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Following the threads of social magma: Neurodiversity as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity (UNESCO)

Lucas Fritz
Traduction de Kaylen Baker
Cet article est une traduction de :
Suivre les fils du magma social : la neurodiversité à l’épreuve du patrimoine culturel immatériel de l’humanité (UNESCO) []

Résumé

“Neurodiversity” is a magmatic term, it defines at the same time, a concept and a set of communities. The neurodiversity communities are built primarily online and are agitated by various controversies. They share contradictory concepts, variegated literatures and expose gestures representative of their neurological differences. Despite their differences, the communities agree upon the necessity to protect neurodiversity from an external threat that is yet to be defined. We can use the UNESCO representative list of intangible cultural heritage as a co-writing frame in order to emulate controversies on Reddit neurodiversity threads and emulate discussions on the concept of neurological heritage, its limits and its risks. This action-research project offers a participative writing frame in order to identify cultural elements of the neurodiverse movements and disentangle the threads of social magma.

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Texte intégral

The social magma of neurodiversity: historical and conceptual framework

Link to the research-creation work: threads-of-social-magma

  • 1 Judy Singer, Neurodiversity, the Birth of an Idea, Melbourne, Amazon Australia Services, 2016.
  • 2 CLE Autiste: Collectif pour la liberté d’expression des autistes, “Neurodiversité.” [Online] https: (...)
  • 3 Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of the Mind, San Francisco, Chandler Publishing Company, 1972.

1Neurodiversity is a magmatic word. Originally, it referred to a research hypothesis proposing an inclusive representation of autism and related disorders.1 Today, it often designates digital communities of people with neurological differences (autistic, schizophrenic, ADHD, etc.) centered around forums, social networks, and Reddit threads, while at other times it designates a “philosophical concept”2 denoting the relationships between the human body and its environment, beyond medical diagnostic categories. The internal turbulence underlying neurodiversity partly justifies the absence of a clear definition of the term. It resembles what anthropologist Gregory Bateson called a knot in a handkerchief: a necessarily vague term which makes it possible to express controversies, to splice problems into subsets whose stakes are more easily observable.3

  • 4 Tommaso Venturini, “Diving in magma: How to explore controversies with actor-network theory,” Publi (...)

2Half a century after Gregory Bateson, Tommaso Venturini gave these vague terms the name “magma,” emphasizing the social and technical implications in the liquid/solid nature of these terms.4 Thus, not only do the terms’ definitions get made and unmade: the social and technical relationships themselves solidify and liquefy at the whim of agreements and disagreements among the various parties.

  • 5 See the co-authored self-published work: Steven Kapp (ed.), Autistic Community and the Neurodiversi (...)
  • 6 Marta Nussbaum, “The capabilities of people with cognitive disabilities,” Metaphilosophy, no. 40.3- (...)
  • 7 Melanie Yergeau, Authoring Autism. On Rhetoric and Neurological Queerness, Durham, Duke University, (...)

3The case of neurodiversity is emblematic of the magmatic turbulence in controversy. The question of whether or not neurodiversity can include non-autistic people on its continuum, or if this continuum only concerns people with neurological divergences, has not only generated internal controversies in several online communities; it has led experts to write scientific articles, it has spurred publications,5 engendered philosophical concepts around logic and politics,6 and legitimized vernacular practices such as self-diagnosis, by shifting the boundaries between normal and pathological, scholar and layman, object of study and subject of inquiry.7

4Controversies in the field of neurodiversity ensure the diffusion of differing literatures, raising large stakes in terms of ontology and politics (such as whether or not to attribute an empathetic functioning to autistic people), but also in terms of epistemology (for example, which theoretical model of the human body should be adopted in order to develop tools for emotional analysis adapted to diverse neurocognitive profiles?). Thus, they generate not only socio-medical controversies, but cosmopolitical8 ones as well. The multitude of players concerned with neurodiversity, as well as the figure of the autistic researcher (researchers at universities who define themselves first and foremost as members of the autistic community9), contribute to further liquefying the magma of neurodiversity.

  • 10 Adrienne Massanari, Participatory Culture, Community and Play. Learning from Reddit, Bern, Peter La (...)

5Indeed, while historically the first concepts of neurodiversity were built via mailing lists, such as that of Autism Network International, today neurodiverse people connect on social networks in order to share multimedia content and various types of texts (scientific writing, personal accounts, etc.) of various tones (humorous, serious, playful, etc.). The Reddit platform, in proposing an intermediary writing format halfway between a social network and a forum, has become a central hub for interconnective knowledge among neurodiverse communities (the community “r/neurodiversity,” with its research-creation project, has more than 16,000 registered avatars). The presence of instant messaging, karma (the equivalent of Facebook likes) and the individual profiles which group together various previous posts, makes Reddit more like a traditional social network, such as Facebook. However, the presence of posts on threads and comments shared within public communities, as well as the access to commented threads through a general search engine such as Google, makes it more like a forum. This hybrid format, combining social networks’ visibility algorithms, quasi-anonymity, and the public nature of forums, makes Reddit a platform particularly suited to observing “uninhibited digital sociability” around controversial subjects.10

Observing social magma: determining commonalities

6How, then, can we solidify this magma and organize what is liquid?

  • 11 Ralph Savarese, “More than a thing to ignore: An interview with Tito Rajarshi Mukhopadyay,” Disabil (...)

7Observing the already existing controversies on social networks (and in particular on Reddit) has brought to light common factors among engaged players: these players (people diagnosed with autism, self-diagnosed, various allies, neuroscience researchers, activists, etc.) all agree on the fact that there is something of a human neurocognitive biodiversity, and that protecting this biodiversity is in the interest of humanity (not only in the interest of people diagnosed with autism). According to them, this biodiversity is expressed as a different reactivity to sensory and cognitive stimuli (hyper- and hyposensitivity, dyspraxia, dyslexia, sensory processing disorders, etc.), and as an original way of perceiving the environment, of thinking and communicating (such as thinking in images, or showing empathy for non-living elements such as light, walls,11 etc.)

  • 12 Amethyst Schaeber, “Ask an autistic #1: what’s stimming?, YouTube video, 10:38. [Online] https://w (...)

8Furthermore, this something leaves traces behind, both digitally (texts, images, video) and non-digitally, with the aim of instructing and transmitting. For example, repetitive gestures performed by autistic people can lead to video and infographic content on social networks (gathered under a set of hashtags #stimming, #selfregulation) with the goal of illustrating the autistic body’s reactivity, and educating a non-autistic public about sensory particularities, while sharing techniques and objects of sensory regulation with other neurologically diverse individuals. These videos depict what psychiatric medicine traditionally calls “stereotypy” in order to illustrate a therapeutic, playful, and even cultural aspect to these gestures.12 These traces not only aim to de-pathologize autistic gestures by presenting them as “natural” and “therapeutic,” but also help us reconsider what is a norm for the human body, based on sensory regulation gestures.

  • 13 “Autiste queer le docu, Shadowban intracommunautaire, Facebook post, 11 February 2021. [Online] ht (...)
  • 14 Alicia Broderick and Robin Roscigno, Autism, Inc.: The autism industrial complex,” Journal of Disa (...)

9Lastly, what the players have in common is that they consider traces of neurodiversity to be a richness of the human body, and want to defend this richness against a multitude of figures contributing, they say, to their disappearance (these figures are, in turn, non-autistic individuals and false allies,13 lobbyists of psychoanalysis and psychiatry, even the entire neo-liberal society, with its pharmaceutical-industrial system disseminating production and consumption norms14). They argue that this lack of valorization contributes to their endangerment, through a snowball effect (or magma).

10The presence of neuro-diverse communities, tangible and intangible objects, and places of identity ritualization and transmission correspond to UNESCO’s criteria for intangible cultural heritage, according to their 2003 convention.15 A statement made by these aforementioned players about an endangered neurodiverse heritage (its gestures and language) would allow neurodiversity to benefit from safeguarding heritage measures provided by the UNESCO institution.

Defending neurodiversity as UNESCO intangible cultural heritage: a research-creation project to solidify social magma

11Indeed, since 2003, UNESCO has recognized that “cultural heritage does not end at monuments and collections of objects” but “also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions […] social practices […] knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe.” UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage distinguishes between three lists of heritage inscriptions: the list of intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding, the register of good safeguarding practices, and the representative list aimed at ensuring greater visibility around heritage in general.

12We chose this last list as the framework for writing this research-creation project. This list establishes five general criteria to be respected in order for something to be registered as intangible cultural heritage.16 These five criteria are elaborated on in the ICH-02 file through questions and sub-questions that allow UNESCO to identify the item and its communities, evaluate current safeguarding practices, and define future safeguarding measures. UNESCO also provides sample files which the committee considers representative of good examples, in order to facilitate the drafting of the proposal.17

13Protecting neurodiversity under UNESCO could offer symbolic and financial support to neurodiverse practices and writings, by encouraging the de-stigmatization of neurologically diverse identities; in return, the presence of neurodiversity could enrich community cooperation on the issue of intangible heritage, by proposing written and annotated modes of human sensoriality, and by offering a reflection on the links between intangible cultural heritage and neurocognitive functioning.

14Although the application submission to UNESCO depends on the written participation of Nation-States, it is foreseeable, according to article 1.7 of the Operational Directives for the Implementation of the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, that “Submitting States Parties shall involve the communities, groups, and, where applicable, individuals concerned in the preparation of their files.” The threads of social magma aims to reverse this process by submitting the questions on the list to the communities before turning them over for review to the submitting States.

15We assume that the simulated presence of a macro-actor (UNESCO) within local controversies can artificially stir up the controversies, generate weighty issues, and bring together previously distant texts and players. We also assume that UNESCO projects’ restrictive frameworks can correspond to the needs of neurodiversity players to formalize their socio-cultural approach of neurological diversity, while corresponding to UNESCO’s need to engage populations in defining their heritage.

  • 18 Marta Severo and Tommaso Venturini, “Intangible cultural heritage web: Comparing national networks (...)

16Taking these assumptions into account, along with a broader understanding of cultural heritage, which has expanded over time to include more various items,18 we decided to create a digital piece of work to simulate a meta-controversy (an aggregate of controversies), which allows concerned populations to defend neurodiversity themselves, as UNESCO intangible cultural heritage. Starting with an avatar (/neuro1community/), this meta-controversy consists in generating conversational threads on Reddit neurodiverse communities (r/neurodiversity) by asking internet users questions from the UNESCO representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Figure 1

Figure 1

A sample of interactions from one of my avatar’s posts /neuro1diversity/ “Neurodiversity as intangible cultural heritage of humanity,” organized with Mindnote.

17Responses to the questions submitted by my avatar are collected manually each week and organized into several sections: an evolving map, made via Mindnote software (fig. 1), illustrating comment activity; relayed and private messages; a list of contributors and shared hyperlinks; screenshots illustrating the map of controversies from proper names shared by Internet users; and finally, a temporary response to the item imposed by UNESCO. This result is then re-introduced back into the Reddit thread to be read and commented on.

18In simulating this meta-controversy, we also can compile a corpus of documents by collecting references and citations posted in the “comments” section by Internet users. Analyzing this collection allows us to establish a typology of neurodiverse controversies by classifying them based on field (neurodiversity and neurobiology, neurodiversity and citizen participation, neurodiversity and human and social sciences...), and on scale (individual and society, individual and natural environment, social groups and globality...). It also allows us to define key time-spaces in the formation of a neurodiverse heritage (such as the upstream and downstream negotiations around the vote on the Persons within the Autism Spectrum [Empowerment] Act, by the Malta parliament in 2016, a major event in the opinion of /connersjackson/ on the Reddit thread, cf. fig. 2).

Figure 2

Figure 2

A combination of a native screenshot from the Reddit platform and a photograph from the Person within the Autism Spectrum Act initiative, mentioned by /connersjackson/.

  • 19 Alexandra Saemmer, “Nouvelles de la colonie – Archives,” Facebook page, 24 March 2019. [Online] htt (...)
  • 20 Vanessa Place, Tragodia 1. Statement of Facts, Los Angeles, Insert Blanc Press, 2010.

19As a whole, the project of (co)production, aggregation of interactions across these threads, and reestablishment of results provide a research-experimentation protocol (inspired by writing practices with and on social networks, such as those of Alexandra Saemmer,19 and official found-object documents, such as those of Vanessa Place20) which allows player-networks to expand their current observational practices and controversial discussion topics. These measures can, moreover, promote recognition of the role of online communities and social networks in creating intangible cultural heritage.

20The (co-)production of those controversies, while still ongoing, nevertheless gives us some preliminary information on the subject.

  • 21 Peter Haas, Introduction: Epistemic communities and international policy coordination,” Internatio (...)

21An “epistemic authority”21 is taking shape within these communities. It designates, on one hand, profiles of authority, the frequent posting of comments by Internet users often distinguished by a reward system (active participation, contributions recognized by other Internet users, etc.); on the other hand, it points to other profiles with more piecemeal activity. This attempt to examine the heritage values behind their practice, starting with online communities, throws light on various types of digital players engaged in defining the intangible cultural heritage of neurodiversity, such as the webmasters in the Reddit groups, or bloggers frequently cited by the community. This approach also makes it possible to identify other objects that ritualize community identity and determine levels of legitimacy in the transmission of knowledge, such as participation rewards and the “gift” system.

  • 22 Ginny Russell, “Critiques of the neurodiversity movement,” in Steven Kapp (ed.), Autistic Community (...)
  • 23 Brigitte Chamak, “Autisme et militantisme: de la maladie à la différence, Quaderni, no. 68, Winter (...)

22The presence of peer experts within a community characterized by different communication modes could further help to identify which communication modes and appropriate language to use when addressing individuals concerned with neurodiversity who may not be present on these online communities, by having direct consultation with the peer experts, or by observing content on their Reddit page. Indeed, neurodiverse communities are characterized by a wide range of communicative functioning among their members22—this range varies from an ability to express oneself through oral speech to an inability to express oneself verbally without the aid of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) technologies, such as text-to-speech boxes. Online platforms continue to be primary venues for building neurodiverse communities.23

23Identifying peer experts through a digital written medium within these communities could encourage exchanges and participation with non-verbal individuals, in order to define their heritage (that of neurodiversity, or any other intangible cultural heritage), and to reflect on the place of research-creation while establishing dialogue between non-verbal individuals and institutions in charge of heritage, between the epistemic authority in the communities and the heritage authority, and between neurodiverse writing and institutional writing.

Figure 3

Figure 3

Screenshot of a historic neurodiverse site (Baca Grande, Colorado) based on the folklore theory of an extra-human (elven) origin of autism, as suggested by an Internet user.

Conclusion: magma threads and string games

24Is this project even possible?

25The project of entering neurodiversity into the representative list of UNESCO intangible cultural heritage requires engaging a large quantity of players, documents, and administrative operations (such as soliciting government officials), which would seem to exceed my own capacities, as well as the capacities of Internet users on the Reddit threads. This project seems to fall more under the category of fiction and science-fiction writing than that of a project-proposal, which might look more serious in appearance. The latter must, on one hand, follow a precise roadmap—which in the case of UNESCO, takes on the appearance of a back and forth between government and people—while on the other hand must conform to a precise mode of writing, beginning with submitting the object into an inventory of national cultural heritage.24

26Nevertheless, is The threads of social magma simply an innocent exercise in style, transposing UNESCO’s writing rules into an informal setting, producing documents detached from the socio-political operations it discusses from afar?

  • 25 Franck Leibovici, Des opérations d’écriture qui ne disent pas leur nom, Paris, Questions Théoriques (...)

27Transposing unmodified official documents into an online, co-authored exercise framework begs the question of the fictional potential in administrative writing, and reveals the presence of scenarios in official documents unforeseen by the officials who put out these documents.25

28Furthermore, Internet users’ digital writings produced as a result of UNESCO’s questions demonstrate a certain neurodiverse knowledge and transmission mode that bring to light new players (scientists, writers, philosophy professors), and along with them, a new documental context with new institutional networks.

  • 26 /sorandril/, “The aquatic genesis of human intellect and its future direction,” Reddit post, 2021. (...)
  • 27 /connersjackson/, “You’re right this is ambitious,” Reddit post, 2021. [Online] https://www.reddit. (...)

29This project ties together various threads between creatures of different scales and distances, in terms of ontology (such as, for example, the elven species mentioned by avatar /sorandril/26 and the national institutions and parliaments mentioned by avatar /connersjackson/27), and engages different cosmologies by making them porous to each other. This porosity is made possible, on the one hand, by the potential for fictional administrative writing, and, on the other, by the potential for collective writings on neurodiverse science fiction in institutional contexts.

  • 28 Donna Harraway, Staying with the Trouble. Making kin in the Chthulucene, Durham, Duke University Pr (...)

30These strings we’ve tied not only blur the boundary between our achievable political project and the speculative writing of science fiction, but also void any need to distinguish between seemingly political and narrative aims, as well as any need to discriminate between those who believe in the project’s political reality, and those who conceive of it as a fiction. What concerns us are the threads we tie, this time, between different cosmologies in the sense of a Terrapolis, of what is “both a story and a string game, so that multi-specific worlds can form,” which “take place in a science-fiction network in which there are always too many connections, here where we must patch up the respons-ability together.”28

31This project therefore does not raise the question of whether or not submitting a neurodiversity project to UNESCO is possible, since it is made possible through the accessibility of documents. The threads of social magma raises the following issues that allow the threads to expand: how do we tie together the threads of different cosmologies? What documents do we need to understand the strings of the institutions in charge of heritage recognition and tie them to the threads of social magma? Where do we need to position these new documents? What actions do we need to perform, and what writing, both digital and non-digital, do we need in order to play this string game as well as possible?

32The routine extractions through data sampling and screenshots, the chronological reconstruction of threads and strings motivating different players on a dedicated platform, and the synthesis of different perspectives all help to trace the outline of an answer to these questions, in an attempt to tie together the administrative and fictional threads of UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage with the cosmopolitical networks of neurodiversity.

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Bibliographie

“Autiste queer le docu, Shadowban intracommunautaire,” Facebook post, 11 February 2021. [Online] https://www.facebook.com/autistequeerledocu/posts/433551654751292 [accessed 2 April 2021].

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Notes

1 Judy Singer, Neurodiversity, the Birth of an Idea, Melbourne, Amazon Australia Services, 2016.

2 CLE Autiste: Collectif pour la liberté d’expression des autistes, “Neurodiversité.” [Online] https://cle-autistes.fr/ressources/neurodiversite/ [accessed 2 April 2021].

3 Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of the Mind, San Francisco, Chandler Publishing Company, 1972.

4 Tommaso Venturini, “Diving in magma: How to explore controversies with actor-network theory,” Public Understanding of Science, no. 19.3, 2009, p. 258-273.

5 See the co-authored self-published work: Steven Kapp (ed.), Autistic Community and the Neurodiversity Movement. Stories from the Frontline, Singapore, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.

6 Marta Nussbaum, “The capabilities of people with cognitive disabilities,” Metaphilosophy, no. 40.3-4, 2009, p. 331-351.

7 Melanie Yergeau, Authoring Autism. On Rhetoric and Neurological Queerness, Durham, Duke University, 2018.

8 Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social. An Introduction to Actor Network Theory, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005.

9 See, for example, Nick Walker: [Online] https://neurocosmopolitanism.com/ and Robert Chapman: https://intersectionalneurodiversity.wordpress.com/about-2/ [accessed 12 April 2021].

10 Adrienne Massanari, Participatory Culture, Community and Play. Learning from Reddit, Bern, Peter Lang Publishing, 2015.

11 Ralph Savarese, “More than a thing to ignore: An interview with Tito Rajarshi Mukhopadyay,” Disabilities Study Quarterly, no. 1.30, 2010. [Online] https://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1056/1235 [accessed 12 April 2021].

12 Amethyst Schaeber, “Ask an autistic #1: what’s stimming?, YouTube video, 10:38. [Online] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WexCWZPJE6A [accessed 25 January 2014].

13 “Autiste queer le docu, Shadowban intracommunautaire, Facebook post, 11 February 2021. [Online] https://www.facebook.com/autistequeerledocu/posts/433551654751292 [accessed 2 April 2021].

14 Alicia Broderick and Robin Roscigno, Autism, Inc.: The autism industrial complex,” Journal of Disability Studies in Education, 2021, p. 1-25.

15 UNESCO, “Qu’est ce que le patrimoine culturel immatériel? [Online] https://ich.unesco.org/fr/qu-est-ce-que-le-patrimoine-culturel-immateriel-00003 [accessed 2 April 2021].

16 Demonstrate the cultural aspect of the object, determine the actors and practices, determine the State' role, demonstrate the communities' participation in drafting the project, register the object as part of a national heritage.

17 [Online] https://ich.unesco.org/fr/formulaires [accessed 2 April 2021].

18 Marta Severo and Tommaso Venturini, “Intangible cultural heritage web: Comparing national networks with digital methods,” New Media & Society, no. 18.8, p. 1616-1635, 2016. [Online] https://spire.sciencespo.fr/hdl:/2441/72vn63h418u0qs5a64ai25got/resources/severo-venturini-2015-intangible-cultural-heritage-webs-comparing-national-networks-with-digital-methods.pdf [accessed 2 April 2021].

19 Alexandra Saemmer, “Nouvelles de la colonie – Archives,” Facebook page, 24 March 2019. [Online] https://www.facebook.com/anna.wegekreuz [accessed 2 April 2021].

20 Vanessa Place, Tragodia 1. Statement of Facts, Los Angeles, Insert Blanc Press, 2010.

21 Peter Haas, Introduction: Epistemic communities and international policy coordination,” International Organization, no. 1.46, 1992, p. 1-35.

22 Ginny Russell, “Critiques of the neurodiversity movement,” in Steven Kapp (ed.), Autistic Community and the Neurodiversity Movement, Singapore, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 287-303.

23 Brigitte Chamak, “Autisme et militantisme: de la maladie à la différence, Quaderni, no. 68, Winter 2008-2009, January 5, 2012. [Online]http://journals.openedition.org/quaderni/268 [accessed 12 April 2021].

24 UNESCO, “Qu’est-ce que le patrimoine culturel immatériel?” [Online] https://ich.unesco.org/fr/qu-est-ce-que-le-patrimoine-culturel-immateriel-00003 [accessed 2 April 2021].

25 Franck Leibovici, Des opérations d’écriture qui ne disent pas leur nom, Paris, Questions Théoriques, 2020.

26 /sorandril/, “The aquatic genesis of human intellect and its future direction,” Reddit post, 2021. [Online] https://www.reddit.com/r/neurodiversity/comments/le2lmc/neurodiversity_as_intangible_cultural_heritage_of/gmhb27g?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3 [accessed 2 April 2021].

27 /connersjackson/, “You’re right this is ambitious,” Reddit post, 2021. [Online] https://www.reddit.com/r/neurodiversity/comments/le2lmc/neurodiversity_as_intangible_cultural_heritage_of/gmrz64r?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3 [accessed 2 April 2021].

28 Donna Harraway, Staying with the Trouble. Making kin in the Chthulucene, Durham, Duke University Press, 2019.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1
Légende A sample of interactions from one of my avatar’s posts /neuro1diversity/ “Neurodiversity as intangible cultural heritage of humanity,” organized with Mindnote.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/hybrid/docannexe/image/2199/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 215k
Titre Figure 2
Légende A combination of a native screenshot from the Reddit platform and a photograph from the Person within the Autism Spectrum Act initiative, mentioned by /connersjackson/.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/hybrid/docannexe/image/2199/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 480k
Titre Figure 3
Légende Screenshot of a historic neurodiverse site (Baca Grande, Colorado) based on the folklore theory of an extra-human (elven) origin of autism, as suggested by an Internet user.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/hybrid/docannexe/image/2199/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 218k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Lucas Fritz, « Following the threads of social magma: Neurodiversity as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity (UNESCO) »Hybrid [En ligne], 8 | 2022, mis en ligne le 21 avril 2022, consulté le 26 mai 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/hybrid/2199 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/hybrid.2199

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Auteur

Lucas Fritz

Lucas Fritz holds a PhD in Information and Communication Sciences and Sociology, and has developed a socio-technical approach to behavioral norms and communication through his work on neurodiversity movements. His approach to norms has been documented in his journalistic writing on subjects concerning public health policies and in online writing for Mediapart, Acta, and Regards.

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Droits d’auteur

Revue Hybrid

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