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1The following list of references includes works that are often cited in intensification studies. Most references are in English or in French but some studies on other languages such a German, Portuguese or Modern Greek have also been included. This bibliography is by no means an exhaustive list. The following works or articles are merely suggested readings and other relevant studies may be added.

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Adler Silvia & Asnes Maria, 2013, « Qui sème la quantification récolte l’intensification », in Anscombre Jean-Claude & Tamba Irène, Langue Française, « L’intensification », 9-22.

Amiot Dany, 2004, « Haut degré et préfixation », Travaux Linguistiques du CerLico 17, 132-151.

Athanasiadou Angeliki, 2007, “On the subjectivity of intensifiers”, Language Sciences 29, 554-565.

Bauer Laurie & Bauer Winifred, 2003, “Adjective booster in the English of young New Zealanders”, Journal of English Linguistics 30.3, 244-257.

Benzinger Edith, 1971, Intensifiers in Current English, University of Florida.

Bolinger Dwight, 1972, Degree Words, The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

Bordet Lucile, 2014, « L’intensification en anglais : entre grammatical et lexical. Etude de corpus de la série américaine How I Met Your Mother », Les Amis du Crelingua, 5-22.

Bordet Lucile, 2014, L’intensification en anglais : entre grammatical et lexical, PhD dissertation, Université de Lyon (Jean Moulin – Lyon 3).

Bordet Lucile & Jamet Denis, 2015, « Degré et intensification : essai de typologie, Anglophonia », (30 janvier 2016)

Borst Eugen, 1902, Die Gradadverbien im Englischen, Heidelberg: Winter.

Breban Tine & Davidse Kristin, 2016, “The history of very. The directionality of functional shift and (inter) subjectification”, English Language and Linguistics 20 (2), 221-249.

Burridge Kate & Bergs Alexander, 2016, Understanding language change, London/New York: Routledge.

Brinton Laurel J., 1996, Pragmatic Markers in English: Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions, Berlin/New York: Walter De Gruyter.

Brinton Laurel J. & Traugott Elizabeth C., 2006 (2005), Lexicalization and Language Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bulgin James, Elford Nicole, Harding Lindsay, Henley Bridget, Power Suzanne & Walters Crystal, 2008, “So very really variable: social patterning of intensifier use by Newfoundlanders online”, Linguistica Atlantica 29, 101-115.

Bussman Hadumod, 1996, Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, London / New York, Routledge.

Cacchiani Silvia, 2008, “From lexicographic evidence to lexicological aspects. A cognitive linguistic perspective on phonestemic intensifiers”, in Bernal Elisenda & De Cesaris Janet (eds.), Proceedings of the XII EURALEX Congress, Barcelona: IULA – Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 1565-1574.

Cacchiani Silvia, 2009, “Lexico-functional categories and complex collocations: the case of intensifiers”, in Römer Ute & Schulze Rainer (eds.), Exploring the Lexis-Grammar Interface, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 229-246.

Cacchiani Silvia, 2010a, “A CL perspective on complex intensifying adjectives”, TEXTUS 23, 601-618.

Cacchiani Silvia, 2010b, “Degree expressions and intensifiers: Terminological issues of lexicological and lexicographic relevance”, in De Gioia Michele (ed.), Actes du 27e Colloque International sur le lexique et la grammaire (L’Aquila, 10-13 septembre 2008). Seconde partie, Rome: Aracne, 39-58.

Cacchiani Silvia, 2011, “Intensifying affixes across Italian and English”, Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 47 (4), 758-794.

Claudi Ulrike, 2006, “Intensifiers of adjectives in German”, Language Typology and Universals 59 (4), 350-369.

Defour Tine, 2012, “The pragmaticalization of verily, truly and really. A corpus-based study on the developments of three truth-identifiying adverbs”, in Markus M. & Heuberger R. (eds.), Middle and Modern English Corpus Linguistics: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 75-92.

Delveroudi Rea & Vassilaki Sophie, 1999, « Préfixes d’intensité en grec moderne : para-, kata-, poly- et olo- », in Deschamps Alain & Guillemin-Flescher Jacqueline (eds.), Les Opérations de Détermination : Quantification/Qualification, Paris : Ophrys, 149-167.

Dressler Wolfgang & Merlini-barbaresi Lavinia, 1994, Morphopragmatics: Diminutives and Intensifiers in Italian, German and Other Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Efthymiou Angeliki, 2003, “Prefixes or first elements denoting intensification in Modern Greek”, Studies in Greek Linguistics 23, 519-528 [in Greek].

Efthymiou Angeliki, 2015, “Modern Greek diminutive and augmentative adjectives (in a cross-linguistic perspective)”, SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics 21(1), 57-71.

Efthymiou Angeliki, 2017, “Intensification and attenuation in Modern Greek evaluative verbs”, Studies in Greek Language 37, 227-238. [in Greek].

Gavriilidou Zoe, 2014, “The system of intensifying prefixes in Greek”, Lingvisticæ Investigationes 37:2, 240-255.

Gonzalez-Diaz Victoria, 2008, “Recent developments in English intensifiers: the case of very much”, English Language and Linguistics 12(2), 221-243.

Gonzálvez García Francisco, 2014, “‘that’s so a construction!’ Some reflections on innovative uses of ‘so’ in present-day English”, in de los Ángeles Gómez González Maria, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibañez Francisco José & Gonzálvez García Francisco (eds.), Theory and Practice in Functional-Cognitive Space, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 271-294.

Herwig Rolf, 1998, “Putting it mildly: the interrelation between adverbs of manner and adverbs of degree”, Erfurt Electronic Studies in English, available at

Ito Rika & Tagliamonte Sali, 2003, “Well weird, right dodgy, very strange, really cool: Layering and recycling in English intensifiers”, Language in Society 32, 257-279.

Kennedy Christopher & McNally Louise, 2005a, “Scale structure, degree modification, and the semantic typology of gradable predicates”, Language 81, 341-381.

Kennedy Christopher & McNally Louise, 2005b, “The syntax and semantics of multiple degree modification in English”, in Müller Stefan (ed.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Department of Informatics, University of Lisbon/Stanford: CSLI Publications, 178-195, also available at

Klein Henny, 1998, Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Labov William, 1984, “Intensity”, in Schriffin D. (ed.), Meaning, Form and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 43-70.

Loewenberg Ina, 1982, “Labels and hedges: the metalinguistic turn”, Language and Style 15, 193-207.

Lorenz Gunther, 2002, “Really worthwhile or not really significant? A corpus-based approach to the delexicalization and grammaticalization of intensifiers in Modern English”, in Wischer I. & Diewald G. (eds.), New Reflections on Grammaticalization, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 143-161.

Malheiros-Poulet Maria Eugenia, 1988, « La relativité des expressions d’intensité (exemples en portugais du Brésil) », Annexes des Cahiers de Linguistique Hispanique Médiévale 7, 527-537.

Méndez-Naya Belén, 2008, “Special issue on English intensifiers”, English Language and Linguistics 12 (2), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 213-219.

Napoli Maria, 2013, “On Italian past participles with -issimo: The superlative of events between intensification and pluractionality”, Linguistica e Filologia 33, 85-126.

Paradis Carita, 2008, “Configurations, construals and change: Expressions of DEGREE”, Journal of English Language and Linguistics 12 (2), 317-343.

Paradis Carita & Bergmark Nina, 2003, “‘Am I really really mature or something?’: really in teen talk”, Gothenburg Studies in English 84, 71-86.

Partington Alan, 1993, “Corpus evidence of language change: The case of intensifiers”, in Baker M. & Francis G. (eds.), Text and Technology: in Honour of John Sinclair, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 177-192.

Peters Hans, 1993, Die englischen Gradadverbien der Kategorie booster, Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Pinker Steven, 2008, The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature, London: Penguin.

Quirk Randolph, et al., 1973, A Comprehensive Grammar of Contemporary English, New York: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary, 2005, Random House Reference.

Rainer Franz, 1983, Intensivierung im Italienisch, Salzburg: Institut für Romanistik der Universität Salzburg.

Rainer Franz, 2015, “Intensification”, in Müller Peter O., Ohnheiser Ingebord, Olsen Susan & Rainer Franz (eds.), Word-Formation. An international Handbook of the Languages of Europe. Volume 2, Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter Mouton, 1339-1351.

Rissanen Matti, 2008, “From ‘quickly’ to ‘fairly’: on the history of ‘rather’”, English Language and Linguistics 12 (2), 345-359.

Raeber Thierry, 2016, « Intensification et concepts ad hoc : le cas des adverbes de complétude », Syntaxe et sémantique 17, 75-91.

Recski Leonardo Juliano, 2004, “‘It’s really ultimately very cruel’: contrasting English Intensifier collocations across EFL writing and academic spoken discourse”, Delta 20 (2), São Paulo Dec., 211-234.

Romero Clara, 2002, « L’intensité en français contemporain : analyse sémantique et pragmatique », L’Information Grammaticale 93, 52-53.

Romero Clara, 2007, « Pour une définition générale de l’intensité dans le langage », Travaux de linguistique 54, 57-68.

Rouanne Laurence, 2013, « Quelle intensité pour les adverbes en –ment dits intensifs ? », Langue Française 177(2), 111-125.

Spitzbard Harry, 1965, “English adverbs of degree and their semantic fields”, Philologica Pragensia 8 (3), 349-359.

Stenström Anna-Brita, 1999, “He was really gormlessShe is bloody crap: Girls, boys and intensifiers”, in Hasselgård Hilde & Oksefjell Signe (eds.), Out of Corpora, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Rodopi, 69-78.

Stoffel Cornelis, 1901, Intensives and Down-toners, Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Tagliamonte Sali A. & Roberts Chris, 2005, “So weird, so cool, so innovative: The use of intensifiers in the television series Friends”, American Speech 80 (3), 280-300.

Tagliamonte Sali A., 2007, “So different and pretty cool: Recycling intensifiers in Toronto, Canada”, Special Issue of English Language and Linguistics, Intensifiers, 12 (2), 361-394.

Tagliamonte Sali A. & D’Arcy Alexandra, 2007, “Frequency and variation in the community grammar: Tracking a new change through the generations”, Language Variation and Change 19 (2), 341-380.

Traugott Elizabeth C., 1995, “The role of the development of discourse markers in a theory of grammaticalization”,

van Os Charles, 1989, Aspekte der Intensivierung im Deutschen, Tübingen: Narr.

Vermeire Antoine R., 1979, Intensifying Adverbs: A Syntactic, Semantic and Lexical Study of Fifteen Degree Intensifiers, based on an Analysis of two Computer Corpuses of Modern English, Doctoral Thesis, University of Lancaster (unpublished manuscript).

Xiao Richard & Tao Hongyin, 2007, “A corpus-based sociolinguistic study of amplifiers in British English”, Sociolinguistic studies 1.2, 241-273.

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Electronic reference

Lucile Bordet, ReferencesLexis [Online], 10 | 2017, Online since 30 September 2017, connection on 25 March 2023. URL:; DOI:

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