2
Lepus europaeus 36 7
Léporidés 48 8
Passériforme 1 1
Aquila chrysaetos 1 1
Bufo bufo 1 1
Total des restes déterminés 660 62
Restes indéterminés 285
Total des restes 945

NR: Number of remains; NMI: Minimum number of individuals

Fig. 14. Ram skull, Ovis aries

Fig. 14. Ram skull, Ovis aries

Photos and CAD, LG and MV

Fig. 15. Wild boar mandible, Sus scrofa

Fig. 15. Wild boar mandible, Sus scrofa

Photos and CAD, LG and MV

11The site of Bréguières yielded over 5,500 human bone remains, 88% of which are determined, and 451 dental remains, rarely on the arch but attributed by the excavator to specific individuals, apart from 27 isolated teeth. The characterization of this assemblage is based on the count of the minimum number of skeletal parts or NMPS (Vigne, 1988), classified according to the maturity stage, in order to estimate the minimum number of individuals, MNI, in its different meanings (Bökönyi, 1970; Poplin, 1976; Villena i Mota et al., 1997). The minimum number of elements allowed us to calculate the percentage of representation of the remains in relation to the expected values on the basis of the MNI (Boulestin, 1999). The weight approach (Duday et al., 2000; Demangeot, 2008) was used to take account of all the determined fragments by comparing the relative weight of each element or skeletal unit to a referential (Lowrance and Latimer, 1957). The highest NMPS, given by the femur (fig. 16), gave a count of 61 individuals, made up of 35 adults and 26 immature individuals (annex 2). The values obtained for the small bones of the extremities are rather low, especially for the immature specimens, which is common (fig. 17). The quantification by weight of the remains of adult age completes these results (annex 3); it gives a particularly low weight index for the bones of the hand (fig. 18) and an over-representation of the femur, the cranio-facial block, the tibia, the humerus and the coxal bone. The analysis denotes the selective transport of some skeletal parts with similar effects to those observed in Saint-Mary Cave at Artenac (Bailloud et al., 2008) (fig. 19 and 20).

Fig. 16. Osteological profile of the human remains

Fig. 16. Osteological profile of the human remains

Histogram of the NMPS (minimum number of skeletal parts) by exclusion (expressed in percentages)

CAD SP

Fig. 17. Comparison according to the maturity stage of the percentages of representation (PR) of the elements from the hands and feet

Fig. 17. Comparison according to the maturity stage of the percentages of representation (PR) of the elements from the hands and feet

The PR were calculated separately using the MNI (minimum number of individuals) frequency obtained for each stage of maturity (cf. annex 2). MTC: Metacarpal; PPM: Proximal hand phalange; PMM: Middle hand phalange; PDM: Distal hand phalange; MTT: Metatarsal; PPP: Proximal foot phalange; PMP: Middle foot phalange; PDP: Distal foot phalange

CAD SP

Fig. 18. Comparison of the weight indexes to the theoretical reference

Fig. 18. Comparison of the weight indexes to the theoretical reference

CAD SP

Fig. 19. Comparison of the NMPS frequency per element (in percentages) at Bréguières and Artenac (CAD SP)

Fig. 19. Comparison of the NMPS frequency per element (in percentages) at Bréguières and Artenac (CAD SP)

BCF: Cranio-facial block; MTC: Metacarpal; Cun. Méd.: Medial cuneiform; Cun. Int.: Intermediate cuneiform; Cun. Lat.: Lateral cuneiform; MTT: Metatarsal

Fig. 20. Representation of the weight indexes per skeletal part at Bréguières and Artenac and comparison with the theoretical reference of Lowrance and Latimer, 1957

Fig. 20. Representation of the weight indexes per skeletal part at Bréguières and Artenac and comparison with the theoretical reference of Lowrance and Latimer, 1957

CAD SP

12Several ways of placing remains in the grave can be envisaged: depositing probably whole bodies, like for one of the identified individuals (annex 1), but also secondary or deferred burial practices (Boulestin, Duday, 2005), illustrated by several traces of artificial modifications (fig. 21) and by the marked deficit of extremity bones.

Fig. 21. Cut marks

Fig. 21. Cut marks

1, on the femur H1632, posterior view; 2, on the radius H2201, distal articular surface, antero-inferior view

Photo SP

13The recruitment study using demography principles and tools (Ledermann, 1969; Bocquet and Masset, 1977; Sellier, 1995, 1996) aims to determine whether the human remains from this funerary complex are a representative sample of the mortality of the population from which they come, or whether they represent a selection based on age at death or the gender of the deceased. From this viewpoint, the ages at death estimated from bone growth (Black and Scheuer, 1996; Scheuer and Black, 2000; Rissech et al., 2003, 2005, 2007), were reported for each age class (tab. V), with the corrected NMPS corresponding to the highest counts (Desbat et al., 2012). Six quite similar possible distribution patterns emerge (tab. VI). The mortality of immature specimens, which appears to be normal at first glance, with mortality quotients before 15 or 20 years included in the theoretical intervals (tab. VII), would indicate a life expectancy at birth of 35 to 40 years, and then a mortality surprisingly low for a Neolithic population. The mortality of the 5-9-year-old and 10-14-year-old classes (fig. 22) seems to be extremely high, indicating life expectancy at birth of less than 20 years. Below this threshold, a population is incapable of sustaining itself (Sellier, 1996). To a lesser degree, the rate of death among individuals aged between 15 and 19 years is high. Based on the criteria identified on adult coxal bones (Bruzek, 2002; Murail et al., 2005), it was possible to identify ten men and nine women (tab. VIII); a tenth woman was identified from a pre-auricular furrow. These results are compatible with equal male and female access to the grave. The estimation of the ages at death (Schmitt, 2001) indicates the presence of three main categories of adults (young, mature and old), with no clear relationship to gender (tab. IX). In sum, distribution anomalies concern the under-representation of adults and children less than 5 years old, particularly those less than a year old. The hypothesis of the preferential weathering of the youngest children (Bello et al., 2002) can be ruled out on the basis of the excellent preservation of the juvenile caprinae and suid remains, which are just as vulnerable. We must thus conclude that access to this sector of the cavity could be related to rules at least partly established according to age at death.

Table V. Distribution of the minimum number of skeletal parts (NMPS) according to age categories

Élément [0-1] [0-4] [1-4] [1-9] [5-9] [0-9] [5-14] [10-14] [10-19] [15-19] TOTAL
Clavicule 1 4 1 2 2 2 1 1 14
Humérus 3 6 6 2 2 1 21
Radius 1 3 3 1 6 2 16
Ulna 3 3 3 6 1 1 17
Coxal 6 3 1 2 1 2 15
Fémur 2 3 9 2 5 3 1 25
Tibia 2 3 6 2 1 6 1 1 22
Fibula 1 1 1 6 1 1 11
Total 3 2 9 2 5 3 2 26

Table VI. R1 to R6 distribution possibilities of specimens between two age categories and corresponding mortality quotients

Effectifs des classes d’âge Quotients de mortalité (‰) Rapports des décès
0-1 1-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-ω 1q0 4q1 5q5 5q10 5q15 15q0 20q0 D5-9 / D10-14 D5-14 / D20-ω
1 5 11 5 3 2 35 82 196,4 111,1 75 54,1 393,4 426,2 1,67 0,23
2 4 12 5 3 2 35 65,6 210,5 111,1 75 54,1 393,4 426,2 1,67 0,23
3 3 13 5 3 2 35 49,2 224,1 111,1 75 54,1 393,4 426,2 1,67 0,23
4 5 10 6 3 2 35 82 178,6 130,4 75 54,1 393,4 426,2 2 0,26
5 4 11 6 3 2 35 65,6 193 130,4 75 54,1 393,4 426,2 2 0,26
6 3 12 6 3 2 35 49,2 206,9 130,4 75 54,1 393,4 426,2 2 0,26

Table VII. S. Ledermann’s (1969) mortality type tables according to life expectancy at birth

1q0 4q1 5q5 5q10 5q15 15q0 20q0 D5-9 / D10-14 D5-14 / D20-ω
0 = 20 (q+2 S.E.) 539,98 802,26 153,46 81,24 114,09 1 114,11 1 145,9 2,090 0,284
0 = 20 376,29 478,96 95,44 51,19 68,73 721,09 740,25 2,060 0,170
0 = 25 320,4 362,75 76,89 42,62 58,44 617,27 640,00 1,954 0,140
0 = 30 269,8 269,52 61,03 35,04 49,15 516,71 540,46 1,855 0,109
0 = 35 224,32 195,88 47,62 28,39 40,8 422,83 446,00 1,761 0,084
0 = 40 183,76 138,77 36,42 22,62 33,37 337,90 360,04 1,670 0,060
0 = 40 (q-2 S.E.) 128,06 82,85 22,65 14,26 20,1 221,26 234,57 1,648 0,040

Fig. 22. Mortality quotients (in ‰) of the age classes of non-mature individuals and comparison with the confidence interval of 95% (q±2 s. e.) of the type-tables e° 0=25-35 years

Fig. 22. Mortality quotients (in ‰) of the age classes of non-mature individuals and comparison with the confidence interval of 95% (q±2 s. e.) of the type-tables e° 0=25-35 years

The curves 1 to 6 correspond to the distributions obtained after application of the minimalization principle of anomalies

Ledermann, 1969; CAD SP

Table VIII. Results of the sexual determination at a 95% reliability threshold

#H Sexe Méthode
1251 D M Métrique
19 D M Métrique
3515 D M Métrique
3660 G M Métrique
3668 D F Métrique
3670 G M Visuelle
3680 G M Métrique
3688 D M Métrique
3695 D M Métrique
3696 D F Métrique
3699 D M Métrique
3708 D F Visuelle
3710 D F Métrique
3712 G F Métrique
3723 G F Métrique
3733 D F Visuelle
3737 D M Métrique
3739 D F Visuelle
3740 D F Métrique

Using the methods of P. Murail et al. (2005) and J. Bruzek (2002)

Table IX. Age estimation of the adult specimens

#H Sexe Estimation
3712 F > 50
3740 F > 40
3741 I > 50
3699 M 20-29
1251 M > 60
3688 M >30
3737 M 20-59
19 M 20-59
3708 F > 30
3733 F > 40
6107 I > 30
3660 M > 30
3695 M > 20

Result reliability of over 80%

Using the method of A. Schmitt (2005) for two observers

14Isotopic analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were carried out on the bone collagen (Ambrose, 1993; Valentin, 2003) and dental collagen (Weiss and Jayson, 1982) from five humans and five animal species from the site, in order to verify the potential of the bio-archaeological study of the series and to characterize the subsistence modes of the deposited individuals and the evolution of these modes throughout life. The well-conserved collagen was extracted following the classical protocols (Longin, 1971; Bocherens, 1992; Bocherens et al., 2005; Fontugne et al., 2014).

15The data (tables X and fig. 23) indicate that for humans, the isotopic carbon ratios are generally identical during the two formation periods of dental and bone tissue, with one exception. For nitrogen, only one individual does not show any modification in the isotopic signal and thus in the diet between the formation periods of both tissues. This individual is about 10 years old, and presents significant wear of the deciduous molars (tab. XI), which would explain the similarity in the recorded signals. On the other hand, variable differences are observed for the four other specimens. One of them is positioned very high in the food chain in relation to potentially eaten animals, as much during the course of childhood as at adult age. The increased consumption of animal proteins, and particularly of marine resources, is very probable during the last years of this individual’s life. On the other hand, for another specimen, a relative decrease in the consumption of animal proteins is suggested between childhood and the latter years of life.

Table X. Collagen extraction yield, elementary concentrations and isotopic ratios of the bone and dental samples from Bréguières (this study) and bone samples from comparison sites

Site Échantillon Espèce δ13C(‰) δ15N(‰) C/N %C %N Rdt (mg/g)
Breguières Br 3236 os Humain -19,5 9,6 3,3 34,4 12,3 26,4
Breguières Br 3236 dent Humain -19,3 10,5 3,3 33,7 12,0 39,4
Breguières Br 3220 os Humain -18,1 11,2 3,2 39,4 14,1 37,5
Breguières Br 3220 dent Humain -19,6 10,0 3,2 40,0 14,5 54,6
Breguières Br 3368 os Humain -19,8 8,1 3,1 37,4 14,1 29,9
Breguières Br 3368 dent Humain -19,7 9,4 3,3 35,8 12,7 40,9
Breguières Br 19 os Humain -20,0 9,2 3,3 41,6 14,9 50,6
Breguières Br 19 dent Humain -19,9 8,3 3,2 32,0 11,7 44,3
Breguières Br 3386 os Humain -20,0 9,0 3,2 40,6 14,5 75,3
Breguières Br 3386 dent Humain -19,9 8,9 3,3 41,7 14,6 43,7
Breguières Br_F1 os Mouton -20,4 4,1 3,3 43,0 15,3 44,7
Breguières Br_F1 dent Mouton -20,3 5,6 3,3 38,7 13,7 61,2
Breguières Br_F2A dent Bœuf -21,5 6,1 3,3 37,2 13,2 85,7
Breguières Br_F2B os Bœuf -21,4 5,6 3,3 40,7 14,4 46,6
Breguières Br_F3 os Sanglier -20,3 5,1 3,3 37,8 13,2 35,0
Breguières Br_F3 dent Sanglier -20,7 5,6 3,3 40,0 14,1 66,7
Breguières Br_F4 dent Cheval -21,6 5,0 3,2 42,8 15,3 79,4
Breguières Br_F5 dent Chien -19,3 10,0 3,2 42,5 15,2 25,4
Fontbrégoua FH1-1 Humain -20,4 9,4 3,3 29,4 10,5 2,0
Fontbrégoua FH1-2 Humain -19,8 9,5 3,2 41,5 15,2 91,7
Fontbrégoua FH1-3 Humain -19,8 9,4 3,2 42,7 15,5 94,8
Fontbrégoua FH3-A Humain -19,8 9,8 3,2 43,6 15,7 53,5
Fontbrégoua FH3-B Humain -19,8 9,2 3,1 37,8 14,1 48,3
Fontbrégoua FH3-C Humain -19,8 9,6 3,1 42,4 15,8 30,6
Fontbrégoua FB 1252 Mouton -19,8 4,5 3,2 42,5 15,5 65,9
Fontbrégoua FB 1081 Mouton -19,9 5,0 3,2 42,8 15,7 75,3
Fontbrégoua FB 1411 Mouton -20,1 4,9 3,2 40,7 14,9 68,4
Fontbrégoua FB 1599 Mouton -19,7 4,5 3,2 40,7 14,9 81,9
Fontbrégoua FB 1488 Bœuf -20,1 6,1 3,2 43,0 15,6 79,2
Fontbrégoua FB 962 Bœuf -21,1 6,0 3,4 34,9 11,8 3,5
Fontbrégoua FB 473 Bœuf -19,8 7,3 3,2 41,6 15,2 95,1
Fontbrégoua FB 875 Porc -20,0 6,7 3,2 41,2 15,1 56,7
Fontbrégoua FB 652 Porc -20,0 5,5 3,2 42,0 15,3 43,7
Fontbrégoua FB 1052 Cerf -20,6 4,5 3,1 39,0 14,5 62,4
Fontbrégoua FB 447 Cerf -20,6 4,5 3,2 39,3 14,5 4,0
Fontbrégoua FB 1027 Chevreuil -20,8 5,2 3,5 42,2 14,1 4,9
Arene Candide AC 1T Humain -19,5 9,4 3,4 45,3 15,7 36,2
Arene Candide AC 2T Humain -20,4 9,5 3,4 41,2 14,0 26,7
Arene Candide AC 3T Humain -20,5 8,5 3,4 31,8 10,8 68,9
Arene Candide AC 2BB Humain -19,6 8,7 3,4 39,9 13,7 11,7
Arene Candide AC 6BB Humain -19,7 9,4 3,4 50,2 17,4 45,3
Arene Candide AC 7BB Humain -20,4 9,6 3,4 34,4 11,7 38,6
Arene Candide AC 9BB Humain -20,0 8,4 3,4 45,3 15,7 65,4
Arene Candide AC F1 Porc/Sanglier -20,4 6,0 3,4 55,2 18,7 39,3
Arene Candide AC F2 Porc/Sanglier -21,1 4,6 3,3 47,0 16,4 35,7
Arene Candide AC F3 Porc/Sanglier -21,6 3,8 3,4 47,7 16,1 35,0
Arene Candide AC F4 Bœuf/Aurochs -20,3 4,5 3,5 41,1 13,8 24,1
Arene Candide AC F5 Bœuf/Aurochs -19,8 5,1 3,5 46,4 15,5 33,8
Arene Candide AC F6 Mouton -20,7 5,6 3,4 42,5 14,3 32,1
Arene Candide AC F7 Mouton -20,2 4,4 3,4 47,6 16,1 37,9
Arene Candide AC F8 Mouton/Chèvre -21,6 4,0 3,5 44,0 14,7 24,2
Arene Candide AC F9 Mouton/Chèvre -20,8 4,4 3,5 38,7 12,8 6,3
Arene Candide AC F10 Mouton/Chèvre -20,4 6,8 3,3 49,7 17,7 48,8
Arene Candide AC F11 Chevreuil -21,3 3,7 3,3 39,8 13,8 14,2
Arene Candide AC F12 Cerf -20,5 5,5 3,4 43,9 15,2 8,2
Arene Candide AC F13 Cerf -22,4 4,3 3,3 47,4 16,6 39,6
Pian del Ciliegio PC H2 Humain -20,2 8,1 3,2 36,4 13,5 16,1
Pian del Ciliegio PC F1 Porc/Sanglier -20,5 5,6 3,2 46,0 16,7 9,6
Pian del Ciliegio PC F2 Porc/Sanglier -20,1 4,9 3,2 48,1 17,7 93,5
Pian del Ciliegio PC F3 Porc/Sanglier -20,3 5,5 3,4 46,1 15,7 7,5

From Le Bras-Goude et al., 2006; 2010; Goude et al., 2014

Fig. 23. Results of the isotopic analysis

Fig. 23. Results of the isotopic analysis

CAD, GG

16At the scale of the Ligurian-Provencal arc (table XI and fig. 24), we observe that the isotopic ratios obtained on animal bone collagen are similar, apart from the dog, which occupies a very high position in the trophic chain, pointing to an unusually high meat intake in relation to the other studied sites (Goude, 2007; Herrscher and Le Bras-Goude, 2010). The values obtained for the five humans confirm the tendency established in the region, with a diet predominantly based on protein from land animals (Le Bras-Goude et al., 2006a, 2006b, 2010; Goude et al., 2011, 2014). However, one individual presents a signal of about 20% for the consumption of sea produce, as observed in older west Mediterranean contexts (Costa et al., 2003; Mannino et al., 2012; Salazar-García et al., 2014; Goude et al., 2014).

Table XI. Partial anthropological data recorded on the sampled remains; dental wear

Lab-Code Données anthropologiques partielles
Br 3236 Arthrose temporo-mandibulaire
Br 3220 Usure dentaire très importante stade 7, fracture consolidée au menton, parodontose, hypoplasies sur les prémolaires et canines, tartre dépôt léger sur canines et incisives
Br 19 Usure des molaires au stade 5, résorption alvéolaire, parodontose
Br 3386 Usure des molaires au stade 4, parodontose, résorption alvéolaire, tartre sur faces vestibulaires et linguales supra-gingival pour incisives et canines et infra-gingival pour les molaires

Fig. 24. Comparative isotopic analysis of the Neolithic human and faunal remains in the south of France and Liguria

Fig. 24. Comparative isotopic analysis of the Neolithic human and faunal remains in the south of France and Liguria

CAD, GG

CAD, GG

17Bréguières is part of a diversified complex of graves. In Provence, where it is still difficult to untangle the different aspects alleged to derive from the Impresso-Cardial from those that are probably at the origin of the Chassean Complex (Binder and Lepère, 2014), we observe individual tombs, in pits (Zemour et al., 2017) or perhaps presenting the remains of lithic architecture (Le Bras-Goude et al., 2006b), and secondary pit deposits (Le Bras-Goude et al., 2010). In the Finalese, in an initial and early SMP context, the tombs are individual, in pits or more generally in cists (Del Lucchese, 1997b). The clustering of tombs in caves, like in Liguria, or in the open air, like in Emilia (Bernabo Brea and Mazzieri, 2014), illustrates the formation of small cemeteries, which only occurs several centuries later in the southern half of France (Vaquer, 2014). Collective graves represent another type of grouping, and are just as significant from a social viewpoint: identification of a long duration specialized site, meeting place and intensification of social practices, which may be structuring in terms of territorial organization. The chronological coincidence between the emergence of these sites and megalithism and monumentalism, in a context marked by the development of transfers on a European scale, can be considered to be significant of the renewal of symbolic and social paradigms.

18Lastly, this research opens up particularly stimulating methodological perspectives, and subject to an extension of the number of direct dates on human collagen, the series could contribute to developments in molecular biology, isotopy, elementary analysis… in order to better define the ways of life of Neolithic populations. As of now, the first analyses published here renew our vision of the diet by bringing to light different factors of intra-populational but also intra-individual variability or differentiation. The question of mobility during the course of a lifetime is also a key issue that this collection could contribute to, particularly by trying to trace changes in residence by studying isotopic strontium and sulphur markers (Bentley et al., 2004; Nehlich, 2015), and relating these to the routes marked out by the acquisition of mineral materials (fig. 25). The dating of Bréguières also leads us to reconsider many osteological collections from southern karstic cavities where a “recent” age is perhaps too often assigned on the sole basis of the abundance of remains and the type of site in which they were deposited. There is clearly much site revision and characterization to be done, with good heuristic potential.

Fig. 25. Les Bréguières: possible provisioning zone in geomaterials

Fig. 25. Les Bréguières: possible provisioning zone in geomaterials

1, Lacustrine Oligocene limestone with flint from the Apt-Forcalquier Basin; 2, Upper Jurassic limestone with flint from the Pre-Alps of Grasse; 3, Cretaceous limestone with glauconite; 4, Dolomitic Triassic and Jurassic formations; 5, Ante-Triassic metamorphic bedrock; 6, Oligo-Miocene volcanic-sedimentary formations; 7, Location of Bréguières

CAD GD

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Annexe

Annexe 1. Individual BR19

N° pièce Os Rang Latéralisation Proportion conservée Remarques
19 Bloc crânio-facial - 75-99%
19-46 Clavicule D 100%
19-33 Scapula D 75-99%
19-32 Scapula G 50-74%
19-60 Côte 1 G 75-99%
19-20 Vertèbre cervicale 2 - 100%
19-18 Vertèbre cervicale 4 - 75-99%
19-10 Vertèbre cervicale 5 - 75-99%
19-12 Vertèbre cervicale 6 - 75-99%
19-13 Vertèbre cervicale 7 - 75-99%
19-18 Vertèbre thoracique 1 - 75-99%
19-14 Vertèbre thoracique 2 - 75-99%
19-15 Vertèbre thoracique - 50-74%
19-16 Vertèbre thoracique - 75-99%
19-17 Vertèbre thoracique - 50-74%
19-26 Vertèbre thoracique - 0-24%
19-3 Vertèbre thoracique 11 - 75-99%
19-4 Vertèbre thoracique 12 - 75-99% ou 11
19-5 Vertèbre thoracique 10 - 100% ou 11
19-21 Vertèbre thoracique - 100%
19-9 Vertèbre lombaire - 75-99%
19-6 Vertèbre lombaire 1 - 100%
19-2 Vertèbre lombaire 2 - 100%
19-1 Vertèbre lombaire 3 - 100%
19-8 Vertèbre lombaire 4 - 75-99%
19-7 Vertèbre lombaire 5 - 75-99%
19-19 Sacrum - 75-99% non-mature
19-38 Sacrum - 75-99%
19-40 Radius D 75-99%
19-30 Coxal D 75-99%
19-25 Coxal G 50-74%
19-41 Fémur G 50-74%
19-47 Fémur D 75-99%
19-48 Fibula G 75-99%
19-44 Fibula D 25-49%
19-53 Tibia D 75-99%
19-52 Tibia G 75-99%
19-49 Talus D 100%
19-50 Calcanéus G 75-99%
19-51 Calcanéus D 75-99%
Maxillaires D P2 ; M1
G I2 ; C ; P1 ; P2
Maxillaires D M1 ; M2 ; M3
G M1 ; M2

(1) Bone remains attributed to the individual by M. Sechter. In grey: remains for which the attribution to individual 19 turned out to be incorrect. The conservation classes indicated for each remain (0-25%; 25-50%; 50%; 50-75%; 75-100%; 100%) were established after Bello et al., 2003.
(2) Dental remains. I2: lateral incisor; C: canine; P1/P2: first and second premolar; M1/M2/M3: first, second and third molar. All the teeth are included; no isolated remains were attributed to the individual. The second upper right molar was lost ante mortem

Annexe 2. Values of the quantification parameters per skeletal part, according to the stage of maturity

NMPS (fréquence)

NMPS (exclusion)

NME

PR

Ad.

Im.

I.

Tot.

%NMPS

Ad.

Im.

I.

Tot.

%NMPS

Ad.

Im.

I.

Tot.

Ad.

Im.

Tot.

BCF

29

14

5

48

84,2

30

15

6

51

83,6

29

14

5

48

100

66,7

80

Mandibule

22

13

5

40

70,2

22

13

5

40

65,6

22

13

5

40

75,9

57,1

65

Hyoïde

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Atlas

16

3

-

19

33,3

18

3

-

21

34,4

16

3

-

19

55,2

14,3

31,7

Axis

19

5

-

24

42,1

20

6

-

26

42,6

19

5

-

24

65,5

23,8

40

VC 3 à 7

10

5

-

15

26,3

10

6

-

16

26,2

49

25

-

74

33,8

23,8

24,7

VT

17

5

-

22

38,6

17

5

-

22

36,1

155

50

-

205

44,5

19,8

28,5

VL

14

5

-

19

33,3

14

10

-

24

39,3

66

24

-

90

45,5

22,9

30

Sacrum

19

7

-

26

45,6

21

7

-

28

45,9

19

7

-

26

65,5

33,3

43,3

Total rachis

19

7

-

26

45,6

21

11

-

32

52,5

324

114

-

438

44,7

21,7

29,2

Côte 1

9

3

-

12

21,1

16

6

-

22

36,1

17

6

-

23

29,3

14,3

19,2

Manubrium

5

1

-

6

10,5

5

1

-

6

9,8

5

1

-

6

17,2

4,7

10

Gladiola

2

1

-

3

5,3

2

1

-

3

4,9

2

1

-

3

6,9

4,7

5

Clavicule

18

9

-

27

47,4

24

14

-

38

62,3

33

16

-

49

56,9

38,1

40,8

Scapula

23

8

1

32

56,1

25

16

2

43

70,5

44

16

2

62

75,9

38,1

51,7

Humérus

26

18

1

45

78,9

29

21

2

52

85,2

49

35

3

87

89,7

83,3

72,5

Radius

21

10

-

31

54,4

22

16

-

38

62,3

35

20

-

55

60,3

47,6

45,8

Ulna

23

12

2

37

64,9

24

17

2

43

70,5

47

20

4

71

81

47,6

59,2

Scaphoïde

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Lunatum

1

-

-

1

1,8

1

-

-

1

1,6

1

-

-

1

1,7

-

0,8

Triquetrum

1

-

-

1

1,8

2

-

-

2

3,3

2

-

-

2

3,4

-

1,7

Pisiforme

1

-

-

1

1,8

1

-

-

1

1,6

1

-

-

1

1,7

-

0,8

Trapèze

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Trapézoïde

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Hamatum

1

-

-

1

1,8

2

-

-

2

3,3

2

-

-

2

3,4

-

1,7

Capitatum

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

MTC 1

12

2

-

14

24,6

13

2

-

15

24,6

21

3

-

24

36,2

7,1

20

MTC 2

15

4

-

19

33,3

17

5

-

22

36,1

26

5

-

31

44,8

11,9

25,8

MTC 3

18

2

-

20

35,1

22

2

-

24

39,3

35

2

-

37

60,3

4,8

30,8

MTC 4

8

3

-

11

19,3

10

3

-

13

21,3

14

4

-

18

24,1

9,5

15

MTC 5

9

1

-

10

17,5

12

1

-

13

21,3

16

1

-

17

27,6

2,4

14,2

Total MTC 2-5

18

2

-

20

35,1

22

2

-

24

39,3

103

14

-

117

44,4

8,3

24,4

PPM 1

2

3

-

5

8,8

3

3

-

6

9,8

3

3

-

6

5,2

7,1

5

PPM 2-5

8

1

-

9

15,8

8

3

-

11

18,0

60

7

-

67

25,9

4,2

14

PMM

1

1

-

2

3,5

1

1

-

2

3,3

7

1

-

8

3

0,6

1,7

PDM 1

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

PDM 2-5

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Coxal

27

13

-

40

70,2

28

15

1

44

72,1

54

24

-

78

93,1

57,1

65

Fémur

34

23

-

57

100

35

26

-

61

100

67

43

0

110

91,4

90,5

91,7

Patella

13

-

-

13

22,8

14

-

-

14

23,0

22

-

-

22

37,9

-

18,3

Tibia

28

20

-

48

84,2

31

22

-

53

86,9

53

32

-

85

91,4

76,2

70,8

Fibula

24

8

-

32

56,1

26

11

-

37

60,7

46

14

-

60

79,3

33,3

50

Talus

23

1

-

24

42,1

25

1

-

26

42,6

44

2

-

46

75,9

4,8

38,3

Calcanéus

23

3

-

26

45,6

23

5

-

28

45,9

42

6

-

48

72,4

14,3

40

Naviculaire

11

-

-

11

19,3

13

-

-

13

21,3

18

-

-

18

31,0

-

15

Cuboïde

3

-

-

3

5,3

6

-

-

6

9,8

6

-

-

6

10,3

-

5

Cun. Méd.

3

-

-

3

5,3

3

-

-

3

4,9

4

-

-

4

6,9

-

3,3

Cun. Int.

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Cun. Lat.

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

MTT 1

22

5

-

27

47,4

22

6

-

28

45,9

42

9

-

51

72,4

21,4

42,5

MTT 2

18

3

-

21

36,8

20

3

-

23

37,7

34

5

-

39

58,6

11,9

32,5

MTT 3

16

2

-

18

31,6

19

2

-

21

34,4

28

2

-

30

48,3

4,8

25

MTT 4

13

2

-

15

26,3

13

2

-

15

24,6

21

2

-

23

36,2

4,8

19,2

MTT 5

20

3

-

23

40,4

22

3

-

25

41,0

36

5

-

41

62,1

11,9

34,2

Total MTT 2-5

22

5

-

27

47,4

22

6

-

28

45,9

137

20

-

157

59,1

11,9

32,7

PPP I

9

1

-

10

17,5

9

1

-

10

16,4

17

1

-

18

29,3

2,4

15

PPP 2-5

5

-

-

5

8,8

5

-

-

5

8,2

34

-

-

34

14,7

-

7,1

PMP

1

-

-

1

1,8

1

-

-

1

1,6

1

-

-

1

0,4

-

0,2

PDP 1

1

-

-

1

1,8

1

-

-

1

1,6

1

-

-

1

1,7

-

0,8

PDP 2-5

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

0

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

Ad.: Adults; Im.: Immatures; I.: Indeterminates; BCF: craniofacial block; VC: cervical vertebrae; VT: thoracic vertebrae; VL: lumbar vertebrae; MTC / MTT: metacarpal / metatarsal; PPM / PPP: proximal hand phalange / proximal foot phalange; PM: middle phalange; PD: distal phalange; med. / int. / lat. cun.: medial / intermediate/ lateral cuneiform

Annexe 3. Gross weight data per skeletal part according to the maturity stage (in grammes) and relative weight indexes

Référentiel(%) Bréguières
Ad. Ind. Im.
Masse % Tot. Masse % Tot. Masse % Tot.
Crâne 17,98 11220 21,39 991 27,41 2237 28,74
Mandibule 2,42 1059 2,02 95 2,63 335 4,30
Tête 20,4 12279 23,41 1086 30,04 2572 33,04
Atlas 10,06 109 8,56 - 0,17 7 7,21
Axis 144 - 19
VC 3 à 7 281 - 43
VT 1488 - 175
VL 1486 - 218
Vert. indet. 115 - 32
Sacrum 865 6 67
Coccyx - - -
Total rachis 4488 6 561
Côtes 6,42 1937 3,69 - 0 114 1,46
Sternum 0,47 112 0,21 - 0 6 0,08
Tronc 16,95 6537 12,46 6 0,17 681 8,75
Clavicule 1,04 439 0,84 18 0,50 85 1,09
Scapula 2,84 1092 2,08 47 1,30 143 1,84
Humérus 6,38 3417,4 6,52 169 4,67 538 6,91
Radius 2,18 911 1,74 39 1,08 163 2,09
Ulna 2,66 1317 2,51 69 1,91 148 1,90
Carpe 2,53 7 0,90 0 0,01 - 0,33
Métacarpe 348 0,25 18
Phalanges main 119 0,25 7,5
Main 474 0,5 25,5
Membre sup. 17,63 7650,4 14,59 342,5 9,47 1102,5 14,16
Coxal 7,83 4133 7,88 237 6,56 547 7,03
Fémur 17,67 10992,78 20,96 1546 42,76 1844 23,69
Patella 0,57 211 0,40 - 0 - 0
Tibia 10,63 5932,5 11,31 203 5,61 849 10,91
Fibula 2,47 1230 2,34 95 2,63 119 1,53
Tarse 5,79 2016,8 5,48 - 0 - 0,72
Métatarse 788 - 54
Phalanges pied 70 - 2
Sésamoïde - - -
Pied 2874,8 - 56
Membre inf. 44,96 25508,88 48,63 2081 57,56 3415 43,87
Total déterminé 51975,28 99,09 3515,5 97,23 7770,5 99,83
Total indét. 478,5 0,91 100 2,77 13 0,17
TOTAL 52453,78 100 3615,5 100 7783,5 100
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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. Geological context of Bréguières at Mougins
Légende Metamorphic bedrock: 1ζ, augen stratified gneiss, para-gneiss; δ, amphibolites; λ, leptynites; 2ζ, black gneiss; Secondary formations: ti, sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites from the Lower Triassic; tm, Middle Triassic limestone and dolomites; ts, clays and evaporites from the Upper Triassic; Ii, Hettangian dolomites and limestone; j1-2, Bathonian-Bajocian clayey limestone; jD, Jurassic of dolomitic facies; Tertiary formations: ei-m, clays, sands and limestone from the Lower and Middle Eocene; em-s, limestone from the Lutetian and Priabonian; mα, andesitic breccia; p, Pliocene marls, sands and conglomerates; Quaternary formations: M, non-differentiated marine formations and dunes; Œ, loess; Fx, Fz, alluvial deposits
Crédits Geoportail, BRGM
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,7M
Titre Fig. 2. View of the fault and the Bréguières quarry during extraction (on the right) and extension of the cavity in section (on the left)
Crédits Photo M. Sechter; CAD SP and GD, after a sketch by M. Sechter
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 888k
Titre Fig. 3. Stratigraphic log of the funerary deposits, showing the location of some of the discovered skulls
Légende The skulls dated by SMA are marked by an asterisk
Crédits CAD SP and GD, after a sketch by M. Sechter
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 967k
Titre Fig. 4. Funerary deposit under excavation
Légende 1, view of deposits C1, C2, C3 with, on the right against the wall, skull BR09 (10 November 1966); 2, in the foreground “skeleton” BR19 (C5), described by the excavator as “facing the ground, stretched out, the body is lying from left to right”; top right, fragment of skull BR20 (C5; 25 November 1966); 3, view taken towards the back of the cavity: top right, against the wall, skull BR22 (C5); below, skull BR23 (C6) and its skeleton in the centre; bottom left, flint blade “in position” on white paper (25 November 1966); 4, view taken towards the cave entrance: on the left against the wall, skull BR22 (C5); in the centre, skull and skeleton BR23 (C6); on the right, blade “in position” near skeleton BR25 (C6; 25 November 1966); 5, view of the remains from layer 9 (including maybe skull BR36; end February 1967)
Crédits Photos M. Sechter
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,5M
Titre Fig. 5. Stratigraphic model of the Neolithic events dated with ®ChronoModel
Légende (The constraints of theoretical stratigraphic superpositions are indicated by arrows)
Crédits CAD, DB
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 183k
Titre Fig. 6. Histograms of the Neolithic phases and events of Bréguières modelled with ®ChronoModel
Légende HPD, Highest Probability Density region to 95%; MAP, a posteriori Mode
Crédits CAD, DB
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 479k
Titre Fig. 7. Main ceramic specimens identified in layer C1
Légende The labels of the ceramic specimens are formed by the letter attributed to the petrographic group followed by a letter. A1, bowl or deep dish; B1, handle in isolated ribbon; C1, bowl or deep dish; C2 and C3, vases with sinuous profile; D1, isolated strip
Crédits CAD, IG and GD
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 584k
Titre Fig. 8. Thin section views of the petrographic groups of the pottery from layer C1, identified with a polarizing microscope (LPA)
Légende Groupe A: 1 to 3; groupe B: 4 to 6; groupe C: 7 to 9; groupe D: 10 to 13
Crédits Photos and CAD, GD
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,7M
Titre Fig. 9. Knapped lithic industry
Légende 1, large pressure-knapped blade using a lever with sickle gloss (layer C2); 2, detail of the bulb and the intra-bulbar line of the large blade (layer C2); 3, fragment of a small blade, pressure-flaked or flaked by indirect percussion (layer C5); 4, laminar flake knapped by direct percussion with a hard hammer (layer C5)
Crédits Photos and CAD, DB
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Titre Fig. 10. Knapped lithic industry
Légende 1 and 2, aspects of the Oligocene lacustrine flint with characeae used for the large blade (layer C2); 3 and 4, aspects of the Oligocene lacustrine flint with ostracods used for the small blade (layer C5); 5, aspect of the bioturbated flint from the Upper Jurassic used for the flake (layer C5)
Crédits Photos and CAD, DB
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 11. Blowing horn in triton shell, Charonia lampas (layer C5 or C6)
Légende 1, general views; 2; close up view of the apex shaping
Crédits Photos and CAD, DB
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,1M
Titre Fig. 12. Tool preform in red deer metatarsal, Cervus elaphus
Légende 1, general view; 2, detail of grooving or sawing longitudinal marks
Crédits Photos and CAD, LG and MV
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 469k
Titre Fig. 14. Ram skull, Ovis aries
Crédits Photos and CAD, LG and MV
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 15. Wild boar mandible, Sus scrofa
Crédits Photos and CAD, LG and MV
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 607k
Titre Fig. 16. Osteological profile of the human remains
Légende Histogram of the NMPS (minimum number of skeletal parts) by exclusion (expressed in percentages)
Crédits CAD SP
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 771k
Titre Fig. 17. Comparison according to the maturity stage of the percentages of representation (PR) of the elements from the hands and feet
Légende The PR were calculated separately using the MNI (minimum number of individuals) frequency obtained for each stage of maturity (cf. annex 2). MTC: Metacarpal; PPM: Proximal hand phalange; PMM: Middle hand phalange; PDM: Distal hand phalange; MTT: Metatarsal; PPP: Proximal foot phalange; PMP: Middle foot phalange; PDP: Distal foot phalange
Crédits CAD SP
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 328k
Titre Fig. 18. Comparison of the weight indexes to the theoretical reference
Crédits CAD SP
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 280k
Titre Fig. 19. Comparison of the NMPS frequency per element (in percentages) at Bréguières and Artenac (CAD SP)
Légende BCF: Cranio-facial block; MTC: Metacarpal; Cun. Méd.: Medial cuneiform; Cun. Int.: Intermediate cuneiform; Cun. Lat.: Lateral cuneiform; MTT: Metatarsal
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 389k
Titre Fig. 20. Representation of the weight indexes per skeletal part at Bréguières and Artenac and comparison with the theoretical reference of Lowrance and Latimer, 1957
Crédits CAD SP
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 295k
Titre Fig. 21. Cut marks
Légende 1, on the femur H1632, posterior view; 2, on the radius H2201, distal articular surface, antero-inferior view
Crédits Photo SP
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,5M
Titre Fig. 22. Mortality quotients (in ‰) of the age classes of non-mature individuals and comparison with the confidence interval of 95% (q±2 s. e.) of the type-tables e° 0=25-35 years
Légende The curves 1 to 6 correspond to the distributions obtained after application of the minimalization principle of anomalies
Crédits Ledermann, 1969; CAD SP
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 235k
Titre Fig. 23. Results of the isotopic analysis
Crédits CAD, GG
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 286k
Titre Fig. 24. Comparative isotopic analysis of the Neolithic human and faunal remains in the south of France and Liguria
Crédits CAD, GG
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 530k
Titre Fig. 25. Les Bréguières: possible provisioning zone in geomaterials
Légende 1, Lacustrine Oligocene limestone with flint from the Apt-Forcalquier Basin; 2, Upper Jurassic limestone with flint from the Pre-Alps of Grasse; 3, Cretaceous limestone with glauconite; 4, Dolomitic Triassic and Jurassic formations; 5, Ante-Triassic metamorphic bedrock; 6, Oligo-Miocene volcanic-sedimentary formations; 7, Location of Bréguières
Crédits CAD GD
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/591/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,5M
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Suzon Provost, Didier Binder, Henri Duday, Gilles Durrenmath, Gwenaëlle Goude, Lionel Gourichon, Claire Delhon, Ilenia Gentile, Manon Vuillien et Aurélie Zemour, « A collective grave from the 6th to 5th millennia transition BCE: Mougins – Les Bréguières (Alpes-Maritimes, France) », Gallia Préhistoire, 57 | 2017, 289-292.

Référence électronique

Suzon Provost, Didier Binder, Henri Duday, Gilles Durrenmath, Gwenaëlle Goude, Lionel Gourichon, Claire Delhon, Ilenia Gentile, Manon Vuillien et Aurélie Zemour, « A collective grave from the 6th to 5th millennia transition BCE: Mougins – Les Bréguières (Alpes-Maritimes, France) », Gallia Préhistoire [En ligne], 57 | 2017, mis en ligne le 15 février 2018, consulté le 18 novembre 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/591 ; DOI : 10.4000/galliap.591

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Auteurs

Suzon Provost

Université Bordeaux, CNRS, ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, PACEA – UMR 5199 – Bât. B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33600 Pessac cedex – suzon.provost@gmail.com

Didier Binder

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – didier.binder@cepam.cnrs.fr

Henri Duday

Université Bordeaux, CNRS, ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, PACEA – UMR 5199 – Bât. B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33600 Pessac cedex – henri.duday@u-bordeaux.fr

Gilles Durrenmath

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – gilles.durrenmath@unice.fr

Gwenaëlle Goude

Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, Minist Culture & Com, LAMPEA – UMR 7269 – 5 rue du Château de l’Horloge, BP 647, F-13094 Aix-en-Provence, cedex 2 – goude@mmsh.univ-aix.fr

Lionel Gourichon

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – lionel.gourichon@cepam.cnrs.fr

Claire Delhon

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – claire.delhon@cepam.cnrs.fr

Ilenia Gentile

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – ilenia.gentile1990@libero.it

Manon Vuillien

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – manon.vuillien@cepam.cnrs.fr

Aurélie Zemour

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CEPAM – UMR 7264 – Maison des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société Sud-Est, 24 avenue des Diables Bleus, 06357 Nice cedex 4 – aureliezemour@hotmail.fr

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Droits d’auteur

Gallia Préhistoire

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