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Introduction

Images of Canada: from a eurocentric perspective to multiperspectiveness

Images du Canada
Matthias Merkl
p. 1-10

Texte intégral

  • 1  See Matthias MERKL, “Teaching Canadian Identity and Multiculturalism in Germany”, in this volume.
  • 2  Northrop FRYE, The Bush Garden. Essays on Canadian Imagination, Concord: Anansi, 1995, 223.
  • 3  Cf. Daniel FRANCIS, The Imaginary Indian. The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture, Vancouver: (...)
  • 4  Daniel Francis describes their influence as follows: “The huge popularity of these three celebrity (...)

1When a German thinks of Canada, his or her image of this country is strongly determined by hetero-stereotypes. A survey which I conducted at the University of Würzburg in 2004 shows that German students of English know very little about Canadian literature, about Canadian geography and about Canadian society.1 What they do know best are preconceived images which reveal a Eurocentric view of the country. Among the few features of this image the most prominent are ‘the noble savage,’ ‘the lumberjack,’ ‘the mountie,’ ‘the sheer endless woods,’ ‘the moose,’ and ‘the beaver’. This romanticized image corresponds to a large extent to the image of Canada presented in 18th-century and 19th-century travel and exploration literature as well as in modern tourist brochures and travel guides which try to provide the traveller with a survival knowledge based on facts, figures and photographs. Or, as the literary critic and cultural historian Northrop Frye writes: “Travellers visit Canada much as they would visit a zoo [...].”2 The different cultures exhibited in this ‘zoo’ are from all over the world and most of them are characterized by their exoticism, by their non-Canadianness. Although the students are aware that Canada is a multicultural country, they are still convinced of the bicultural concept of the two Founding Nations and of the cultural dominance of the Anglo-Canadian and the French-Canadian communities. As the students’ answers in my survey show, all the other cultural communities―the ‘minority groups’, the ‘visible minorities’―are not considered as Canadian. The students call them, according to their national roots, Italians, Ukrainians, Chinese, Japanese, etc. because they are not familiar with the term ‘hyphenated Canadians’, such as Chinese-Canadians, Italian-Canadians or South-Asian Canadians. Especially the Aboriginal peoples are still the main attraction in this ‘zoo.’ They are the link to the past when man lived close to nature and in harmony with his surroundings. In the students’ opinion the Natives are not Canadians, they are primarily ‘Indians;’ they are John Dryden’s ‘noble savages’, who do not know anything about civilization.3 In the German context in particular, we have to take into consideration that the Germans are influenced by the 19th century novelist Karl May who―like many others such as the celebrity Indians Pauline Johnson, Buffalo Child Long Lance and Grey Owl in North-America4―contributed to the creation of the ‘Imaginary Indian.’ Francis states:

  • 5 Ibid., 73.

Balduin Mollhausen, a German writer, produced 150 pot-boilers about the West; during the 1860s and 1870s he was the best-read writer in his native country. In France, Gustave Aimard published a book a month to satisfy a huge appetite for ‘westerns.’ But no one could rival the popularity of Karl May. A native of Germany, May never even visited the American West, but this didn’t stop him from setting dozens of his novels there, featuring Indians that read Longfellow and spoke German. Ridiculous as they may seem in retrospect, May’s books were translated into twenty languages and were read by an estimated 300 million people.5

2Admittedly, it is surprising that the Germans should know very little about the second largest country in the world, but it is even more astonishing that the Canadians themselves do have problems to define what makes a Canadian and what is Canadian culture. Two of the most prominent theories on Canadianness are those of Northrop Frye and Margaret Atwood. Both tried to define the Canadian identity based on specific Canadian phenomena. In Frye it is the ‘garrison mentality,’ in Atwood it is ‘survival.’ In his book The Bush Garden. Essays on Canadian Imagination Frye says:

  • 6  Northrop FRYE, op. cit., 227-228. Linda Hutcheon comments on Frye’s concept: “The specific reasons (...)

Small and isolated communities surrounded with a physical or psychological ‘frontier’, separated from one another and from their American and British cultural sources: communities that provide all that their members have in the way of distinctively human values, and that are compelled to feel a great respect for the law and order that holds them together, yet confronted with a huge, unthinking, menacing, and formidable physical setting―such communities are bound to develop what we may provisionally call a garrison mentality. In the earliest maps of the country the only inhabited centres are forts, and that remains true of the cultural maps for a much later time. [...] A garrison is a closely knit and beleaguered society, and its moral and social values are unquestionable.6

3However, Frye’s arguments only refer to the dominant English-speaking cultural community. Atwood’s theory also includes the French-Canadians and it comprises physical, spiritual, and cultural aspects. She argues:

  • 7  Margaret ATWOOD, Survival. A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature, Toronto: Anansi, 1972, 33.

Our stories are likely to be tales not of those who made it but of those who made it back, from an awful experience―the North, the snowstorm, the sinking ship―that killed everyone else. The survivor has no triumph or victory but the fact of his survival; he has little after his ordeal that he did not have before, except gratitude for having escaped with his life. A preoccupation with one’s survival is necessarily also a preoccupation with the obstacles to that survival. In earlier writers the obstacles are external―the land, the climate, and so forth. In later writers the obstacles tend to become both harder to identify and more internal; they are no longer obstacles to physical survival but obstacles to what we may call spiritual survival, to life as anything more than a minimally human being.7

  • 8  Cf. DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, Discover Canada: Canadian Culture Online, electronic publicat (...)

4Both Frye and Atwood focus on the dominant cultural communities, whose mutual relationship was dramatized in Hugh MacLennan’s seminal work Two Solitudes (published in 1945). But they all do not take into account the cultural diversity and the multiperspectiveness in Canada. In the 1960s and 1970s ‘minority voices’ were gradually emerging. They made a claim for the rights of minority groups and they put emphasis on the contribution of their communities to cultural, social and economic life in Canada. The struggle for equity and equality resulted in the Canadian Multiculturalism Act of 1988. If we take a look at the depiction of the Canadian population on the Internet, we will notice that cultural diversity today is a fundamental concept of official policy. On the homepage of the Department of Canadian Heritage we find a lot of information on ethnic and cultural diversity of the Canadian society. The unifying symbol of all Canadian citizens is the Maple Leaf.8

5The Department of Canadian Heritage describes ‘diversity’ as follows:

Diversity has been a fundamental characteristic of Canada since its beginnings. [...] This does not mean that there aren’t tensions in Canada that flow from the differences between people. But as these tensions are addressed, Canadians learn to adapt and relate to one another despite their differences. Through practice, we have come to understand that the differences between us do not have to divide us. This encourages citizens who face common challenges to step forward and claim their right to full participation in Canadian society. As a consequence, Canada’s concept of what constitutes diversity is expanding. Diversity is moving beyond language, ethnicity, race and religion, to include cross-cutting characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, and range of ability and age. The same approaches that have helped Canadians develop into a bilingual, multicultural society are now also helping to bring down other barriers that prevent individuals from reaching their full potential.9

6In the late 19th century and the early 20th century Canadian society needed immigrants to develop the infrastructure and the economy of the country. The immigrants mainly worked in the agricultural sector and in industry. Chinese immigrants, for instance, played a decisive role in constructing the transcontinental railroad. Although the rights of some minority groups were restricted during World War II―many Japanese-Canadians were imprisoned or sent to work camps―the cultural and ethnic distinctiveness of minority groups received more and more recognition in Canadian society at that time. The Massey-Lévesque Commission (1950), which linked cultural diversity and Canadian identity, gave particular impetus to this development:

  • 10 Idem.

After World War II, Canadians and their governments began to see that continued discrimination at home devalued the purpose of the sacrifices that had been made in defeating a racist regime overseas. Beginning in 1950 with the report of the Massey-Lévesque Commission, ethnocultural diversity gradually came to be understood as an essential ingredient in a distinct Canadian identity.10

7Anglo-Canadians and French-Canadians, the so-called ‘Founding Nations,’ were still the dominant groups of the Canadian society. However, in 1971 Canada adopted an official multiculturalism policy and in 1982 Canada became a constitutional multicultural state by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms:

  • 11 Idem.

In 1971, Canada was the first country in the world to adopt multiculturalism as an official policy. By so doing, Canada affirmed the value and dignity of all Canadian citizens regardless of their racial or ethnic origins, their language, or their religious affiliation. The 1971 Multiculturalism Policy of Canada also confirmed the rights of Aboriginal peoples and the status of Canada’s two official languages.11

  • 12  Cf. DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, The Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multicultu (...)

8In 1988, the Multiculturalism Act was a breakthrough in acknowledging the cultural diversity of the country. In the Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2002-200312 the Minister of State (Multiculturalism and Status of Women) Mrs Jean Augustine says:

  • 13  DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, The Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturali (...)

Canada is a multicultural society in terms of its fundamental values and its demographic composition. Diversity has always been a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society. From the beginning, more than 50 different Aboriginal peoples with their own unique languages and cultures interacted with each other throughout Canada. They were later joined by Europeans and people of African and Asian descent, all of whom helped to build the Canada we value today. Since the introduction of Canada’s first multiculturalism policy in 1971 and the proclamation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 15 years ago in 1988, Canada’s population has continued to become more diverse. This rich ethnocultural, racial and religious diversity has been fostered and supported by a strong multiculturalism policy that encourages people to maintain their culture and identity within a Canadian framework that values fundamental human rights and freedoms. Today there are more than 200 different ethnic groups living together in Canada and visible minorities comprise 13 percent of the population, a majority of whom live in Canada’s major cities. Immigration has now outpaced the natural birth rate and accounts for 53 percent of the overall population growth. Creating and maintaining a strong and cohesive civil society, free of racism and discrimination, is critical to the continued growth and success of Canada. I have been pleased to promote Canada’s multiculturalism policy and program across the country and internationally. I have met with individuals and organizations from coast to coast who are working in their communities to address the key multiculturalism priorities of combating racism and discrimination, promoting cross-cultural understanding and a sense of shared citizenship, and helping to make Canadian institutions more representative of Canadian society. The Multiculturalism Program provides direct support to organizations and communities to implement these priorities. In recognition of how important this work is to all Canadians, I have implemented a new approach to multi-year funding that will support more long-term initiatives within the existing accountability frameworks.13

9Nowadays, cultural diversity is one of the most distinct features of Canada and a concept many Canadians can identify with. This collection of essays covers different fields of negotiating and evaluating cultural heterogeneity in Canada. It reflects the manifold effects cultural diversity has on the image of modern Canada. The fields are society, nation, region, education, language, drama and theatre, poetry, fiction, and many more.

10In the first essay on “Quebec Separatism in Canadian Utopian Fiction and the Quest for a Postcolonial Future” Ralph Pordzik analyses the influence writers of speculative fiction have on the national identity in Quebec. William Weintraub’s political satire The Underdogs (1979) reflects the cultural crisis of Quebec in the 1970s which resulted from the separatist and nationalist movement to a large extent. The Underdogs comprises both regional and cross-cultural perspectives and it shows how different cultural communities can contribute to a common future. This might be realised if the views of fundamental cultural concepts such as nation, identity, and race were changed or even abandoned.

11Christoph Schubert examines the linguistic depiction of Aboriginal peoples in the past. His paper on “Discourses of Contrast and Deficiency: A lexicogrammatical analysis of First Nations representation in Samuel Hearne’s Journey (1795)” illustrates the Eurocentric view of indigenous peoples. This imperialist perspective can be revealed by analysing distinct discourse patterns. Hearne uses the ‘white’ European culture as reference culture and he is convinced that the First Nations’ ‘lack of culture’ is closely connected with a loss of language.

12Shakespeare’s universality and contemporary Canadian adaptations of Shakespeare’s works in the postcolonial context are presented in Rüdiger Ahrens’s article on “Shakespeare Revived in Contemporary Canadian Drama”. Three contemporary plays—Ken Mitchell’s Cruel Tears (1977), Anne-Marie MacDonald’s Goodnight Desdemona (Good Night Juliet) (1990), and Ken Gass’s Claudius (1993)—exemplify the manifold influences of Shakespeare’s work on Canadian drama and on the contribution of his works to the formation of a cultural and national identity.

13Michael Heinze is interested in contemporary drama. His essay on “A Long Way from Hame—Layers of Identity in Jonathan Wilson’s Kilt” depicts an individual’s identity as a gay Canadian of Scottish family background. Tom goes back to his family’s roots when he starts to explore his grandfather’s past. Michael Heinze explores how concepts such as family history, family relationships, heritage, national and sexual identity are constructed and how stereotypes are created and deconstructed.

14“Multiculturalism in Canadian Dub and Concrete Poetry” is examined by Kerstin Knopf. Dub poetry which emerged in Jamaica and has its roots in reggae, Rastafarianism, and African Caribbean oral traditions does not belong to mainstream literature in Canada. This kind of poetry reveals many exciting and interesting ways of negotiating Canadian multiculturalism. The works of Caribbean Canadian dub artists Lillian Allen, Ahdri Zhina Mandiela, and Afua Cooper reflect non-European immigrant realities and critically look at Canadian multiculturalism. Their counter discourse challenges the established Western literary and historical discourses.

15Karin Ikas focuses on national and female identity in war and peace in her paper on “A Canadian Response to the Iconography of War Propaganda in the British Empire: Nellie Mc Clung’s Politeia Pax Feminina.” Karin Ikas’s analysis which is theoretically based on critics like J. Turpin, J. Bethke-Elshtain and A. Carter examines the construction of national and female identity in the war context. Canadian writer, activist and feminist critic Nellie McClung who was a pacifist before the Great War but then supported Canadian enlistment became disillusioned after the war. She developed an alternative female world policy, a so-called Politeia Pax Feminina, which can be regarded as a response to patriarchal war propaganda and warfare.

16In her article on “Constructing a Multicultural Identity at the Canadian Frontier: Mordecai Richler and Jewish-Canadian Writing” Julie Spergel outlines how ‘identity’ is mirrored in Mordecai Richler’s fiction. Richler, one of the most outstanding Canadian writers, suffered from being in-between two identities: Jewish and Canadian. His works reflect the long and difficult way of developing a national identity on the one hand and of learning to be a Jew on the other hand. When viewed through Sander L. Gilman’s theory of Jewish frontiers, Canadian multiculturalism is exemplified by Jewish writing in Canada which thus provides a model for reconciling conflicting national and cultural mythologies.

17Another famous writer is presented by Sabine Jackson, Robertson Davies. Jackson illustrates Canada’s development from a relatively homogeneous, monocultural society to a multicultural country in her paper on “Robertson Davies: Canada’s Culturally Growing Consciousness.” Davies’s trilogies—the Salterton Trilogy, the Deptford Trilogy, and the Cornish Trilogy—exemplify Canada’s development from a country which is dominated by white Anglo-Saxon culture to a diversified and multicultural country. As illustrated in his books, Davies realizes that Canada’s identity cannot simply explained by its colonial history and present ties to the Unites States, while at the same time examining the question of what being Canadian really means.

18Female identity and national identity in Margaret Atwood’s novel The Robber Bride are thematized in Ellen McCarthy’s paper on “As Canadian as Possible Under the Circumstances’: How Girls Grow Up Canadian in Margaret Atwood’s The Robber Bride.The Robber Bride (1993) expands the scope of previous conceptions of Anglo-Canadian national identity. McCarthy’s study draws attention to the complex relationship between narrative and identity and it reveals how progress and development in these novels is influenced or determined by specifically feminist and Canadian nationalist identity politics.

19Christine Lorre discusses in her article on “Canada in the Looking-Glass—Days and Nights in Calcutta (1977), by Clark Blaise and Bharati Mukherjee” the experiences of being Canadian in the 1970s. Not only are Blaise’s and Mukherjee’s own lives mirrored in the two narratives, but the narratives also offer their Canadian readers an oblique representation of who they are, or rather, images of what they stood for at the time. The novel is an indirect representation of Canada at that period of time.

20Andrea Bähr’s essay on “Canadian Skin: Multiculturalism in Michael Ondaatje’s In the Skin of a Lion” outlines an individual’s search for his identity. Ondaatje’s novel deals with the problem of being an immigrant in one’s own country. Whereas the immigrants from East Europe feel at home in their cultural communities, the protagonist Patrick who was born in Canada feels like an immigrant when he moves to Toronto to get a job there. As a Canadian, he now belongs to the minority group which is surrounded by foreign languages and cultures.

21Rinaldo Walcott discusses problems of nations, nationalism and forms of diaspora desire in Austin Clarke’s fiction and non-fiction. In his article entitled “Within and Without: Nations, Nationalism and Diasporan Desires” he seeks to demonstrate how the reinvention of Barbados in Clarke’s writing acts as a counter-narrative to Canada. Clarke’s works are a critique of national desire which points to the impossible conditions of modern nations. Thus his writing goes beyond the text and aims at larger political and cultural concerns.

22Andrew Parkin describes in his essay on “Teaching Asian-Canadian Literature in an International Context” the role of cultural and historical contexts and the growing importance of cross-cultural writing in seminars on North-American literature today. In the 1990s, Parkin taught Asian-Canadian Literature at Majors level in the Chinese University of Hong Kong. At that time there was a growing interest cross-cultural writing in English and in issues such as the reasons of migration and cultural identity.

23Albert Rau exemplifies intercultural learning with Thomas King’s short story “Borders” in his paper on “A Short Story from Canada in the German EFL-Classroom—’Borders’ or a Sense of Belonging in a Multicultural Society.” Rau argues that reading literature not only increases the learner’s knowledge of a foreign country but it also enables him/her to think about alternative world views, to change perspectives and to develop empathy towards other peoples. King’s story shows that borders are not only a political but also a psychological phenomenon which does not reflect the individual’s cultural or ethnic identities.

24Wolfgang Gehring analyses curricula for the EFL classroom (English as a Foreign Language). As his essay on “Target Cultures in German Curricula and Didactic Concepts of EFL Teaching” reveals, curricula determine the learner’s perception of anglophone cultures to a large extent. This article analyses these fundamental didactic principles and negotiates the different methodological approaches of introducing the learner into the target culture. In addition, parameters of a Canada-oriented cultural approach are outlined which correspond to the demands of teaching EFL in Germany.

25In the last article of this Revue LISA volume Matthias Merkl presents an analysis of textbooks for the EFL classroom in Germany. His essay on “Teaching Canadian Identity and Multiculturalism in Germany” examines the different ways of introducing cultural diversity to German students and of presenting cultural and national identity in teaching materials in order to sketch a multi-faceted and authentic image of the Canadian society. Whereas in the past we were mostly offered facts and figures and photos which fostered the stereotypical image of Canada, modern textbooks deal with issues such as multiculturalism, national and cultural identity, nationalism and racism.

26This collection of essays was not only compiled to illustrate the multifaceted and multi-voiced Canadian society, to depict its ‘dominant’ and its ‘marginalized’ cultural communities, but equally to give the reader an insight into the construction (and deconstruction) of concepts such as identity, stereotypes or multiculturalism. This RevueLISA volume is a sample of the manifold views of Canadian cultures. It depends on the perspective whether we will still stick to the image of a white Anglo- and French-Canadian society which comprises exotic non-white minorities or whether we acknowledge cultural diversity and ethnic heterogeneity.

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Bibliographie

ATWOOD, Margaret, Survival. A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature, Toronto: Anansi, 1972.

Department of Canadian Heritage, Discover Canada: Canadian Culture Online, electronic publication, 2003, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/pcce-ccop/pubs/discanada/ index_e.cfm>, p. 1 ,[March 15, 2005].

Department of Canadian Heritage, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/respect_e.cfm> [Jan. 19, 2005].

Department of Canadian Heritage, The Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2002-2003, electronic publication, 2004, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/reports/ann2002-2003/index_e.cfm> [Jan. 19, 2005].

FRANCIS, Daniel, The Imaginary Indian. The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture, Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp,2000.

FRYE, Northrop, The Bush Garden. Essays on Canadian Imagination, Concord: Anansi,1995.

HUTCHEON, Linda, “The Field Notes of a Public Critic,” in Northrop Frye, The Bush Garden. Essays on Canadian Imagination, Concord: Anansi,1995, vii-xx.

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Notes

1  See Matthias MERKL, “Teaching Canadian Identity and Multiculturalism in Germany”, in this volume.

2  Northrop FRYE, The Bush Garden. Essays on Canadian Imagination, Concord: Anansi, 1995, 223.

3  Cf. Daniel FRANCIS, The Imaginary Indian. The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture, Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp, 2000, 7.

4  Daniel Francis describes their influence as follows: “The huge popularity of these three celebrity Indians―Pauline Johnson, Buffalo Child Long Lance and Grey Owl―reveals a desire on the part of non-Native Canadians to understand and admire what they considered to be the virtues of Indianness. Each of the three expressed aspects of the Imaginary Indian. The poems of Pauline Johnson evoked for listeners the proud, independent Indian of history. Buffalo Child Long Lance touched a chord of pathos when he described the difficult transition the Indian was making from transitional society to the White Man’s world. And Grey Owl reminded his audience that the Indian had a lot to teach the modern world about the necessity of preserving wild nature from the reckless forces of economic development. In each case, non-Natives believed they were listening to the very best in the Indian character, even when it turned out that the voice was not Native at all.” Daniel Francis, op. cit., 141-142.

5 Ibid., 73.

6  Northrop FRYE, op. cit., 227-228. Linda Hutcheon comments on Frye’s concept: “The specific reasons for controversy are inevitably going to be different today, but Frye’s provocative vision of the Canadian imagination―mentally garrisoned against a terrifying nature, frostbitten by a colonial history―is a vision that still has the power to provoke, just as the judgements he made about individual writers and artists in his reviews still have the power to irritate and delight." Linda HUTCHEON, “The Field Notes of a Public Critic,” in Northrop FRYE, The Bush Garden. Essays on Canadian Imagination, Concord: Anansi, 1995, viii-ix.

7  Margaret ATWOOD, Survival. A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature, Toronto: Anansi, 1972, 33.

8  Cf. DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, Discover Canada: Canadian Culture Online, electronic publication, 2003, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/pcce-ccop/pubs/discanada/index_e.cfm>, 1 ,[March 15, 2005].

9  DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/respect_e.cfm>, [Jan. 19, 2005].

10 Idem.

11 Idem.

12  Cf. DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, The Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2002-2003, electronic publication, 2004, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/reports/ann2002-2003/index_e.cfm>, i [Jan. 19, 2005]. On its website the Department of Canadian Heritage gives a definition of Canadian Multiculturalism: “What is Multiculturalism? Canadian multiculturalism is fundamental to our belief that all citizens are equal. Multiculturalism ensures that all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and self-confidence, making them more open to, and accepting of, diverse cultures. The Canadian experience has shown that multiculturalism encourages racial and ethnic harmony and cross-cultural understanding, and discourages ghettoization, hatred, discrimination and violence. Through multiculturalism, Canada recognizes the potential of all Canadians, encouraging them to integrate into their society and take an active part in its social, cultural, economic and political affairs.” Department of Canadian Heritage, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/ progs/multi/what-multi_e.cfm> [Jan. 19, 2005].

13  DEPARTMENT OF CANADIAN HERITAGE, The Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2002-2003, electronic publication, 2004, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/reports/ ann2002-2003/ index_e.cfm>, v-vi [Jan. 19, 2005].

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Matthias Merkl, « Images of Canada: from a eurocentric perspective to multiperspectiveness », Revue LISA/LISA e-journal, Vol. III - n°2 | 2005, 1-10.

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Matthias Merkl, « Images of Canada: from a eurocentric perspective to multiperspectiveness », Revue LISA/LISA e-journal [En ligne], Vol. III - n°2 | 2005, mis en ligne le 26 octobre 2009, consulté le 30 septembre 2020. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/lisa/2317 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/lisa.2317

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Auteur

Matthias Merkl

(Würzburg, Germany)
Matthias Merkl teaches linguistics at the Department of English at the University of Würzburg, Germany. His fields of research are foreign language acquisition, postcolonial studies, modern Canadian literature and teaching English language and literature. In 2001 he published his Ph.D. thesis on Cultural Geography in German Textbooks for the EFL Classroom (Kulturgeographische Inhalte in deutschen Lehrbüchern für den Englischunterricht der 8. Jahrgangsstufe, Frankfurt/Main : Lang, 2002) and in 2004 he coedited with Laurenz Volkmann the book Anglophone Cultural Studies and Teaching English. Collected Essays by Rüdiger Ahrens (Heidelberg : Winter, 2004). He is currently working on his second monograph on Identity and Cultural Diversity in Modern Canadian Literature. In 2004 he conducted research as a visiting scholar at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver

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