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XML-based Analysis of Early 20th-Century Russian State Duma Verbatims

Analyse des verbatims de la Douma d’État russe du début du xxe siècle grâce au XML
Анализ стенографических отчетов Государственной Думы Российской Империи начала XX века на основе XML
Nadezhda Povroznik

Résumés

Cette étude est consacrée à l'analyse de la documentation de la Douma d'État de l'Empire russe (1906-1917), qui avait légitimement limité le pouvoir du monarque. La base méthodologique de cette recherche repose sur la création d'un corpus de textes basé sur les index alphabétiques personnels des comptes rendus in extenso de la Douma d'État I-IV, sur un balisage de textes basé sur le schéma XML développé et sur l'analyse de changements dans la structure des sources basée sur l’étude de la distribution d’étiquettes.
Le volume total du corpus de textes ainsi créé est de 749 793 mots. Le système de balisage reflète la structure des index et comprend des métadonnées sur la source, les caractéristiques personnelles des députés et des balises liées aux activités parlementaires de ces derniers. Cet article examine la structure des indices et sa différence sessionnelle en fonction de la représentation matricielle des données. L'analyse des données de balisage montre que la structure des index personnels des procès-verbaux de séance a subi d'importants changements au cours de leur publication entre 1906 et 1917. Il existe des différences dans la structure des index entre Dumas et dans la structure des documents d'un même volume d'une session à l'autre. Au départ, les index contenaient des informations supplémentaires sur les processus électoraux, qui ont été négligées dans les documents à venir. Les caractéristiques sociales des députés n'ont pas non plus été publiées sous la même forme et représentaient des ensembles de données différents selon la Douma, et différaient également par leur exhaustivité et leur information. La méthodologie de recherche a démontré son efficacité dans l'étude de la dynamique de la structure source, et dans l'extraction de données pour l'étude ultérieure de l'activité des députés sur la base de méthodes mathématiques.

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Texte intégral

1. Introduction

1The State Duma of the Russian Empire was established in Russia in 1905 and became an important step from Late Imperial autocracy to constitutional monarchy. Conceptually, the State Duma has become a new authority body, which is evaluated as a specific type of parliament, different from the Western European parliaments (Hermann, 2016). Initially, according to the manifesto of Emperor Nicholas II from August 6, 1905 this body had only consultative functions. However, numerous protests contributed to the publication by the Emperor on October 17, 1905 of a new manifesto, which proclaimed the legislative powers of the Duma that “no law could take power without the approval of the State Duma”. The history of the State Duma at the beginning of the twentieth century is short because since 1906 there were four Dumas (with a different number of sessions during them), and on 6 (19) October 1917 the State Duma was dissolved by the Provisional Government. The historical significance of the establishment of the parliament in Russia was that the power of the monarch was limited. From this moment, laws in prerevolutionary Russia could come into effect only with the consent of the State Duma.

2The introduction of the State Duma directly affected the change in the foundations of the formation of the political elite, of which deputies became a part. Since the composition of the State Duma was formed on the basis of elections, it was not only the status of a deputy, belonging to a particular estate (such as the nobility) or nationality that were extremely significant in the previous system, which gave the candidate an advantage in recruiting to the political elite. In the electoral system, the activity of the deputies and their personal qualities contributed to increasing the confidence of voters and assumed great importance. Some deputies were repeatedly elected to the State Duma, and this demonstrated a high degree of confidence of voters. Therefore, re-elected deputies are of particular interest because, having a repeated electoral status, they are representatives of the sub-elite (Kiryanov et al., 2017). The question arises about the significant factors that influenced the re-election of deputies, including the dependence of re-election on the complex of socio-cultural characteristics of deputies (age, nationality, estate, etc.) and their activities in the Duma. Obviously, the answers to these questions can be given only on the basis of the search and organization of data, as well as their processing based on information technology.

  • 1 The project is carried out with the support of the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Resear (...)

3This study is part of the project “Formation of the Parliamentary Sub-Elite in Late Imperial Russia”1 and is intended to organize a source base for the effective analysis of the deputies. The sociocultural characteristics of deputies were established and organized into a database at the previous stage of studying the composition of the State Duma at the beginning of the 20th century, and at this stage it was necessary to identify and analyze a set of characteristics of the activities of deputies and determine their completeness.

4The verbatim records of State Duma meetings are one of the most important sources for studying the deputies’ activities in the State Duma. These detailed multivolume official publications contain transcripts of meetings, that is, verbatim records of the speeches of deputies and those participating in Duma meetings. The transcripts also designated some non-verbal reactions of deputies, for example, applause, whistling, etc. In order to work with the transcripts and the necessary navigation through them, simultaneously with the publication of the texts of verbatim reports, personal and subject indexes were also published. The significant relationship of personal alphabetic indexes to the verbatim reports is that their content in the most structured form reflects the activities of each deputy in the Duma, which makes it possible to evaluate the activity of parliamentarians in quantitative and qualitative terms. Indexes have a clear structure in their design, which enables the use of computer methods in their study. Computer processing of a structured source allows us to reveal the hidden information that is difficult to detect by non-computerized means.

  • 2 Personal alphabetic indexes to the verbatim records of the I-IV State Dumas. Digital sources are pu (...)

5Personal alphabetic indexes of each Duma are a list of data on deputies and contain formalized information about each elected deputy, including structured information about their activities during each session of the particular Duma2. Information on the activities of the deputy is structured according to the sets of identified types of activities (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 – Fragment of a personal index (Szeftel, 1976).

6The markup of texts allows for the analyzing of the activities of deputies, comparing their activities during several re-elections to the Duma. Besides, analysis of the structure of indexes and their changes allows us to identify opportunities for further study of these sources, assess their information potential, explore the degree of detail of the description of activity characteristics of deputies, as well as changes in the structure of the data presented.

7At the same time, a deep immersion in the structure of indexes is necessary for a more detailed source criticism, to see the distortions in the formation of sources, which can be corrected later by searching and supplementing information from the meeting stenograms and other sources.

8The purpose of this article is to study personal alphabetic indexes and the dynamics of changes in their structure using the methods of “deep” text markup based on XML-markup language, as well as to determine the information potential of the source for further use in studying the history of the Russian parliament of the early 20th century.

2. Historiography

9Historiography of the Russian State Duma at the beginning of the 20th century is extensive. The development of the political system (Szeftel, 1976), external and internal events (Schaeffer Conroy, 1998), changes in relations with the Emperor (Kulikov, 2012) and the State Council and many other factors influenced the development of the Duma (Hosking, 1973), which the researchers paid attention to. The study of the State Duma began by contemporaries in pre-revolutionary times, continued after the completion of its activities in 1917, and in the post-Soviet period due to the change in the ideological course of modern Russia the study of the pre-revolutionary Duma received a further impetus. However, at present most of the works are devoted to specific issues of parliamentary history, and only a small number of generalizing works. There is no comprehensive study of the historiography of the history of the State Duma of Tsarist Russia (Mogilevskiy et al., 2007), although there are historiographic works of separate Dumas (Thatcher, 2011) and individual areas of historiography (Kiryanov, 2013).

10The activities of the State Duma are associated by researchers with the processes of the formation of the political elite in the Russian Empire, which is understood as a much more complex process than just the formation of bureaucracy (Gaman-Golutvina, 1998). Therefore, it is so important to pay attention to the deputy corps, deputy fractions and the activities of individual deputies. The study of the deputies and individual trajectories of deputies were considered by historians from different perspectives. Walsh W. B. (1950), Emmons T. (1983), Ivanov A. A. (2013) publications are dedicated to the participation of political parties in elections and their work in the Duma. Kozbanenko V. A. (1996), Demin V. A. (1996), Kiryanov I. K., Lukyanov M. N. (1995) analysed in detail the formation and interaction of the Duma fractions . One of the first prosopographic studies was the project “Duma I”, performed by L. I. Borodkin, Yu. G. Grigorieva, N. B. Selunskaya and others (1996). The aim of their project was to conduct a prosopographical study of deputies of the first State Duma. Based on the design, filling and analysis of the data of the information system, the authors studied a collective portrait of parliamentarians at the beginning of the 20th century. The study of the elites and sub-elites, which is considered in the works of Korros A. (2002), Arkhipov I. L. (2000), is relevant for understanding the development of the political system. At the same time, the analysis of sub-elites requires additional attention.

11This study is based on the application of information technology to the study of the State Duma on the example of Duma’s personal alphabetic indexes and contributes to the development of source studies. Let us briefly review the historiography of the application of information technologies and quantitative methods in this area of history and the study of sources as well.

12Contemporary historical research is connected with the study of Russian parliamentarism on the basis of methods, approaches, and tools based on the use of information technologies. One of the first researchers who used quantitative methods to analyze Duma documentation was A. L. Kobrinsky, who studied the activities of the modern Russian parliament (2001). The research methodology was based on the technology of content analysis of transcripts of State Duma meetings of 1993–1995, defining and counting meaningful word forms and categories in speeches of a selected deputy, as well as analyzing the distribution of these significant units in texts. Works by A. L. Kobrinsky is an example of the effective use of computerized content analysis in studying the verbatim records of the modern State Duma.

13It should be noted that despite the abundant bibliography on the history of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, a separate direction on the study of sources is only being formed. Naturally, the authors describe the source base of their research on specific topics, but the fact of the absence of generalizing source study works is noteworthy.

  • 3 Projects: “Russian parliamentarians at the beginning of the 20th century” (the project was supporte (...)

14The source study analysis of the verbatim reports of the State Duma meetings relates to the implementation of a number of research projects by researchers from Perm University. In 2003–2018 a team of researchers led by prof. I. K. Kiryanov and prof. S. I. Kornienko examined various aspects of the history of the Russian parliament at the beginning of the 20th century3. In addition to other resources, the verbatim records of the meetings became the source basis for the implementation of these projects. In the sequence of the traditional source analysis, the procedures for creating and publishing verbatim reports were analyzed, and the personal contribution of the head of the Duma office, Ya. V. Glinka and Duma Secretary D. I. Shakhovskoy in forming the Duma reporting complex (2009) touched upon some other aspects that influenced the content of the source.

15At the present stage of studying the State Duma, it is important to prepare an accessible source base and create specialized historical information resources.

16An important part of the work of the research group in Perm State University was the creation of the digital platform, devoted to the Duma, the provision of access to the digitized sources and development of toolkits for working with data. The design, creation and filling of information systems “Russian parliamentarians at the beginning of the 20th century” and “Verbatim reports of the State Duma, 1906–1917” contributed to expanding the possibilities of using computer technologies for the study of parliamentary history. These systems have been integrated into a single platform, and the research and educational Internet portal “The Parliamentary History of Pre-Revolutionary Russia” (2012) continues to develop and this research is part of that work.

17Thus, in the study of Russian parliamentary history various computerized sources analysis methods have been used, and the accumulated experience of quantitative analysis and data interpretation was also utilized in this study. The research makes a contribution to the study of one of the most important sources on the history of the State Duma and the personal alphabetic indexes to the verbatim records of State Duma meetings.

3. Research Methodology

18Digitization of sources and their organization on the basis of information technologies made it possible to apply quantitative research methods and computerized content analysis to the texts of sources.

19The methodology of this study is based on the formation and analysis of an historical corpus, as well as on the use of XML markup of source texts. These methods are first applied to the Duma reporting of the beginning of the 20th century.

20Extensible markup language (XML) is intended for both program processing of text documents, description, structuring, storage and transmission of data, and their representation for viewing by users. Markup is a set of tags that allows identification of units of text and external features for computer processing and analysis of information. In particular, XML markup makes it possible to assign uniform values to entities in the text.

21XML technologies make it possible to mark up texts according to research purposes, where the levels of markup, the meaning and fragmentation of text units can be different. All marked units of text can be semantically combined into a single network of texts. This might be considered as the main convenience and advantage of XML. Researchers point out the extensive possibilities of XML in increasing the information potential of historical sources (2007; 2013).

22The methodology of this study assumed the formation of a historical corpus of texts based on personal alphabetic indexes to the verbatim records of meetings of the four successive Dumas for 1906–1917. The main stages of this process consisted of transmitting sources into a machine-readable format based on OCR technologies and editing them.

23Indexes were originally published one by one per convocation (it was the case in the first and second Dumas). Then, they began to publish indexes every session. Thus, for the third and fourth Dumas, five and four indexes were published, respectively. One edition of the indexes for the second session of Duma IV was temporarily unavailable for inclusion in the corpus due to the fact that the verbatim records and indexes to them became bibliographical rarities and it was planned to add it to the corpus later. Also, there is no index in the corpus for an emergency session of the fourth Duma, due to the fact that the transcripts of the additional “secret” session of the meetings were not published. The project continues, and at the moment 10 volumes of indexes have been edited and marked up. The resulting corpus of texts has an aggregated volume of 749,793 words.

24The next step was the markup of texts based on the XML markup language. The development of a tag system was tailored to the practical goals and objectives of the study.

25The structure of the XML tag system was developed simultaneously with marking up the sources. The markup scheme reflects the main thematic sections of the indexes and includes the following data:

  1. Source metadata (convocation, title, session, meeting number, meeting dates, publisher, year of publication);

  2. Personal characteristics of the deputy (full name, province of election, verification of the correctness of the election, the party, age, social status, election curia (The law defined 4 curias, categories of citizens divided according to estate and property qualifications such as landowning curia, city curia, peasant curia and workers' curia.) and some other information); and

  3. Features related to the parliamentary activity of the deputy.

26The XML markup scheme was developed taking into account the need to solve specific source study problems, in particular, to provide opportunities for the study of deputies belonging to the sub-elite.

27The study of the activities of the re-elected deputies was made possible by the introduction of an identification parameter for each deputy. In the structure of the markup ID-identifier has a number designation, unique for each parliamentarian (Figure 2). The introduction of a unique identifier made it possible to combine information from different volumes of the source for all the convocations of the Duma and analyze the entire data set about each deputy.

  • 4 Stenographic report. The State Duma. The third convocation. Session IV. St. Petersburg. 1910: Colum (...)

Figure 2 – Fragment of marked up personal index.4

28Creating a historical corpus of personal alphabetic indexes allowed for the transforming of disparate sources into a single array of related texts, and the use of XML markup, including personal identifiers, became the basis for organizing texts in a table view that is convenient for the analysis (Figure 3).

Figure 3 – Fragment of marked up personal index, table view.

4. Analysis of tags. Dynamics of source structure

29Personal characteristics of the deputies were published in texts of indexes throughout the four successive Dumas, yet the completeness of the data during the sessions was different. Thus, in the section with personal characteristics of deputies, the I and II Dumas’ indexes contain only brief data (name, province of election, recognition of the correctness of the elections and an indication of belonging to a department). Personal information is most fully disclosed by indexes of the III and IV Dumas, in which the listed data are supplemented by a whole set of characteristics (party membership, class, rank, nationality, date of birth, marital status, education—including educational institution—, membership in commissions and committees—non-Duma activity—, ownership of property—indicating the type of property and size of property—). In texts of indexes of the III Dumas, this information is published only in the index for 1 session, while in the rest it is neglected. In the IV Duma, this data is recorded throughout all sessions.

30Forming the markup scheme of the corpus of texts allowed this research to determine 29 types of activities of deputies in the Duma. We have identified 4 types of tags, indicating different types of activities of deputies, depending on the availability of corresponding tags in personal indexes by each Duma (Type I includes tags which are presented in the indexes of all Dumas, Type II includes tags which are presented in the indexes of three Dumas, Type III includes tags which are presented in the indexes of two Dumas, Type IV includes tags which are presented in indexes of one Duma). Below is the matrix of the occurrence of tags in personal indexes (Table 1):

Tags / The State Duma (1906–1917)

I

II

III

IV

№№

Tags / Session No

1

1

1

2

3

4

5

1

3

4

Tag

Value

Type I

1

<signed>

Sign (the document)

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

2

<speaks>

Speak on the topic

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

3

<propone>

Make amendments

x

x

x

x

x

0

0

0

x

x

4

<explain>

Explain (on a personal matter)

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

0

5

<speaksschedule>

Speak on the order of the day

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

x

6

<refusesword>

Refuse a speech

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

x

7

<chairmannotes>

The Chairman’s comments to the deputy

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

0

8

<reports>

Give a report

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

9

<prosecution>

Being under prosecution

x

x

x

0

0

x

x

0

x

x

10

<position>

Hold the position

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Type II

1

<postabout>

The message about the deputy himself

x

0

x

x

0

0

x

x

x

x

2

<anunciar>

Announcements on behalf of the party

x

x

0

x

x

x

0

0

0

0

3

<absent>

Absent in the meeting hall

x

0

0

0

x

x

x

x

0

x

4

<deleted>

Removed from meetings

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

x

5

<statement>

Declare

0

x

x

0

x

x

x

x

0

0

6

<titlereject>

Refuse from the position

x

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

x

Type III

1

<interrupt>

Interrupt the speaker

0

x

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

<worddeprive>

Deprived of the right to speak at the meeting

0

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

<offered>

Proposed for the position

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

<suggests>

Suggest something (in order of the discussion)

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

<votes>

Vote

0

0

x

0

x

x

x

0

0

x

6

<exclamation>

Whoop from the spot

0

0

x

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

7

<refrain>

Abstained (from voting, for example)

0

0

x

0

x

x

x

0

0

x

8

<vacation>

On vacation

0

0

0

x

x

x

x

x

0

x

9

<anunciarregion>

Announce as a representative of the region

x

0

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

<extraordinarystatement>

Give an extraordinary statement

0

0

0

0

x

x

x

0

0

x

11

<inform>

Inform (the news or some additional information)

x

0

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Type IV

1

<leave>

Leave the meeting

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

<change>

Change in the order of performance

0

0

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 1 – The matrix of the occurrence of tags for marked up corpus by sessions of I-IV State Dumas, where X indicates the presence of a tag in the index, O indicates the absence of a tag.

31The matrix represents the types of tags that code for the activities of deputies, and 16 of the 29 tags devoted activities, that is, most of them, are represented in personal indexes of three or all successive Dumas.

32The degree of diversity and completeness of data on the activities of deputies represented in the indexes varies. Thus, the most detailed information is set out in indexes of the III Duma, whereas the least detailed is the document for the third session of the IV Duma (it contains data on only 10 of the 29 tags coded activities). It is obvious that the brevity of the data in the mentioned index is based on the peculiarities of the formation of the document because of only 3 meetings were held in the session.

33The main activities of the deputies that were indicated constantly are the following: sign the document, speak on the topic, make amendments, explain (on a personal matter), speak on the order of the day, refuse a speech, the Chairman’s comments to the deputy, give a report, being under prosecution, hold the position, the message about the deputy himself, announcements on behalf of the party, absent in the meeting hall, removed from meetings, declare, refuse from the position. These are the most obvious activities on the agenda. However, attention is drawn to the fact that in a number of sessions indexes do not reflect some of the other significant and crucial aspects for comprehensive research information.

34It is important to determine the factors that influenced the completeness of the information provided in the source. One of them is the subjective approach of the secretariat in the allocation of significant details of parliamentary activity and the structure itself of a personal alphabetical index. Initially, the Chancellery of the Duma attempted to identify the maximum possible number of activities, and this redundancy was successfully corrected. Thus, the staff of the Chancellery determined some descriptive units, which are found only once in the texts of personal indexes, although they are fairly regularly reflected in the transcripts of meetings. These types of activity include “leave the meeting” and “change in the order of performance”, occurring in the structure of pointers 2 and 1 times, respectively. And since, in reality, these situations occurred with greater regularity than it was reflected in the indexes, in this case, the incompleteness of the source data is obvious, and can be completed on the basis of information from full versions of verbatim reports.

35In the indexes for the first two Dumas, such activities as “proposed for the position”, “informs” (informs the news or some additional information), “announce as a representative of the region”, “deprived of the right to vote” were highlighted. Thus, the indexes define in detail the activities of the deputies, which also contain information about the positions to which the deputies were proposed, how the balloting took place, how many balls the parliamentarian received when elected to the position (at the beginning of 20th century balls where used in the voting process in the State Duma). In the Guidelines for the III and IV Dumas, this valuable information was omitted. Also, in the first indexes on the proposals of the deputies and the amendments introduced, more detail on the information is set forth, whereas in the other indexes this data was either not published at all or indicated only in some particular cases. We believe that the above activities reflect the significant characteristics of the deputies and could contribute to a more complete assessment of the role of each parliamentarian in the assembly, its significance, and the degree of trust placed in the deputies personally if they continued to stand out in subsequent indexes.

36Another, more significant example of data incompleteness is the information on deputy voting. As can be seen from the matrix (Table 1), information on voting is not found at all in a number of indexes (including the fact that there is no data on voting in the personal indexes of the I and II Dumas, or second sessions of the III Duma and several sessions of the IV Duma). This kind of activity is essential since it directly influenced decisions made in the State Duma. That is, personal alphabetic indexes for fully-fledged use in the study of the parameters described above for the activities of the deputy should be supplemented with information from stenography reports, in which information on roll-call voting on various issues on the agenda was published. At the same time, the roll-call voting was not practiced often, and the incompleteness of information about the vote can be explained by the practiced process of the vote, when the results were not recorded by name, but there was a sufficient majority for making decisions, and the names of those who voted collectively in the transcripts were not recorded.

37The structure of the indexes changed over time, and new information was introduced that was not available in the indexes of the I and II Dumas. These tags include such codes as “vote”, “whoop from the spot”, “abstained” (from voting, for example), “vacation” (a parliamentarian could miss meetings for this reason) and “give an extraordinary statement”.

38It is important also to note the changes in the data structure in the indexes of the State Duma, in particular, the first and second sessions of the III Duma; information about the deputies who missed the meeting was not published, whereas in the documents for the 3–5 session this information is present.

39The markup scheme of indexes provides the attributes, that is, specifying characteristics for some elements. So, based on the information of the indexes for the <signed> element (the tag codes signing activity), variants of documents for the signature were identified, which are attributes and have the form in the markup structure, as shown in Table 2:

Tag / The State Duma (1906-1917)

I

II

III

IV

Attributes of the <signed> element

Type of the document

1

1

1

2

3

4

5

1

3

4

1

<signed doctype="заявление">

Statement

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

0

2

<signed doctype="заявление_о_ запросах">

Statement on Requests

x

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

x

3

<signed doctype="заявление_с_ протестом">

Protest statement

0

0

0

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

4

<signed doctype="резолюция">

Resolution

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

<signed doctype="законодательное_ предположение">

Legislative Proposal

0

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

6

<signed doctype="особое_ мнение">

Special opinion

0

0

0

0

x

x

x

0

0

0

Table 2 – Attributes of the <signed> element and the matrix of the occurrence of tags in personal indexes according to this tag, where X indicates the presence of a tag in the index, 0 indicates the absence of a tag.

40The study of the nesting of tags helped to identify the data sets inherent to individual deputies and to highlight the typical groups of parliamentarians according to common characteristics. As a result of computer processing of the marked texts of personal alphabetical indexes to the verbatim reports, a statistical analysis was carried out of the activities of State Duma deputies, first of all, representatives of the sub-elite. On the basis of descriptive statistics, correlation and cluster analysis and facet classification methods, the general model of parliamentary elite of late-imperial Russia was analyzed, the coefficients of parliamentary activity were determined and characteristic features of parliamentary behavior of deputies were identified (Kiryanov et al., 2019). Thus, the proposed methodology and XML-markup of texts have shown their effectiveness in obtaining new information about the activities of deputies.

5. Conclusion

41Thus, the XML-markup technology of text indexes shows its effectiveness in studying the dynamics of the source structure and the subsequent use of data for the mathematical analysis of the activities of deputies.

42The information reflected in personal indexes showed a significant degree of data variability. Information coding and text markup has made it possible to analyze the structure of indexes in terms of their dynamics. The structure of personal alphabetic indexes to the verbatim reports has undergone significant changes during their publication in 1906–1917. Differences in the structure of indexes exist between Dumas and in the structure of documents of a single Duma. The structure of the first two published indexes (sessions of the I and II Dumas) testifies to the experimental constitution of the publications when the initially indicated data later seemed redundant and overlooked. Initially, the indexes contained additional information about the election processes, which data were then omitted. The social characteristics of the deputies were also not published in the same form and both had different data structures depending on the order of the Duma, and various completeness (or this information was not available in the Indexes and was published in other annexes to the verbatim reports).

43Since the statistical analysis of the deputies' activity indicators became possible only on the basis of using the characteristics of activities that were indicated in the personal alphabetical indexes of most convocations, it is possible to clarify the correlation with other characteristics omitted in the indexes of different convocations by looking at this data in other sources. The absence of information on the activities of deputies in the indexes can be filled in by including in the indexes data from the texts of verbatim reports in order to get a more complete image of the activities of deputies in the State Duma.

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Notes

1 The project is carried out with the support of the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research No. 16-06-00569.

2 Personal alphabetic indexes to the verbatim records of the I-IV State Dumas. Digital sources are published on the portal Parliamentary history of pre-revolutionary Russia: research and educational Internet portal in the “Institutions” (“Uchrezhdenia”) section: <http://parliament.psu.ru/pls/parlament/frames.html> (last visit: 05.03.2019).

3 Projects: “Russian parliamentarians at the beginning of the 20th century” (the project was supported by a grant from the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation No. 03-01-12012b, implementation period 2003–2004, under supervision of prof. I. K. Kiryanov), Information System “Verbatim Reports of the State Duma, 1906–1917" (the project was supported by the grant of the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund No. 08-01-12108b, implementation period 2008–2010, under supervision of prof. I. K. Kiryanov), "Parliamentary history of pre-revolutionary Russia: research and educational Internet portal" (the project was supported by the grant of the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund No. № 11-01-12006-v, implementation period 2011–2013, under supervision of prof. I. K. Kiryanov), “Formation of parliamentary sub elites in late imperial Russia” (the project was supported by the Russian Fund for Basic Research grant No. 16-06-00569, implementation period 2016–2018, under supervision of prof. I. K. Kiryanov).

4 Stenographic report. The State Duma. The third convocation. Session IV. St. Petersburg. 1910: Column 648.

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Table des illustrations

Légende Figure 1 – Fragment of a personal index (Szeftel, 1976).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ilcea/docannexe/image/9338/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 180k
Légende Figure 2 – Fragment of marked up personal index.4
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ilcea/docannexe/image/9338/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 272k
Légende Figure 3 – Fragment of marked up personal index, table view.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ilcea/docannexe/image/9338/img-3.png
Fichier image/png, 484k
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Référence électronique

Nadezhda Povroznik, « XML-based Analysis of Early 20th-Century Russian State Duma Verbatims », ILCEA [En ligne], 39 | 2020, mis en ligne le 03 mars 2020, consulté le 27 mai 2020. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ilcea/9338 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/ilcea.9338

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Auteur

Nadezhda Povroznik

Perm State University, Russia

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