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1For over a century and in modes ranging from hagiography to protest, popular music has been a prime theatre of observation and representation of the United States on record, in concert and more generally in the performing arts. Studying this field, with its senders—artists and their productions—and its receivers—gatekeepers and audiences—enables us to cast a different light on the USA as a source of inspiration, rejection and attraction for musicians on both sides of the Atlantic in order to explore certain visions of that country, or at least to examine some of the forces that shape and/or distort it. This issue of La Revue LISA/LISA e-journal gives a diversified insight into a field which has not been extensively explored yet, but which does arouse the interest of an increasing number of talented —and mostly young —researchers, as these articles show. As usual, this selection of articles is followed by an essay, under the heading of VARIA, this time about the self-representations of Ireland through stamps and coinage.

  • 1 C.f. his essay “Perennial Fashion—Jazz” in Prisms.

2Paolo Oliveira’s “ ‘East-West, Perpetual Motion’: British-American Popular Music Exchange“ illustrates that far from operating in isolation, the North-American musical field has a relationship with its British counterpart which may well be described as special. In Britain, American music and musicians have drawn a response marked by the fear of a “ ‘primitive’ expression of ‘inferior’ peoples” coupled with “[a]nxiety over a supposed excessive Americanization of British culture.” This dreaded cultural hegemony is concealed behind charges of barbarism, a noun which comes from the Greek bárbaros—i.e. non-Greek—and therefore designates anything that does not correspond to the idea a society has of itself. Definition through negation, and therefore exclusion: this has been the traditional discursive strategy social groups have used to delineate their culture. Oliveira examines the musical and subcultural cross-Atlantic transactions marked by a reciprocal love-hate relationship. For British bands, the conquest of America can be the pinnacle of a career, but also an obstacle impossible to overcome. Conversely, Britain has also been a haven for American artists such as Jimi Hendrix, The Pixies and The Strokes. Indeed, appropriation works both ways, so much so that the origins of musical currents become blurred. Oliveira quite rightly mentions the example of punk, but also techno, born in Chicago and Detroit, yet which found a much larger audience in the UK than in the USA. The adoption and adaptation of new styles is one of the foundations on which western art history has been shaped, but this necessity for perpetual change, which Adorno called “perennial fashion”1 in the field of popular music, has also been the result of a deliberate policy of the music business, whose transnational structures and modus operandi make the notion of the nation- state increasingly obsolete.

  • 2 i.e. Artists and Repertoire.
  • 3 The free Winamp mp3 player enables listeners to add sound effects to songs ripped from CDs or downl (...)

3Indeed, as Tamsin Briggs’ “The Record Industry in the 21st Century” demonstrates, today’s record companies—even the Majors—are just cogs in a larger system of international media conglomerates, and it is increasingly difficult to see the bigger picture, in a world of cross-promotional tie-ins which are the basis of the philosophy of ‘synergy’.” Conglomerates like Sony can choose vertical integration, that is market both hardware and software worldwide, and “prefer to transfer their risk-taking [in their A&R2 policy] to smaller entities, whether they be publishers, producers or indie labels, who act as talent scouts,” but not all global entities choose this approach, as the example of Philips shows. In 1998, the Dutch conglomerate decided to sell its Polygram subsidiary to Seagram so as to become less dependent on content and to focus on its core competencies, i.e. hardware, and especially CD- burners. Nevertheless, the entertainment industry as a whole is faced with a major problem that is arguably the result of the effective synergy Briggs describes. Works of art are ubiquitous and “[m]ost companies, whether involved in entertainment or not, are moving away from their core product, in fact moving away from product altogether, as if it was something slightly dirty, and involving themselves more deeply into creating a ‘vision’.” The exponential multiplication of more or less derived products enables concerns to expand supply thanks to an increasing number of distribution channels, but one problem arises when devices to copy and even modify films or songs flood the market at ever-decreasing prices:3 digital piracy bugs this well-oiled strategy and obliges multinationals to rely more and more on secondary sources of income resulting not only from broadcasting, but also from “ ’cross- selling, cross-promotion, and privileged access’ “. Marketing and merchandising are nothing new in the entertainment industry: the success of Elvis Presley had as much to do with his image as with his vocal and performing abilities. In fact, popular music does not simply come down to songs; it also appeals to such a large audience because it spins a web of signs and references in which the music per se is inseparable from the artists’ image, in the fullest sense of the word.

4As Tamsin Briggs writes, “image is all.” Or almost. Indeed, the negative connotation of that sentence only imperfectly conveys one essential ingredient of the musicians’ appeal. Artists must be able to give the illusion that the show they put on—whether on record, on stage, on photographs and videos, but also in their relations with the press—is not just an act. Popular artists have to be willing to help suspend, at least for a time, the disbelief of their audience. The two examples that Phillip Serrato analyzes in “Rage in a Time ofMillennial Raving” are quite telling in this respect. In the video shot to illustrate and promote “Sleep Now in the Fire,” Rage Against the Machine defy New York authorities and face the city’s police department “across the street from the New York Stock Exchange.” By braving a municipal order and playing in that symbolic location, they underline the significance of their commitment and the power of their music. Serrato also examines Jennifer Lopez’s “Waiting for Tonight” video, where the star and her music put dancers in a festive trance which the passage from one millennium to another only interrupts for a few seconds. In both cases, even though the listeners/spectators are aware of the distance that separates them from the artists they admire, the artists have to enable the audience to identify with them, at least to a certain extent.

  • 4 The “!” used to follow “Emperor.”
  • 5 F minor/B flat minor.
  • 6 F minor/B flat minor/D flat, plus E flat added every other line in the second and the last choruses
  • 7 Inversion of the chord structure, i.e. B flat minor/F minor.

5One particular theme recurs in this collection: traditional binary oppositions such as “Us” vs. “Them,” or “pure” vs. “commercial” art become less and less relevant. Comfortable dichotomies such as “good” independent labels vs. “bad” majors should not eclipse other factors which we must consider in studying the music industry. Indeed, musical genres cannot be overlooked. Pop’s—not popular music’s—main feature could be summarized thus: it is aimed at the great majority of listeners, i.e. it never excludes any fraction of its potential audience. Pop does not target a specific segment to the detriment of another as other, more “radical” genres do. Let’s take two extremes—say, Jennifer Lopez and Godspeed You! Black Emperor4—to clarify that point. In Lopez’s “Waiting for Tonight,” the narrative voice is looking forward to seeing her lover. The song is built on a common AABA structure (verse5 /chorus6 (bis), bridge/instrumental passage7, last two lines of the verse followed by the chorus) and deals with a somewhat innocuous topic. Although the video shows young, beautiful people—with whom Jennifer Lopez sometimes blends—dancing to the song and enjoying their togetherness apart from the others in a disco, the mainstream techno/trance arrangement is only here to infuse some kind of “hipness”—and therefore distinction, as defined by Pierre Bourdieu— into an unmistakably unoriginal pop love song. This “modern” techno coloration does not exclude any listener: on the contrary, it tries to appeal to new ones, in this case the 15-24s who go to discotheques on a more or less regular basis and dance to soft-core techno. At the other end of the popular music spectrum, Godspeed is a post/experimental rock band signed by the independent, Montréal-based Constellation label, whose creed reads:

Constellation began releasing experimental rock music in Montreal in 1997, seeking to enact a mode of cultural production that critiques the worst tendencies of the music industry, artistic commodification, and perhaps in some tiny way, the world at large. We have attempted to evolve one possible model for the recovery of an independent music ethic, hoping to summon some real sense of indie rock in spite of its reduction to a branded slogan through corporate co-optation, its laissez-faire attitude towards the market and the means of production, and all the facile irony that helps pave the path for these content-negating trends.
Together with the musicians who release records on the label, we have worked to rekindle a critical rock music cognisant of geography and social conditions; to reflect these concerns both musically and practically by building self-sufficient local structures for performing, recording and releasing work; to hold fast to the beautiful promise of independent rock as a perpetually nascent musical form capable of uncertain, unstable, unassimilable, untarnished transmissions.

  • 9 U.X.O. stands for unexploded ordnance.
  • 10 When the CD was released, AOL-Time Warner and EMI were about to merge, before the European Commissi (...)

6On the back panel of their Yanqui U.X.O. 9CD, Godspeed present a chart linking four10 major labels to their holdings in the military industrial complex. This chart is reproduced on the Constellation web site with hypertext links to the companies in question. The band is considered radical and socially committed not so much because of the instrumental music it plays, but rather thanks to its ethical stance emphasized by the paratextual apparatus it resorts to.

  • 11 For instance, the band prints the addresses of organizations such as Amnesty International and TheI (...)
  • 12 In their “Sleep Now in the Fire” video, it is in vain that Michael Moore tries to convince NYPD off (...)

7Phillip Serrato mentions an interesting paradox concerning Rage Against the Machine: the now defunct band’s “purpose is to criticize dominant society and demand change, yet it is able to spread its message thanks to a major record contract.” In an era when “our time sense quite literally ‘falls apart’ into different temporal scales which have a simultaneous reality and yet cannot be contemplated simultaneously” (Heise 42, in Serrato) is there still a place for a radical rock band whose discourse is firmly rooted in the protest tradition of American history and art? Indeed, as Lawrence Grossberg puts it, “the rock and roll apparatus constantly reinscribes a boundary between ‘us’ and ‘them’ ” (117), but this boundary has never been as blurred as today. As Simon Frith puts it, “we no longer live in a world in which the ‘local’ can stand for community, security and truth. It describes rather the setting for our shared experience of rootlessness and migration, for the constant movement of capital and labour, or signs and sounds” (Frith 23, in Briggs). There is no doubt as to RATM’s social commitment, but the safe univocality of their aggressive music, added to the didacticism of their slogans, liner notes 11 and videos 12 are perceived at best as an act of resistance, but more often than not as a rearguard action against socio-political apathy.

8Not that the “Us” vs. “Them” dichotomy has been wiped out, though. In “ ‘Just an American Boy’—The Political Songwriting of Steve Earle,Richard Jobes examines this topic in another musical genre with country-rock singer and composer Steve Earle, who decided to go against the tide and confront country music’s conservative doxa. After the 9/11 bomb attacks, he released a comment on America’s immediate history. He criticized what he regarded as its jingoistic posture and foreign policy, and was quickly labelled as “un-American” and “un-patriotic”Talk about definition through exclusion!—by his opponents. This familiar “Me-vs.-the-System” antagonism can lead protesters to a counterproductive and naïve self-righteousness which Earle is aware of, but which he does not always avoid. Jobes points out that a social commentary often carries more weight when it is presented through a character’s point of view. A case in point is “the story of the condemned man [which] has been extensively covered by popular music, most obviously within the matrix of country music.” This may seem paradoxical for a genre which, as we saw earlier, cannot generally be suspected of progressism, but the paradox is only apparent. Topoi like the protest and rebellion of an individual against the established order constitute solid bases on which country and folk music were built. The British and Irish ballads which immigrants brought along from the Old to the New World dealt with unrequited love, but also outlaws, and this last topic has inspired countless country and folk musicians. Jobes remarks that a protest song is at its most effective when a persona comes alive in all its richness and ambiguity, perhaps because the audience finds more interest in the place of an individual in society as represented by a singer than in battle cries too general and edifying to relate to.

  • 13 See Middleton 127-146.

9Indeed, as Sophie Levy points out in “The Past Didn’t Go Anywhere: Making Music/Making History in Contemporary American Folk,folk “privileges truthful narrative as both form and concept of representation.” This genre “locates itself as witness reviving […] immediate voices of the past” and is by no means a fixed form, unlike what many of its proponents claim. For many critics, authenticity is the yardstick by which this concept must be judged, whereas when one examines the definitions of “folk” through the ages, with the ideological biases and historical conditions which underlie them, the least one can say is that they are highly debatable. 13 As Levy writes, “there is no definitive interpretation [of folk songs], a trope common to folk musicology.” The fetishism of authenticity which associates the use of technology—“the master’s tools”—with selling out does not really stand up to analysis, as Levy shows with the example of Ani Difranco. The medium cannot be mechanically equated with the message when an audience enjoys the work of artists passing on their own vision/version of American history. Similarly, stories and history are not always antonymous. In Born in the USA, Timothy Scheurer shows that in the 1960s folk revival, the dominating mytheme—i.e. “the main ideas that shape and give structure to the narrative design of [a] myth” (11)—is that of the alienated individual (183) expressing his angst and asserting his own commentary on an absurd world, not only to commune with his audience or for artistic purposes, but also to exert an influence on a world in motion. In that respect, Country Joe McDonald’s “I- Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag” at the Woodstock festival in 1969 remains a memorable testimony of the end of the hippie utopia. Levy’s remark about folk’s ambivalent nature is particularly relevant:

 ‘Folk’ neatly encompasses the impact of generations of immigration on the shape of American culture, saluting the (musical) contribution of each successive group as they form settler societies; it is also possible that it dismisses them, subsuming their cultural identities into the larger meaning of ‘American.’ Both definitions are viable, and, more importantly, marketable.

10The same could be said about the music industry, which recycles and feeds on recurring stylistic or economic efforts to undermine it. In both cases, the common denominator is not necessarily the lowest one.

  • 14 See Chastagner on this point.

11Indeed, far from being based solely on a principle of preservation, popular music is founded both on appropriation and elimination. In “ ’Mostlikely you go your way and I'll go mine’: A Rock Star's Guide to Abandoning your Audience,” Adrian Smith aptly insists on Bob Dylan’s de- essentializing endeavor in the second half of the 1960s. After embodying the epitome of the socially conscious folk singer, he flirted with “overtly political rock music” only to go back to the roots of American folk music and what Greil Marcus calls “the Old Weird America.” Dylan chose to move away from the music scene and hole up with The Band in the house known as “Big Pink” to record the famous Basement Tapes. One explanation for the creativity and longevity of artists like Dylan undoubtedly lies in the urge they feel to extricate themselves from a milieu—here protest folk—and its stifling rules. This theme appealed to Don DeLillo, who modeled his hero Bucky Wunderlick on Bob Dylan in Great Jones Street. The novelist was interested in depicting a character hesitating between murder and suicide (De Curtis 57, in Smith) “[drawing] away from the political activism of the American rock music scene to seek oblivion and self-annihilation” in what may be regarded as the ultimate gesture of rebellion.14 However, the subversive and creative content of revolt can quickly become a pose, a fact The Band’s Robbie Robertson is well aware of when he says: “ ‘We were rebelling against the rebellion’ ” (Hoskyns 165 in Smith).

12In “Music Making History: Langston Hughes’s ASK YOUR MAMA (1961),” Jennifer Kilgore investigates the connections between art and political protest in another encounter between music and literature. In the evening of his life, Hughes wrote these poems, which have remained little known to this date. At the beginning of the 1960s, Hughes stayed true to the beliefs he advocated during the Harlem Renaissance, when he wrote:

  • 15 In “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” The Nation, June 23rd 1926. Reproduced in Gates & Mc (...)

Let the blare of Negro jazz bands and the bellowing voice of Bessie Smith singing Blues penetrate the closed ears of the colored near-intellectuals until they listen and perhaps understand. [...] We younger artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn’t matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly too. The tom-tom cries and the tom-tom laughs.15

13Almost forty years later, black music was still a corpus from which he drew his inspiration to enrich and convey his socially- and politically-committed poetry. The popularity of jazz in the Roaring Twenties was proportional to the turmoil and hostility it triggered in American society, perhaps because opponents to that music vaguely felt what Joel A. Rogers wrote about in 1925:

In its elementals, jazz has always existed. It is in the Indian war-dance, the Highland fling, the Irish jig, the Cossack dance, the Spanish fandango, the Brazilian maxixe, the dance of the whirling dervish, the hula hula of the South Seas, the danse du ventre of the Orient, the carmagnole of the French Revolution, the strains of Gypsy music, and the ragtime of the Negro. Jazz proper, however, is something more than all these. It is a release of all the suppressed emotions at once, a blowing off of the lid, as it were.

14In 1961, the Civil Rights movement had still not led to the passing of the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts—which occurred respectively in 1964 and 1965—and both in poetry and jazz, the doings of opponents to integration and equality like Orval Faubus are severely criticized. Hughes devotes an ironic passage in “CULTURAL EXCHANGE” to the Governor of Arkansas, a year after Charles Mingus added this scathing commentary to his “Original Faubus Fables:”

  • 16 On Charles Mingus presents Charles Mingus, recorded on October 20th, 1960. The first studio version (...)

- Oh Lord, don’t let them shoot us / Oh Lord, don’t let them stab us
Oh Lord, don’t let them tar and feather us / Oh Lord, no more swastikas ! Oh Lord, no more Ku Klux Klan !
- Name me someone ridiculous
- Governor Faubus !
- Why is he sick and ridiculous ?
- He won’t permit integrated schools
- Then he’s a fool. Boo ! Nazi fascist supremists / Boo Ku Klux Klan
- Name me a handful that’s ridiculous
- Faubus, Rockefeller, Eisenhower
- Why are they so sick and ridiculous ?
- Two, four, six, eight. They brainwash you and teach you hate.

  • 17 Reproduced in Jones. This album was recorded by artists like Archie Shepp and John Coltrane to cele (...)

15In both cases, the seeds of the Black Arts Movement were already present, but without the separatist agenda LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka was to promote in the mid 1960s. Indeed, in this alliance of music and poetry both for artistic and political ends, Baraka’s aim was to implement the desire advocated by some members of the African-American community to control their own destiny. In 1965, Hughes’s first reading of ASK YOUR MAMA occurred “at a Poetry-Jazz program for the NAACP in Santa Monica, California,” whereas four years later, when Jones wrote the liner notes to the New Wave in Jazz album,17 the tone and the demands had changed: “ In order for the non-white world to assume control, it must transcend the technology that has enslaved it ” (Jones 175). Jennifer Kilgore insightfully highlights the work of an intellectual who invigorates his poetry with items gleaned both in high and popular art, and thus manages to stay clear of the pitfalls of separation and assimilation. This survey gives a good illustration of the ambivalence that the United States and its culture inspire. The enmity they generate is commensurate with the inexorable attraction and influence they exert on western culture as a whole. Popular music is arguably the best example of this double movement, both centripetal and centrifugal. In this wide artistic field, artists analyze, capture and process diverse sources and reflect our individual and collective singularities.

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Works cited

ADORNO, Theodor W. “Perennial Fashion—Jazz.” Prisms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1967.

ANONYMOUS. “Brief Constellation Introduction.” Constellation Records web site. <> Last checked March 15th, 2004. BOURDIEU, Pierre. La Distinction, critique sociale du jugement. Paris : Éditions de Minuit, 1979.

CHASTAGNER, Claude. La Loi du rock. Ambivalence et sacrifice dans la musique populaire anglo-américaine. Castelnau-Le-Lez (France) : Climats, 1998.

DECURTIS, Anthony. “An Outsider in this Society: An Interview with Don DeLillo.” Introducing Don DeLillo. LENTRICCHIA, Frank (Ed.). London: Duke University Press,


FLOYD, Samuel A., Jr.. The Power of Black Music. Interpreting its History From America tothe United States. New York, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.

FRITH, Simon. “Popular Music and the Local State.” n.d. Rock and Popular Music: Politics, Policies, Institutions. BENNETT, Tony & FRITH, Simon (Eds.). London, New York: Routledge, 2001. 14-24.

GATES, Henry Louis & Nellie Y. MCKAY (Eds.). The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1997. GODSPEED YOU! BLACK EMPEROR. Yanqui U.X.O. CST024, 2002.

GROSSBERG, Lawrence. “ Is there Rock after Punk? ” On Record. Rock, Pop & theWritten Word. FRITH, Simon & GOODWIN, Andrew (Eds.). London, New York: Routledge, 1990.

HEISE, Ursula K. Chronoschisms: Time, Narrative, and Postmodernism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

HOSKYNS, Barney. Across the Great Divide: The Band and America. London: Pimlico, 2003.

JONES, LeRoi. Black Music. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1969.

MIDDLETON, Richard. Studying Popular Music. Milton Keynes, Philadelphia: Open UP, 1990.

MINGUS, Charles. Charles Mingus presents Charles Mingus. Candid, 1960.

RAGE AGAINST THE MACHINE. Renegades. Epic 499921 0, 2000.

ROGERS, Joel A. “Jazz at Home.” Survey Graphic, March 1925. 664-667; 672.

Reproduced on the University of Virginia Web site. KIRSCHENBAUM, Matthew G. & TOUSIGNANT, Catherine (prepared by): Harlem: Mecca of the New Negro. A Hypermedia Edition of the March 1925 Survey Graphic Harlem Number. <> Last checked March 15th, 2004. SCHEURER, Timothy E. Born in the USA. The Myth of America in Popular Music from Colonial Times to the Present. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1991.

VARIOUS ARTISTS. New Wave in Jazz. Impulse ! A-90, 1965.

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1 C.f. his essay “Perennial Fashion—Jazz” in Prisms.

2 i.e. Artists and Repertoire.

3 The free Winamp mp3 player enables listeners to add sound effects to songs ripped from CDs or downloaded on the Internet. Digital technology also makes it possible to pitch-shift or time-stretch pieces to adapt them to one’s creative whims and/or assemble them to produce so-called “bastard mixes”—obviously a phrase which is synonymous with anathema to copyright lawyers—and associate songs as diverse as Joy Division’s “Love will Tear Us Apart” and Missy Eliott’s “Get your Freak On” to produce, at least sometimes, surprisingly interesting results.

4 The “!” used to follow “Emperor.”

5 F minor/B flat minor.

6 F minor/B flat minor/D flat, plus E flat added every other line in the second and the last choruses.

7 Inversion of the chord structure, i.e. B flat minor/F minor.

8 “Brief Constellation Introduction”: <> Last checked March 15th, 2004.

9 U.X.O. stands for unexploded ordnance.

10 When the CD was released, AOL-Time Warner and EMI were about to merge, before the European Commission vetoed the project.

11 For instance, the band prints the addresses of organizations such as Amnesty International and TheInternational Concerned Family and Friends of Mumia Abu-Jamal on the leaflet of its Renegades album.

12 In their “Sleep Now in the Fire” video, it is in vain that Michael Moore tries to convince NYPD officers to let the band play. Another example is the clip they shot for “Renegades of Funk” which is a tribute to social, political and artistic figures as diverse as Marcus Garvey, Rosa Parks, Thomas Paine or Gil Scott-Heron.

13 See Middleton 127-146.

14 See Chastagner on this point.

15 In “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” The Nation, June 23rd 1926. Reproduced in Gates & McKay (1267-1271.)

16 On Charles Mingus presents Charles Mingus, recorded on October 20th, 1960. The first studio version of “Fables of Faubus” recorded on May 5th, 1959 on Mingus Ah Hum—released by Columbia—did not include this introduction.

17 Reproduced in Jones. This album was recorded by artists like Archie Shepp and John Coltrane to celebrate and support the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School that Jones founded in Harlem in 1965. Jones had to give in to the pressure of the Impulse! Label, which thought the original title New Black Music was too controversial.

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Éric Gonzalez

‎(Université de Rennes 2, France) Eric Gonzalez is an assistant professor at Rennes 2 University. He ‎has been working on African-American music and the correlations ‎between aesthetic and social praxes in the black community. His ‎latest research deals with the relationship between popular music ‎and other art forms, in particular film and literature. He has ‎recently written “The Motif of Music in Joel and Ethan Coen’s O ‎Brother, Where Art Thou and Jim Jarmusch’s Mystery Train” in the ‎Revue Française d’Études Américaines (no. 98, December 2003) and ‎‎“Improvisations et écritures du jazz : entre harmonie, bruit et ‎silence” in Le Superflu, Chose très nécessaire (Ed. Gaïd GIRARD, ‎Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2004).‎

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