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List of references

Isabel Balteiro and Laurie Bauer

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1The following list of references includes works that are often cited in the studies dealing with blending in English. This bibliography cannot be exhaustive, as the subject is multifaceted and the studies then far too numerous to be listed. The following works or articles are thus suggested readings and other relevant references may of course be added.

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Algeo John, 1977, “Blends, a Structural and Systemic View”, American Speech, 52, 47-64.

Arndt-Lappe Sabine & Plag Ingo, 2013, “The role of prosodic structure in the formation of English blends”, English Language and Linguistics 17,3, 537-563.

Balteiro Isabel, 2013, “Blending in English Charactoons”, English Studies 94 (8), London and New York: Routledge, 883–907.

Balteiro Isabel, 2018, “Emerging hybrid Spanish-English blend structures: Summergete con socketines”, Lingua 205, 1–14.

Bat-El Outi, 1996, “Selecting the best of the worst: the grammar of Hebrew blends”, Phonology 13, 283–328.

Bat-El Outi & Cohen Evan-Gary, 2012, “Stress in English blends: a constraint- based analysis”, in Renner Vincent, Maniez François & Arnaud Pierre J.L. (Eds.), Cross-disciplinary perspectives on lexical blending, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 193-212.

Bat-El Outi, 2006, “Blend”, in Brown Keith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, Second Edition, Vol. 2, Oxford: Elsevier, 66–70.

Bauer Laurie, 2012, “Blends: Core and Periphery”, in Renner V., Maniez F. & Arnaud P. (Eds.), Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending, Berlin: De Gruyter: 11-22.

Beliaeva Natalia, 2014, “A study of English blends: From structure to meaning and back again”, Word Structure 7,1, 29–57.

Beliaeva Natalia, 2015, “Blends at the interface between compounding and clipping: Evidence from readers’ evaluations”, Neologica 9, 205–219.

Beliaeva Natalia, 2016, “Blends at the intersection of addition and subtraction: Evidence from processing”, SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics 13,2, 23–45.

Beliaeva Natalia, 2019, “Blending in morphology”, in Aronoff Mark (Ed.-in-chief), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, available at

Bergström Gustaf Adolf, 1906, On Blendings of Synonymous or Cognate Expressions in English: A Contribution to the Study of Contamination, Lund University PhD Dissertation.

Berman J.M., 1961, “Contribution on Blending”, Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, 9, Germany: Walter De Gruyter, 278-281.

Berrey Lester, 1939, “Newly-wedded words”, American Speech, 14, 1, 3-10.

Brdar-Szabó Rita & Brdar Mario, 2008, “On the marginality of lexical blending”, Jezikoslovlje 9,1–2, 171–194.

Bryant, Margaret M., 1974, “Blends are increasing”, American Speech 49, 163-184.

Cannon Garland, 1986, “Blends in English Word Formation”, Linguistics, 24, 725-753.

Cannon Garland, 2000, “Blending”, in Booij Geert, Lehmann Christian & Mugdan Joachim (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation, Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 952-956.

Choroleeva Kornelia, 2015, “Morpho-semantic groups of lexical blends”, Scientific Works Of University Of Food Technologies, 62, 902-904.

Connolly Patrick, 2013, “The innovation and adoption of English lexical blends”, JournaLIPP 2, 1-14.

Cook Paul & Stevenson Suzanne, 2010, “Automatically identifying the source words of lexical blends in English”, Computational Linguistics, 36, 129-149.

Fandrych Ingrid, 2008, “Sub-morphemic elements in the formation of acronyms, blends and clippings”, Lexis, 2, 103-121.

Fauconnier Gilles & Turner Mark, 2002, The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities, New York: Basic Books.

Fradin Bernard, 2015, “Blending”, in Müller P.O., Ohnheiser I., Olsen S. & Rainer F. (Eds.), Word-Formation: an International Handbook of the Languages of Europe, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 386-413.

Gries Stefan Th., 2004, “Isn’t that fantabulous? How similarity motivates intentional morphological blends in English”, in Achard Michel & Kemmer Suzanne (Eds.), Language, Culture, and Mind, Stanford, CA: CSLI, 415-428.

Gries Stefan Th., 2004, “Shouldn’t it be breakfunch? A quantitative analysis of the structure of blends”, Linguistics 42(3), 639-667.

Gries, Stefan Th., 2004, “Some characteristics of English morphological blends”, in Andronis Mary A., Debenport Erin, Pycha Anne, & Yoshimura Keiko (Eds.), Papers from the 38th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society: Vol. II. The Panels, Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistics Society, 201-216.

Gries Stefan Th., 2006, “Cognitive determinants of subtractive word-formation processes: a corpus-based perspective”, Cognitive Linguistics 17, 4, 535-558.

Gries Stefan Th., 2012, “Quantitative corpus data on blend formation: psycho- and cognitive-linguistic perspectives”, in Renner Vincent, Maniez François & Arnaud Pierre J.L. (Eds.), Cross-disciplinary perspectives on lexical blending, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 145-167.

Juhasz Barbara J., Johnson Rebecca L. & Brewer Jennifer, 2017, “An Investigation into the Processing of Lexicalized English Blend Words: Evidence from Lexical Decisions and Eye Movements During Reading”, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 281-294.

Kelly Michael H., 1998, “To brunch or to brench: some aspects of blend structure”, Linguistics 36,3, 579-590.

Kemmer Suzanne, 2003, “Schemas and Lexical Blends”, in Cuyckens H., Berg T. & Dirven R. (Eds.), Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science. Motivation in Language: Studies in honor of Günter Radden, Amsterdam, NL: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 69-97.

Kjellander Daniel, 2018, “Cognitive Constraints in English Lexical Blending: A Data Collection Methodology and an Explanatory Model”, Pragmatics & Cognition, 25, 142-173.

Kubozono Haruo, 1990, “Phonological constraints on blending in English as a case for phonology-morphology interface”, Yearbook of morphology, 3, 1-20.

Lehrer Adrienne, 1996, “Identifying and Interpreting Blends: An Experimental Approach”, Cognitive Linguistics, 7, 359-390.

Lehrer Adrienne, 1998, “Scapes, holics, and thons: The semantics of combining forms”, American Speech 73, 3–28.

Lehrer Adrienne, 2007, “Blendalicious”, in Munat Judith (Ed.), Lexical Creativity, Texts and Contexts, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 115-133.

López Rúa Paula, 2004, “The Categorial Continuum of English Blends”, English Studies, 85, 63-76.

López Rúa, Paula, 2012, “Beyond all reasonable transgression: Lexical blending in alternative music”, in Renner Vincent, Maniez François & Arnaud Pierre J.L. (Eds.), Cross-disciplinary perspectives on lexical blending, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 23–34.

Moreton Elliott, Smith Jennifer L., Pertsova Katya, Broad Rachel & Prickett Brandon, 2017, “Emergent positional privilege in novel English blends”, Language 93,2, 347‑380.

Norde Muriel & Sippach Sarah, 2019, “Nerdalicious scientainment: A network analysis of English libfixes”, Word Structure, Vol. 12 Issue 3, 353‑384.

Piñeros Carlos-Eduardo, 2004, “The creation of portmanteaus in the extragrammatical morphology of Spanish”, Probus 16.2, 203-240.

Pound Louise, 1914, Blends: Their Relation to English Word Formation, Heidelberg: Carl Winter’s Universitätsbuchhandlung.

Renner Vincent, 2015, “Lexical blending as wordplay”, in Zirker A. & Winter-Froemel E. (Eds.), Wordplay and Metalinguistic/Metadiscursive Reflection: Authors, Contexts, Techniques, and Meta-Reflection, Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH: 119-133.

Renner Vincent, 2019, “French and English lexical blends in contrast”, Languages in Contrast, 19,1, 27-47.

Renner Vincent, Arnaud Pierre & Maniez François, 2012, “Introduction: A bird’s-eye view of Lexical Blending”, in Renner V., Arnaud P., Gast V. & Maniez F. (Eds.), Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending, Berlin: De Gruyter: 1-9.

Renner Vincent, Maniez François & Arnaud Pierre J.L. (Eds.), 2012, Cross-disciplinary perspectives on lexical blending, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ronneberger-Sibold Elke, 2006, “Lexical blends: Functionally tuning the transparency of complex words”, Folia Linguistica 40, 1-2, 155-181.

Silaški Nadežda & Đurović Tatjana, 2013, “Of ‘siliconaires’ and ‘millionerds’ - How ESP learners understand novel blends in English”, Iberica, 25, 85-105.

Soudanek L.J., 1998, “The Relation of Blending to English Word-Formation: Theory, Structure, and Typological Attempts”, in Dressler Wolfgang & Meid Wolfgang (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Linguists: Vienna, August 28-September 2, 1977, Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, 462-466.

Tomaszewicz Ewa, 2008, “Novel words with final combining forms in English. A case for blends in word formation”, Poznań studies in contemporary linguistics 44.3, 363-378.

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Electronic reference

Isabel Balteiro and Laurie Bauer, List of referencesLexis [Online], 14 | 2019, Online since 16 December 2019, connection on 28 January 2022. URL:; DOI:

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About the authors

Isabel Balteiro

Universidad de Alicante, Spain

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Laurie Bauer

Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

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