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Thematic dossier "Gender and Food from Antiquity to the Present"

Journal Genre & Histoire no 34, Autumn 2024

Coordination: Enrica Asquer (U. Genova) and Aurélie Chatelet-Calyste (U. Rennes 2-Tempora)

  • 1 Arlene Voski Avakian and Barbara Haber (dir.), From Betty Crocker to Feminist Food Studies. Critica (...)
  • 2 Marjorie L. DeVault, Feeding the Family: The Social Organization of Caring as Gendered Work, Chicag (...)
  • 3 Carol Counihan, Steven L. Kaplan, Food and Gender. Identity and Power, Newark (NJ), Harwood Academi (...)

The journal Genre & Histoire invites contributions for a thematic dossier on gender and food. Open to a variety of spatial scales and a long time period, from Antiquity to the present day, this dossier aims to highlight the considerable scientific production carried out over the last few decades on the history of food and food studies by adopting a gender perspective,1 which has been present in this field of research since the 1990s without having exhausted its countless facets. From a feminist perspective, starting with Marjorie DeVault’s classic work Feeding the Family,2 the relationship between women and food was first explored in the context of internal social science thinking on the gendered nature of domestic work and the organisation of family care. In this context, the question of women’s power and capacity for autonomous action in the management of daily life appeared to be central. The ambivalences that characterise domesticity and daily consumption were thus highlighted: on the one hand, food preparation is at the heart of a dynamic of subordination and the ghettoisation of women in family life; on the other hand, this can contribute to the construction of a space of agentivity, of voice, of realisation for women.3

  • 4 Alice McLean, Aesthetic Pleasure in Twentieth-Century Women’s Food Writing. The Innovative Appetite (...)

Historical research has deconstructed and historicised the supposedly natural link between women and food, exploring diachronic transformations and varying geometries in the distribution of family tasks in different contexts. It also highlighted the history of a controversial relationship between women and cooking, which has shifted over time from invisibility or outright disregard for women cooks under the Ancien Régime to an invention of progressive tradition, which saw women as the natural custodians of the domestic version of gastronomic science. Between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, the development of gastronomic writing and the construction of a media and commercial space around food consumption highlighted the gradual empowerment of women, particularly in publishing companies dedicated to a female audience to be trained in domestic professions. The aim was to set up an educational project based on the domestic role of women (housewives, mothers and consumers), which was considered essential to social harmony and to the strength of the nation. Depending on its various nuances, this discourse could sometimes challenge the limits of the hegemonic representation which, on the contrary, saw the professional preparation of food as a totally male domain. In the twentieth century, as the cases of writers Elizabeth Robins Pennell (1855-1936), M.F.K. Fisher (1908-1992), Alice B. Toklas (1877-1967) and others show, women occasionally claimed a place in gastronomy itself, emphasising the physical and intellectual pleasures of food and going beyond the physical and intellectual pleasures of food. Toklas (1877-1967) and other women occasionally claimed a place in gastronomy proper, emphasising the physical and intellectual pleasures of food and thereby overcoming the limits of domesticity.4

  • 5 Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women, Berkeley, Universit (...)
  • 6 Sarah Scholl, « La mère en sacrifice. Normes d’allaitement et construction de la maternité à l’époq (...)
  • 7 Belinda Davis, Home Fires Burning: Food, Politics, and Everyday Life in World War I Berlin, Chapel (...)
  • 8 Diana Garvin, Feeding Fascism: The Politics of Women’s Food Work, Toronto, University of Toronto, 2 (...)

Another dimension that emerged as central to the research was, of course, the body. The body that consumes food or the body that abstains from food (as in the pioneering work of Caroline Walker Bynum5), as well as the body that seeks out, purchases, prepares and processes food resources, food is at the heart of the multiple socio-cultural processes of constructing social identities. Dietary rules have always been central to religious practices, while dietary behaviours have received increasing attention in the development of scientific discourse and in the definition of health in the modern era. The exhortation of women to abandon the practice of fostering and to convert to breastfeeding was a decisive step in the construction of a discipline of the female body and its use in the service of a modern nation-state based on the healthy, loving, nuclear family.6 In the field of political cultures, too, the definition of normative frameworks and collective ideals has repeatedly intersected with instances related to the production, distribution and consumption of food resources. During the First World War and in the post-war period, food shortages turned the search for food and the daily preparation of meals into politically crucial work. Nationalist propaganda aimed at housewives profoundly linked consumption behaviour to the destinies of the nation.7 In Fascist Italy, a good housewife must consume domestic goods to support the regime’s autarkic policy,8 in the 1950s and 1960s, Catholic and communist cultures were confronted with the Americanisation of everyday life (industrialisation of production, modernisation of distribution outlets), which affected eating habits primarily. The mother, as the person responsible for the household, is always at the centre of this dynamic of politicisation of everyday life. But women’s bodies also need to be examined closely: under the Fascist regime, for example, the emancipated and slender ’crisis woman’ of the urban environment is contrasted with the more gently shaped and prolific woman of the countryside. All these processes have a gendered component that can be highlighted in a very effective and beneficial way, either for the field of food studies or for the expert field of women and gender history. In all the discourses, representations and practices surrounding food, a gendered body is always put at the centre which, depending on the context, may or may not, must or must not, consume or prepare certain food products. Today it is the production of masculinity, as well as that of femininity, that needs to be highlighted, through a well-focused interrogation of the gender perspective. In this dossier, three main axes will be considered: the construction of gendered identities through the norms that discipline the consumption of food products, including the role of cultural and media representations (cinema, advertising, media in general) and religious, scientific, political discourses etc.; concrete food practices and their articulation according to gender; the interaction between gender and the preparation of meals, whether within the home or in a professional context.

Norms and images of gendered food consumption

The new readings of the history of consumption question the gendered dimension of food and aim to analyse the literary, political, economic, medical or artistic discourses that produce a gendered image of food consumption.

  • 9 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Nouvelle Héloïse, Amsterdam, Marc-Michel Rey, 1761, part IV, letter X.
  • 10 Christophe Badel, « Alimentation et société dans la Rome classique : bilan historiographique (IIe s (...)
  • 11 Karine Karila-Cohen and Florent Quellier (dir.), Le corps du gourmand, d’Héraclès à Alexandre le Bi (...)
  • 12 Audrey Arnoult, La médiatisation des troubles liés à l’adolescence dans la presse quotidienne natio (...)
  • 13 Rudolf Bell, L’anorexie sainte – Jeûne et mysticisme du Moyen Âge à nos jours, Paris 1994 ; Jacques (...)
  • 14 Stéphanie Chapuis-Després, « Maladie ou miracle : le jeûne de Margaretha Weiss von Rod (1542) », Pr (...)

A first line of thought would be to analyse the discourses and images that present food as an element of identity, as a marker of gender over the centuries. For example, there is a whole discourse that tends to associate sugar with femininity, following the example of Jean-Jacques Rousseau who wrote in 1761 "milk and sugar are one of the natural tastes of the sex and as symbols of the innocence and sweetness which make its most pleasant ornament".9  This statement can itself be linked with the medical one, which aims to scientifically prove the particular nature of women and their weaknesses. The alleged feminine sweetness is found in their penchant for sweet things. Sweets also refer to a feminine sexuality that is not very dangerous and innocent because it relates back to the childish. On the other hand, "eating like a man" means consuming larger quantities of red meat, a symbol of virility. Masculinity would be associated with dietary markers: "real men don’t eat quiche" as the humourist Bruce Feirstein satirically pointed out in 1982, before being taken literally by some American men who denounced "quiche-eaters", associated with hippies, vegans and feminists. Religious, medical and social norms are also to be questioned. This is the case, for example, with the question of the prohibition of wine for Roman women, which has attracted the attention of specialists for some sixty years, while others are exploring the literary and iconographic sources that associate women with drinking during the same period.10 It is also interesting to understand how these norms and images can be defined at different ages in life. Advice and prohibitions punctuate women’s lives, constraining their food consumption as much as their bodies. What foods are recommended or forbidden to a young girl at puberty, to a young woman in childbirth, to a pregnant woman or to a woman in menopause? For example, due to the medical theories of the time, pregnant women in classical Rome were not allowed to eat red meat because of the fear of "blood flow" to the foetus, a practice that led to nutritional deficiencies. Cookbooks, which spread at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries before becoming a successful publishing genre, medical and theological treatises, political speeches, public health campaigns, iconography and today’s social networks are all media that set and spread norms and representations. These discourses and stagings reveal images of the gendered body in relation to the act of eating. From a gendered perspective, the figures of the gourmand or the gourmande can be explored.11 Similarly, the image of the thin woman, the anorexic could be examined in advertising and in the press12 as well as in various printed materials or flyers, particularly in connection with the religious question and the figure of the holy anorexic.13 In contrast, male anorexia seems more medicalised, less sacred.14

Eating practices

  • 15 N. Iwamura, Kazoku no katte-desho!: Shashin 274-mai de miru shokutaku no kigeki [« Faisons ce qui p (...)
  • 16 Paolo Sorcinelli, « L’alimentation et la santé », in Jean-Louis Flandrin and Massimo Montanari (dir (...)
  • 17 Mickaёl Wilmart, « L’alimentation ordinaire en Brie à la fin du Moyen Âge. Différenciation sociale (...)
  • 18 Désiré Manirakiza, Paule Christiane Bilé and Fadimatou Mounsade Kpoundia, « Tout ce qui est bon est (...)

A second section will focus on the more concrete aspects of the practices. Archaeological remains, accounts, private writings or, more recently, surveys, such as the one conducted by Iwamura in Japan,15 inform the historian about consumption according to gender. Paolo Sorcinelli, in his chapter in the Histoire de l’alimentation (History of Food) has clearly underlined the sexual discrimination in food matters.16 In terms of quantity and quality, women received less than men. Their rations were lower, even if they worked like men, even if they were pregnant. Whether they were grape-pickers on the land of Jeanne d’Evreux in the 14th century17 or in the factory, food costs were also lower than for men. Men’s rations were also more varied and the best cuts were reserved for them: "Everything that is good is for them", as a recent article on the consumption of chicken gizzards in traditional Cameroonian society reminds us.18 The importance of self-constraint, which led women to reduce or adapt their food intake for various reasons, must also be emphasised and measured: a sense of sacrifice, the internalisation of moral and aesthetic norms, and the promotion of female thinness, the periodisation and variations of which must be highlighted according to time and place For example, in the 16th century, Jean Liébault, in his Trois livres de l’embellissement du corps humain (Three books on the embellishment of the human body), points out that court ladies even ate chalk to dry out their humours and lose weight; later, vinegar and lemon were ingested to burn off fat. In the 19th century, Balzac ironically wondered about women, "does she eat? it’s a mystery", while female gluttony was stigmatised. The twentieth and twenty-first centuries were marked by the flourishing of slimming diets which influenced women’s eating habits. More examples are needed over time, in various spaces and contexts, in order to deepen our understanding of food consumption according to gender as well as to shed light on how practices bear witness to potential transgressions in relation to the weight of norms and habits.

Preparing the meal: a gender issue

  • 19 Anne Lhuissier, Alimentation populaire et réforme sociale. Les consommations ouvrières dans le seco (...)
  • 20 Anne-Marie Sohn, Chrysalides. Volumes I et II : Femmes dans la vie privée (XIXe-XXe siècles). New e (...)
  • 21  Sandrine Roll, « « Ni bas-bleu, ni pot-au-feu » : la conception de « la » femme selon Augusta Moll (...)
  • 22 Jakob Tanner, Fabrikmahlzeit. Ernährungswissenschaft, Industriearbeit und Volksernährung in der Sch (...)
  • 23 H. Takeda, « The Governing of Family Meals », in P. Jackson (dir.), Changing Families, Changing Foo (...)
  • 24 Kate Cairns, Josée Johnston, Food and Feminity, New York, Bloomsbery, 2016.

A final section will look at the gendered dimension of meal preparation, both in the home and in a professional context. Women are responsible for the daily preparation of meals. They are responsible for designing and preparing the family’s meals. The conduct books or manuals for women that flourished in the modern era emphasised the role of the mistress of the house and the good housewife, who was responsible for the preparation of meals, as well as for the scrupulous supervision of provisions, accounts and domesticity where wealthier women were concerned. This ideal of the housewife, the thrifty housewife, flourished in the following centuries, particularly in connection with the processes of nation-building, the construction of a modern scientific culture, industrialisation and the development of a consumer society. Women were responsible for feeding their husbands and children and were thus responsible for their good health. The bosses value the family meal prepared by the wife who has to provide a hot meal for her husband who has gone to the factory.19 It will therefore be interesting to see how the sources shed light on the role of women in preparing meals. This duty is valued, "feeding the family is ’the honour of the housewife’" as Anne-Marie Sohn reminded us20 and is controlled socially as much as politically. This may also take on a patriotic dimension,21 expressed through the setting up of schools for housewives. On the contrary, the bad housewife was castigated and had to be re-educated: this was the case for the wives of Swiss workers from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century22 and for Japanese mothers in the 2000s.23 More examples and studies could be conducted to shed light on the gendered dimension of meal preparation and the multiple constraints - temporal, financial or material - that weigh on these women. Food preparation can also be a source of empowerment for women through the recognition of their domestic work.24

  • 25 Martine Bourelly, « Cheffe de cuisine : le coût de la transgression », Cahiers du Genre, 2010/1 (n° (...)

The historiography on the professionalisation of women in the catering and gastronomy professions is still thin. For a long time, they were excluded from the training centres that were set up at the beginning of the 20th century in France, and were relegated to domestic schools designed for them. Only a small number of women have gained access to qualifications in the kitchen from the 1980s onwards, and even today the glass ceiling in the catering professions remains solid. In 2006 in France, 94% of chefs were men and only 6% were women.25 And yet they cook in restaurants, as shown by the example of the Lyon "mothers", great figures of gastronomy in the French context, such as "Mère Brasier" and "Mère Bourgeois", the first, of both men and women alike, to obtain three stars in the 1933 Michelin Guide, but who have remained little considered by historiography. More case studies are needed to measure the place of these women and the difficulties they encountered in a profession still considered to be male.

Proposals for articles (approximately 1 500 characters, in French, English or Italian), accompanied by a brief bio-bibliography of the author, must be sent by 30 April 2023 at the latest, electronically in Word format, to genre-et-histoire@mnemosyne.asso.fr. The selected authors will be promptly informed and their article in French, English or Italian will be due in January-February 2024, for publication in December 2024.

Bibliographie

AVAKIAN Arlene Voski, HABER Barbara (dir.), From Betty Crocker to Feminist Food Studies. Critical perspectives on women and food, Amherst and Boston, University of Massachusetts Press, 2004.

BADEL, Chr., « “La femme couchée”: sur la place de la femme dans les banquets romains », in Florence Gherchanoc (dir.), La maison, lieu de sociabilité, dans les communautés urbaines européennes, de l’Antiquité à nos jours. Colloque internationale de l’Université Paris VII-Denis Diderot, 14-15 mai 2004, Paris, Éditions Le Manuscrit, 2006, p. 259-279.

BENTLEY Amy, Eating for victory: food rationing and the politics of domesticity, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1998.

BECKER Karin, Gastronomie et littérature en France au XIXe siècle, Orléans, Éditions Paradigme, 2017.

Brelot Claude-Isabelle, « Cuisinier et cuisinière aux fourneaux du château (1800-1930) », in Anne-Marie Cocula, Michel Combet (dir.), Châteaux, cuisines & dépendances, Bordeaux, Ausonius, 2014, p. 349-359.

Burdy, Jean-Paul, Dubesset, Mathilde, Zancarini-Fournel, Michelle, « Rôle, travaux et métiers de femmes dans une ville industrielle : Saint-Étienne », Le Mouvement Social, 1987 (n°140), 1987, p. 27-53.

CAMPORESI, Piero, Le Pain sauvage. L’imaginaire de la faim de la Renaissance au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Chemin vert éditions, 1981.

COUNIHAN, Carole, KAPLAN, Steven, Food and Gender. Identity and Power, Newark (NJ), Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998.

Counihan, Carole, The Anthropology of Food and Body. Gender, Meaning and Power, New York/London, Routledge, 1999.

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Demeulenaere-Douyère Christiane, « Thérèse, Frédéric, Eugène et les autres ou la destinée d’une famille de « gens de bouche » à Paris dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle », Bulletin de la Société d’histoire de Paris et de l’Ile-de- France, 1983.

DeVAULT Marjorie, Feeding the Family. The Social Organization of Caring as Gendered Work, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991.

DIASIO Nicoletta, FIDOLINI Vulca, « Garder le cap. Corps, masculinité et pratiques alimentaires à « l’âge critique » », Ethnologie française, 2019/4 (Vol. 49), p. 751-767. DOI : 10.3917/ethn.194.0751. URL,: https://www.cairn.info/revue-ethnologie-francaise-2019-4-page-751.htm

Fichou Jean-Christophe, « Les syndicats ouvriers des filles de la conserve de poisson en Bretagne 1905-1914 », Annales de Bretagne et des Pays de l’Ouest [En ligne], 117-2, 2010, mis en ligne le 10 juillet 2012, consulté le 30 juin 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/abpo/1772 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/abpo.1772.

Fournier Tristan, Jarty Julie, Lapeyre Nathalie et Touraille, Priscille, « Alimentation, arme du genre », Journal des anthropologues, 2015, 140-141, p. 19-49.

Garnsey Peter, Food and Society in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

GOUGH Brendan, « Real Men Don’t Diet: an Analysis of Contemporary Newspaper Representations of Men, Food and Health », Social Science and Medicine, 2007/2 (64), p. 326-337.

Greenebaum Jessica, Dexter Brandon, 2018, « Vegan men and hybrid masculinity », Journal of Gender Studies, 2018/6 (27), p. 637-648.

GUN Roos, Prättälä Ritva et KOSKI Katriina, « Men, Masculinity and Food: Interviews with Finnish Carpenters and Engineer », Appetite, 2001, 37, p. 47-56.

Laurioux Bruno, Manger au Moyen Âge : pratiques et discours alimentaires en Europe aux XIVe et XVe siècle, Paris, Hachette, 2002.

Martin Anne-Denes, Les Ouvrières de la mer. Histoire des sardinières du littoral breton, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1994.

MCLEAN Alice, Aesthetic Pleasure in Twentieth-Century Women’s Food Writing. The Innovative Appetites of M.F.K. Fisher, Alice B. Toklas, and Elizabeth David, New York, Routledge, 2012.

MCLEAN Alice, « The intersection of gender and food studies », in Ken Abala (ed.), Routledge International Handbook of Food Studies, London-New York, Routledge, 2013, p. 250-264.

MEYZIE Philippe, « La noblesse provinciale à la table : les dépenses alimentaires de Marie-Joséphine de Galatheau (Bordeaux, 1754-1763), Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, 54, 2, 2007, p. 32-54, ISSN 0048-8003, ISBN 9782701145709, DOI : 10.3917, URL : https://www.cairn.info/revue-d-histoire-moderne-et-contemporaine-2007-2-page-32.htm

PUCCIO Deborah, « Sainte Agathe, les femmes et le chocolat », Clio. Histoire‚ femmes et sociétés [En ligne], 14, 2001, mis en ligne le 03 juillet 2006, consulté le 30 juin 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/clio/108 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/clio.108

Quellier Florent, « Pour une histoire majoritaire des cuisiniers et des cuisinières », Food and History, 2017/1-2 (15), p. 3-23.

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SAINT POL (de) Thibaut, Le corps désirable. Hommes et femmes face à leur poids, Paris, PUF, 2010.

SARTI Raffaella, Europe at Home: Family and Material Culture, 1500-1800, New Haven (CT), Yale University Press, 2002.

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SCHOLL Sarah, « La mère en sacrifice. Normes d’allaitement et construction de la maternité à l’époque contemporaine », Nouvelles Questions Féministes, 40, 1, 2021, p. 18-34.

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VIGARELLO, Georges. Culture classique et préoccupation de « minceur » In : Le corps, la famille et l’État : Hommage à André Burguière [en ligne]. Rennes : Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2010 (généré le 30 juin 2022). Disponible sur Internet : <http://books.openedition.org/pur/103980>. ISBN : 9782753567696. DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/books.pur.103980.

VOSKI AVAKIAN Arlene, HABER Barbara, From Betty Crocker to Feminist Food Studies. Critical Perspectives on Women and Food, Amherst-Boston, University of Massachusetts Press, 2004.

WILMART Mickaël, « L’alimentation ordinaire en Brie à la fin du Moyen Âge. Différenciation sociale et stratégies d’approvisionnement », in Damien Blanchard et Pierre Charon (dir.), L’alimentation en Brie des origines à nos jours. Actes du colloque de Meaux, 5 avril 2014, Société historique de Meaux et sa région, 2015, p. 79-106.

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Notes

1 Arlene Voski Avakian and Barbara Haber (dir.), From Betty Crocker to Feminist Food Studies. Critical perspectives on women and food, Amherst and Boston, University of Massachusetts Press, 2004 ; Carole M. Counihan, Gendering Food in Jeffrey M. Pilcher (dir.), The Oxford Handbook of Food History, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 99-116; Alice McLean, The Intersection of Gender and Food Studies, in Ken Abala (dir.), Routledge International Handbook of Food Studies, London-New York, Routledge, 2013, p. 250-64; Tristan Fournier, Julie Jarty, Nathalie Lepeyre and Priscille Touraille, L’alimentation, arme du genre, themed dossier in Journal des anthropologues, 140-141, 2015, published online on 15 June 2017, accessed on 20 October 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/jda/6068 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/jda.6068

2 Marjorie L. DeVault, Feeding the Family: The Social Organization of Caring as Gendered Work, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1991.

3 Carol Counihan, Steven L. Kaplan, Food and Gender. Identity and Power, Newark (NJ), Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998.

4 Alice McLean, Aesthetic Pleasure in Twentieth-Century Women’s Food Writing. The Innovative Appetites of M.F.K. Fisher, Alice B. Toklas, and Elizabeth David, New York, Routledge, 2012.

5 Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1987.

6 Sarah Scholl, « La mère en sacrifice. Normes d’allaitement et construction de la maternité à l’époque contemporaine », Nouvelles Questions Féministes, 40, 1, 2021, p. 18-34. On this topic, see the project Lactation in History based at the University of Geneva, the publication of which is imminent: Francesca Arena, Veronique Dasen, Yasmina Foher-Jansenss, Irène Maffi, Daniela Solfaroli Camillocci (dir.), Allaiter de l’Antiquité à nos jours. Histoire et pratiques d’une culture en Europe, to be published by Brepols.

7 Belinda Davis, Home Fires Burning: Food, Politics, and Everyday Life in World War I Berlin, Chapel Hill and London, University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

8 Diana Garvin, Feeding Fascism: The Politics of Women’s Food Work, Toronto, University of Toronto, 2021.

9 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Nouvelle Héloïse, Amsterdam, Marc-Michel Rey, 1761, part IV, letter X.

10 Christophe Badel, « Alimentation et société dans la Rome classique : bilan historiographique (IIe siècle av. J.-C. – IIe siècle ap. J.-C.) », Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, 2012/Supplement7 (S7), p. 133-157. DOI : 10.3917/dha.hs71.0133. URL : https://www.cairn.info/revue-dialogues-d-histoire-ancienne-2012-Supplement7-page-133.htm

11 Karine Karila-Cohen and Florent Quellier (dir.), Le corps du gourmand, d’Héraclès à Alexandre le Bienheureux,

Collection « Table des hommes », Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais, Rennes, Tours.

12 Audrey Arnoult, La médiatisation des troubles liés à l’adolescence dans la presse quotidienne nationale française (1995-2009), Doctoral thesis in Information and Communication Sciences, Lyon 2, 2011 (unpublished).

13 Rudolf Bell, L’anorexie sainte – Jeûne et mysticisme du Moyen Âge à nos jours, Paris 1994 ; Jacques Maître, « Sainte Catherine de sienne : patronne des anorexiques ? », Clio. Histoire‚ femmes et sociétés [En ligne], 2, 1995, published online 01 January 2005, accessed 20 October 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/clio/490 ; Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

14 Stéphanie Chapuis-Després, « Maladie ou miracle : le jeûne de Margaretha Weiss von Rod (1542) », Prendre corps, 02/02/2015, https://corpsgir.hypotheses.org/108.

15 N. Iwamura, Kazoku no katte-desho!: Shashin 274-mai de miru shokutaku no kigeki [« Faisons ce qui plaît à ma famille ! »], Tokyo, Shinchosha, 2010 quoted by TAKEDA Hiroko, « Qui a peur des « mauvaises mères » ? Changements socio-économiques et discours politiques au Japon », Politique étrangère, 2011/1 (Printemps), p. 143-154. DOI : 10.3917/pe.111.0143.

16 Paolo Sorcinelli, « L’alimentation et la santé », in Jean-Louis Flandrin and Massimo Montanari (dir.), Histoire de l’alimentation, op. cit., p. 809-822.

17 Mickaёl Wilmart, « L’alimentation ordinaire en Brie à la fin du Moyen Âge. Différenciation sociale et stratégies d’approvisionnement », in Damien Blanchard and Pierre Charon (dir.), L’alimentation en Brie des origines à nos jours. Actes du colloque de Meaux, 5 April 2014, Société historique de Meaux et sa région, 2015, p. 79-106.

18 Désiré Manirakiza, Paule Christiane Bilé and Fadimatou Mounsade Kpoundia, « Tout ce qui est bon est pour eux », Journal des anthropologues [En ligne], 140-141, 2015, Published online on 15 June 2017, accessed 20 October 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/jda/6068 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/jda.6068

19 Anne Lhuissier, Alimentation populaire et réforme sociale. Les consommations ouvrières dans le second XIXe siècle, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, coll. « Natures sociales », 2007.

20 Anne-Marie Sohn, Chrysalides. Volumes I et II : Femmes dans la vie privée (XIXe-XXe siècles). New edition [online]. Paris : Éditions de la Sorbonne, 1996 (generated on 16 December 2022). http://books.openedition.org/psorbonne/69187. DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/books.psorbonne.69187.

21  Sandrine Roll, « « Ni bas-bleu, ni pot-au-feu » : la conception de « la » femme selon Augusta Moll-Weiss (France, tournant des XIXe-XX  siècles) », Genre & Histoire [En ligne], 5 | Autumn 2009, published online on 21 December 2009, accessed 16 December 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/genrehistoire/819

22 Jakob Tanner, Fabrikmahlzeit. Ernährungswissenschaft, Industriearbeit und Volksernährung in der Schweizt 1880-1950, Zurich, Chronos Verlag, 1999.

23 H. Takeda, « The Governing of Family Meals », in P. Jackson (dir.), Changing Families, Changing Food , Basingstoke, Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009.

24 Kate Cairns, Josée Johnston, Food and Feminity, New York, Bloomsbery, 2016.

25 Martine Bourelly, « Cheffe de cuisine : le coût de la transgression », Cahiers du Genre, 2010/1 (n° 48), p. 127-148. DOI : 10.3917/cdge.048.0127. URL : https://www.cairn.info/revue-cahiers-du-genre-2010-1-page-127.htm

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