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Modern heritage and housing renovation: Policy development and practical experiences from Gothenburg, Sweden

Patrimoine contemporain et rénovation de logements : élaboration de politiques et expériences pratiques à Göteborg (Suède)
Paula Femenías, Sanja Peter et Mattias Legnér
Cet article est une traduction de :
Patrimoine contemporain et rénovation de logements : élaboration de politiques et expériences pratiques à Göteborg (Suède) [fr]

Résumés

Le parc de logements d’après-guerre a fait l’objet de modernisation et de transformations depuis les années 1980. Les insuffisances techniques et les problèmes sociaux liés à l’exclusion et l’isolement ont été des arguments en faveur des investissements. On a estimé que l’architecture faisait partie du problème ; les transformations de sa physionomie ont donc été importantes pour trouver des solutions. Récemment, la politique de rénovation énergétique et de décarbonation du secteur du logement a placé à nouveau le parc de logements modernes au centre de l’attention.

Cet article traite de la politique actuelle et de sa mise en œuvre en évoquant le manque de reconnaissance et de compréhension des valeurs historiques et culturelles des logements d’après-guerre.

L’article prend comme point de départ Göteborg, la deuxième plus grande ville de Suède. L’élaboration du programme « Environnement historique moderne » y est présentée ainsi que son application dans trois exemples de logements. Ces cas illustrent les possibilités et les conséquences de la modernisation et de la rénovation énergétique du patrimoine contemporain. La qualification du patrimoine bâti contemporain diffère de celle du parc immobilier ancien de par son échelle et son volume. La désignation d’un objet se réfère, d’une part, à la reconnaissance d’un exemple de type de construction spécifique et de méthodes de construction et, d’autre part, à son contexte sociohistorique. Ainsi les valeurs matérielles et immatérielles sont-elles reconnues. Le patrimoine contemporain se caractérise par sa résilience face aux transformations et permet aux différentes strates de changement d’être incluses, informant sur sa profondeur historique.

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Acknowledgements

The research is financed through the Swedish Energy Agency programme Save & Preserve (Spara och bevara) and has been conducted within the research project “Energy efficiency and cultural values in housing. How well do the policies function on the local level?” (Grant no. 50041-1).

Introduction

  • 1 FEMENÍAS Paula, 2015, « Det sociala och renovering - en översikt av tidigare erfarenheter », in LIN (...)

1Post-war housing stock has been the focus of modernisation and transformation in Sweden since the 1980s. Arguments for making alterations and new investments have included the technical deficiencies of the buildings, plus social problems relating to exclusion and segregation in suburban locations. The architecture itself has often been viewed as part of the social problem, with substantial alteration to the character of buildings forming part of the solution1.

2In the late 1990s, the idea was launched of transforming these housing areas into front-line demonstrations of future sustainable living2. The Swedish Government financed a series of sustainable investment programmes, some of which targeted the transformation of post-war housing.3 Since then, housing renovation has been framed by ambitions of energy efficiency. However, the goal of a decarbonised housing sector is still a long way off4. The European Commission recently introduced a new ‘renovation wave’ strategy, aimed at doubling the renovation rate and supporting employment in the building sector5. Accordingly, the Swedish Government has budgeted EUR 4.3 billions for energy efficiency measures and other necessary renovations of multi-residential buildings in a budget running to 2023.

3These intensified housing energy renovation policies address issues surrounding the potential effect on architecture and the cultural value of housing stock. Compared to older housing, the modernistic architecture of post-war housing from the 1960s and 70s has had little recognition as part of our common built heritage. Rather, post-war housing architecture has become emblematic of failed housing policy.

4Gothenburg, Sweden’s second-largest city6, recently published its Historical Environment Programme of modern heritage7 for residential and non-residential buildings. This paper describes the background and development of historical environment programmes in Gothenburg and aims to critically discuss the influence of renovation and energy retrofitting on the value designated to post-war housing areas. It then presents three suburban housing developments in the north-eastern part of the City which have been designated part of the Modern Historical Environment programme of Gothenburg. These three cases were selected to illustrate three different levels of renovation: one careful renovation/restoration, one medium level renovation which preserved the main character of the area and one major renovation with substantial impact on the original architectural style. The renovations were completed before, or in parallel with, the publication of the Modern Historical Environment programme. The question is how this is, or was, affected by the evaluation that heritage officials made of the areas’ cultural value.

5The starting point for discussion is the framing of contemporary housing renovation by national and international energy and climate policy and from social concern for the residents. In Gothenburg, municipal housing companies have an explicit directive to use careful renovation8; that is, they must exercise care with respect to tenants. No tenant should be forced to move due to renovations and related rent increases.

6The paper builds on document studies and the authors’ many years of experiences working with (or observing) the processes of designation and renovation in Gothenburg.

The development of a Modern Historical Environment programme

7Gothenburg’s population grew rapidly during the 20th Century, from 100,000 inhabitants at the beginning of the century to half a million by its end. This large population growth may be traced back to the City’s industrial and technological development. This came to reshape its physical map, with approximately 80 percent of Gothenburg built during the last 100 years. The architectural progress during this period was based on rationalised construction and is sometimes characterised as a social movement for change rather than a question of architectural style.

8At the beginning of the 20th Century, a national sociopolitical programme was formulated aimed at creating good housing for all inhabitants9. At the time, Sweden’s working class had one of the lowest standards of living in Europe, with unhealthy indoor environments and a lack of individual bathrooms, hot water and central heating. Lasting from the 1930s to the 1980s10, this political programme for a “people’s home” (folkhemmet) generated investment in new construction and the management of older housing stock. The programme was implemented after WWII with large-scale construction of housing in semi-urban locations. As the pace of construction was not high enough to keep up with demand, the Million Homes Programme (miljonprogrammet) was launched in 1965 and lasted until 1975. The goal of delivering 100,000 new homes per year for ten years was accomplished by using industrialised construction methods.

9The quest for rational, modernised housing also resulted in large-scale demolition of older stock11. When the older buildings and neighbourhoods started disappearing, people reacted. The old, wooden architecture had picturesque heritage qualities linked to traditional social ways of life. In the late 1960s, resistance to these demolitions was organised and discussions on the nature of cultural heritage rose to a new level 12.

Evolution of the legal protection of built heritage

10Swedish cultural heritage legislation has existed since 1633. Today, it takes the form of the Historical Environment Act (1988:950).13,14 Specific heritage objects or sites are nationally listed, with protection in place for highly regarded monuments. Objects considered of outstanding or enduring historical significance are largely buildings older than eighty years.

11During the 1960s, new planning regulations were created, such as the National Environmental Interests (riksintressen, areas of national interest for cultural heritage in Sweden).15 In the mid-seventies, the European Heritage Year movement and the Amsterdam Declaration laid the foundations for later changes to the heritage legislation, the inclusion of protection for ordinary buildings and an emphasis on the need for social concern in preservation matters.16 As a result, many Swedish municipalities initiated building inventories.17 Reaction against large-scale urban renewal during mid-20th Century urban reconstruction in Sweden was another contributing factor to the development of new preservation strategies. Sometimes, protests were used to influence legislators to extend protection beyond historical monuments.18 Applicable to various kinds of built structures, the Swedish Planning and Building Act (PBL) from 1987 is currently the most important legal instrument for heritage protection. PBL states that all alterations to existing buildings should be made with careful reference to the existing values, and prohibits the disfigurement of particularly valuable buildings.

Local programmes for the historical environment

12Local programmes for the historical environment are municipal planning documents used as a guideline for assessing the potential impact of planning and construction activities on cultural-historical values. Preservation of built heritage is officially governed by regulations and laws and local municipalities have the greatest responsibility for their legal interpretation.

13Such local programmes are not protective per se, but do provide essential information on the history and characteristics of historical environments, as well as grounds for their inclusion. The programmes support officials, developers and consultants, plus the general public. Under PBL, owners are obliged to maintain the standard of their properties. Municipalities with concentrated heritage stock (like Visby on Gotland) produce more detailed building programmes, known as building ordinances (byggnadsordning)19.

Gothenburg’s first programmes for the historical environment

14In Gothenburg, the first official local programme for preserving the historical environment dates back to the 1960s. The city underwent one of the largest renewal schemes in Europe. The demolition of the working-class districts in Landala and Haga was met by protests from citizens’ groups and also involved local academic institutions.20, 21With the expansion of the City, plus the demolitions, initial inventories of older buildings were begun, alongside the excavation of archaeological sites. These early inventories focused on central city areas and prominent buildings from various periods before the 1950s.

15With the 1970s oil crisis, the Swedish Government acted rapidly and launched an energy-saving plan to eradicate oil dependency22. Measures were taken to improve the energy and heating systems in existing housing and make building envelopes more energy-efficient. These measures were often applied without consideration for the original architecture [fig. 1]. Windows were replaced with different types and new maintenance-free materials (such as composite boards and steel) replaced or covered wood and brick façades. Woking-class housing and timber constructions were often altered with energy efficiency measures compared to higher status brick buildings23. Notably, housing constructed after 1930, which at the time was a limit for what was considered cultural valuable building stocks, have been disfigured on a broader scale. The rapid, large-scale changes driven by these energy plans drew the attention of alert heritage officials to the vulnerability of unlisted heritage.

Figure 1

Figure 1

Example of an insensitive 1970s energy retrofit of working-class housing, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2017.

© Paula Femenías.

16In 1978, all municipalities were tasked with developing a local Energy Saving Plan. To prepare for this, Gothenburg’s City Planning Office started large-scale documentation of housing stock, covering its construction and cultural-historical values. This new inventory included suburban areas and recent building stock not included in earlier inventories.

17During the 1980s, preparations were made to launch another programme for Gothenburg’s built historical environment, Valuable Environments (Värdefulla Miljöer). This programme focused on built neighbourhoods rather than just individual buildings.

18Towards the end of the 20th Century, the above political documents on heritage listings were combined into two volumes on the historical environment, focusing on what had been constructed before the 1950s24.

Modern architecture as heritage

19In the late 1990s, the National Heritage Board initiated a national Major Cities Project (Storstadsprojektet).25 The Board wanted to explore and acknowledge the cultural and historical legacy of the country’s major 1955-1975 expansion during a period known as ‘the record years’. Under this project, inventories of buildings and environments from the late 20th Century were taken in Sweden’s three largest cities (Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö). Gothenburg’s inventory was completed in first years of the 21st Century. It then took almost another twenty years to summarise and analyse the documented material, which eventually resulted in a third volume of Gothenburg’s local Historical Environment programme called Modern Gothenburg (Moderna Göteborg)26.

20The process of designating modern built heritage differs from designations of earlier built heritage. This is due to the large scale and volume but also relates to authenticity, as various objects and areas will have already been altered through renovation. Modern Gothenburg focuses on the typical but also the unique, dating from a time when almost two-thirds of Gothenburg’s buildings were built. The programme highlights typical building components, environments and the origins of planning ideas. It provides guidance and a more in-depth interpretation of what needs to be provided in the work with detailed planning processes.

21The processing of material for the programme was similar to the work conducted under earlier heritage programmes. The selection was based on addition and deduction but with one main difference: a much larger volume to study. This required a method of searching for uniqueness in what was being rationalised and typified. Apart from quantity, the modern stock also has more resilient qualities than older stock. At the time, a prevalent method for evaluating tangible heritage, the Unnerbäck Method (Unnerbäckmetoden),27 was endorsed by the National Heritage Board. This method emphasises the fact that a designated object should provide knowledge and understanding of various historical events and contexts, including alterations. Furthermore, it allows the addition of different perspectives, tangible and intangible28. Through the model, historical, social, functional and aesthetical qualities are added or subtracted, to estimate an approximate heritage value.

Skolspåret – a careful renovation

22The first designated example is Skolspåret, a residential area with six hundred rented apartments located in a neighbourhood called Hjällbo. Skolspåret was designed by architect Arne Nygård (1925-2014) and built in 1968-1971 by a municipally-owned housing company called Samhällsbyggen. Hjällbo has long been characterised by social exclusion and is currently designated by the National Police as a particularly vulnerable area. Most of the housing in the area, including Skolspåret, is currently owned and managed by Poseidon, a municipally-owned housing company.

23The area consists of fifteen buildings, in a mixture of lamella buildings and tower blocks, situated with their entrances facing three central courtyards, located above a large parking deck [fig. 2]. Consistent with the ideals of separating traffic modes at the time, Skolspåret was designed as a car-free area. The buildings are made of prefabricated concrete elements and their façades are decorated with circular recesses moulded into the concrete [fig. 3]. Elevator machine rooms on the roofs and entrances to the subterranean garage are designed in shell-like shapes, cladded with sheet metal and profiled concrete. A canopied pathway from local public transport leads to the area and is lined with specially provided sculptures.

24Modern Gothenburg highlights Skolspåret´s structure, architectural expression and social ambitions of the time29. The rationale for the heritage designation highlights the unusually careful design of an otherwise rather typical structure. Despite some changes, the architectural expression is well-preserved, with particular attention to detail, artistic embellishment and façade profiling.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Aerial view of Skolspåret (Sweden), 2016.

© Unknown photographer (Gothenburg City Planning Office).

Figure 3

Figure 3

Decorative layout of the façades at Skolspåret (Sweden), 2021. The entrances to the underground garage and rooftop elevator machine rooms are also visible.

© Sanja Peter.

Heritage designation as a vehicle of social leverage

25In 1999, The County Administrative Board gave Hjällbo a heritage subsidy. This was used to renovate the canopied pathway. The same year, the Board initiated a project called Metropolitan Architecture and Heritage and Hjällbo was designated one of four areas of national concern for social investment.30 The recognition of Hjällbo’s heritage value was in sharp contrast to its negative depiction during national investigations.31 Skolspåret’s owners were inspired by the positive media attention given to the heritage subsidy and saw an opportunity to garner heritage recognition, support social development and regain tenants’ confidence.

  • 32 In Sweden, a monument listing may only be implemented if approved by the owner.

26The early 2000s saw advanced discussions on listing Skolspåret as a national monument. Ultimately, there was no listing as the owner wanted to avoid future heritage restrictions.32 Nevertheless, the owner was keen on the contemporary development and the planned structural renovation of the area was carefully implemented. The balcony fronts were reconstructed using the original moulds and most of the original design was generally preserved [fig. 4]. However, instead of the hardwood window-frames being renovated, they were all replaced with new aluminium-framed windows.

Figure 4

Figure 4

Details of the façade and the reconstructed balcony fronts, Skolspåret (Sweden), 2021.

© Sanja Peter.

Solar Houses – socially driven transformation

27The second example, Västra Gårdsten, is part of a neighbourhood called Gårdsten located on two plateaus separated by a green valley. As with Skolspåret, Västra Gårdsten’s architect was Arne Nygård and the client was Samhällsbyggen. The landscape architect was Edvard Jacobson. The area was built in 1968-69 and consists of twelve interconnected courtyards, with housing blocks running north-south [fig. 5]. Each courtyard is surrounded by lower, three-level lamella blocks to the east and west and by eight-level gallery blocks (loftgångshus) to the north and south. In a design inspired by Le Corbusier, the gallery blocks stand on pillars, providing a visual connection between adjacent courtyards [fig. 6].

28The area’s designation was made based on its careful architectural design using simple pre-fabricated elements creatively for variety.33 Artistic ambitions are found in the façade details and gable decoration. The staircases of the gallery blocks are part-glass and part-concrete. When illuminated at night, these staircases make the blocks widely visible in the surrounding area, giving it a distinctive silhouette. A pathway leading through the whole area is lined with larger sculptures. There are glimpses of a spectacular view down the valley, with the Göta älv river leading to Gothenburg centre.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Residential aera of Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016.

© Unknown photographer (Gothenburg City Planning Office).

Figure 6

Figure 6

The visual link between the courtyards, Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2021.

© Sanja Peter.

Environmental transformation as a vehicle for social change

29In 1996, Gårdsten was one of the most socially vulnerable residential areas in Sweden. It was characterised by health problems, unemployment and a low occupancy rate34. Established in 1997, Gårdstensbostäder, the municipal housing company was tasked with regenerating and developing the Gårdsten district. A demonstration project for sustainable renovation was initiated in 1998 to boost this regeneration. It was conducted in collaboration with Chalmers University and funded by the European Demonstration Programme SHINE, plus local development funds. The architect was Christer Nordström Architects. The Solar House transformation concept combined energy efficiency, solar energy and social ambitions. To support social interaction, greenhouses and common laundry facilities were built on the ground floor.

30The project was renowned for combining climate action and solar energy with social action, including job creation. According to early reports, the combination with solar energy has achieved a reduction in energy use of almost 40%. In 2005, the Solar Houses received the prestigious World Habitat Award. Considerable efforts have since been made to improve the quality of services and commerce in the area. The increased attractivity has led to new investment in housing and the area has been removed from the national list of vulnerable areas.

31The energy renovation has only partly affected the area’s characteristics [fig 7 and 8]. For example, exposed gable façades were externally insulated while others were left untouched35. The original idea of courtyard formations has remained, alongside the robust but unique structure. The area has kept its profile of illuminated glazed stairwells at night-time. The pathways under the pillar buildings were filled with new greenhouses. One argument for filling the pathways was that they formed unpleasant wind tunnels. However, while the wind tunnel problem was a problem on highest part of the plateau, the greenhouse project was unfortunately executed only on the lower pathways and consequently not solving the wind tunnel problem.

Figure 7

Figure 7

Solar Houses in Västra Gårdsten after renovation, in the back the high-rise blocks with solar panels on the roof, Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016.

© Paula Femenías.

Figure 8

Figure 8

Detail of facades and original sculpture, Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016.

© Paula Femenías.

Stacken – a passive-house project

32The third case, the “Stacken” collective house is one of nine multi-residential tower blocks built with a star-shaped floorplan in the northern part of a suburb called Bergsjön. The “star houses” were designed by GAKO office through architect Lars Ågren (1921-2006) and built in 1967-196836. The construction method was novel and rationalised: the central stairwell was built first and then apartments were added all around it, forming a star shape. The blocks are laid out like a beaded ribbon in a north-south direction from the tram station, following a sloping edge to the north and with a small green area to the south [fig. 9]. Each tower block has 35 apartments, with five identical three-bedroom apartments on each floor. The star-shaped floorplan permits views and sunlight from different directions. The façades are made of profiled concrete elements.

Figure 9

Figure 9

Aerial view showing the layout of the star towers, Bergsjön, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016. Stacken is the last block in the row towards the upper part of the picture.

© Gothenburg City Planning Office

33In the mid-1970s the housing market had become saturated and many apartments in the suburbs lay vacant. The last block in the row of star houses was converted into collective housing in 1980; the first of its kind in Sweden. It was called Stacken37 and drew its inspiration from ideas about collective living, driven by architects and debaters in a Swedish group Bo I Gemenskap (BIG).38 Ågren, the original architect for the area, was one of the initiators of the conversion and led the project on behalf of the municipal housing company. The design process involved the users and laid the ground for a functioning working community. The collective facilities included a kitchen and dining area, workshop premises and a day-care centre. The dining room became the heart of the collective house. In 2000, Stacken was sold to the tenants who formed a rental cooperative to manage the building. Today, Stacken consists of individual households, plus smaller communities hosted in larger apartments created by fusing several apartments.

The passive-house project

34Driven by political objectives and personal ambitions, one tenant (employed at the time as a project assistant at Chalmers University of Technology) began a renovation project in 2016 to turn Stacken into an energy-efficient passive housing block. The retrofitting package included balanced ventilation with heat recovery, façade and attic insulation, new windows and electricity-generating Photovoltaic solar panels over the entire façade39 [fig. 10]. The story goes that the low cost of solar cells made it economically viable to cover the entire façade to the north as well. The total cost of the energy renovation was estimated at EUR 400,000 and was partly funded by the Swedish Energy Agency as a research and demonstration project.

Figure 10

Figure 10

Stacken after the energy retrofit, Bergsjön, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2021. The star-shaped tower building has been nicknamed the Death Star by some of the inhabitants. In the background is a building in its pre-energy-retrofit state.

© Sanja Peter.

  • 40 Interview with Stacken tenants, January 2021.

35The passive house project was supported in a majority vote by members of the housing collective, but a smaller group of tenants felt that regard for aesthetics and historic values had been overridden.40 The initiator of the renovation project believed that cultural preservation hinders sustainable development. Also, the Stacken’s community has faced challenges due to this major renovation. For safety reasons, the dining room, which was central to the community, is no longer in use. A fire escape and external stairs removed prior to the renovation have not been replaced. A lot of money was invested in completing the energy renovation, so, replacing the external stairs was not a priority.

36Stacken was officially designated a heritage object in 2017; in parallel with the transformative energy retrofit. It was also nominated as an example of a specific building type (a turbine house), representing part of Gothenburg’s modern building-technology history. Another reason for Stacken’s designation was its unique contemporary social history as a collective house. During the long process of finalising the heritage programme, the building was altered substantially. However, the proposed transformation was initially interpreted as adding a new layer of history to the property, retelling the story of the Million Homes programmes and the 21st Century’s quest for sustainability.

Discussion and conclusion

37This paper has shown how actions taken since the 1960s have led to a broader interpretation of heritage value, plus an expansion of the protection of historical monuments to include modern structures.

38The example of Gothenburg shows how a Modern Historical Environment programme, Modern Gothenburg, has been developed and how the heritage values of three cases of post-war housing have been taken into consideration. The example points to several challenges with the selection and designation of modern heritage. By comparison with listing older built heritage, the sheer volume and scale make the designation process more complicated. The presence of repetitive building types makes it difficult to decide whether to select just one building, or all of them.

39The process of designating modern heritage has shown that traditional heritage protection instruments may sometimes prove inadequate. In this context, designating an object refers, on the one hand, to recognising an example of a specific building type and construction methods and, on the other, to its socio-historical context. Thus, both tangible and intangible values are acknowledged. Many post-war housing areas have already been altered in such a way that their original design has been affected. The experiences from the designation process for Modern Gothenburg show that modern heritage qualities are more robust and resilient to changes than older built heritage. The method used is based on the idea that an object should provide knowledge and inform about historical events; thus the designation allows layers of change to be included. The historical environment documents are meant as practical guidelines. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge various levels of understanding if they are to be useful during planning processes.

40Modern Gothenburg will be put to the test in the coming decades, as it has been predicted that Gothenburg will expand by 150,000 inhabitants. There are plans to densify post-war suburban areas, to deal with housing shortages. This may compromise a prominent feature of these areas; the openness and spacious green areas surrounding the blocks. Meanwhile, existing buildings will be targeted for modernisation, energy renovations and the introduction of solar panels.

41The cases of post-war areas presented in this paper provide examples of the opportunities and consequences for modern heritage of modernisation and energy renovation. The renovation of Skolspåret was practically a restoration. Twenty years on, new renovations and energy savings are anticipated. The future will reveal the impact of Modern Gothenburg on new renovations in that area. The Solar Houses in Gårdsten are an example of how social and environmental ambitions have been balanced with the safeguarding of specific, tangible characteristics of the original architecture. The case of Stacken illustrates how major energy savings may be achieved, albeit with devastating consequences for the authenticity of the area. Stacken is on the fringe of what defines tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Its energy retrofit has altered both the material qualities and the social concept of collective living. The renovation was carried out in parallel with the designation process. One may only speculate whether the outcome would have been different, had the programme been published before the renovation was approved.

  • 41 OHLANDER M., 2001, K-märkningen och människorna på Skolspåret. En etnologisk undersökning i Hjällbo(...)

42Skolspåret and the Solar Houses in Gårdsten show how to use modern heritage as a starting point for renovations and transformations. An ethnographic study was conducted after the renovation of Skolspåret41 to capture tenants’ perception of the heritage values and results of the careful renovation. The study concluded that architecture and design have little relevance to the well-being of residents but that other, more practical values (such as safety and a clean area) are more important. Nevertheless, the fact that Skolspåret was considered important and attractive by others was established as a positive value among residents. Moreover, at the time, the whole process resulted in residents having an increased interest in architecture.

43Culture as a vehicle for sustainable development is an aspect that has been emphasised in recent national and international agendas. The “Global Sustainability Goals” align urbanisation, environmental protection, and energy savings with social and cultural goals42. UNESCO defines culture as a key driver of change43. The updated Swedish architectural policy44 envisions well-designed built environments as necessary if there is to be real change towards an improved society. This relates to such thing as design for health, wellbeing, and integration. Recently, the European Commission launched its New European Bauhaus programme. This seeks to combine ambitions for energy renovation and a transition to a circular economy through design. EC President Von der Leyen has declared that Europe needs not only environmental or economic projects but also a new cultural project45.

44The contribution and impact of Gothenburg’s Modern Historical Environment programme are yet to be evaluated but there are already a few examples of the programme leading to change. The demolition of two modern monuments has been prevented46 and the development of plans for a few suburban areas has been adjusted to include modern heritage values.

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Notes

1 FEMENÍAS Paula, 2015, « Det sociala och renovering - en översikt av tidigare erfarenheter », in LIND Hans & MJÖRNELL Kristina (dir.), Social hållbarhet med fokus på bostadsrenovering - en antologi, Stockholm, SIRen, p. 65-76.

2 Swedish Government Communication 1997/98:13 Ekologisk hållbarhet.

3 STENBERG J., THUVANDER L. & FEMENÍAS P., « Linking Social and Environmental Aspects: A Multidimensional Evaluation of Refurbishment Projects », Local environment, vol. 14, no 6, 2009, p. 541-556.

4 Swedish Government 2020, Sveriges tredje nationella strategi för energieffektiviserande renovering.

5 European Commission 2020/662, A Renovation Wave for Europe - greening our buildings, creating jobs, improving lives. Brussels, https://energy.ec.europa.eu/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficient-buildings/renovation-wave_en [link valid in February 2023].

6 On 4th June 2021, the City of Gothenburg celebrates its 400th year.

7 LINDGREN A., PETER S. & METELIUS A. R., Moderna Göteborg: Kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse III. Göteborg, Göteborgs stad, Stadsbyggnadskontoret, 2017.

8 FEMENÍAS Paula & LEGNÉR M, 2021, “How well do policies for energy efficiency and heritage values in the Swedish housing stock work?”, in Proceedings from the SBE21 Sustainable Built Heritage Conference, Bolzano/On-line 14-16 April 2021.

9 Statens bostadskommission (1912-1918) was the first Swedish national project assigned to create a “people and housing bill”.

10 BRUNNSTRÖM L. 2004, Det svenska folkhemsbygget: om Kooperativa förbundets arkitektkontor, Stockholm, Arkitektur.

11 SCHÖNBECK, B. 1994, Stad i förvandling. Uppbyggnadsepoker och rivningar i svenska städer från industrialismens början till idag, Stockholm, Statens råd för byggnadsforskning.

12 EJDEROTH-LINDEN, S. & LÖNNROTH, G., 2009, ”Kommunens engagemang i Hagas förnyelse”. In Varför revs inte hela Haga? Om bevarande av en stadsdel i Göteborg, Göteborg, eds Andersson, H., EJDEROTH-LINDEN, S. & TEGNÉR, L., pp 12

13 Historical Environment Act (1988:950), up to and including SFS 2018:794.

14 Historical Environment Ordinance (1988:1188), up to and including SFS 2017:1083.

15 Riksintressen för kulturmiljövård 3 kap 6 § miljöbalken: miljöbalken (1998:808). The 1960s National Environmental Interests regulate different kinds of national preserves such as traffic and use of water but also tangible or intangible heritage. Over 1,400 heritage areas originate from the 1987 Natural Resources Act, (Naturresurslagen NRL).

16 The Declaration of Amsterdam, 1975, Available at: https://www.icomos.org/en/and/169-the-declaration-of-amsterdam [link valid in February 2023].

17 LEGNÉR M. & LEIJONHUFVUD G. 2019, “A legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974-1984”, The Historical Environment: Policy and Practice, vol 10, no 1, pp 40-57.

18 EJDEROTH-LINDEN S. & LÖNNROTH G., 2009, ”Kommunens engagemang i Hagas förnyelse”. In Varför revs inte hela Haga? Om bevarande av en stadsdel i Göteborg. Göteborg, eds ANDERSSON H., EJDEROTH-LINDEN S. & TEGNÉR L., p. 12.

19 REGION GOTLAND, 2010, Byggnadsordningen för Visby innerstad,Visby.

20 ENGELBREKTSSON N., 1982, Landala – stadsdel och livsform som försvann, Gothenburg, University of Gothenburg

21 HOLMBERG I. M., 2006, På stadens yta. Om historiseringen av Haga, Gothenburg, Makadam.

22 LEGNÉR M. & LEIJONHUFVUD G. 2019, “A legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974-1984”, The Historical Environment: Policy and Practice, vol 10, no 1, p. 40-57.

23 FEMENÍAS P., JEROME A., THUVANDER L., WAHLGREN P., JOHANSSON P. & ERIKSSON P. 2020, Om-renovering: Möjligheter för energieffektivisering och återskapande av kulturvärden när flerbostadshus renoveras på nytt, ACE report 2019, p. 3. Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. Of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Gothenburg.

24 LÖNNROTH G. (Ed.), 1999, Kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse i Göteborg. Ett program för bevarande. Del I och II, Göteborg, Göteborgs Stadsmuseum och Göteborgs stadsbyggnadskontor.

25 Financed by the Government as a part of a larger segregation prevention project: SOU, 1998:25 Tre städer - en storstadspolitik för hela landet, https://lagen.nu/sou/1998:25 [link valid in February 2023].

26 LINDGREN A., PETER S. & METELIUS A. R., 2017, Moderna Göteborg: Kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse III, Göteborg: Göteborgs stad, Stadsbyggnadskontoret.

27 UNNERBÄCK A., 2002, Kulturhistorisk värdering av bebyggelse, Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet.

28 RIKSANTIKVARIEÄMBETET, 2015, Plattform Kulturhistorisk värdering och urval: Grundläggande förhållningssätt för arbete med att definiera, värdera, prioritera och utveckla kulturarvet, Stockholm.

29 LINDGREN A., PETER S. & METELIUS A. R., 2017, Moderna Göteborg: Kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse III, Göteborg: Göteborgs stad, Stadsbyggnadskontoret, p. 66.

30 Swedish Government. Prop 1997/98:165.

31 OHLANDER M., 2001, K-märkningen och människorna på Skolspåret. En etnologisk undersökning i Hjällbo. Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola, Centrum för byggnadskultur.

32 In Sweden, a monument listing may only be implemented if approved by the owner.

33 LINDGREN A. Peter S & METELIUS A. R., 2017, Moderna Göteborg: Kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse III. Göteborg: Göteborgs stad, Stadsbyggnadskontoret, p. 96.

34 FEMENÍAS P. & LINDÉN A. L., 2012, ”Sweden: Integrated strategies to overcome market barriers”. In Energy Efficiency in Housing Management: Policies and Practice in Eleven Countries, eds. NIEBOR N., TSENKOVA S., GRUIS V. & VAN HAL A., Earthscan Publishing, p. 16-37.

35 FEMENÍAS P., 2019, “The Role of the Architect in Sustainable Housing Transformation. Four Swedish Case Studies”. Nordic Journal of Architectural Research, 31(1), p. 113-136.

36 LINDGREN A., PETER S. & METELIUS A. R., 2017, Moderna Göteborg: Kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse III, Göteborg, Göteborgs stad, Stadsbyggnadskontoret, p. 132-133.

37 Stacken collective living homepage.

38 SCHALK M. & MATTSON H. 2019, ”The group BiG (Bo i Gemenskap): Living and working in community”, In Proceedings from the AHRA conference 'Collective Life', Dundee, UK 2019.

39 NORWOOD Z., THEOBOLDT I. & ARCHER D-E. 2016, “Step-by-step deep retrofit and building integrated façade/roof on a “Million Programme” house”, in Proceedings from the 20th International Passive House Conference 2016 in Darmstadt, Germany.

40 Interview with Stacken tenants, January 2021.

41 OHLANDER M., 2001, K-märkningen och människorna på Skolspåret. En etnologisk undersökning i Hjällbo. Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola, Centrum för byggnadskultur.

42 United Nations. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals.

43 UNESCO, 2018, Culture for the 2030 Agenda.

44 Swedish Government, Politik för en Gestaltad Livsmiljö.

45 New European Bauhaus 2021.

46 See Lyktan lyser igen.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1
Légende Example of an insensitive 1970s energy retrofit of working-class housing, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2017.
Crédits © Paula Femenías.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 383k
Titre Figure 2
Légende Aerial view of Skolspåret (Sweden), 2016.
Crédits © Unknown photographer (Gothenburg City Planning Office).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 348k
Titre Figure 3
Légende Decorative layout of the façades at Skolspåret (Sweden), 2021. The entrances to the underground garage and rooftop elevator machine rooms are also visible.
Crédits © Sanja Peter.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 333k
Titre Figure 4
Légende Details of the façade and the reconstructed balcony fronts, Skolspåret (Sweden), 2021.
Crédits © Sanja Peter.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 447k
Titre Figure 5
Légende Residential aera of Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016.
Crédits © Unknown photographer (Gothenburg City Planning Office).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 442k
Titre Figure 6
Légende The visual link between the courtyards, Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2021.
Crédits © Sanja Peter.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 387k
Titre Figure 7
Légende Solar Houses in Västra Gårdsten after renovation, in the back the high-rise blocks with solar panels on the roof, Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016.
Crédits © Paula Femenías.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 256k
Titre Figure 8
Légende Detail of facades and original sculpture, Västra Gårdsten, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016.
Crédits © Paula Femenías.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 280k
Titre Figure 9
Légende Aerial view showing the layout of the star towers, Bergsjön, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2016. Stacken is the last block in the row towards the upper part of the picture.
Crédits © Gothenburg City Planning Office
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 180k
Titre Figure 10
Légende Stacken after the energy retrofit, Bergsjön, Gothenburg (Sweden), 2021. The star-shaped tower building has been nicknamed the Death Star by some of the inhabitants. In the background is a building in its pre-energy-retrofit state.
Crédits © Sanja Peter.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/docannexe/image/37415/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 399k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Paula Femenías, Sanja Peter et Mattias Legnér, « Modern heritage and housing renovation: Policy development and practical experiences from Gothenburg, Sweden »In Situ [En ligne], 49 | 2023, mis en ligne le 20 février 2023, consulté le 14 juin 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/insitu/37415 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/insitu.37415

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Auteurs

Paula Femenías

Professor, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

paula.femenias@chalmers.se

Sanja Peter

Heritage Officer, Gothenburg City Museum

sanja.peter@kultur.goteborg.se

Mattias Legnér

Professor, Department of Art History and Conservation, Uppsala University Campus Gotland, Visby, Sweden

mattias.legner@konstvet.uu.se

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