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Commonness and Derivative Work in Ašʿarite Literature

A Comparison of Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī’s Nihāyat al-marām and Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī’s al-Ġunya fī al-kalām
Jan Thiele
p. 135-166


Cet article compare deux œuvres majeures du kalām de la première moitié du vie/xiie siècle : il s’agit d’al-Ġunya fī al-kalām, rédigée par le représentant de l’autorité ašʿarite dans le Nīsābūr, Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī, et la Nihāyat al-marām, écrite par son étudiant Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī. Les deux œuvres ont été récemment publiées presque simultanément ‒ la Ġunya dans une édition critique et la Nihāya comme fac-similé du manuscrit autographe, un codex achevé à Rayy en 550/1155. Ayman Shihadeh, l’éditeur de la Nihāya, a déjà souligné que le travail d’al-Makkī s’appuie étroitement sur la Ġunya de son maître. Le but de cet article est d’étudier de manière précise cette dépendance textuelle. Elle montre que plus de la moitié de la Nihāya se compose de citations littérales ou presque littérales de la Ġunya. Au cours de longs passages, la Nihāya peut donc être considérée comme la recompilation par al-Makkī du texte de la summa théologique de son maître plutôt qu’un travail indépendant.

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  • 1 The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie (...)
  • 2 An account of al-Makkī’s biography is provided in the editor’s introductions (English and Arabic) (...)

1The corpus of available Ašʿarite primary sources has recently been enriched by a voluminous kalām work.1 Scholarship owes the rediscovery of this text to Ayman Shihadeh, who also published it in facsimile edition. The work in question is the second volume of a book entitled Nihāyat al-marām fī dirāyat al-kalām, preserved in a valuable manuscript copy accredited by the hand of its author Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn ʿUmar b. al-Ḥusayn al-Makkī (d. middle of the 6th/12th c.), who was also known among scholars by the nisba al-Rāzī.2 The first of the original two volumes appears to be lost. Its author was the rather little-known father of the far more prominent Faḫr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210). Al-Makkī studied theology with Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī (d. 512/1118) in Nīsābūr, which was at that time the most important intellectual centre of Šāfiʿite Ašʿarism. Some time after the completion of his studies al-Makkī settled in Rayy, where he eventually became preacher (aīb). He also engaged there in teaching and wrote the Nihāya towards the middle of the 6th/12th century. Consequently, the work not only merits attention for its sheer comprehensiveness, it is also the oldest first-hand source of Ašʿarite scholarship in Rayy that has come down to us.

  • 3 The edition of the Ġunya does not reproduce the complete text of the unique manuscript, MS Istanbul (...)
  • 4 The work has survived in the following manuscripts: MS Princeton, University Library, Yahuda, no. 6 (...)

2By coincidence, a partial critical edition of Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī’s al-Ġunya fī al-kalām was published almost simultaneously with the Nihāya.3 This important text is the first of two extant treatises in kalām written by al-Makkī’s teacher that has become available in print. The Ġunya is the later of Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī’s two theological works and was preceded by his commentary on Abū al-Maʿālī al-Ǧuwaynī’s (d. 478/1085) Kitāb al-iršād.4 Yet, although not explicitly designated as a commentary, the later Ġunya also shares the structure of the Kitāb al-iršād—a feature that can certainly be explained by the fact that al-Ǧuwaynī was Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī’s teacher.

  • 5 See p. xiv of the Introduction of the Nihāya and Shihadeh, “Classical Ashʿarī Anthropology”, p. 435 (...)
  • 6 I was not able to consult the extant parts of the Ġunya that are not included in the critical editi (...)
  • 7 References to the Nihāya are given according to the foliation and pagination (in square brackets) o (...)

3As Shihadeh already observed on the mere basis of the manuscript of the Ġunya, al-Makkī’s Nihāya closely draws on his teacher’s work.5 The availability of both texts in print now allows to establish the degree of the Nihāya’s dependency on the Ġunya much more precisely. In the following, I will provide a systematic list of literal or almost literal quotations of the Ġunya found in al-Makkī’s work. Since neither text has survived in its entirety, my comparison is limited to the overlapping sections of the printed editions:6 these are p. 795–1065 in the second volume of the published Ġunya and fols 1b[2]–127b[253]:6 of the Nihāya, respectively.7 Consequently, our textual basis only allows us to rate the proportion of material from the Ġunya found in the Nihāya approximately. Matters are further complicated by al-Makkī’s approach—described in some more detail below—of occasionally amalgamating textual material from the Ġunya irrespective of their original chronology. The sections of the Nihāya examined here may therefore include further unidentified quotations from chapters that are not accessible.

  • 8 For example, the parts from the Ġunya that are missing between N 109b[218]:21 and 110a[219]:1 or in (...)

4If we balance the quotations from the Ġunya with the passages for which I found no equivalent, we see that more than the half of the text found on fols 1b[2]–127b[253]:6 of the Nihāya—at least 54 %—actually reproduces textual material from the Ġunya. The Ġunya consequently allows us to get a relatively clear idea of the missing parts of the Nihāya, and vice-versa. In addition, the parallel texts in the two works help us to make sense of passages affected by lacuna or misreadings.8 It is therefore recommended to read both texts alongside one another—the list of quotations provided in part II might serve as a guide.

  • 9 See Kennedy, Medieval Hackers, who explores similarities between medieval English manuscript cultur (...)

5In addition, the Nihāya may also tell us something about how texts and information were passed and used in the manuscript era. Al-Makkī’s work confirms a not particularly new claim of medievalists, namely that our modern concept of authorship and the idea of intellectual property implied therein cannot be applied to the medieval intellectual milieu we are concerned with here. However, as was recently argued, medieval information culture appealed to principles that have risen again with the transformation of our own modern information culture: it was based on the principle of commonness, and texts, which were part of this information commons, were consequently open and free to access, to disseminate and even to modify.9

  • 10 For the citation of al-Ǧuwaynī’s al-Risāla al-niāmiyya (N 11a[21]:14) cf. Ġ 903:7, and for the cit (...)
  • 11 See, among many other examples, N 67a[133]:17, and Ġ 906:17.

6For a more appropriate understanding of how an author perceived his own role in our specific context, it seems to me that several observations have to be considered. The extant parts of the Nihāya nowhere refer to the Ġunya as its principal source. Al-Mākkī also remains silent on the fact that he did not consult any of the texts cited in the examined sections of the Nihāya, but only quotes them via the Ġunya.10 Nonetheless, he does not fail to attribute his teacher’s thoughts and arguments correctly: many paragraphs of the Ġunya introduced by the first person “I say” (qultu) are reformulated into such phrases as “our teacher, the imām, said” (qāla šayunā al-imām).11 It appears that al-Makkī was actually little concerned with disclosing his source of information, much less than with precisely identifying the advocates of specific doctrines and opinions.

  • 12 The terminology for the various sub-genres of derivative works in the field of kalām is still under (...)

7The Nihāya is indeed a highly derivative work—a compilation of quotations and some complementary material—but it should have served a particular purpose in its scholarly context.12 One could suppose a similar function as that of the very common literary genre of commentaries, which would be the transmission and dissemination of information, clarified by additional—sometimes critical—thoughts and supported by supplemental arguments, whenever it appeared appropriate or necessary to its author.

  • 13 Additional chapters that consist almost exclusively of literal quotes from the Ġunya are the masʾal (...)

8As is shown by the detailed comparison of the two texts in part II, al-Makkī for the most part of his text follows the chronology of the Ġunya. Between the quoted passages with lengths ranging between some few lines and several pages, he either introduces additional text or omits entire passages from the Ġunya. Some chapters consist almost exclusively of copied material, such as the chapter on the invalidity of the so-called theory of tawallud (fols 76a[151]:11–84a[167]:1), that is the idea that man is capable of acting through causal chains.13 Occasionally, however, al-Makkī changes the original progression of the Ġunya and recompiles text from scattered chapters of his Vorlage. For example, the ātima on fols 34b–46b quotes from the following sections of the Ġunya: p. 854–859, 1062–1064, 990–993, 1024, 858, 1025–1027, 859–863 and 993–996.

9In the following comparison, I often describe passages of the Nihāya as “almost literal quotations”. In these cases, I am referring to textual material that is obviously derived from the Ġunya and only minimally modified. I thereby intend to distinguish passages with only minor modifications from paraphrases, which I understand as complete reformulations or summaries of ideas expressed in the Ġunya that do not change the meaning. It would not be unjustified to object that the scale between the two is somewhat fluid. I therefore provide a concrete example of two parallel texts, which should illustrate the degree of faithfulness to the Ġunya, whenever I characterise a passage of the Nihāya as “almost literal quotation”:

Ġunya, p. 817:3–15 Nihāya, fols 9a[17]:21–9b[18]:11
ثمّ استدلّ على كون مقدور العبد مقدورًا لله تعالى بأن قال: إذا أقدر الله العبد على شيء لزم كونه قادرًا على ذلك الشيء الّذي أقدره عليه. إذ الإقدار تمكين من الشيء والتمكين من الشيء فوق التمكين منه. ثمّ استشهد بالعلم فقال: إذا أعلم الله العبد شيئًا لزم كونه عالمًا بما أعلمه، وإذا جعله مدركًا لشيء يجب كونه مدركًا لذلك الشيء. فإن قيل: إذا أقدر غيره على الشيء وجب أن يقدره على الوجه الّذي يقدر عليه كما قلنا في العلم. قلنا: قد ذكرنا فيما تقدّم أنّ من أخصّ وصف الإله سبحانه قدرته على الخلق، ولذلك تعرّف إلى العقلاء بأنّه خالقهم وخالق كلّ شيء وأنّه ﴿وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا﴾ [٢٥ الفرقان: ٢]. فلو جاز أن يقدر غيره على الشيء على الوجه الّذي هو يقدر عليه فكأنّه جعله شريكًا فيما لأجله كان إلهًا وأبطل هذا العريف ولا نأمن إذن أن يكون معه آلهة ويخلقون كما يخلق. وهذا أقوى دليل لنا في خلق الأعمال. واستدلّ على كون مقدور العبد مقدورًا لله تعالى بأن قال: إذا أقدر الله العبد على شيء لزم كونه قادرًا على ذلك الشيء. إذ الإقدار تمكين من الشيء والتمكين من الشيء فوق التمكين منه، كما إذا أعلم الله العبد شيئًا أو جعله مدركًا للشيء لزم أن يكون عالمًا به مدركًا له. فإن قيل: إذا أقدر غيره على شيء وجب أن يقدره على الوجه الّذي يقدر عليه كما إذا أعلمه بعلمه على الوجه الّذي علمه. قلنا: قد ذكرنا فيما تقدّم أنّ أخصّ وصف الإله سبحانه وتعالى الإيجاد والاختراع، ولذلك تعرّف إلى العقلاء بأنّه الخالق على ما سنذكره إن شاء الله تعالى. فلو جاز أن يقدر غيره على الشيء على الوجه الّذي هو يقدر عليه اقتضى جعله شريكًا له فيما لأجله كان إلهًا وأبطل هذا العريف ولا نأمن إذًا أن يكون معه آلهة ويخلقون كما يخلق. وهذا أقوى دليل لنا في خلق الأعمال.

Systematic Comparison Between the Nihāya and the Ġunya

10N 1b[2]:2 (al-qawl fī alq al-aʿmāl)–19 (alqan ayy […]): no equivalent in Ġ

11N 1b[2]:19 (qāla al-qāī)–N 2a[3]:11 (al-irāda): almost literal quotation from Ġ 799:10–800:6

12N 2a[3]:11 (wa-innamā al-tafāul)–13 (al-insān): abbreviated paraphrase of Ġ 800:7–11

13N 2a[3]:13 (ā iā)–2b[4]:20 (mutaǧawwiz fī qawlihi): almost literal quotation from Ġ 800:12–802:10

14N 2b[4]:20 (umma wa-in kāna al-alq)–3a[5]:2 (al-ʿazīz al-ʿalīm): almost literal quotation of Ġ 802:13–15

15N 3a[5]:2 (qultu)–3b[6]:1 (wa-l-āfāt): al-Makkī elaborates the argument in Ġ 802:14–16, quoting Ġ 802:14–15 in N 3a[5]:15–16 and Ġ 802:15–16 in N 3a[5]:21–3b[6]:1

16N 3b[6]:1 (ammā al-kasb)–3b[6]:5 (ism kalb[?]): no equivalent in Ġ

17N 3b[6]:5 (qāla al-qāī)–6 (qudra ādia): literal quotation of Ġ 806:8

18N 3b[6]:6 (qāla šayunā)–9 (al-alq): literal quotation of Ġ 807:4–6

19N 3b[6]:9 (wa-qīla … al-ādia): literal quotation of Ġ 806:10

20N 3b[6]:10 (wa-innamā naʿ)–13 (infirādihi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 806:12–807:3; the marginal note is a parenthesis without equivalent in Ġ 

21N 3b[6]:14 (fa-yatairu)– (ǧamīʿan): textual extracts from Ġ 807:5–7

22N 3b[6]:15 (wa-qawl al-qāʾil)–17 (al-mustaʿīn): literal quotation of Ġ 807:10–12

23N 3b[6]:17 (akā šayunā)–4a[7]:3 (wa-inkasarat): no equivalent in Ġ

24N 4a[7]:3 (qāla al-ustā Abū Bakr)–16 (hāhunā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 807:15–808:7

25N 4a[7]:16 (qāla al-Ǧubbāʾī)–19 (fī nafsihi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 809:4–6

26N 4a[7]:19 (qulnā)–4b[8]:11 (ʿalā mā qulnāhu): no equivalent in Ġ

27N 4b[8]:11 (ammā al-fiʿl)–5a[9]:4 (wa-Llāh al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

28N 5a[9]:4 (ammā al-iḍṭirār qāla šayunā Abū al-asan)–12 (mimmā nālahu): literal quotation from Ġ 815:16–816:1

29N 5a[9]:12 (qāla al-Ǧubbāʾī)–13 (fiʿlan): literal quotation from Ġ 815:14

30N 5a[9]:13 (wa-šaraa ibn al-Ǧubbāʾī)–19 (mamūl ʿalayhi): literal quotation from Ġ 816:2–6

31N 5a[9]:19 (qultu)–6b[12]:7 (wa-Llāh al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

32N 6b[12]:8 (al-muqaddima al-āniya … mahab Abī al-asan)–11(ʿāmmat aṣḥābinā raimahum Allāh): abbreviated quotation from Ġ 809:7–10

33N 6b[12]:12 (ammā al-qāī raimahu Allāh fa-qad taraddada fī ālika) corresponds to Ġ 809:14

34N 6b[12]:12 (qāla imām al-aramayn)–20 (tuʾaṯṯiru bi-maʿ): literal quotation from Ġ 810:7–15

35N 6b[12]:21 (qultu)–7a[13]:5 (wa-ālika ġayr maʿqūl): no equivalent in Ġ

36N 7a[13]:5 (ammā al-qāī)–15 (al-qudra al-ādia): literal quotation from Ġ 809:11–810:6

37N 7a[13]:16 (fa-in qāla qāʾil min al-muʿtazila)– 20 (lā takūnu maǧhūla): paraphrase of Ġ 811:11–14

38N 7a[13]:20 (qultu)–7b[14]:3 (ifa maǧhūla): no equivalent in Ġ

39N 7b[14]:3 (ammā man naara mahab Abī al-asan)–13 (min al-irāda wa-l-ʿilm): almost literal quotation from Ġ 811:15–812:3

40N 7b[14]:14 (qulnā)–19 (min al-qudra ālan): no equivalent in Ġ

41N 7b[14]:19 (fa-in qīla)–8b[16]:5 (min nafsihi al-qudra): almost literal quotation from Ġ 812:6–813:11

42N 8b[16]:5 (wa-l-dalīl ʿalayhi)–21 (wa-laysa hiya iāfāt): no equivalent in Ġ

43N 8b[16]:21 (wa-qad akara al-qāī)–9a[17]:17 (wa-Llāh al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): almost literal quotation from Ġ 814:13–815:6

44N 9a[17]:18 (masʾala qāla al-ustā Abū Isāq)–21 (kasban aw alqan): almost literal quotation from Ġ 816:11–15

45N 9a[17]:21 (wa-stadalla)–9b[18]:11 (alq al-aʿmāl): almost literal quotation from Ġ 817:3–15

46N 9b[18]:11 (wa-ʿalā annā aḏʿannā)–10a[19]:5 (al-waǧh allaī abata al-iqdār): no equivalent in Ġ

47N 10a[19]:5 (umma al-qāī)–15 (laysa fī maallihā): almost literal quotation from Ġ 818:1–8

48N 10a[19]:15 (wa-staāl qiyām)–18 (lā yastaqillu bi-īqāʿihi): draws on the argumentation in Ġ 818:19–19

49N 10a[19]:18 (qulnā)–10b[20]:9 (al-maqūd wa-huwa alq al-aʿmāl): no equivalent in Ġ

50N 10b[20]:10 (masʾalat mahab ahl al-aqq)–13 (al-ahwāʾ wa-l-bidʿ): closely draws on Ġ 795:5–7

51N 10b[20]:13 (wa-ālafanā fī ālika al-Māǧūs)–11a[21]:12 (fī al-Mutaar): almost literal quotation from Ġ 795:8–797:8

52N 11a[21]:12 (qultu)–13 (wa-l-itirāʿ) no equivalent in Ġ

53N 11a[21]:13 (wa-kāna imām al-aramayn)–19 (umma raǧaʿa ʿan ālika): almost literal quotation of Ġ 903:7–11

54N 11a[21]:19 (wa-mahab Ǧahm)–11b[22]:17 (illā al-irāda): literal quotation from Ġ 797:11–799:6

55N 11b[22]:17 (wa-iā ʿarafta)– 12a[23]:5 (al-mumkināt): almost literal quotation from Ġ 819:15–820:3

56N 12a[23]:5 (wa-li-hāā)–21 (al-ʿabd ʿalayhi): no equivalent in Ġ; however 12a[23]:6f. (wa-kaālika wāfaqtumūnā …) alludes to Ġ 822:10–12

57N 12a[23]:21 (fa-in qīla)–12b[24]:7 (mamnūʿan): almost literal quotation from Ġ 822:16–21

58N 12b[24]:8 (fa-in qīla)–9 (hāhunā): slight reformulation of the question found in Ġ 823:2–3

59N 12b[24]:9 (qulnā)–21 (wa-ālika wāi): no equivalent in Ġ

60N 13a[25]:1 (al-arīqa al-āniya)– 13b[26]:5 (ilāf ālika): the first three lines in N are a paraphrase of the introduction of corresponding section Ġ 824:10–12; however, the rest of this passage have no equivalent in Ġ

61N 13b[26]:5 (fa-in qīla)–7 (wa-irādatihi): almost literal quotation from Ġ827:13–15

62N 13b[26]:8 (qulnā)–10 (ʿāliman bihi): no equivalent in Ġ

63N 13b[26]:10 (wa-lākin lasnā naqūl)–15 (ilā kitābatihi): almost literal quotation from Ġ827:16–20

64N 13b[26]:15 (wa-iā ʿarafta ālika)–20 (al-aaṣṣ dūna al-aʿamm): no equivalent in Ġ

65N 13b[26]:20 (fa-in qīla)–14a[27]:17 (fī kitāb al-insān): almost literal quotation from Ġ828:8–829:4

66N 14a[27]:18 (ammā hāhunā)–14b[28]:8 (lā siyyamā): no equivalent in Ġ; the description of al-Bāqillānī’s (“al-qāī”) position in N 14b[28]:6–7 draws on Ġ 830:4–5

67N 14b[28]:8 (al-qāʾilīn minhum)–14b[28]:17 (mudda awīla): almost literal quotation from Ġ827:23–828:7

68N 14b[28]:17 (wa-qad naqala imām al-aramayn)–15a[29]:5 (lā inʿikāsuhā): almost literal quotation from Ġ829:8–17

69N 15a[29]:6 (wa-nanu naqūlu)–8 (bi-l-qadīm wa-l-bāqī): no equivalent in Ġ

70N 15a[29]:8 (wa-ʿalā annā naqūlu)–10 (bi-wuqūʿ mā yanquuhā): almost literal quotation from Ġ829:18–19

71N 15a[29]:10 (ammā al-arīqa al-ālia)–17 (min aar al-qudra): literal quotation from Ġ 830:18–23

72N 15a[29]:17 (qulnā)–21 (muktasiban kayf): no equivalent in Ġ

73N 15a[29]:21 (wa-min uūl)–15b[30]:6 (bi-ǧamīʿ al-awādi): almost literal quotation from Ġ 830:23–831:4

74N 15b[30]:6 (qulnā)–10 (iā nafaynā al-āl): no equivalent in Ġ

75N 15b[30]:10 (ammā iā abatnā al-āl)–13 (bi-mā yuālifuhu): almost literal quotation from Ġ 831:5–7

76N 15b[30]:13 (ammā antum)–15 (ʾir al-mudaāt): no equivalent in Ġ

77N 15b[30]:15 (qāla)–18 (bi-mā yuālifuhā): literal quotation from Ġ 831:9–10

78N 15b[30]:18 (wa-l-itirāʿ)–16a[31]:4 (italafat al-mudaāt): almost literal quotation from Ġ 831:13–19

79N 16a[31]:4 (wa-taʿalluq al-qudra)–7 (bi-mā taʿallaqa bihi): no equivalent in Ġ

80N 16a[31]:8 (wa-qad tamassaka)–12 (yaftariqāni): almost literal quotation from Ġ 832:3–6

81N 16a[31]:12 (min al-waǧh)–16 (al-qādirīn): abbreviation of Ġ 832:7–10

82N 16a[31]:16 (fa-ammā an yakūna)–17 (bi-l-maqdūr): literal quotation from Ġ 832:11–12

83N 16a[31]:17 (qāla)–18b[36]:20 (li-taʿalluqihi bi-nafsihi): no equivalent in Ġ

84N 18b[36]:21 (al-arb al-ānī)–19a[37]:7 (al-ifāt al-zāʾida ʿalayhi): the paragraph is composed of small textual passages found in 833:11, 14–15 and 834:1–2

85N 19a[37]:8 (qultu)–10 (fī tilka al-qāʿida): no equivalent in Ġ

86N 19a[37]:11 (al-arb al-āli)–19b[38]:18 (aʿẓam al-niʿam): almost literal quotation from Ġ 834:17

87N 19b[38]:18 (fa-in qīla)–20a[39]:9 (al-iktisāb): no equivalent in Ġ

88N 20a[39]:10 (wa-mimmā yatamassaku bihi)–20b[40]:5 (li-l-iddayn): almost literal quotation from Ġ 836:1–14

89N 20b[40]:5 (fa-lazima)–6 (mutanāqi): no equivalent in Ġ

90N 20b[40]:7 (wa-min hāihi al-ǧumla)–21a[41]:12 (bi-qawlihi taʿālā): almost literal quotation from Ġ 836:16–837:18

91N 21a[41]:12 (al-amdu li-Llāh)–16 (al-tasmiya): no equivalent in Ġ

92N 21a[41]:16 (wa-bi-qawlihi taʿālā)–21b[42]:2 (wa-l-ʿiī): almost literal quotation from Ġ 837:18–23

93N 21b[42]:2 (fa-yumkinu)–9 (hāhunā): no equivalent in Ġ

94N 21b[42]:9 (wa-mimmā yumkinu)–21 (ʿawwaltum ʿalayhi): almost literal quotation from Ġ 838:3–13

95N 21b[42]:21 (ikāyat al-mahab)–22a[43]:14 (mā qaadahu): the paragraph quotes phrases from Ġ, namely 22a[43]:4 (al-šibaʿ)–8 (al-maqūd) corresponds to Ġ 838:20–839:2 and 22a[43]:8 (afʿāl al-ʿāqil)–9 (al-nāʾim wa-l-maġšī) corresponds to Ġ 838:16–17

96N 22a[43]:14 (umma naqūlu)–18 (qulnā): paragraph composed of literal quotation from Ġ 839:3, 7, 11–12

97N 22a[43]:18 (ā aaʾ)–21 (al-wāid minnā): no equivalent in Ġ

98N 22a[43]:21 (iā qaada)–22b[44]:1 (bi-l-araka): almost literal quotation from Ġ 839:12–13

99N 22b[44]:1 (fa-taʿlīluhu)–6 (wa-huwa annā naqūlu): no equivalent in Ġ

100N 22b[44]:7 (law arāda)–16 (al-ʿāda): almost literal quotation from Ġ 839:19–840:4

101N 22b[44]:17 (fa-in qālū)–18 (ka-l-alwān): paraphrase of Ġ 840:5–6

102N 22b[44]:18 (qulnā)–23a[45]:5 (ālika awlā): no equivalent in Ġ

103N 23a[45]:5 (umma naqūlu)–11(min aar al-qudra): paragraph with quotations from Ġ 840:20–23

104N 23a[45]:11 (fa-in qīla)–17 (šāhidan): the introductory question partly reproduces Ġ 840:24 but the rest of the paragraph has no equivalent in Ġ

105N 23a[45]:18 (umma naqūl)–23b[46]:3 (maʿlūm arūra): almost literal quotation from Ġ 841:15–22

106N 23b[46]:3 (li-annahu in aḥḥa)–25a[49]:8 (ġayr annā) almost literal quotation from Ġ 842:7–844:14; within this passage, N slightly abbreviates the paragraph Ġ 842:20–843:4 (corresponding to N 23b[46]:21–24a[47]:7) and inserts short phrases in N 23b[46]:7 (li-annā)–8 (al-arūra), 24b[48]:8 (wa-l-ǧawāb)–13 (min qablu) and 24b[48]:20 (wa-bal hāā)–25a[49]:2 (tataʿallaqu al-qudra bihi)

107N 25a[49]:8 (naqūlu hāā)–18 (yatasayyaru ʿalayhi): no equivalent in Ġ

108N 25a[49]:18 (wa-wuǧida fī nafsihi)–25b[50]:10 (ubūt al-qudra): almost literal quotation from Ġ 844:19–845:9

109N 25b[50]:10 (li-l-ʿabd ʿalā al-musabbabāt)–26a[51]:6 (taʿalluq al-qudra bihā): no equivalent in Ġ

110N 26a[51]:6 (ummā iʿlam)–16 (wa-yunhā ʿanhu li-qubihi): almost literal quotation from Ġ 845:16–22

111N 26a[51]:16 (wa-l-usn wa-l-qub)–18 (bi-annahu lā yuʾminu): no equivalent in Ġ

112N 26a[51]:18 (fa-iā suʾilū)–26b[52]:6 (maqūʿ bihi): almost literal quotation from Ġ 846:3–12

113N 26b[52]:6 (wa-iā kāna kaālika)–27a[53]:4 (bi-mtināʿ wuqūʿihi): no equivalent in Ġ

114N 27a[53]:4 (šubha urā lahum)–11 (ʿan hāihi al-muālaba): almost literal quotation from Ġ 846:14–20

115N 27a[53]:11 (umma al-ʿaǧab)–30a[59]:5 (mā qaayta): no equivalent in Ġ

116N 30a[59]:6 (fa-in qīla)–7 (aqqan): literal quotation from Ġ 846:21–22

117N 30a[59]:8 (wa-l-ǧawāb)–12 (wa-mulkuhu): no equivalent in Ġ

118N 30a[59]:12 (wa-ʿalā annā)–16 (al-amīma): almost literal quotation from Ġ 846:23–847:1

119N 30a[59]:16 (allatī lā yaǧidu)–21 (fī qaāʾ Allāh): no equivalent in Ġ

120N 30a[59]:21 (mā laysa lahu ukm)–30b[60]:9 (al-riā bi-l-qaāʾ): almost literal quotation from Ġ 847:2–10; N 30b[60]:4 (wa-arāda bihi)–8 (min nawʿ ibhām) tends to be rather a paraphrase of Ġ 847:7–9

121N 30b[60]:9 (qāla rasūl Allāh)–20 (asanta yā ġulām): no equivalent in Ġ

122N 30b[60]:21 (umma naqūlu)–31a[61]:5 (wa-l-istiʿāa bi-Llāh minhā): largely reproduces Ġ 847:11–16

123N 31a[61]:5 (attā law qāla)–15 (ǧib iā amkanahu): textual elements from Ġ 847:17–20 with additional prophetic traditions

124N 31a[61]:15 (wa-in urīdu bi-l-riā)–31b[62]:3 (min al-ibhām): almost literal quotation of Ġ 874:1–848:9; with the following insertion: N 31a[61]:16 (i laysa)–18 (wa-hum yusʾalūna)

125N 31b[62]:3 (kamā annahum)–4 (al-adab): no equivalent in Ġ

126N 31b[62]:4 (wa-alaqa)–16 (bihi ilayka): almost literal quotation of Ġ 848:14–849:3

127N 31b[62]:16 (qultu)–32a[63]:1 (min aar al-qudra): no equivalent in Ġ

128N 32a[63]:1 (fa-in qīla)–11 (mā laysa lahu fiʿluhu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 849:6–13; with the following insertion: N 32a[63]:3 (fa-yalzamukum)–6 (ʿan fāʿil al-ulm)

129N 32a[63]:11 (wa-hāā innamā yataawwaru)–13 (fiʿl mā li-fāʿilihi): no equivalent in Ġ

130N 32a[63]:13 (fa-in qīla)–32b[64]:2 (al-āya): almost literal quotation of Ġ 849:16–850:5

131N 32b[64]:2 (wa-kaālika qāla)–4 (bi-aqq tamallukihi): no equivalent in Ġ

132N 32b[64]:4 (fa-in qīla)–33a[65]:14 (al-asmāʾ al-tawfīq): almost literal quotation of Ġ 850:9–851:15

133N 33a[65]:15 (fa-l-awlā an yuqāla)–33b[66]:16 (ī al-ʿarš sabīlan): almost literal quotation of Ġ 851:20–852:10; with the following insertion: N 33a[65]:20 (qāla Allāh)–33b[66]:1 (fa-Huwa yašfīn)

134N 33b[66]:16 (la-fasadnā)–20 (ʿalā muʿtaqadihim): no equivalent in Ġ

135N 33b[66]:20 (wa-mimmā yastadillūna)–35a[69]:10 (al-hidāya šayʾ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 852:16–855:8; with the following insertion: N 34a[67]:19 (qulnā al-yahūd)–20 (lā naarnā) and 34b[68]:15 (wa-ʿalā annā)–19 (ʿalā maʿānīhā)

136N 35a[69]:10 (wa-l-murād fī hāihi al-mawāiʿ)–N 35b[70]:2 (iā qaddamahu): no equivalent in Ġ

  • 14 This last verse and its explanation is actually a repetition of N 35b[70]:2–3.

137N 35b[70]:2 (qāla Allāh)–36a[71]:12 (ʿalā mā akarnā min qablu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 856:13–857:10; with the following insertion: N 35b[70]:5 (wa-l-hidāya)–6 (al-adr); in addition, quotations from the Qurʾān and their explanations do not always follow the chronological order in Ġ: N 35b[70]:16 (umma qāla wa-innaka)–17 (mustaqīm) from Ġ 855:7, N 35b[70]:17 (wa-kaālika aāfa)–21 (lam yubayyin) from Ġ 856:7–9, N 35b[70]:21–36a[71]:1 from Ġ 856:20–21 and N 36a[71]:1 (wa-qad waradat)–5 (nawahā) from Ġ856:10–1314

138N 36a[71]:13 (wa-taaqququhu)–36b[72]:4 (bi-l-daʿwa): no equivalent in Ġ

139N 36b[72]:4 (qāla aʾimmat al-luġa)–37a[73]:3 (li-mā akarnāhu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 857:10–858:2; with the following insertions: N 36b[72]:13 (ammā al-alāla)–14 (wa-yaallu) and the additional Qurʾānic reference 18 (wa-li-ālika qawluhu)–19 (min hādin)

140N 37a[73]:3 (fa-in qīla)–4 (am lā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 858:6–7

141N 37a[73]:4 (qulnā)–5 (fī al-niʿma): no equivalent in Ġ

142N 37a[73]:5 (qāla šayunā)–37b[74]:7 (wa-ālika al-awfīq): almost literal quotation of Ġ 858:16–859:16

143N 37b[74]:7 (wa-minhā al-luf)–8 (fa-huwa laīf): no equivalent in Ġ

144N 37b[74]:8 (qāla aṣḥābunā)–16 (wa-maʿṣiyatuhu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1063:5–14

145N 37b[74]:16 (wa-qālat al-Muʿtazila)–22 (li-āmanū): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1062:16–1063:4

146N 37b[74]:22 (wa-law qālū)–38a[75]:1 (la-yuʾminū): no equivalent in Ġ

147N 38a[75]:1 (umma qālat al-Muʿtazila)–19 (li-l-awāb al-aǧzal): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1063:15–1064:16

148N 38a[75]:19 (wa-minhā al-tawfīq)–20 (yattafiqu bihi al-šayʾ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 990:12

149N 38a[75]:20 (aw ʿindahu)–38b[76]:5 (yaḫḏulu): no equivalent in Ġ

150N 38b[76]:6 (ammā fī al-šarʿ)–9 (al-aramān): almost literal quotation of Ġ 990:12–15

151N 38b[76]:9 (wa-qad araǧa)–39b[78]:7 (aw fiʿl muʿayyan): no textual equivalent in Ġ; however, N 39a[77]:15 (al-ʿima qarīb)–39b[78]:2 (yusammā tawfīqan) paraphrases most of Ġ 991:1–6

152N 39b[78]:7 (ammā al-Muʿtazila)–18 (wa-tašmaluhum ǧamīʿan): almost literal quotation of Ġ 991:7–992:3

153N 39b[78]:18 (umma naqūlu)–20 (ālika al-šayʾ ʿanhu): no equivalent in Ġ

154N 39b[78]:21 (i al-mukallif)–40a[79]:9 (wa-tawfīqihi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 992:5–15

155N 40a[79]:9 (fa-in qīla)–40a[79]:17 (bašar rasūlan): almost literal quotation of Ġ 992:20–993:6

156N 40a[79]:18 (fa-laysa al-maqad)–40b[80]:1 (al-āya): almost literal quotation of Ġ 993:8–12

157N 40b[80]:1 (wa-minhā al-niʿma)–3 (wa-ġayr ālika): no equivalent in Ġ

158N 40b[80]:3 (ammā al-niʿma)–5 (min aṣḥābinā raimahum Allāh): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1024:18–20

159N 40b[80]:5 (fa-ʿalā hāā)–7 (ʿalā hāā al-waǧh): almost literal quotation of Ġ 858:14–15

160N 40b[80]:7 (wa-qāla šayunā)–9 (al-ʿāǧil wa-l-āǧāl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1025:1–2

161N 40b[80]:9 (wa-āra hāʾulāʾ)–11 (dīniyya): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1025:3–4

162N 40b[80]:11 (fa-aala min maǧʿ)–15 (in šāʾa Allāh): no equivalent in Ġ

163N 40b[80]:15 (wa-l-Muʿtazila)–41a[81]:5 (min waǧh): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1025:5–14; with the following additional Qurʾānic verse and explanation: N 40b[80]:21 (qawluhu)–41a[81]:1 (illā Allāh)

164N 41a[81]:5 (wa-ʿan ʿAlī)–9 (āʿatihi): no equivalent in Ġ

165N 41a[81]:10 (ammā man salaka)–42a[83]:2 (law arabū ʿalayhā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1025:15–1027:15

166N 42a[83]:3 (wa-minhā al-atm wa-l-abʿ)–10 (afaytuhu): no equivalent in Ġ

167N 42a[83]:10 (ammā fī al-šarʿ fa-hiya mawāniʿ)–42b[84]:2 (wa-l-abʿ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 859:17–860:7

168N 42b[84]:2 (qulnā)–6 (mā yurīdu): no equivalent in Ġ

169N 42b[84]:6 (umma naqūlu law kāna)–43b[86]:17 (al-adī): almost literal quotation of Ġ 860:8–862:16; with the following insertions: N 42b[84]:17 (wa-āil)–18 (al-aʿyān), 43a[85]:11 (wa-yalzamu)–13 (al-iǧʿ), 18 (wa-ayan)–20 (min al-ġāfilīn), 43b[86]:6 (umma naqūlu)–9 (al-dawrān) and 12 (wa-min wuǧūh)–15 (ašqiyāʾ)

170N 43b[86]:18 (ilā āar…al-irādāt): no equivalent in Ġ

171N 43b[86]:18 (qāla šayunā al-imām)–20 (wa-l-ar): almost literal quotation of Ġ 863:5–6

172N 43b[86]:20 (wa-qad akarnā al-aādī allatī wuridat fī hāā al-bāb fī akām al-irāda): obviously refers to the traditions quoted in Ġ 863:7–20

173N 43b[86]:21 (fa-in qāla)–44a[87]:8 (fa-hum al-Muʿtazila): no equivalent in Ġ

174N 44a[87]:8 (wa-ahl al-mulk)–10 (sabʿīn nabiyyan): almost literal quotation from Ġ 993:14–15

175N 44a[87]:10 (wa-kaālika qāla)–13 (ilā Ahriman): almost literal quotation from Ġ 994:8–10

176N 44a[87]:14 (wa-ʿan Ibn ʿAbbās)–45b[90]:2 (fī hāā al-bāb): no equivalent in Ġ

177N 45b[90]:2 (ammā al-Muʿtazila)–46a[91]:20 (wa-l-qadariyya): amalgam of literal quotations, paraphrases and some independent ideas from Ġ 994:1–995:17; quotations are found in N 45b[90]:2 (ammā al-Muʿtazila)–5 (al-šuyūʿ) (Ġ 994:1–3), 45b[90]:9 (fa-lā al-ġaab) (Ġ 994:6), 45b[90]:13 (umma naqūlu)–14 (afʿālahu) (Ġ 994:11), 45b[90]:15 (al-qadarī)–17 (li-ġayrihi) (Ġ 994:13–14), 45b[90]:18 (law kunnā qadariyya…wa-alaqahā) (Ġ 994:15), 45b[90]:19 (wa-law annā)–46a[91]:1 (bi-hāihi al-sunna) (Ġ 995:1–3), 46a[91]:3 (qāla Allāh taʿālā)–9 (wa-l-ar) (Ġ 995:8–16), 46a[91]:13 (wa-l-qadariyya)–14 (šaqāwatuhu wa-saʿādatuhu) (Ġ 995:17)

178N 46a[91]:20 (fa-in qīla)–46b[92]:1 (wa-l-mulk): almost literal quotation from Ġ 995:19–21

179N 46b[92]:1 (wa-lā yaddaʿī)–5 (al-amr wa-l-nahy): no equivalent in Ġ

180N 46b[92]:5 (fa-in qīla)–6 (lisān): literal quotation from Ġ 996:2

181N 46b[92]:6 (qulnā)–(ābitan): no equivalent in Ġ

182N 46b[92]:7 (umma naqūl)–10 (uǧǧa lahu ʿalā Allāh taʿālā): almost literal quotation from Ġ 996:3–10

183N 46b[92]:10 (wa-iā araǧ)–11 (mulǧaʾ): no equivalent in Ġ

184N 46b[92]:12 (ilā qubūl al-tawba)–15 (wa-lam yanqulhu aad): almost literal quotation from Ġ 996:6–9

185N 46b[92]:15 (wa-mā akarnāhu)–17 (al-muwaffiq wa-l-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

186N 46b[92]:18 (al-qawl fī al-istiāʿa)–47a[93]:1 (wa-l-tawassuʿ): almost literal quotation 864:1–4

187N 47a[93]:1 (wa-huwa lā)–10 (fī al-ism wa-l-musammā): no equivalent in Ġ

188N 47a[93]:10 (wa-l-dalīl ʿalā ibāt al-qudra)–47b[94]:12 (li-l-ǧamādāt): almost literal quotation of Ġ 864:5–865:15; with two larger omissions: Ġ 864:11–13 and 865:2; and one insertion: N 47b[94]:9 (kayfa)–10 (ilā al-ʿibāra)

189N 47b[94]:12 (wa-l-ʿaǧz)–15 (bi-l-nafy): no equivalent in Ġ

190N 47b[94]:15 (fa-in qīla)–16 (aar): almost literal quotation Ġ 866:7

191N 47b[94]:16 (qulnā)–18 (illā maʿa al-aar): slight reformulation of Ġ 866:8–10

192N 47b[94]:19 (fa-in qīla)–49a[97]:9 (maʿdūm): almost literal quotation Ġ 866:14–869:1

193N 49a[97]:9 (ammā al-ʿadam)–12 (wa-Llāh al-muwaffiq): no equivalent in Ġ

194N 49a[97]:13 (masʾala)–15 (ʿalā al-fiʿl): almost literal quotation Ġ 869:2–5

195N 49a[97]:15 (wa-hāā ayan mahab al-Naǧǧār)–16 (ġayrihim min al-Muʿtazila): almost literal quotation of Ġ 869:7–8

196N 49a[97]:16 (wa-qālat al-Muʿtazila)–49b[98]:5 (mutaʿallaq lahā): almost literal quotation Ġ 869:15–870:6; with the following insertion: N 49b[98]:3 (huwa anna al-maqdūr)–4 (li-makān)

197N 49b[98]:5 (wa-mutaʿalluquhā al-maqdūr)–15 (kaālika hāhunā): no equivalent in Ġ

198N 49b[98]:15 (taaqququhu huwa annā iā fara)–20 (al-qudra maʿ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 870:6–9

199N 49b[98]:20 (wa-hāā li-anna)–50a[99]:3 (qabla wuqūʿihi): no equivalent in Ġ

200N 50a[99]:3 (fa-in qīla)–4 (fī al-āla al-āniya): almost literal quotation of Ġ 870:10–11

201N 50a[99]:4 (qulnā)–10 (ʿindakum maʿ): paragraph with textual elements from Ġ 870:12–19; N 50a[99]:4 (lā šakk)–5 (lā tamnaʿūna al-taʿalluq) quotes Ġ 870:13, N 50a[99]:6 (wa-maḥṣūl)–7 (taʿalluquhā bihi) quotes Ġ 870:16 and N 50a[99]:8 (maqdūr al-qudra)–9 (maḥḍ) quotes Ġ 870:18

202N 50a[99]:10 (kayfa wa-ʿindakum)–16 (naqīān): almost literal quotation of Ġ 871:1–7

203N 50a[99]:17 (qultu)–50b[100]:4 (iʿ): no equivalent in Ġ

204N 50b[100]:4 (fa-in qīla)–18 (taqdīr al-wuqūʿ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 871:8–15; with the following insertions: 50b:7 (wa-kaālika)–8 (ʿan qaiyyat al-qudra), 9 (ammā fī)–10 (ʿan qaiyyat al-qudra), 12 (ʿalā maʿ)–14 (ʿalā al-maqdūr) and 15 (wa-fī ālika)–16 (ʿalā al-fiʿl)

205N 50b[100]:18 (fa-iā qulnā)–21 (al-maqdūr bi-awqāt): no equivalent in Ġ

206N 50b[100]:21(qāla šayunā)–51a[101]:10 (huwa al-maqūd): almost literal quotation of Ġ 871:20–872:4

207N 51a[101]:10 (wa-stadalla)–51b[102]:4 (mutaammin lahu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 872:9–873:1

208N 51b[102]:4 (ʿalā maʿ)–6 (bi-dūn al-naar ayan): no equivalent in Ġ

209N 51b[102]:6 (wa-ammā al-qudra)–52a[103]:2 (wa-lā yuʾaṯṯiru fīhā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 873:3–874:4

210N 52a[103]:2 (qulnā)–7 (ʿalā mahabihim): no equivalent in Ġ

211N 52a[103]:7 (umma naqūlu lahum)–8 (bi-l-taʾṯīr): almost literal quotation of Ġ 874:5–6

212N 52a[103]:9 (qādir ... hāā): no equivalent in Ġ

213N 52a[103]:9 (umma fa-in)–10 (ʿan al-qudra): literal quotation of Ġ 874:9

214N 52a[103]:9 (wa-hallā)–52b[104]:12 (fa-mā ǧawābukum ʿanhu): passage with only some minor textual dependence on Ġ (e.g. between 52b[104]:1–2 and Ġ 874:20–21)

215N 52b[104]:13 (fa-in qīla)–16 (al-muʾaṯṯir): almost literal quotation of Ġ 875:7–10

216N 52b[104]:16 (fa-qālū ayan)–17 (bayna amrayn): no equivalent in Ġ

217N 52b[104]:17 (ammā in ǧawaztum)–18 (al-dalīl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 875:12–13

218N 52b[104]:18 (umma law qultum)–53a[105]:1 (ġayr maʿqūla): no equivalent in Ġ

219N 53a[105]:1 (wa-yulzimuhum)–3 (ʿan wuǧūd al-šar): almost literal quotation of Ġ 875:16–17

220N 53a[105]:3 (kaālika)–5 (urūǧ ʿan al-maʿqūl): no equivalent in Ġ

221N 53a[105]:5 (wa-mimmā yanquu)–53b[106]:1 (wuǧūdan wa-ʿadaman): almost literal quotation of Ġ 875:18–876:12

222N 53b[106]:1 (fa-faluhum)–2 (fī ar al-qudra): no equivalent in Ġ

223N 53b[106]:2 (umma naqūlu)–11 (ʿalā al-īmān): almost literal quotation of Ġ 876:18–877:4

224N 53b[106]:11 (wa-lā šakk)–13 (wa-ʿindakum): no equivalent in Ġ

225N 53b[106]:13 (iā qadara)–54b[108]:19 (bi-šar muqāranat al-fiʿl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 877:4–879:4

226N 54b[108]:19 (al-āar wa-mā akarūhu)–55a[109]:8 (al-qiyām wa-l-quʿūd): no equivalent in Ġ

227N 55a[109]:8 (wa-baʿḍuhum tamassakū)– 10 (ʿalā kaā aw kaā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 879:13–14

228N 55a[109]:10 (qulnā)–12 (bi-awqāt): no equivalent in Ġ

229N 55a[109]:12 (umma naqūlu)–55b[110]:15 (min al-aʿmāl al-mutalifa): almost literal quotation of Ġ 879:15–880:19

230N 55b[110]:16 (kayfa)–17 (salāmat al-binya): abbreviated paraphrase of Ġ 880:21–881:2

231N 55b[110]:17 (umma iʿlam)–56b[112]:13(fa-hāā mahabuhum): almost literal quotation of Ġ 881:3–883:11

232N 56b[112]:13 (wa-nuqila anna al-ustā)–57a[113]:3 (ʿalā al-taʾlīf): no equivalent in Ġ

233N 57a[113]:3 (ammā šubhatuhum)–6 (ilayhi): selected textual material from Ġ 883:12–14

234N 57a[113]:6 (qulnā)–9 (fī alihā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 883:15–17

235N 57a[113]:9 (fa-in qīla)–12 (fī al-muḍṭarr): no equivalent in Ġ

236N 57a[113]:13 (umma naqūl li-Abī Hāšim)–57b[114]:1 (ʿalā maqdūrihā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 884:3–11

237N 57b[114]:1 (fa-limā lā yaǧūzu)–5 (waqt al-alāt): no equivalent in Ġ

238N 57b[114]:5 (fa-lam yualli)–6 (ilāf al-iǧʿ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 884:18–20

239N 57b[114]:6 (qulnā)–9 (wa-liʾanna mā): no equivalent in Ġ

240N 57b[114]:9 (sammāhu uūmunā)–58a[115]:9 (ʿalayhi): paragraph with extensive literal quotes and paraphrastic reformulations of the text found in Ġ 885:11–886:14

241N 58a[115]:9 (fa-naqūlu)–58b[116]:20 (wa-ālika muāl): no equivalent in Ġ

242N 58b[116]:20 (fal)–59b[118]:19 (wuqūʿ al-maqdūr): the whole chapter reproduces almost literally the corresponding one in Ġ 891:1–893:5

243N 59b[118]:19 (fal fī ikr mahab al-Naǧǧāriyya)–60b[120]:21 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): the chapters on al-Naǧǧār/the Naǧǧāriyya and Ḍirār b. ʿAmr/the Ḍirāriyya have no equivalent in Ġ

244N 61a[121]:1 (masʾala)–3 (yuaddu al-qudra): almost literal quotation of Ġ 893:6–9

245N 61a[121]:4 (wa-qāla Abū Hāšim)–8 (lā yūǧibu awālan): almost literal quotation of Ġ 893:12–17

246N 61a[121]:8 (wa-āāran)–12 (kaālika hāhunā): includes two short passages reproduced from Ġ 894:2–5 (N 61a[121]:10–12—namely umma naqūlu…anna and wa-hāā ka-mā…maʿ)

247N 61a[121]:12 (wa-mimmā tamassaka)–14 (intiqā al-binya): almost literal quotation of Ġ 894:8–9

248N 61a[121]:14 (qulnā)–17 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): paraphrase of Ġ 894:11–13

249N 61a[121]:18 (masʾala)–61b[122]:12 (maʿa al-ʿilm): almost literal quotation of Ġ 895:1–14; with the following insertion: N 61b[122]:4 (qultu)–5 (wa-ilāf)

250N 61b[122]:12 (wa-iā kāna)–14 (kaālika hāhunā): no equivalent in Ġ

251N 61b[122]:14 (qāla al-qāī)–62a[123]:1 (fī al-maqdūr): almost literal quotation of Ġ 895:18–896:5

252N 62a[123]:2 (qultu)–8 (wa-l-ānī lā yuʾaṯṯiru): no equivalent in Ġ

253N 62a[123]:8 (fa-in qīla)–62b[124]:5 (yabnī ʿalayhi ʿaraahu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 896:6–21

254N 62b[124]:5 (umma naqūlu)–63a[125]:21 (infikākahu ʿanhu): no equivalent in Ġ

255N 63a[125]:21 (tamassakū)–63b[126]:3 (taqaddumuhu ʿalayhi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 896:22–897:2

256N 63b[126]:4 (qulnā)–14 (lā al-qudar): no equivalent in Ġ

257N 63b[126]:15 (wa-salaka al-qāī)–19 (maʿa al-ʿaǧz): paragraph that partly quotes and partly paraphrases Ġ 897:10–15

258N 63b[126]:19 (qultu)–64a[127]:5 (wa-l-karāha): no equivalent in Ġ

259N 64a[127]:6 (fa-in qīla)–7 (maʿa muālafatinā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 897:17–18

260N 64a[127]:7 (iyyākum)–9 (qudra ʿalayhi): no equivalent in Ġ

261N 64a[127]:9 (umma yuliqūna)–17 (wa-tilāfāt kaīra): almost literal quotation of Ġ 898:1–9

262N 64a[127]:17 (wa-mimmā yušaġġibūna)–64b[128]:17 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

263N 64b[128]:18 (masʾala)–65a[129]:3 (iʿtiqād fīhi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 901:7–14

264N 65a[129]:3 (fa-in qāla qāʾil)–8 (mā lā yuāq): abbreviated quote from Ġ 902:1–6

265N 65a[129]:8 (qulnā)–20 (al-imkān): no equivalent in Ġ

266N 65a[129]:2o (wa-qad akā)–65b[130]:8 (dūn al-šar): almost literal quotation of Ġ 902:16–903:6

267N 65b[130]:8 (wa-qad arraa)–66a[131]:2 (mā lā yuāq): almost literal quotation of Ġ 903:12–904:6

268N 66a[131]:3 (qulnā)–5 (fa-hāā kalām aī): extracts from Ġ 904:7–11

269N 66a[131]:5 (qāla al-ustā Abū Isāq)–67a[133]:7 (bi-fiʿl iddihi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 904:13–906:11

270N 67a[133]:7 (qultu)–9 (taklīf al-qādir): no equivalent in Ġ

271N 67a[133]:9 (wa-mimmā tamassaka)–67b[134]:8 (maʿa al-fiʿl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 906:14–907:12

272N 67b[134]:8 (fa-in qīla)–68a[135]:2 (bi-ilāf al-ʿāǧiz): almost literal quotation of Ġ 907:20–908:11

273N 68a[135]:3 (qultu)–4 (maʾmūran): no equivalent in Ġ

274N 68a[135]:5 (fa-in qāla qāʾil)–12 (fa-lam yasǧudū): almost literal quotation of Ġ 908:18–22

275N 68a[135]:12 (wa-qad araǧa)–15 (ʿalā qafāhu): no equivalent in Ġ

276N 68a[135]:16 (wa-stadalla al-aṣḥāb)–21 (in šāʾa Allāh): almost literal quotation of Ġ 910:2–8

277N 68b[136]:1 (qāla šayunā)–6 (mā yurīdu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 910:18–22

278N 68b[136]:6 (qultu)–70b[140]:3 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): the passage, which includes the whole chapter masʾala al-kuffār ʿindanā muāibūn bi-furūʿ al-islām (N 69a[137]:17ff.), has no equivalent in Ġ

279N 70b[140]:3 (masʾala qāla aṣḥābunā)–71a[141]:4 (muāl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 911:10–912:10

280N 71a[141]:4 (qāla imām al-aramayn)–6 (wuqūʿuhu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 914:14–15

281N 71a[141]:6 (wa-nuqila)–71a[141]:11 (bi-l-istiāla): almost literal quotation of Ġ 912:11–14

282N 71a[141]:12 (qultu)– 72b[144]:9 (ʿalā mā akarnāhu): no equivalent in Ġ

283N 72b[144]:9 (wa-qad warada al-Qurʾān)–12 (ayran lahum): almost literal quotation of Ġ 912:18–20

284N 72b[144]:12 (wa-lā šakk)–73a[145]:3 (wa-ālika wāi): apart from some short textual fragments (e.g. N 72b[144]:14/Ġ 913:6 and N 72b[144]:17–18/Ġ 913:13–4) no equivalent in Ġ

285N 73a[145]:3 (wa-liālika qāla)–7 (yuʿāqibuhum): almost literal quotation of Ġ 913:–914:4

286N 73a[145]:7 (wa-kayfa)–73b[146]:21 (ʿan al-mawǧūd): no equivalent in Ġ

287N 73b[146]:21 (qulnā ammā al-Muʿtazila)–74a[147]:1 (ilāquhā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 914:17–915:1

288N 74a[147]:2 (bal aḥḥa)–(mahab al-Naǧǧār): almost literal quotation of Ġ 915:5

289N 74a[147]:2 (wa-qad bayyannā)–3 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): corresponds to Ġ 915:2

290N 74a[147]:4 (ātima)–76a[151]:10 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): the printed edition of Ġ does not include the corresponding section(s) on aǧāl, arzāq and asʿār

291N 76a[151]:11 (al-qawl fī al-radd)–78a[155]:7 (adillat ahl al-aqq): almost literal quotation of Ġ 917:1–923:10

292N 78a[155]:7 (fa-ʿlam anna al-kalām)–8 (al-tawallud): no equivalent in Ġ

293N 78a[155]:8 (qāla)–14 (laysa bi-qādir): almost literal quotation of Ġ 926:7–13

294N 78a[155]:14 (wa-iā baala)–16 (fī al-masʾala): no equivalent in Ġ

295N 78a[155]:16 (fa-naqūlu kull dalāla)–79b[158]:13 (tamām al-ġara): almost literal quotation of Ġ 923:10–926:6

296N 79b[158]:13 (qāla min alihim)–80b[160]:1 (wa-ndifāʿahu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 926:16–927:21

297N 80b[160]:1 (wa-in sawwaġtum)–81a[161]:13 (ā al-suʾāl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 928:7–929:14

298N 81a[161]:13 (wa-laysa huwa suʾālan)–82a[163]:11 (wa-l-quūd): almost literal quotation of Ġ 929:19–931:19

299N 82a[163]:12 (qulnā)–15 (al-ūlā): no equivalent in Ġ

300N 82a[163]:15 (umma naqūlu)–83a[165]:9 (wa-l-bar): almost literal quotation of Ġ 931:10–933:4; with the following insertion: N 82b[164]:19 (fa-inna min)–21 (al-āniya)

301N 83a[165]:9 (fa-in qīla)–16 (bi-maall al-iql): almost literal quotation of Ġ 933:7–16

302N 83a[165]:17 (amr bi-l-muqaddimāt wa-l-tasabbub ilayhā): literal quotation of Ġ 933:19–20

303N 83a[165]:17 (fa-in qīla)–19 (wa-nawa ālika): almost literal quotation of Ġ 934:3–4

304N 83a[165]:19 (qulnā)–83b[166]:3 (huwa al-aī): no equivalent in Ġ

305N 83b[166]:3 (wa-man qāla)–5 (wa-l-qatl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 934:5–7

306N 83b[166]:5 (wa-minhum)–84a[167]:1 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): closely draws on and often literally quotes phrases from Ġ 934:10–935:9

307N 84a[167]:2 (al-qawl fī al-insān)–12 (ʿarafta ālika): no equivalent in Ġ

308N 84a[167]:12 (fa-qad addara al-qāī)–15 (naā nawahum): literal quotation of Ġ 956:2–4

309N 84a[167]:15 (wa-l-dalīl)–84b[168]:3 (binya maḫṣūa): no equivalent in Ġ

310N 84b[168]:3 (wa-llaī yuaqqiqu)–9 (ʿadam al-ayāt): largely quotes Ġ 957:20–25

311N 84b[168]:10 (qulnā)–12 (kāna maʿ): no equivalent in Ġ

312N 84b[168]:12 (umma naqūlu)–14 (ʿan al-ayāt): almost literal quotation of Ġ 958:1–2

313N 84b[168]:14 (la-ǧāza)–20 (kānat al-mawt ayāt): no equivalent in Ġ

314N 84b[168]:20 (wa-mimmā yatamassaku)–85a[169]:2 (al-binya ʿalayhi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 958:13–15

315N 85a[169]:2 (wa-la-awǧaba)–5 (fī al-ʿilm): almost literal quotation of Ġ 959:7–8

316N 85a[169]:5 (ammā šubhatuhum)–6 (ihi al-binya): no equivalent in Ġ

317N 85a[169]:6 (qulnā)–9 (ihi al-binya): almost literal quotation of Ġ 959:13–15

318N 85a[169]:9 (wa-ayan)–11 (wa-l-fam): no equivalent in Ġ

319N 85a[169]:11 (wa-kaālika)–13 (ilā al-ǧumla): literal quotation of Ġ 959:19–20

320N 85a[169]:13 (wa-kayfa)–85b[170]:21 (lahum ʿanhu): no equivalent in Ġ

321N 85b[170]:21 (fa-in qīla)–86a[171]:6 (yastadimuhā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 961:10–16

322N 86a[171]:6 (ʿalā mā wurida)–14 (al-qalb): no equivalent in Ġ

323N 86a[171]:14 (ǧawāb āar)–17 (ǧawāriuhu): quotation of passages from Ġ 961:17–19

324N 86a[171]:17 (wa-ušūʿ)–86b[172]:1 (wa-l-maʿqūl): no equivalent in Ġ

325N 86b[172]:2 (fa-in qīla)–3 (ǧiha u): literal quotation of Ġ 962:8–9

326N 86b[172]:3 (qulnā)–20 (wa-wuǧūduhu): no equivalent in Ġ

327N 86b[172]:20 (fa-in qīla)–87b[174]:14 (wa-nawihā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 963:4–966:3

328N 87b[174]:14 (wa-hāā amr)–17 (in al-insān): no equivalent in Ġ

  • 15 See Shihadeh, “Classical Ashʿarī Anthropology”, p. 437.

329N 87b[174]:18 (fa-in qāla)–90a[179]:4 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): the corresponding section on rū is not included in the printed edition but found in the MS on fols. 217a–218a15

330N 90a[179]:5 (al-qawl fī al-taʿdīl)–90b[180]:14 (ayyuhumā yaʾ): no equivalent in Ġ

331N 90b[180]:14 (wa-ʿlam anna al-taʿdīl)–18 (wa-l-taqbī): literal quotation of Ġ 997:2–6

332N 90b[180]:19 (wa-hāihi kulluhā)–93b[186]:16 (karāma lahum): no equivalent in Ġ

333N 93b[186]:17 (ammā šubhatuhum)–19 (wa-l-isān): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1002:11–12

334N 93b[186]:19 (qulnā)–21 (al-arūra): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1002:15–16

335N 93b[186]:21 (wa-l-ānī)–94a[187]:3 (ʿaqduhum): no equivalent in Ġ

336N 94a[187]:4 (fa-hum munāziʿūn)–12 (fa-lasnā nunkiru): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1002:18–1003:9

337N 94a[187]:12 (šubha u)–13 (wa-bi-l-kaib u): no equivalent in Ġ

338N 94a[187]:13 (wa-la-amara bihi)–15 (ālika): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1003:13–14

339N 94a[187]:15 (fa-l-ʿaql)–94b[188]:6 (min wuǧūh): no equivalent in Ġ

340N 94b[188]:6 (al-awwal)–14 (ʿalā tarkihi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1003:19–1004:2

341N 94b[188]:15 (al-āli)–97b[194]:4 (tanāqu): no equivalent in Ġ

342N 97b[194]:4 (fa-in qāla qāʾil)–12 (min wuǧūh): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1006:3–12

343N 97b[194]:12 (aqrabuhā)–14 (fī zamāninā hāihi): no equivalent in Ġ

344N 97b[194]:14 (wa-minhā)–98a[195]:4 (an yuqāl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1006:13–1007:2

345N 98a[195]:4 (ālika fī kull milayn)–5 (fī al-mutamāilāt): no equivalent in Ġ

346N 98a[195]:6 (fa-in qīla)–8 (wa-l-ikr): quotes from Ġ 1007:8–11

347N 98a[195]:8 (wa-iā kāna)–17 (fī al-qiā ayāt): no equivalent in Ġ

348N 98a[195]:17 (wa-kāna huwa)–98b[196]:5 (nanu fīhi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1007:18–1008:3

349N 98b[196]:5 (wa-innamā)–14 (al-aʿ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1008:6–14

350N 98b[196]:15 (wa-mimmā yuʿaḍḍidu)–99a[197]:2 (yastasinūna ālika): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1008:22–1009:7

351N 99a[197]:2 (minhu fa-abata)–4 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

352N 99a[197]:4 (fal)–99b[198]:11 (al-mahab): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1009:12–1011:3

353N 99b[198]:11 (wa-man qāla)–100a[199]:1 (wa-qadihi ilayhi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1011:7–17

354N 100a[199]:1 (qulnā)–2 (al-awāb): no equivalent in Ġ

355N 100a[199]:2 (ammā man abata)–4 (wa-l-qabī): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1011:21–22

356N 100a[199]:4 (wa-lā yumkinuhum)–5 (ʿalā mā akarnāhu): no equivalent in Ġ

357N 100a[199]:5 (ammā add al-asan)–100b[200]:5 (ʿalā miṯlihi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1012:3–19; with the following insertions: N 100a[199]:9 (wa-ayan)–11 (ilā al-šarʿ), 13 (wa-hāā)–17 (al-maʿlūm)

358N 100b[200]:5 (wa-ammā ʿibārāt)–7 (ǧamīʿan): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1013:5–9

359N 100b[200]:7 (wa-minhum)–14 (al-nahy bihi): no equivalent in Ġ

360N 100b[200]:14 (qāla imām al-aramayn)–101a[201]:6 (ʿalayhim): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1013:15–1014:14

361N 101a[201]:6 (wa-man qāla)–101b[202]:1 (ʿanhā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1015:4–1016:3

362N 101b[202]:1 (qultu)–4 (al-šarʿ): no equivalent in Ġ

363N 101b[202]:4 (umma qāla)–5 (ʿaqluhu): literal quotation of Ġ 1016:4–5

364N 101b[202]:5 (fa-in qāla qāʾil)–8 (ayy fīhi): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1016:12–13

365N 101b[202]:8 (kānat)–13 (al-tasīn): no equivalent in Ġ

366N 101b[202]:14 (wa-qad nuqila)–21 (ilāfan li-l-Muʿtazila): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1016:19–1017:3

367N 101b[202]:21 (fa-innahum qālū)–102a[203]:2 (in šāʾa Allāh): no equivalent in Ġ

368N 102a[203]:2 (wa-ammā mā yaǧibu)–102b[204]:19 (ǧumlat mahabihim): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1017:10–1019:15

369N 102b[204]:19 (ammā adillat ahl al-aqq)–103a[205]:15 (fa-min ayna yaʿlamu): no equivalent in Ġ

370N 103a[205]:15 (wa-qad qāla)–103b[206]:4 (ʿan ālika): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1021:18–1022:3

371N 103b[206]:4 (wa-kāna ʿalā al-nafy)– 104b[208]:8 (annā naqūlu): no equivalent in Ġ

372N 104b[208]:8 (iā iʿtaratu)–12 (tilka al-awāir): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1022:4–7

373N 104b[208]:12 (fa-min ālika)–105b[210]:2 (illā bi-mubar): no equivalent in Ġ

374N 105b[210]:3 (wa-ʿalā annā naqūlu)–15 (wa-l-kufrān): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1023:7–16

375N 105b[210]:15 (umma al-ʿaǧab)– 108a[215]:1 (bi-ukm): no equivalent in Ġ

376N 108a[215]:1 (umma naqūlu)–4 (al-ʿilm bi-l-wuǧūb): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1021:5–7

377N 108a[215]:5 (ammā fī-mā)–(wa-lā naaran): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1021:12

378N 108a[215]:5 (ʿalā al-waǧh)–109b[218]:10 (lā yaǧmulu): no equivalent in Ġ

379N 109b[218]:11 (ammā al-amd)–21 (al-šarʿ): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1027:17–1028:5

380N 110a[219]:1 (qāla Allāh)–17 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1028:8–1029:7

381N 110a[219]:18 (masʾala)–116a[231]:14 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ; however, the corresponding discussion of the five akām (i.e. ǧib, maḥẓūr, mubā, mandūb and makrūh) might be found in the parts that are not included in the critical edition of Ġ

382N 116a[231]:15 (masʾala)–21 (wa-lā li-ġayrihā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1029:9–14

383N 116a[231]:21 (qāla)–116b[232]:4 (wa-ālika muāl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1030:3–6

384N 116b[232]:4 (wa-qad abalnā)–6 (nafʿ al-ġayr): no equivalent in Ġ

385N 116b[232]:6 (fa-naqūlu)–11 (akīm): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1031:15–18

386N 116b[232]:11 (fa-lā taʾṯīr)–117a[233]:13 (mā huwa ʿalayhi): no equivalent in Ġ

387N 117a[233]:14 (wa-nanu nuliqu)–117b[234]:12 (ʿarrafahum al-hayʾa wa-ātahu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1032:8–1033:8

388N 117b[234]:12 (wa-ifātahu)–18 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

389N 117b[234]:19 (fal)–118b[236]:3 (wa-yamnaʿūna): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1034:14–1036:6

390N 118b[236]:3 (ġayruhum)–14 (ʿinda al-ʿuqalāʾ): no equivalent in Ġ

391N 118b[236]:14 (ammā al-Bakriyya)–119a[237]:13 (mašaqqa): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1037:16–1038:9

392N 119a[237]:14 (qulnā)–16 (wa-l-nab): no equivalent in Ġ

393N 119a[237]:17 (wa-mimmā yastadillu)–20 (wa-lā maʿṣiya): abbreviated quotation of Ġ 1039:1–4

394N 119a[237]:20 (ammā al-Muʿtazila)–119b[238]:9 (taʿ ʿalayhā): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1039:7–20

395N 119b[238]:9 (fa-hāihi)–11 (wa-Llāh al-muwaffiq): no equivalent in Ġ

396N 119b[238]:12 (masʾala)–20 (yaqtarinu bi-l-niʿma): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1043:1–10

397N 119b[238]:20 (qulnā)–120a[239]:9 (wa-l-alāl): no equivalent in Ġ

398N 120a[239]:9 (wa-lihāā)–10 (al-akīm): the same Qurʾānic verse is quoted in Ġ 1044:8–9

399N 120a[239]:11 (wa-min uūl al-Muʿtazila)–122b[244]:5 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1045:2–1049:17; with the following insertion: N 120b[240]:5 (qulnā)–7 (min al-alāla)

400N 122b[244]:6 (masʾala)–123b[246]:7 (kāfin): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1050:1–1052:7

401N 123b[246]:7 (qultu)–10 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): no equivalent in Ġ

402N 123b[246]:11 (ātima)–124a[247]:16 (al-kabāʾir): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1052:8–1053:18

403N 124a[247]:16 (ammā al-kalām)–124b[248]:1 (fa-naqūlu): no equivalent in Ġ

404N 124b[248]:1 (iā kāna)–17 (al-ala): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1055:7–1056:2; with the following insertion: N 124b[248]:6 (wa-l-ʿaǧab)–7 (ǧiba)

405N 124b[248]:17 (wa-qūlū)–18 (mašaqqa): no equivalent in Ġ

406N 124b[248]:18 (fa-in qīla)–125a[249]:2 (al-ʿibād): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1056:9–12

407N 125a[249]:2 (i yalzamuhum)–126a[251]:5 (al-tafīl): no equivalent in Ġ

408N 126a[251]:5 (wa-lā maʿ)–8 (al-tafīl): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1056:16–18

409N 126a[251]:8 (fa-law qulnā)–13 (mahabukum): no equivalent in Ġ

410N 126a[251]:13 (warraakum)–15 (al-arūra): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1057:12–14

411N 126a[251]:15 (umma naqūlu)–17 (bi-ukm): no equivalent in Ġ

412N 126a[251]:17 (wa-mimmā akarahu al-qāī)–126b[252]:6 (ʿalima): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1058:8–17

413N 126b[252]:6 (minhu al-kufr)–13 (al-alq): no equivalent in Ġ

414N 126b[252]:13 (qulnā)–127a[253]:13 (ahmalahu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1060:1–17

415N 127a[253]:13 (wa-ayāhu)–19 (ian lahu): no equivalent in Ġ

416N 127a[253]:19 (wa-mimmā nuālibu)–127b[254]:3 (yastankifu): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1062:4–8

417N 127b[254]:4 (min qubūl)–(kayfa): no equivalent in Ġ

418N 127b[254]:5 (wa-qad sallamtum)–6 (al-muwaffiq al-muʿīn): almost literal quotation of Ġ 1062:10–11

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Primary Sources

Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī (512/1118), Salmān b. Nāṣir, al-Ġunya fī al-kalām, Muṣṭafā Ḥasanayn ʿAbd al-Hādī (ed.), 2 vols., Cairo, Dār al-Salām, 1431/2010.

al-Makkī (middle of the 6th/12th c.), Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn, Nihāyat al-marām fī dirāyat al-kalām. Facsimile of the Autograph Manuscript of vol. II, edited by Ayman Shihadeh (Classical Muslim Heritage Series, 2), Tehran, Mīrāṯ-e Maktūb, 2013.

Secondary Sources

Kennedy, Kathleen E., Medieval Hackers, New York, Punctum Books, 2015.

Shihadeh, Ayman, “Classical Ashʿarī Anthropology: Body, Life and Spirit”, The Muslim World 102, 2012, p. 433–477.

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1 The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under REA grant agreement no. 624808. I should thank Hassan Ansari and Sabine Schmidtke for providing helpful suggestions.

2 An account of al-Makkī’s biography is provided in the editor’s introductions (English and Arabic) and in Hassan Ansari’s Persian introduction to the facsimile publication of the Nihāya.

3 The edition of the Ġunya does not reproduce the complete text of the unique manuscript, MS Istanbul, Library of the Topkapı Sarayı Museum, Ahmet III, 1916, but only the section of ilāhiyyāt.

4 The work has survived in the following manuscripts: MS Princeton, University Library, Yahuda, no. 634, MS Istanbul, Süleymaniye library, Aya Sofia, no. 1205 and possibly MS Fes Qarawiyyīn, no. 728.

5 See p. xiv of the Introduction of the Nihāya and Shihadeh, “Classical Ashʿarī Anthropology”, p. 435, n. 8. In his Persian introduction to the Nihāya, Ansari also pointed to some Ṣūfī inclined sections in the Nihāya, which provide further evidence for Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī’s influence—and indirectly for the impact of Abū al-Qāsim al-Anṣārī’s teacher, the famous mystic Abū al-Qāsim al-Qušayrī (d. 465/1072).

6 I was not able to consult the extant parts of the Ġunya that are not included in the critical edition, i.e. fols 178b–252. However, these unedited parts have also parallels in the Nihāya; see below on N 87b[174]:18–90a[179]:4 and Fn 15.

7 References to the Nihāya are given according to the foliation and pagination (in square brackets) of the facsimile edition.

8 For example, the parts from the Ġunya that are missing between N 109b[218]:21 and 110a[219]:1 or in N 123a[245]:10 may be a saut du même au même; missing words from the Ġunya (e.g. in Ġ 1016:2) can be completed by the corresponding section in N 101a[201]:21.

9 See Kennedy, Medieval Hackers, who explores similarities between medieval English manuscript culture and modern computer hacker culture (I owe this reference to Maribel Fierro); for the three fundamental concepts of commonness, openness and freedom see in particular pp. 17–25.

10 For the citation of al-Ǧuwaynī’s al-Risāla al-niāmiyya (N 11a[21]:14) cf. Ġ 903:7, and for the citation of his Uūl al-fiqh cf. Ġ 906:1; for the five citations of Abū Isḥāq al-Isfarāʾīnī’s (d. 411/1020) al-Mutaar (N 3b[6]:12, 6b[12]:16, 11a[21]:12, 66a[131]:6, 101a[201]:12) cf. Ġ 807:1, 810:9, 797:8, 904:13, 1015:11, and for the citation of his Kitāb tartīb al-mahab (N 101a[201]:13) cf. Ġ 1015:16; for the citation of Ibn Fūrak’s (d. 406/1015) Kitāb al-bayān ʿan uūl al-ams (N 65b[130]:12–13) cf. Ġ 903:17, and for the two citations of his Šar al-lumaʿ (N 5a[9]:8–9, 6b[12]:16) cf. Ġ 815:19, 810:9; for the citation of al-Bāqillānī’s (d. 403/1013) al-Hidāya (N 66b[132]:6) cf. Ġ 905:10, for the citation of his Kitāb al-iǧtihād (N 66b[132]:5–6) cf. Ġ 905:10, for the citation of his Kitāb al-insān (N 84a[167]:13) cf. Ġ 956:2, and for the citation of his al-Taqrīb wa-l-taqrīr min uūl al-fiqh (N 81a[161]:18–19) cf. Ġ 930:4; for the citation of al-Ǧāḥiẓ’s (d. 255/869) Kitāb al-maqālāt (N 70b[140]:19) cf. Ġ 912:4–5. As stated explicitly by al-Makkī, he did not directly consult Ibn ʿAbbās’ (d. c. 68/687–8) Tafsīr (see N 21a[41]:14: “rawā ʿAāʾ ʿan Ibn ʿAbbās fī tafsīrihi…”).

11 See, among many other examples, N 67a[133]:17, and Ġ 906:17.

12 The terminology for the various sub-genres of derivative works in the field of kalām is still understudied. A variety of terms were used—such as šar, taʿlīq, mutaar and some others—but they are not unambiguous and do not match with the descriptions modern scholars use to classify these texts, such as commentary, paraphrastic commentary, compilation, recension, excerpts etc.

13 Additional chapters that consist almost exclusively of literal quotes from the Ġunya are the masʾala fols 119b[238]:12ff and the masʾala fols 122b[244]:6ff.

14 This last verse and its explanation is actually a repetition of N 35b[70]:2–3.

15 See Shihadeh, “Classical Ashʿarī Anthropology”, p. 437.

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Jan Thiele, « Commonness and Derivative Work in Ašʿarite Literature »MIDÉO, 32 | 2017, 135-166.

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Jan Thiele, « Commonness and Derivative Work in Ašʿarite Literature »MIDÉO [En ligne], 32 | 2017, mis en ligne le 23 avril 2017, consulté le 06 juin 2023. URL :

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Jan Thiele

CCHS-CSIC ‒ Madrid

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