Navigation – Plan du site

AccueilNuméros29-2Engineering and geomorphological ...

Engineering and geomorphological map of Irpin: significance for engineering geological zoning and evaluation of the city construction

Carte géomorphologique d'ingénierie d'Irpin : importance pour le zonage géologique d'ingénierie et l'évaluation de la construction de la ville
Pavlo Zhyrnov et Iryna Solomakha

Résumés

Le schéma d'évaluation de l'ingénierie en construction, qui est créé sur la base du zonage géotechnique du territoire urbain, est souhaitable parmi les matériaux graphiques complémentaires dans la conception des projets de plans directeurs tels que déterminés par les normes de construction de l'État. Le zonage géologique d'ingénierie prévoit la sélection de différents rangs d'unités taxonomiques, qui ont une gamme particulière de conditions géologiques d'ingénierie communes déterminant finalement le rattachement des chantiers de construction à une catégorie d'aptitude spécifique. Une variante de carte géomorphologique d'ingénierie synthétique à grande échelle de la ville d'Irpin (région de Kiev, Ukraine) est conçue sur la base des données morphogénétiques, morpholithologiques, morphométriques et morphodynamiques présentées dans cet article. Le résultat a permis de spécifier les taxons de différents rangs du zonage géologique d'ingénierie, y compris les petits sous-districts géotechniques par des caractéristiques morphologiques, et les sites géologiques d'ingénierie de second ordre par des indices morphométriques. Les résultats de la cartographie géomorphologique d'ingénierie ont permis de déterminer (i) les conditions morphologiques et morphogénétiques de la ville d'Irpin, (ii) les zone d'extension des processus naturels dangereux et (iii) les éléments du relief qui compliquent la construction. Un résultat ultime est l'évaluation de la complexité des conditions géomorphologiques d'ingénierie et la prise en compte des facteurs géomorphologiques pour la création du schéma d'évaluation de la construction ; de même, la sélection des mesures correspondantes de formation en ingénierie et de protection de la ville d'Irpin pour les chantiers de construction problématiques est essentielle.

Haut de page

Notes de la rédaction

Manuscript received on August 1, 2022, revised version received on January 3, 2023, paper accepted on October 3, 2023

Texte intégral

The authors express their gratitude to the leadership of the Ukrainian Institute of Engineering Scientific and Technical Exploration (UKRIINTR) and Ukrainian State Scientific Research Institute of Cities’ Design“DIPROMISTO” for the provided geotechnical reports, a master plan of Irpin and corresponding graphic materials.

1. Introduction

1Engineering and geomorphological mapping always plays an important part in the different kinds of construction design. It determines the rational allocation of engineering buildings, with planning and engineering protection measures. Also, it provides an idea of natural and anthropogenic dynamic morphogenetic processes, forecasts particularities of engineering buildings exploration and their feedbacks on the ecological status of geological environment (Kravchuk, 1991).

2There are large-scale maps for urban development among sectoral engineering and geomorphological maps (Kravchuk, 2006).

3At the same time, when designing projects of settlement master plans, state building codes determine that, among additional graphic materials, the engineering-construction scheme is necessary; such a scheme considers natural and anthropogenic factors that define the suitability of construction sites for urban development (Building code B.1.1-15:2012, 2012). Estimated natural and technogenic factors of engineering-construction evaluation should include morphological, morphometrical, morphogenetic, morphodynamic, age-related relief characteristics, engineering geological structure, rock lithological composition, geotechnical properties, hydrogeological circumstances, groundwater level –their corrosive impact for building materials and constructions–, presence of natural and anthropogenic processes that are an obstacle for urban development, microseismic circumstances, etc. (Zhyrnov et al., 2019). However, as practice shows, the engineering-construction scheme is away from the above-mentioned standards in most cases. Usually, planners are limited to obligative scheme of current planning restrictions, which includes sanitary protection, protective zones from enterprises, transport, engineering network, and infrastructure objects; engineering geological restrictions are shown in the form of areas of dangerous processes allocation. Other natural factors might be neglected, resulting in the inadequate assessment of construction sites suitability, improper location of buildings and irrelevant and incomplete volume of engineering training and protection (Palienko, 1978).

4Engineering and geological maps form the basis for drawing engineering construction schemes. The geological structure of the territory, the lithological composition, the hydrogeological conditions and the current natural and technogenic geological processes are the most important of these conditions. Engineering geological zoning maps are based on a combination of theoretical positions and tutorial methods of objectively existing territorial elements. These territorial elements have common engineering geological features of their dissociation from the territories that haven't such features, their mapping and description. Territorial units of different orders are allocated during a regional type of engineering geological zoning and each next unit is allocated from the previous (larger) one by dividing it into separate parts based on specific classification features.

5Each allocated territorial unit is characterized by strong individuality and gets a unique characteristic and own name. One of the approaches regarding the definition of taxonomy units during engineering geological zoning (Trofimov and Krasilova, 2008) is listed in Figure 1.

Fig.1 - Taxonomy of engineering geological zoning.
Fig.1 - Taxonomie du zonage géotechnique.

Fig.1 - Taxonomy of engineering geological zoning.Fig.1 - Taxonomie du zonage géotechnique.

6A significant role belongs to taxons that are allocated to geomorphological factors (red cells). However, data are poorly displayed or even absent on the relief genesis, morphology and morphometric indexes on engineering geological maps. Therefore, there is an urgent need for special engineering and geomorphological mapping (Kravchuk, 1991).

7Attempts to detail engineering geological zoning, including geomorphological features, have been implemented in Ukraine in cities such as Odesa (Shpakovsky, 1999), Dnipro (Sumatokhina, 2004), Kalush (Mykolaenkoetal., 2019), the Reni district of Odesa region (Zhyrnov, 2015), the Prut basin River (Marchak, 2012), the Maly Adzhalyk estuary (Chuyko, 2001), the Carpathian region (Rudko and Guda, 2013), the Kaniv reservoir right bank in the area Kyiv – Rzhyshchiv (Zhyrnov, 2013). This procedure had been followed abroad, for example in Tunis city (El May et al., 2010), the Fortaleza region (Zuquette et al., 2004), Japan (Wakamatsu and Matsuoka, 2013), in the city of Taipei (Huang et al., 1987), in Albania (Muceku, 2012), in the city of Bendery (Grebenshchikov et al., 2021), Kahul (Bogdevich and Isichko, 2016), Moscow (Kozlyakova et al., 2015). The geomorphological aspect of engineering geological zoning of above stated cities and regions focused in most cases on engineering and geological regions zoning according to morphologic features.

8Attempts of geomorphological mapping are proposed in this article, reflecting the morphogenetic, age-related, morphometric conditions of Irpin (Kyiv region, Ukraine). Maps were synthesized in large-scale engineering geomorphological map (1:5000) of the city based on the combined comparison, which will be used for the allocation of subdistricts and subsites.

2. Study area

9The Irpin area is situated in the central part of the Kyiv region, seven kilometers northwest of Kyiv, the Ukraine's capital (fig. 2). Irpin suffered significant destruction during the Russian aggression against Ukraine in the spring 2022. A third of the buildings and structures of the city were damaged by the bombing, and a large number of residents were left without their homes. The local authorities planned not only to continue new capital construction after the de-occupation of the city by the Armed Forces of Ukraine but also to reconstruct buildings and structures that suffered from the Russian invasion. The results of the current research can be used not only for the construction development of new territories but also for the reconstruction of building and the restoration of the supporting structures of damaged buildings and facilities.

Fig. 2 - The Irpin in the central part of Kyiv region (Ukraine).
Fig. 2 - La ville d'Irpin dans la partie centrale de la région de Kiev (Ukraine).

Fig. 2 - The Irpin in the central part of Kyiv region (Ukraine).Fig. 2 - La ville d'Irpin dans la partie centrale de la région de Kiev (Ukraine).

10Irpin is situated in the southwest part of the East European Plain, in the limits of the Kyiv Polesia, as a part of the Polesian Lowland. According to the general geomorphological map of Ukraine, the investigated territory corresponds to the Makariv moraine and fluvioglacial accumulations, forming a gently undulating and slightly dissected plain between the valleys of Irpin, Buchanka, Teteriv and Zdvyzh Rivers. Knowing the physical-geographical and administrative location of the city, and according to the principles of engineering and geological taxonomy, the situation of Irpin is identified in the limits of the East-European Craton that corresponds to the north-east slope of Ukrainian Shield province, Kyiv Polesia subprovince, engineering geological region of Makariv moraine (Paton et al., 2007). Engineering geological districts are provided by the general conditions of the geological development and by morphogenetic types. According to the engineering geomorphological zoning of Kyiv city district’s map, the engineering geological districts in the limits of Irpin are composed of an erodible and depositional alluvial plain, within a denudation-accumulation watershed characterized by moraine and fluvioglacial sediments (Barshchevsky et al., 1989).

11The Upper- and Holocene Quaternary QIII-QIV erodible and depositional alluvial plain has an altitude of 107-118 m a.s.l. The alluvial deposits, 8-16 m thick, lie on Kyiv marls, which form an aquiclude in this territory. The Middle Quaternary QII denudation-depositional watershed moraine and fluvioglacial plain have altitudes varying from 120-160 m a.s.l. Fluvioglacial deposits with a thickness of 5-25 m lie on Kyiv marls, which are aquiclude for the investigated territory. The relief in the city territory was formed as a result of a glacier and subsequent meltwater activity that slightly dissected this denudation-depositional plain. The territory relief is complicated by the erodible and depositional landforms of the Buchanka's and Irpin's River valley in the northwest, north and northeast with altitudes of 107-115 m a.s.l.

12The present-day relief has a close link with the bedrock surface. The preglacial substrate's surface is represented by the dissected Pra-Irpin and Pra-Buchanka dividing ranges, formed by old valleys. Later tectonic movements and erosion processes played an important role in the relief formation during the postglacial period. The current fluvioglacial relief is slightly dissected. Glacial landforms are observed in the northeast and east parts of the city and are represented by hills and separate ridges which reach heights of 30-40 m and determine an undulating surface with slopes of 11° to 30°. Fluvioglacial plains have the highest absolute altitudes (up to 160 m a.s.l.) in the southwest part of the city. There are slopes of 6°-10°, and the depth of the vertical dissection is 5-10 m. The lowest absolute altitudes of the surface's plain (110-115 m a.s.l.) are in the north part of the city. The relief here is gentle with slopes of 1°-5° and the depth of vertical dissection reaches 5 m.

13The town of Irpin is situated on the left bank of the eponymous river, bending around the city in the southeast. Buchanka River (a tributary of Irpin River) flows along the southwest city's part. Both rivers belong to the Dnipro River basin and are characterized by shallow valleys, minor edge depth and slow currents. The channel depth of the rivers doesn't exceed 15 m, the river contours are clear and slopes are wide and gentle with small escarpments. The riverbeds are moderately sinuous, sometimes bifurcated. The riverbed’s depth varies from 3-5 m to 20-30 m. The floodplains and first fluvial terraces are observed in river valleys. The relief’s surface of valleys slopes gently to 1°-5°. The Irpin River valley is characterized by wide swampy bottoms with developed peatlands.

14The first fluvial terrace has a relative height up to 7 m but their edge is gentle and visually almost not traceable. The terrace’s surface is flat and, in places, has swampy areas, and its width in the city’s limits is 0.5-0.8 km. The second fluvial terrace is not represented in the city’s territory; it can be seen in local sites on the right bank, outside the borders of the investigated territory.

15In the city borders, the Irpin and Buchanka floodplains are more widely developed than terraces. Their width is 1.5-2.0 km. Relative excess above strand line is 1.5-2.0 m. The floodplain’s surface is peated, in places swampy and complicated by riverine shafts. Swamps occupy a significant part of the floodplain of the Buchanka River. Floodplains of the Irpin and Buchanka Rivers are now partly regulated as a result of improvements. Swamps of the Irpin River and the northwest part of the Buchanka River are drained and floodplains are used as grasslands. It should be noted that the Irpin River’s floodplain was intensively built up in recent years. Pre-Quaternary deposits are represented by the Paleogene system (Kaniv, Bucha, Kyiv and Kharkiv suites). Quaternary deposits overlap pre-Quaternary deposits, forming a continuous cover on the investigated territory. They are represented by fluvioglacial, glacial, alluvial, swamp and technogenic genetic types. Fluvioglacial and alluvial deposits are the most widely represented. Quaternary deposits are represented by Middle-Quaternary, Upper-Quaternary and Holocene deposits in the city's territory.

16Flooding in the Buchanka and Irpin Rivers floodplains, waterlogging in the borders of the floodplain and the first terrace of the Buchanka and Irpin Rivers are part of the dangerous hazards in the Irpin. Waterlogging is connected with a naturally high level of groundwater, floodplain flooding during spring and also the unloading of aquifers in permanent and temporary watercourses. Eutrophication occurs in the Buchanka and Irpin Rivers floodplains and is connected with spring floods and unloading of aquifer related to Middle-Quaternary fluvioglacial deposits of dividing range. River erosion is generally weak along the Irpin and Buchanka Rivers and occurs at local sites during spring. Eolian sand deflation is observed on some sites of the floodplain and first terraces of the Irpin and Buchanka Rivers (northeast and northwest city outskirts) (Tsybko, 2020). Significant hydration of Quaternary deposits and high groundwater levels are the main obstacles to urban development (Rudenko et al., 1971), as it provokes flooding, waterlogging and eutrophication.

3. Materials

17Initial data for engineering geomorphological mapping are the following: a topographic survey of the Irpin at scale 1:5000, materials of engineering geological investigations between 1990 and 2020 for the construction of residential and public buildings. A total of 154 geotechnical reports were analyzed; those materials were collected and systematized at SE “Ukrainian Institute of Engineering Technical Exploration for Construction” (UKRIINTR) (Tsybko, 2020). Also, were collected a geological map at the scale of 1:50000 on sheets of the Kyiv region (Solovytsky and Vozgryn, 1990), the Irpin master plan project (Gubenko et al., 2017), the state geological map of Ukraine – 200 (Ivanenko, 2020), an interactive geological map of Ukraine (Panchenko, 2019), lithologic sections of Irpin (Tsybko, 2020).

18Geomorphological mapping was the major method of investigation and relief analysis. It is a corpus of procedures on the creation of geomorphological maps using GIS technologies. General geomorphological mapping includes engineering geomorphological mapping with characteristics of the geomorphological conditions at the construction spots. Such approaches were selected in relief assessment for engineering purposes: morphometric, morpholithologic and morphodynamic.

19Fieldwork and geological survey of the Quaternary deposits have been made by UKRIINTR departments, resulting in the selection of the relief genetic types, its morphologic, age peculiarities and documented natural hazards. A complex comparison of the above-mentioned data in the final case was finally transformed into a synthetic large-scale engineering geomorphological map (fig. 3).

Fig. 3 - Data and methodology of current research.
Fig. 3 - Données et méthodologie de la recherche.

Fig. 3 - Data and methodology of current research.Fig. 3 - Données et méthodologie de la recherche.

4. Building up the geomorphological dataset

20The limits of relief genetic types were delineated in the Irpin region; their relative chronology, their morphological descriptions are shown in Figure 4. Such a relief is linked to natural hazards manifestation and the geological survey of Quaternary deposits carried out in the Irpin town.

Fig. 4 – Geomorphology of Irpin.
Fig. 4 – Géomorphologie de la ville d'Irpin.

Fig. 4 – Geomorphology of Irpin.Fig. 4 – Géomorphologie de la ville d'Irpin.

A: Hummocky moraine and fluvioglacial relief. B: Irpin River valley. C: First terrace above the fluvioglacial plain. D: Hitch from fluvioglacial plain to Irpin floodplain. E: Irpin floodplain. F: Buchanka floodplain in its lower reaches (Photos by V. Tsybko, June, 2017).
A : Relief fluvio-glaciaire morainique bosselé. B : Vallée de la rivière Irpin. C : première terrasse alluviale au-dessus de la plaine fluvioglaciaire. D : Rebord de la plaine fluvioglaciaire sur la plaine inondable d'Irpin. E : Plaine inondable d'Irpin. F : Plaine inondable de Buchanka dans son cours inférieur (Photos de V. Tsybko, juin 2017).

21All this information was exported from the GPS equipment and referenced to the existing topographic survey. Geotechnical reports analysis enabled for specifying the lithological composition of the Quaternary deposits and correcting the areas of hydrological and hydrogeological hazards, in particular flooding, waterlogging and eutrophication (Tsybko, 2020). This process is quite simple and understandable as opposed to a complex morphometric analysis of the territory. First, a TIN model of the Irpin was built with an overview of the territory absolute altitudes (fig. 5A). Using the “Slope” tool of Spatial Analyst slopes steepness map was built. Reclassification of slopes steepness raster has been made and slopes’ allocation into seven categories (Simonov and Kruzhalin, 1993) from flat (0°-2°) to extremely steep ( 45° (fig. 5B). Then there are slopes grouping according to complexity of construction development depending on their steepness: (i) 0-15° – suitable slopes for construction; (ii) 15.1-30° slopes of little use for construction; (iii) 30° – useless slopes for construction (Building code А.2.1-1-2008, 2008) (fig. 5C). The next step was the creation of the cartogram of suitability for construction by slope steepness with deviation for each square of 1 ha (hectare) of slopes’ dominant category (fig. 5D).

Fig. 5 – TIN and slopes’ steepness of the Irpin.
Fig. 5 – TIN et pente des versants de la ville d'Irpin.

Fig. 5 – TIN and slopes’ steepness of the Irpin.Fig. 5 – TIN et pente des versants de la ville d'Irpin.

A: TIN model; B: Slope steepness raster: 1. 0°-2° (flat); 2. 2°-5° (very gentle); 3. 5°-10° (gentle); 4. 10°-15° (average); 5. 15°-30° (steep); 6. 30°-45° (very steep); 7. ≥ 45° (extremely steep); C: Map of suitability for construction by slope steepness: 1. Suitable for construction (0-15°); 2. Little use for construction (15.1-30°); 3. Useless for construction (≥ 30.1°); D: Cartogram (map) of suitability for construction by slope steepness: 1. Suitable for construction (0-15°); 2. Little use for construction (15.1-30°); 3.Useless for construction (≥ 30.1°).
A : modèle TIN ; B: Raster d'inclinaison de pente : 1. 0-2°; 2. 2-5°; 3. 5-10°; 4. 10-15°; 5. 15-30°; 6. 30-45°; 7. ≥ 45°; C : Carte d'aptitude à la construction par inclinaison des pentes : 1. Adapté à la construction (0-15°); 2. Peu utilisé pour la construction (15.1-30°); 3. Impropre à la construction (≥ 30.1°) ; D : Cartogramme d'aptitude à la construction par inclinaison des pentes : 1. Aptitude à la construction (0-15°) ; 2. Peu utilisé pour la construction (15.1-30°) ; 3. Impropre à la construction (≥ 30.1°).

22We have used the drainage density (Mikhaylov, 2015) with a definition of the erosion network length per unit area and index proposed distribution by a degree of suitability for construction (Building code А.2.1-1-2008, 2008): (i) 0-150 m/ha (suitable for construction); (ii) 150.1-300 m/ha (little use for construction); (iii) 300.1 m/ha (useless for construction) (fig. 6A). The map analysis shows that there is no clear spatial regularity in drainage density; however, its largest values are mostly marked on slopes with northern exposure and the smallest are located on the watershed surfaces.

23Sites allocation by suitability for construction according to vertical dissection index is as follows: (i) 0-5 m/ha (suitable for construction); (ii) 5.1-10.0 m/ha (little use for construction); (iii) 10.1 m/ha (useless for construction) (Building code А.2.1-1-2008, 2008) (fig. 6B).

24Sites with dominant slope exposure defined per 1 ha square by optimal degree for construction of residential units (fig. 6C) are defined: flat, southern and eastern exposure slopes are optimal for construction of residential units because slopes with south and south-east orientation are well insulated. Winds from the south side blow weaklier, in this case using of alternative heat sources can be cost effective.

25North slopes are undesirable for residential buildings, because of insufficient insolation and cold winds blowing. Construction on west slopes should be avoided because they are under the active influence of sun rays in the afternoon, which can lead to overheating rooms and create discomfort for inhabitants (Fookes et al., 2005) (fig. 6D).

Fig. 6 – Drainage density, vertical dissection and slope exposure of the Irpin.
Fig. 6 – Densité de drainage, dissection verticale et exposition des versants dans la ville d'Irpin.

Fig. 6 – Drainage density, vertical dissection and slope exposure of the Irpin.Fig. 6 – Densité de drainage, dissection verticale et exposition des versants dans la ville d'Irpin.

A: Map of suitability for construction by drainage density: 1. Suitable for construction (0-150 m/ha); 2. Little use for construction (150.1-300 m/ha); 3. Useless for construction (≥ 300.1 m/ha); 4. Thalwegs; B: Map of suitability for construction by vertical dissection: 1. Suitable for construction (0-5.0 m/ha); 2. Little use for construction (5.1-10.0 m/ha); 3. Useless for construction (≥ 10.1 m/ha); C: Slopes’ exposure map: 1. Flat (-1); 2. North (0-22.5; 337.5-360); 3. North-East (22.5-67.5); 4. East (67.5-112.5); 5. South-East (112.5-157.5); 6. South (157.5-202.5); 7. South-West (202.5-247.5); 8. West (247.5-292.5); 9. North-West (292.5-337.5); D: Map of suitability for construction by slopes' exposures: 1. Optimal slopes for residential construction (South, East exposures and Flat); 2. Undesirable slopes for residential construction (North and West exposures).
A : Carte d’aptitude à la construction selon la densité de drainage : 1. Adapté à la construction (0-150 m/ha) ; 2. Peu utilisé pour la construction (150.1-300 m/ha) ; 3. Inutile pour la construction (≥ 300.1 m/ha) ; 4. Thalwegs ; B : Carte d'aptitude à la construction par dissection verticale : 1. Adapté à la construction (0-5.0 m/ha) ; 2. Peu utilisable pour la construction (5.1-10.0 m/ha) ; 3. Inutile pour la construction (≥ 10.1 m/ha) ; C : Carte d'exposition des pentes : 1. Plat (-1) ; 2. Nord (0-22,5 ; 337,5-360) ; 3. Nord-Est (22,5-67,5) ; 4. Est (67,5-112,5) ; 5. Sud-Est (112,5-157,5) ; 6. Sud (157,5-202,5) ; 7. Sud-Ouest (202,5-247,5) ; 8. Ouest (247,5-292,5) ; 9. Nord-Ouest (292,5-337,5) ; D : Carte d'aptitude à la construction par exposition des pentes ; 1. Pentes optimales pour la construction résidentielle (expositions Sud, Est et Plat) ; 2. Pentes indésirables pour la construction résidentielle (expositions nord et ouest).

26More complete morphometric territory characteristics can be obtained by using complex indexes. Such characteristics were obtained by Gevorkyan (1972) using a point scale. This index characterizes the erosion degree, the potential of current relief-forming processes and the soil erosion in any territory. For complex point estimation of morphometric indexes of Irpin, four output indicators were used.

27Graduations of their values were chosen with which the readings are compared (in points) (tab. 1). Slope steepness, intensification of drainage density and vertical dissection were assessed from 0 to 2 points. The role of exposure distinction in relief-forming processes character is insignificant; therefore, it is evaluated at a maximum of 1 point. The complex morphometric index is calculated as the sum of all points (Mikhaylov, 2015).

Tab. 1 – Morphometric index assessment by points.
Tab. 1 – Appréciation des indices morphométriques par points.

Tab. 1 – Morphometric index assessment by points.Tab. 1 – Appréciation des indices morphométriques par points.

28Recalculation for rated components of specific values of morphometric indexes in points and their summation enable the creation of the final map of complex morphometric analysis of the Irpin (fig. 7).

Fig. 7 – Complex morphometrical analysis of Irpin.
Fig. 7 – Analyse morphométrique complexe de la ville d'Irpin.

Fig. 7 – Complex morphometrical analysis of Irpin.Fig. 7 – Analyse morphométrique complexe de la ville d'Irpin.

1. Khd* = 0-150 m, Kvd* = 0-5 m, i* = 0-15°, dominant South, East, Flat exposures; 2. Khd* = 150.1-300 m, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m, i*= 15.1-30°, dominant North and West exposures; 3. Khd* ≥ 300.1 m, Kvd* ≥ 10.1m, i* ≥ 30.1°, various exposures (*Khd - horizontal dissection’s index; Kvd - vertical dissection’s index; i - slope steepness’ index).
Khd* = 0-150 m, Kvd* = 0-5 m, i* = 0-15°, expositions dominantes Sud, Est, Plat ; 2. Khd*=150.1-300 m, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m, i* = 15.1-30°, expositions dominantes Nord et Ouest ; 3. Khd* ≥ 300,1 m, Kvd* ≥ 10,1 m, i* ≥ 30,1°, diverses expositions (*Khd - indice de dissection horizontale ; Kvd - indice de dissection verticale ; i - indice de raideur de pente).

29Map analysis shows that the largest values of complex morphometrical index occur in the western part of the city, particularly on steep slopes of moraine and fluvioglacial plain and in separate local sites in the northwest, north and central parts of city. Minimal values of an index are common along the Irpin and Buchanka Rivers floodplains and on watershed territories with flat relief. Comparison of data about the morphogenetic structure of the territory, areas threatened by natural hazards, an extension of Quaternary deposits and complex morphometrical analysis enabled the creation of the final engineering geomorphological map of Irpin (fig. 8).

Fig. 8 – Engineering geomorphological map of the Irpin.
Fig. 8 – Carte géomorphologique d'ingénierie de la ville d'Irpin.

Fig. 8 – Engineering geomorphological map of the Irpin.Fig. 8 – Carte géomorphologique d'ingénierie de la ville d'Irpin.

A: Fluvio-glacial surface: 1. Plateau of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age; 2. Elevated portion of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and the slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age; 3. Lowland part of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age; B: Alluvial type of surface: 4. Alluvial floodplain, flat inundated terrace of Buchanka and Irpin Rivers of Holocene age; 5. Alluvial upper Holocene, slightly dissected first above-flood terrace of Buchanka and Irpin Rivers; C: Biogenic type of surface: 6. Swamped areas and peaty depressions of Holocene age; D: Proluvial-deluvial type of surface: 7. Arroyos’ bottoms and detrital cones of Holocene age composed of recent deluvial-proluvial deposits; E. Technogenic type of surface: 8. Sites with artificially modified relief; 9. Flooding line by catastrophic inundation with 1% support level; 10. Waterlogging (groundwater level ≥3.0 m from surface); 11.River erosion; 12. Eolian sand deflation; 13. Off-scale earthen cliffs; 14. Earthen cliffs; 15. Khd* = 0-150 m/ha, Kvd* = 0-5 m/ha, i* = 0-15°, dominant South, East, Flat exposures; 16. Khd* = 150.1-300 m/ha, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m/ha, i* = 15.1-30°, dominant North and West exposures; 17. Khd* ≥ 300.1 m/ha, Kvd* ≥ 10.1 m/ha, i* ≥ 30.1°, various exposures (*Khd - horizontal dissection's index; Kvd - vertical dissection's index; i - slope steepness' index).
A : Surface de type fluvio-glaciaire: 1. Plateau de plaine fluvio-glaciaire morainique, ondulée et légèrement disséquée, d'âge Dnipro ; 2. Portion surélevée d'une plaine morainique fluvio-glaciaire, ondulée et légèrement disséquée, d'âge Dnipro ; 3. Partie basse de la plaine moraine fluvio-glaciaire, ondulée et légèrement disséquée, d'âge Dnipro ; B : Surface de type alluvial : 4. Plaine inondable alluviale plate, terrasse inondée des rivières Buchanka et Irpin, d'âge holocène ; 5. Holocène supérieur alluvial, première terrasse légèrement disséquée au-dessus des crues des rivières Buchanka et Irpin ; C : Surface de type biogénique : 6. Zones inondées et dépressions tourbeuses, d'âge holocène ; D : Surface de type proluvion-diluvion : 7. Plancher d'arroyos bosselé fin et légèrement concave et cônes détritiques d'âge holocène ; E. Surface de type technogénique : 8. Sites à relief artificiellement modifié ; 9. Ligne d'inondation par inondation catastrophique avec un niveau de soutien de 1 % ; 10. Engorgement (niveau de la nappe phréatique ≥ 3,0 m de la surface) ; 11. Érosion fluviale ; 12. Déflation des sables éoliens ; 13. Falaises de terre hors échelle ; 14. Falaises de terre ; 15. Khd* = 0-150 m/ha, Kvd* = 0-5 m/ha, i* = 0-15°, expositions dominantes Sud, Est, Plat ; 16. Khd* = 150.1-300 m/ha, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m/ha, i* = 15.1-30°, expositions dominantes Nord et Ouest ; 17. Khd* ≥ 300.1 m/ha, Kvd* ≥ 10.1 m/ha, i* ≥ 30.1°, diverses expositions (*Khd - indice de dissection horizontale ; Kvd - indice de dissection verticale ; i - indice de raideur de pente).

30The engineering geomorphological map is a basis for conducting detailed engineering geological zoning, which finally enables making an engineering-construction evaluation of the territory on a qualitative level. Except large taxonomy units, allocation is based on general physical-geographic, tectonic, geomorphological zoning of Ukraine (Paton et al., 2007) and engineering-geomorphological zoning of Kyiv district (Barshchevsky et al., 1989). Engineering-geomorphological map made it possible to allocate relief's morphogenetic types that lay the foundation for allocation of smaller taxonomy units of engineering-geological zoning, such as subdistricts and subsites.

31Subdistricts are allocated in the limits of districts according to engineering-geological complexes of Quaternary rocks thickness and morphological features (Trofimov and Krasilova, 2008). In the limits of the erosion-accumulation alluvial plain, we suggest allocating: (i) alluvial floodplain flat terrace of Holocene age, composed of recent alluvial deposits alQIV with a thickness of 10-16 m, covered by recent organogenic formations (silt, peat) bQIV with a thickness of 0.3-0.5 m. Alluvial deposits represented by quartz fine-grained sands of light yellow and grey-yellow colors with layers of sandy loams and loams; (ii) alluvial Upper Quaternary slightly dissected first above-flood terrace that is composed of alluvial sand and clay deposits alQIII with thickness of 8-12 m, that are represented by alluvial quartz fine-grained sands of light grey and yellow-grey colors with lenses and layers of sandy loams with a thickness of 0.2-0.5 m; (iii) Swamped areas and peaty depressions of Holocene age, covered by recent biogenic deposits (peat) bQIV with thickness of 0.5 m.

32In the limits of denudation-accumulative (depositional) watershed moraine fluvioglacial plain, we suggest allocating the following subzones: (i) Plateau of moraine, fluvio-glacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age with absolute altitudes above 160 m. Subdistrict consists of middle Quaternary fluvioglacial sandy-clayey deposits (flQIIdn3) of advance and retreat of Dnipro glacier with a thickness of 8-13 m. The complex is represented by middle-grained quartz sands of light grey color with lenses and layers of sandy loams, loams and clays with thicknesses of 0.5-2.7 m, including crystalline rocks’ gravel and pebble; (ii) Elevated portion of moraine, fluvio-glacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age with absolute altitudes of 135-160 m. The composition of Quaternary deposits is similar to that of the plateau subdistrict; (iii) Lowland part of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age with absolute altitudes of 120-135 m. The subdistrict is composed of a complex of middle Quaternary fluvioglacial sandy-clayey deposits (flQIIdn3) with a thickness of 5-20 m at 10 m medium capacity; (iv) Arroyos’ bottoms and detrital cones of Holocene age composed of recent deluvial-proluvial deposits pr-dlQIV presented by clays, loams, sandy loams and sands of grey-yellow color, gruss with a thickness of 2-3 m; (v) Sites with artificially modified relief represented by recent technogenic deposits tQIV are mounds with sorted medium-grained sands with a thickness of 2-3 m (Tsybko, 2020). First-order sites are highlighted by complex natural and technogenic factors that determine the engineering construction characteristics. Here it is necessary to provide hydrogeological, engineering geological characteristics and descriptions of detailed lithology, geotechnical soils' properties and dangerous geological properties. Those characteristics will be taken into account during the next hydrogeological and engineering geological research on the Irpin, areas of natural hazards have already been identified and a short review of the deposits' lithology has been reported on the engineering-geomorphological map. Subsites are proposed to allocation based on morphometrical characteristics and natural hazards (Palienko, 1978).

5. Discussion

33Results of engineering geomorphological mapping provide an opportunity to identify morphologic, and morphogenetic peculiarities of the Irpin, define areas of natural hazards and relief elements that complicate the site urbanization. The description of Quaternary deposits that form morphogenetic relief types with a short depiction of lithological composition is also shown both with basic morphometric relief characteristics in the limits of 1 ha square area.

  • Analysis of the engineering geomorphological map of the Irpin enables determining two topics for discussion:

  • Disadvantages of engineering geomorphological map of Irpin.

34Engineering geomorphological map as a base for drawing up schemes of engineering construction evaluation, engineering preparation and protection of the territories in the draft master plan of Irpin.

5.1. Disadvantages of engineering geomorphological map of the Irpin

35The major disadvantage of folded engineering geomorphological map is the absence of information about neotectonic movements, structural landforms, whose activity is displayed in the relief and in the structures of the Quaternary deposits. An information about the summary amplitude of neotectonic movements, neotectonic active discontinuous disturbances, recent violations, neotectonic structures' selection, snaps of different orders, matters as an engineering significance, because those factors will influence the stability of structures and their trouble-free operation and therefore this information would have effect on suitability value of building sites. There is no information about the selection of morphostructures of first, second and third orders and tectonic lineaments (Barshchevsky et al., 1989).

36There are areas of natural hazards on the map, but there is no information about anthropogenic morphogenesis in the city's limits, which is first of all visible in relief's transformation, soil changes, vegetation and hydrogeological conditions.

5.2. Drawing up schemes of engineering-construction assessment

37At this stage, the engineering geomorphological map allows taking into account areas of natural hazards, morpholithologic, morphogenetic and morphometric features, detection of weak soil types that cannot serve as a basis for laying the foundations of structures and buildings (Amaryan, 1990). The map of complex morphometric analysis can be used to identify the sites that are useless for construction outside the areas of natural hazards (tab. 2) (Building codeА.2.1-1-2008, 2008).

Tab. 2 – Engineering-geomorphological conditions and construction assessment; categories of complexity.
Tab. 2 – Conditions d'ingénierie-géomorphologie et évaluation de la construction. ; catégories de complexité.

Tab. 2 – Engineering-geomorphological conditions and construction assessment; categories of complexity.Tab. 2 – Conditions d'ingénierie-géomorphologie et évaluation de la construction. ; catégories de complexité.

38All the above-mentioned characteristics require the selection of measures from engineering preparation and protection of the territories (Building code B.1.1-24:2009, 2010), whose main purpose is the improvement of construction conditions and environmental stabilization, the elimination of natural hazards, carrying out the procedure of horizontal and vertical planning, and removal of excess surface water (tab. 3).

Tab.3 – Engineering preparation and territory’s protection of Irpin.
Tab.3 – Préparation technique et protection du territoire de la ville d'Irpin.

Tab.3 – Engineering preparation and territory’s protection of Irpin.Tab.3 – Préparation technique et protection du territoire de la ville d'Irpin.

39Qualitative engineering building evaluation and engineering preparation and protection should be a priority for design engineers as part of draft master plans' settlements (Zhyrnov et al., 2019). Here are the most basic factors that must be taken into account for engineering-construction assessment and a standard set of measures for the engineering preparation's implementation and sustainable ecological use ; however, the specified categories are not complete and exhaustive. The authors call on all interested specialists for a scientific discussion and consensus for solving this issue.

6. Conclusion

40The combination of morpholithogenetic analysis and morphometric relief assessment methods makes it possible to build an engineering-geomorphological map and identify taxons of geomorphological features for further territory's engineering geological zoning of the Irpin and, as a result, drawing up qualitative schemes of engineering-construction evaluation, engineering preparation and territory’s protection.

41This approach provides an informative tool for urban planning projects and offers an overview of the issues and important indicators for engineering geological zoning and the corresponding territory's engineering-construction evaluation. Emerging problems can be identified on special engineering geomorphological maps and then investigated in detail by various specialists.

42Our approach should be further supported by detailed lithological, hydrogeological and engineering geological data, otherwise the engineering-construction evaluation will be incomplete and site selection by a degree of suitability for construction is not entirely correct: the research is ongoing.

https://geomorphology.igras.ru/​jour/​article/​view/​1013

Lorsque des projets de plans généraux d’urbanisme sont élaborés, les réglementations de construction de l'État recommandent que, parmi les matériaux graphiques supplémentaires, un schéma d'évaluation de l'ingénierie et de la construction soit établi, qui tienne compte des facteurs naturels et anthropiques existants et des facteurs qui déterminent le degré d'adéquation des sites de construction pour le développement urbain. L'évaluation qualitative de l'ingénierie et de la construction est basée sur l'ingénierie et le zonage géologique, dans lequel la sélection d'unités taxonomiques de différents rangs se fait sur la base de la prise en compte de facteurs morphologiques, morpholithogénétiques et morphodynamiques (figure 1). La ville d'Irpin (figure 2) est située à proximité de la capitale de l'Ukraine, Kiev, et est en cours de construction intensive, ce qui nécessite la création d'un programme obligatoire d'évaluation de l'ingénierie et de la construction dans le cadre du projet de plan directeur. Ainsi, la prise en compte des facteurs géomorphologiques est la principale stratégie de conduite de la procédure de zonage d’ingénierie-géologie, et donc de l'évaluation ingénierie-construction. L'article fournit des informations sur les types génétiques du relief de la ville d'Irpin, les aléas naturels existants qui peuvent interférer avec le développement de la construction de la ville, une brève description lithologique des dépôts Quaternaires, qui, dans la plupart des cas, sont au contact des fondations des structures et des bâtiments (figure 3). L'algorithme de construction d'une série de cartes morphométriques, en particulier la pente et l'exposition des pentes, la segmentation horizontale et verticale (figure 4), et la méthode de construction d'une carte avec des indicateurs morphométriques complexes avec leur distribution selon le degré d'aptitude au développement de la construction sont donnés (figures 5 et 6). La comparaison des données sur la structure morphogénétique du territoire, les zones de développement de processus naturels dangereux, la répartition des dépôts quaternaires et l'analyse morphométrique complexe ont permis de construire la carte technique et géomorphologique finale d'Irpin (figures 7 et 8). Le résultat obtenu a permis de distinguer les taxons de zonage géotechnique de divers ordres, y compris de petite dimension, tels que les sous-districts géotechniques selon les caractéristiques morphologiques et les sections géotechniques du deuxième ordre selon les indicateurs morphométriques (figure 8). À la fin de l'article, des facteurs d'évaluation géomorphologiques pour l'évaluation de l'ingénierie et de la construction sont donnés, avec la sélection de catégories de complexité des conditions et le degré d'adéquation du développement de l'ingénierie. Pour les chantiers de construction présentant des conditions géomorphologiques complexes, des mesures de préparation technique et de protection du territoire sont données, qui constituent la base de l'élaboration du schéma du même nom. Les principes de construction d'une carte d’ingénierie-géomorphologique basée sur l'exemple de la ville d'Irpin sont conçus pour aider les ingénieurs concepteurs à mener à bien la procédure de zonage ingénierie-géologique des établissements, l'évaluation qualitative de l'ingénierie et de la construction, et la sélection de la planification technique appropriée des mesures. Il convient de noter qu'une évaluation correcte de l'ingénierie et de la construction du territoire n'est possible qu'en tenant pleinement compte non seulement des données d'ingénierie et de géomorphologie, mais également des caractéristiques lithologiques, hydrogéologiques, d'ingénierie et géologiques du territoire, ce qui nécessite la poursuite des recherches entamées.

*Auteur correspondant : Tel : +38 (0)44 278 05 42, zhirnovpavel2015@gmail.com (P. Zhyrnov)

Haut de page

Bibliographie

Amaryan L.S. (1990) - Low soils' properties and methods for their studying. Nedra publisher, Moscow, 220 p.

Barshchevsky M.E., Kuprash R.P., Shvidky Y.M. (1989) - Geomorphology and relief-forming deposits of Kyiv’s district. Naukova dumka publisher, Kyiv, 196 p.

Bogdevich O.P., Isichko E.S. (2016) - Engineering geological zoning of Cahul city. Bulletin of Geological and Seismological Institute of MAS 2, 52–59.

Building code А.2.1-1-2008 (2008) - Engineering exploration for construction. Minregion, Kyiv, 72 p.

Building code B.1.1-15:2012 (2012) - Structure and contents of master plan’s settlement. Minregion, Kyiv, 33 p.

Building code B.1.1-24:2009 (2010) - Protection from dangerous geological processes. Minregion, Kyiv, 108 p.

Chuyko O. (2001) - The engineering geological conditions of the territory of Adjalik’sLiman. Bulletin of Odessa National University 9, 151–155.

El May M., Diala M., Chenini I. (2010) - Urban geological mapping: geotechnical data analysis for rational development. Engineering Geology 116, 129138.

DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.08.002

Fookes P.G., Lee E.M., Milligan G. (2005) - Geomorphology for engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, 851 p.

Gevorkyan F.S. (1972) - About complex geomorphological indexes for erosion dissection’s characteristic. Geomorphology 3, 44–48.

Grebenshchikov V.P., Grebenshchikova N.V., Kapitalchuk I.P. (2021) - Engineering geological zoning of the territory of the city of Bendery. Bulletin of Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, 6775.

DOI: 10.46698/j8822-5194-7071-q

Gubenko T.V., Mukha V.G., Kozyna N.P. (2017) - Master plan of Irpin. DIPROMISTO publisher, Kyiv, 180 p.

Huang C.T., Lin Y.K., Kao T.C., Moh Z.C. (1987) - Geotechnical engineering mapping of the Taipei city. Proceedings of 9th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, Bangkok, 7–11 December 1987, 109–120.

Ivanenko P.I. (2020) - State geological map of Ukraine – 200. Ukrgeoinform publisher, Kyiv, 67 p.

Kozlyakova I., Mironov O., Eremina O. (2015) – Engineering geological zoning of Moscow by the conditions for subsurface construction. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, 5, 923–926.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09048-1_179

Kravchuk Y. S. (1991) - Engineering geomorphological mapping. Svit publisher, Lviv, 144 p.

Kravchuk Y.S. (2006) - Geomorphological mapping. Ivan Franko NUL publisher, Lviv, 176 p.

Marchak A. (2012) - The methods of relief morphometric analysis' of basinal systems within mountain territories using GIS (a case study of the Chornogora's part of Prut's basin). Bulletin of Lviv National University, 40, 6890.

DOI: 10.30970/vgg.2012.40.2085

Mikhaylov V.A. (2015) - The complex morphometric analysis of the Tarkhankut peninsula by using GIS. Contemporary scientific research and innovation, 2, 7585.

Muceku Y. (2012) - The engineering geological mapping on a scale 1:10000 for tourism development in Adriatic Coastal Plain-Divjaka, Albania. International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 4, 3239.

Mykolaenko O., Zhyrnov P., Sadoviy Y., Tomchenko O., Pidlisetska I. (2019) - Assessment engineering geological zoning of Kalush city using ERS data for urban development. Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Geoinformatics - Theoretical and Applied Aspects, Kyiv, 13-16 May 2019. European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers publisher, 1–5.

DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201902029

Palienko E.T. (1978) - Exploration and engineering geomorphology. Vyshcha shkola publisher, Kyiv, 200 p.

Panchenko T.S. (2019) - Interactive geological map of Ukraine. Ukrgeoinform publisher, Kyiv, 75 p.

Paton B.E., Shpak A.P., Rudenko L.G., Bochkovska A.I. (2007) - National atlas of Ukraine. SSME Kartografiya publisher, Kyiv, 440 p.

Rudenko F.A., Solyakov I.P., Mesyats I.A. (1971) - Hydrogeology of U.S.S.R. Nedra publisher, Moscow, 614 p.

Rudko G.I., Guda O.V. (2013) - Geodynamic mode of supergene processes in Tysa basin (Zakarpattia Oblast). Scientific Technical Journal, 7, 9–14.

Shpakovsky, Y.E. (1999) - Engineering geological zoning of Odessa. Bulletin of Odessa National University, 5, 51–54.

Simonov Y.G., Kruzhalin V.I. (1993) - Engineering geomorphology. MSU publisher, Moscow, 208 p.

Solovytsky V.N., Vozgryn B.D. (1990) - Geological map on the scale 1:50 000 by sheets of Kyiv region. Ukrgeolstrom publisher, Kyiv, 10 p.

Sumatokhina I.M. (2004) - Engineering geomorphological risk of dangerous supergene processes' development in Dnipropetrovsk city. Ph.D. thesis, Geography Institute, 213 p.

Trofimov V.T., Krasilova N.S. (2008) - Engineering geological maps. MSU publisher, Moscow, 383 p.

Tsybko V.A. (2020) - Engineering geological atlas of Irpin on the scale 1:5000. UKRIINTR publisher, Kyiv, 97 p.

Wakamatsu K., Matsuoka M. (2013) - National 7.5-arc-second Japan engineering geomorphologic classification map and Vs30 zoning. Journal of Disaster Research, 5, 904–911

DOI: 10.20965/jdr.2013.p0904

Zhyrnov P.V. (2013) - Engineering geomorphological analysis of Kaniv reservoir's right bank on the example of the "Kyiv – Rzhyshchiv" site. Ph.D. thesis, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 212 p.

Zhyrnov P. V. (2015) - To the problem of engineering construction of territories assessment based on local natural and technogenic factors (Reni district, Odessa region as an example). Geophysical Journal, 37, 115–123.

DOI: 10.24028/gzh.0203-3100.v37i6.2015.111178

Zhyrnov P.V., Sadoviy Y.V., Tomchenko O.V. (2019) - Methodology for the territories’ engineering construction assessment with difficult geological conditions. Proceedings of 10th International Academic Conference “Geodesy, Architecture & construction. LPNU publisher, Lviv, 7177.

DOI: 10.23939/lea

Zuquette L.V., Osni Pejon O.J., Santos Collares J.Q. (2004) - Engineering geological mapping developed in the Fortaleza Metropolitan Region, State of Ceara, Brazil. Engineering Geology, 71, 227–253.

DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(03)00136-4

Haut de page

Annexe

Version française abrégée.

Haut de page

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig.1 - Taxonomy of engineering geological zoning.Fig.1 - Taxonomie du zonage géotechnique.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 347k
Titre Fig. 2 - The Irpin in the central part of Kyiv region (Ukraine).Fig. 2 - La ville d'Irpin dans la partie centrale de la région de Kiev (Ukraine).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 574k
Titre Fig. 3 - Data and methodology of current research.Fig. 3 - Données et méthodologie de la recherche.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 401k
Titre Fig. 4 – Geomorphology of Irpin.Fig. 4 – Géomorphologie de la ville d'Irpin.
Légende A: Hummocky moraine and fluvioglacial relief. B: Irpin River valley. C: First terrace above the fluvioglacial plain. D: Hitch from fluvioglacial plain to Irpin floodplain. E: Irpin floodplain. F: Buchanka floodplain in its lower reaches (Photos by V. Tsybko, June, 2017).A : Relief fluvio-glaciaire morainique bosselé. B : Vallée de la rivière Irpin. C : première terrasse alluviale au-dessus de la plaine fluvioglaciaire. D : Rebord de la plaine fluvioglaciaire sur la plaine inondable d'Irpin. E : Plaine inondable d'Irpin. F : Plaine inondable de Buchanka dans son cours inférieur (Photos de V. Tsybko, juin 2017).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 309k
Titre Fig. 5 – TIN and slopes’ steepness of the Irpin.Fig. 5 – TIN et pente des versants de la ville d'Irpin.
Légende A: TIN model; B: Slope steepness raster: 1. 0°-2° (flat); 2. 2°-5° (very gentle); 3. 5°-10° (gentle); 4. 10°-15° (average); 5. 15°-30° (steep); 6. 30°-45° (very steep); 7. ≥ 45° (extremely steep); C: Map of suitability for construction by slope steepness: 1. Suitable for construction (0-15°); 2. Little use for construction (15.1-30°); 3. Useless for construction (≥ 30.1°); D: Cartogram (map) of suitability for construction by slope steepness: 1. Suitable for construction (0-15°); 2. Little use for construction (15.1-30°); 3.Useless for construction (≥ 30.1°).A : modèle TIN ; B: Raster d'inclinaison de pente : 1. 0-2°; 2. 2-5°; 3. 5-10°; 4. 10-15°; 5. 15-30°; 6. 30-45°; 7. ≥ 45°; C : Carte d'aptitude à la construction par inclinaison des pentes : 1. Adapté à la construction (0-15°); 2. Peu utilisé pour la construction (15.1-30°); 3. Impropre à la construction (≥ 30.1°) ; D : Cartogramme d'aptitude à la construction par inclinaison des pentes : 1. Aptitude à la construction (0-15°) ; 2. Peu utilisé pour la construction (15.1-30°) ; 3. Impropre à la construction (≥ 30.1°).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 535k
Titre Fig. 6 – Drainage density, vertical dissection and slope exposure of the Irpin.Fig. 6 – Densité de drainage, dissection verticale et exposition des versants dans la ville d'Irpin.
Légende A: Map of suitability for construction by drainage density: 1. Suitable for construction (0-150 m/ha); 2. Little use for construction (150.1-300 m/ha); 3. Useless for construction (≥ 300.1 m/ha); 4. Thalwegs; B: Map of suitability for construction by vertical dissection: 1. Suitable for construction (0-5.0 m/ha); 2. Little use for construction (5.1-10.0 m/ha); 3. Useless for construction (≥ 10.1 m/ha); C: Slopes’ exposure map: 1. Flat (-1); 2. North (0-22.5; 337.5-360); 3. North-East (22.5-67.5); 4. East (67.5-112.5); 5. South-East (112.5-157.5); 6. South (157.5-202.5); 7. South-West (202.5-247.5); 8. West (247.5-292.5); 9. North-West (292.5-337.5); D: Map of suitability for construction by slopes' exposures: 1. Optimal slopes for residential construction (South, East exposures and Flat); 2. Undesirable slopes for residential construction (North and West exposures).A : Carte d’aptitude à la construction selon la densité de drainage : 1. Adapté à la construction (0-150 m/ha) ; 2. Peu utilisé pour la construction (150.1-300 m/ha) ; 3. Inutile pour la construction (≥ 300.1 m/ha) ; 4. Thalwegs ; B : Carte d'aptitude à la construction par dissection verticale : 1. Adapté à la construction (0-5.0 m/ha) ; 2. Peu utilisable pour la construction (5.1-10.0 m/ha) ; 3. Inutile pour la construction (≥ 10.1 m/ha) ; C : Carte d'exposition des pentes : 1. Plat (-1) ; 2. Nord (0-22,5 ; 337,5-360) ; 3. Nord-Est (22,5-67,5) ; 4. Est (67,5-112,5) ; 5. Sud-Est (112,5-157,5) ; 6. Sud (157,5-202,5) ; 7. Sud-Ouest (202,5-247,5) ; 8. Ouest (247,5-292,5) ; 9. Nord-Ouest (292,5-337,5) ; D : Carte d'aptitude à la construction par exposition des pentes ; 1. Pentes optimales pour la construction résidentielle (expositions Sud, Est et Plat) ; 2. Pentes indésirables pour la construction résidentielle (expositions nord et ouest).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 616k
Titre Tab. 1 – Morphometric index assessment by points.Tab. 1 – Appréciation des indices morphométriques par points.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 50k
Titre Fig. 7 – Complex morphometrical analysis of Irpin.Fig. 7 – Analyse morphométrique complexe de la ville d'Irpin.
Légende 1. Khd* = 0-150 m, Kvd* = 0-5 m, i* = 0-15°, dominant South, East, Flat exposures; 2. Khd* = 150.1-300 m, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m, i*= 15.1-30°, dominant North and West exposures; 3. Khd* ≥ 300.1 m, Kvd* ≥ 10.1m, i* ≥ 30.1°, various exposures (*Khd - horizontal dissection’s index; Kvd - vertical dissection’s index; i - slope steepness’ index).Khd* = 0-150 m, Kvd* = 0-5 m, i* = 0-15°, expositions dominantes Sud, Est, Plat ; 2. Khd*=150.1-300 m, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m, i* = 15.1-30°, expositions dominantes Nord et Ouest ; 3. Khd* ≥ 300,1 m, Kvd* ≥ 10,1 m, i* ≥ 30,1°, diverses expositions (*Khd - indice de dissection horizontale ; Kvd - indice de dissection verticale ; i - indice de raideur de pente).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 252k
Titre Fig. 8 – Engineering geomorphological map of the Irpin.Fig. 8 – Carte géomorphologique d'ingénierie de la ville d'Irpin.
Légende A: Fluvio-glacial surface: 1. Plateau of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age; 2. Elevated portion of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and the slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age; 3. Lowland part of moraine, fluvioglacial wavy and slightly dissected plain of Dnipro age; B: Alluvial type of surface: 4. Alluvial floodplain, flat inundated terrace of Buchanka and Irpin Rivers of Holocene age; 5. Alluvial upper Holocene, slightly dissected first above-flood terrace of Buchanka and Irpin Rivers; C: Biogenic type of surface: 6. Swamped areas and peaty depressions of Holocene age; D: Proluvial-deluvial type of surface: 7. Arroyos’ bottoms and detrital cones of Holocene age composed of recent deluvial-proluvial deposits; E. Technogenic type of surface: 8. Sites with artificially modified relief; 9. Flooding line by catastrophic inundation with 1% support level; 10. Waterlogging (groundwater level ≥3.0 m from surface); 11.River erosion; 12. Eolian sand deflation; 13. Off-scale earthen cliffs; 14. Earthen cliffs; 15. Khd* = 0-150 m/ha, Kvd* = 0-5 m/ha, i* = 0-15°, dominant South, East, Flat exposures; 16. Khd* = 150.1-300 m/ha, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m/ha, i* = 15.1-30°, dominant North and West exposures; 17. Khd* ≥ 300.1 m/ha, Kvd* ≥ 10.1 m/ha, i* ≥ 30.1°, various exposures (*Khd - horizontal dissection's index; Kvd - vertical dissection's index; i - slope steepness' index).A : Surface de type fluvio-glaciaire: 1. Plateau de plaine fluvio-glaciaire morainique, ondulée et légèrement disséquée, d'âge Dnipro ; 2. Portion surélevée d'une plaine morainique fluvio-glaciaire, ondulée et légèrement disséquée, d'âge Dnipro ; 3. Partie basse de la plaine moraine fluvio-glaciaire, ondulée et légèrement disséquée, d'âge Dnipro ; B : Surface de type alluvial : 4. Plaine inondable alluviale plate, terrasse inondée des rivières Buchanka et Irpin, d'âge holocène ; 5. Holocène supérieur alluvial, première terrasse légèrement disséquée au-dessus des crues des rivières Buchanka et Irpin ; C : Surface de type biogénique : 6. Zones inondées et dépressions tourbeuses, d'âge holocène ; D : Surface de type proluvion-diluvion : 7. Plancher d'arroyos bosselé fin et légèrement concave et cônes détritiques d'âge holocène ; E. Surface de type technogénique : 8. Sites à relief artificiellement modifié ; 9. Ligne d'inondation par inondation catastrophique avec un niveau de soutien de 1 % ; 10. Engorgement (niveau de la nappe phréatique ≥ 3,0 m de la surface) ; 11. Érosion fluviale ; 12. Déflation des sables éoliens ; 13. Falaises de terre hors échelle ; 14. Falaises de terre ; 15. Khd* = 0-150 m/ha, Kvd* = 0-5 m/ha, i* = 0-15°, expositions dominantes Sud, Est, Plat ; 16. Khd* = 150.1-300 m/ha, Kvd* = 5.1-10 m/ha, i* = 15.1-30°, expositions dominantes Nord et Ouest ; 17. Khd* ≥ 300.1 m/ha, Kvd* ≥ 10.1 m/ha, i* ≥ 30.1°, diverses expositions (*Khd - indice de dissection horizontale ; Kvd - indice de dissection verticale ; i - indice de raideur de pente).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 976k
Titre Tab. 2 – Engineering-geomorphological conditions and construction assessment; categories of complexity.Tab. 2 – Conditions d'ingénierie-géomorphologie et évaluation de la construction. ; catégories de complexité.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 237k
Titre Tab.3 – Engineering preparation and territory’s protection of Irpin.Tab.3 – Préparation technique et protection du territoire de la ville d'Irpin.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/docannexe/image/17658/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 238k
Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Pavlo Zhyrnov et Iryna Solomakha, « Engineering and geomorphological map of Irpin: significance for engineering geological zoning and evaluation of the city construction »Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement [En ligne], 29-2 | 2023, mis en ligne le 17 novembre 2023, consulté le 21 février 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/geomorphologie/17658 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/geomorphologie.17658

Haut de page

Auteurs

Pavlo Zhyrnov

Design Institute of Security Service of Ukraine, Architectural Planning Department 2, str. Zolotovorytska, 5, 01030 Kyiv, Ukraine.

Iryna Solomakha

Ukrainian State Scientific Research Institute of Cities’ Design “DIPROMISTO” named after Y.M. Bilokonya, Basic Center of Geoinformation Systems, blvd. Lesi Ukrainky, 26, 01133 Kyiv, Ukraine.

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

Le texte et les autres éléments (illustrations, fichiers annexes importés), sont « Tous droits réservés », sauf mention contraire.

Haut de page
Search OpenEdition Search

You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search