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American visual arts

Alex Majoli’s Theatre of Migrations

Clara Bouveresse

Abstracts

This paper examines the theatricalized depiction of multitude in a series of images from 2015 by Italian photographer Alex Majoli, who was then based in New York, documenting the arrival of migrants in Greece and their journeys through Europe. It argues that Majoli’s black-and-white photographs of crowds and groups of migrants circumvent the opposition between the universal and the specific, fiction and documentary, offering an evocative and debatable portrayal of abstract “masses”. It draws on the analysis of Majoli’s aesthetic strategy, which stages the invisible frontiers constituting the collective category “migrants.” It also explores the photographer’s departure from a quest for singularity, breaking with a pattern found in the work of other documentary photographers who have explored this subject.

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  • 1 Majoli uses both the terms “refugees” and “migrants” in his captions. In this paper, I use the gene (...)

1In 2015, New York-based, Italian-born photographer Alex Majoli documented the arrival of migrants in Greece and their journeys through Europe.1 His black-and-white photographs of crowds and groups of migrants depart from the quest for singularity found in the work of other photographers who have explored the subject. Majoli’s series stages the invisible frontiers constituting the collective category “migrants,” circumventing the opposition between the universal and the specific, fiction and documentary, to offer an evocative and debatable portrayal of abstract “masses.”

2This paper examines Majoli’s aesthetic strategy: why would he choose to show crowds of migrants as nameless masses and to aestheticize their struggle when such a stance may so easily come under fire? His photographs, exhibited in art galleries, seem to ignore the recent deconstruction of documentary privileges as well as the subsequent alternative positions explored by many photographers. Majoli does not seek to create a dialogue with the people he photographs and he seems to be at ease with his powerful position as one who gazes and creates beautiful images, using suffering as subject matter. Even worse, he applies his systematic style everywhere he goes (not just in Greece), implying that the specificity of each situation matters less than the expression of his own personal artistic vision.

3Why has he taken such a risk, going against the wave of current collaborative and documentary projects which give voice to individuals instead of reducing them to an anonymous and possibly stereotyped group? It could be that the photographer operates in a part of the art world disconnected from the latest critical approaches, looking first and foremost for the aesthetic appeal of a print because this is what is expected to sell best in private gallery spaces. This first explanation is certainly valid to a certain extent, but it is not entirely satisfactory. Indeed, Majoli’s position is not a mere rebuttal of the process of deconstruction started by US photographers such as Martha Rosler and Allan Sekula in the 1970s, nor a return to a formal classicism vetted by the art market. The mediation of his theatricalized style is plainly striking and openly raises the problem of his own position as a privileged photographer, and also of our roles as viewers and witnesses. The groups and crowds he represents clearly do not testify to the uniqueness of each individual journey; they are constructs existing only from our standpoint, thus revealing the invisible frontier which separates us from “illegal” newcomers.

4By choosing to show migrants as a group, Majoli stresses the collective and political dimension of the migrant “crisis”, framing them in relation to the viewers and not just as single travelers. His decision to combine these photographs with images of the rise of Far Right groups in Europe also points in this direction. This bold association interrogates current political discourses on the migrant “crisis”: group against group, some migrants decide to reassert their sense of belonging to an exclusive nation. This paper first investigates Majoli’s aesthetic choices and his use of the “estrangement” effect, before discussing the implications of migrants’ depiction as a collective, considering the serial presentation of the work in the context of various exhibitions.

Estrangement and pathos

5Majoli’s chiaroscuro images were made via the use of strobe flashes, which imbue the skin with silvery reflections while outlining projected shadows of the migrants’ gestures. His subjects are thus set against dark velvety shades. Even though these pictures were not directly staged, the photographer obviously “set a stage” with his lights (a reversal of the ‘fly-on-the-wall’ approach) so people cannot miss his presence and this likely influenced his subject’s behavior. With his flash and lighting, Majoli invites people to play their own part; the resulting images appear like elaborately constructed scenes, evoking classical tragedy. Majoli claims this theatrical dimension and quotes absurdist Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello as a source of inspiration.

6Each photograph is given a precise caption and a “scene” number, combining documentary contextualization and dramaturgical sequencing. This ambivalence between testimony and illusion encourages us to reflect on our own position: we cannot look “through” the image as if it were a transparent window, nor can we fully identify with the subjects and their vivid “poses.” Such intermediary positioning may be compared with the “distancing” or “estrangement” effect theorized by German playwright Bertolt Brecht. As Georges Didi-Huberman pointed out, this effect is necessary to frame the illusion, but it unfolds in a permanent play with the proximity of pathos (Didi-Huberman 170). Viewers are thus simultaneously invited to connect with the work and to take a critical stance.

7Majoli engages beholders in a reflection on the act of witnessing such events and on their responsibility, emphasizing the physical and imaginary frontiers that separate European citizens from migrants. The “estrangement” effect designates the people depicted as “migrants,” a collective category defined on one side of the border, a construction which exists only from the standpoint of the “legitimate” citizens of Europe on the other side. The photograph often chosen to present the project includes a central character looking into the camera. He seems to be shouting at us through the lens of a photographer who cannot convey his words. On his right, a woman carries a young child, forcefully reminding us of classic Pietà imagery and therefore speaking our visual language, while the voice of the man next to her remains muted. Reversing our expectation that images should be about the subjects in the frame, the violence of this silencing instead reveals how much images tell us about ourselves, our expectations and our cultural references.

8This imbalance in the understanding of each scene helps to expose processes by which migrants are “illegalized.” Some photographs, for instance, show the confrontation between large groups of migrants and the police. In one, policemen do not appear but we look at the scene from their standpoint; their presence is only visible because of the transparent shields used to contain the crowd. The contrast between the neutral plastic and the naked skin of one man in the foreground, his chest pressed by an anonymous hand, enhances a diffuse sense of constraint. The multitude seems endless as it fades into the distant black edge of the frame, with one raised hand trying in vain to catch the attention of the guards. A photograph from Calais also shows a group of migrants occupying the lower part of the image, “overlooked” by policemen (Figure 1). None of their heads are visible, as we just glimpse their backs, but the profile of an officer is clearly delineated against the black background, and a guard faces us at the center of the image, his presence and authority enhanced by a vertical pole behind him.

Figure 1

Figure 1

Alex Majoli, Refugees waiting to board buses to be relocated in centers across France, Calais, 2016, digital photographic file

© Alex Majoli/Magnum Photos

A Political Collective?

9Majoli’s approach raises serious ethical issues. Quoting classical imagery, his photographs convey a sense of timelessness reinforcing a feeling of inevitability and nostalgia. They may create a sense of moral inadequacy, leading to mourning, passivity and resignation (Moeller). Arguably, they also risk producing spectacle rather than empathy, propagating a worldview divided along imperialist lines. They reiterate, rather than challenge, the uneven distribution of suffering across the world: “refugees are reduced to performing as symbols of their own persecution” (Szörény).

10Majoli’s work is sold for high prices by art galleries without measurable return to the people portrayed, raising questions with regard to his ethical stance concerning his subjects and participating in a market-oriented spectacularization of misery. In this context, his use of the “estrangement” effect serves to indicate the “artistic” status of his journalistic production and this enables its sale on the fine prints market–Majoli is indeed represented by the Howard Greenberg gallery in New York, a renowned venue for art photography. This apparatus enhances and demonstrates his skill as a photographer. When set aside, the remaining subject matter fits within journalistic tropes often to be found in prevailing media depictions: dramatic scenes of migrants being rescued from the sea; children and female figures presented as victims and mothers; the fence as a symbol of segregation drawing the line between Europeans and foreigners (Průchová). Pictures of depersonalized masses create an “anonymous corporeality” (Feldman) constructing migrants as “others” and muting them, continuing a tradition of orientalist narratives (Spivak). Framing the arrival of migrants in Europe as a “crisis” associated with depictions of voiceless and faceless masses may trigger fear and anxiety while also constructing the incoming non-white presence in Europe as “always happening for the first time” (Leurs et al.).

  • 2 Article by Michele Smargiassi in the Sunday special edition La Domenica 384, 8 July 2012, 25-27.
  • 3 Alex Majoli interviewed by Antonio Privitera in Vogue Italia, 14 October 2018.

11Many photographers documenting migration try to avoid such dramatization. “Good” photographs are expected to bring viewers closer to the subject, creating the illusion of “direct” relationship or authentic testimony. Majoli is a member of the Magnum Photos cooperative, a prestigious institution long associated with the traditions of concerned and documentary photography. He joined Magnum as a nominee in 1996, became a full member in 2001, and was elected president from 2011 to 2014. This prominent position was celebrated by a 2012 article published in the Italian daily La Repubblica and fittingly titled “Magnum Italia,” stressing the role of Italian photographers and staff members at all levels of the agency.2 Majoli was then living in Williamsburg, a neighborhood which turned into a hub for the artistic community and which was home to fellow members David Alan Harvey and Christopher Anderson, for instance. After 14 years in Williamsburg, he recently decided to move to Sicily, away from the expensive rent and “ruthless individualism” of New York, where “everything seems designed to be sold and bought.3

  • 4 For a critical analysis of documentary practices, see for instance Sontag, 1977, Solomon-Godeau; an (...)

12When covering a story, some Magnum photographers have recently preferred the particular to the general and resisted the temptation to reduce a subject to a wider group, especially in the context of migration. In 2015 for instance, Peter van Agtmael reported on the arrival of Syrian refugees in the US with a story on one family settling in Chicago. This type of work focuses on individual journeys, aiming to give flesh and voice to migrants rather than representing anonymous, impersonal crowds. This approach has also been adopted by other Magnum photographers based in the US such as Jim Goldberg and Susan Meiselas, who reject the aestheticization of suffering and try to collaborate with their subjects, shunning stereotypes. In the wake of the critique of documentary authority, they seek to use their camera as a tool to enter into a dialogue with their subjects instead of entrapping them within fixed images.4 According to theorist Ariella Azoulay, photography can indeed result from a civil contract between the photographer, the subject and the viewer, creating alternative political communities (Azoulay 2008). Majoli’s spectacular photographs are at the far end of Azoulay’s proposal, exemplifying a breach of the contract she describes and values.

13Globally, artists also embrace participatory and collaborative practices, which may in turn lead to new deadlocks, when art becomes a comforting and superficial bandage to provide relief in situations of crisis (Kester; Bishop). Humanitarian views may indeed construct the migrant subject as a “victim” and depoliticize migration (Mezzadra and Neilson). Conversely, the status of the refugee can also be interpreted and idealized as a site of political experimentation, another stereotyped view which does not render justice to the experiences of migrants themselves (Demos). Even though they aim to let migrants speak for themselves, artists may be confronted with the inevitable presence of assumptions enclosing their subjects within pre-existing expectations; achieving an open dialogue is difficult and implies a renegotiation of the role of each participant.

14In the face of these obstacles, Majoli’s decision to reassert his subjective viewpoint offers an alternative solution, breaking away from the endeavors of his fellow photographers based in the US. He forces viewers to reflect on the role of the photographer’s mediations in shaping testimony. Using a strong flash, he does not seek to smooth over the violence of his overarching position as the one holding the camera, nor does he try to be invisible either, abandoning the fly-on-the-wall stance typical of documentary projects. His work marks a departure from the quest for specificity, and a return to the universalist spirit which prevailed in post-war photojournalism and which came to be criticized during the 1960s – an overt universalism now suffused with critical distance and contextualization. In his photographs, migrants are anonymous and represent a collective. This representation may be connected with the recent theorizing of the multitude as an active political body shaped by singularities (Galimberti; Hardt and Negri). The dialectics of the singular and the collective is at play in many of his photographs. In one, the repetition of anonymous profiles, hidden in the shadow, is broken towards the top of the frame, where three faces appear (Figure 2). On closer inspection, we realize most of the people are sleeping while seated and waiting. The mass of their bodies conveys a sense of coercion and weariness.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Alex Majoli, Migrants and refugees arriving on the Greek island of Lesbos, Greece, 2015, digital photographic file

© Alex Majoli/Magnum Photos

15Another photograph offers a paradoxical counter-portrait of multitude, present by proxy in the form of a pile of cell-phones charging in a camp near the Macedonian border: these are smartphones, just like the ones used all around the world, but their owners do not belong to any definite place and need to share plugs en route to their next journey. Their digital presence, familiar and anecdotal, seems more “acceptable” than in photographs crammed with exhausted bodies. This contrast is all the more striking as Majoli’s images function as a series, and their repetition creates an overwhelming, almost unbearable, feeling within viewers. These photographs’ sequencing also conveys information, as we follow the path of migrants from the disembarking of the boats to the registration and then on towards Germany or France. These scenes are full of agitation and tension, contrasting with the numerous photographs of people waiting. This is the stage where the “multitude” forms, as during the next steps, migrants are often separated on their way to Western Europe. The collective group is thus created by a bureaucratic registration process whereby they are “illegalized.”

  • 5 On the limits of the binary opposition between aesthetic and political concerns, see Azoulay, 2010.
  • 6 Exhibition from February 16 to April 1, 2017, with photographs made in Congo, Egypt, Greece, German (...)

16By choosing to depict a multitude, Majoli reasserts the collective dimension of the migrants’ crisis. His formal decisions, far from obscuring the political import of the images, force viewers to adopt a reflexive stance.5 In-between art and journalism, he renews the documentary tradition, imbuing his images with aesthetic value and circulating them across various contexts, like many other photographers in this field. The series was mostly presented as a portfolio but some photographs served to illustrate news articles, for instance in the French daily newspaper Libération. Others were exhibited in 2017 in New York at the Howard Greenberg gallery, along with additional prints on various subjects, each of them given a “scene” number.6 The title of the show, “Skēnē”, referred to the backdrop structure of an ancient Greek theatre, evoking the set of classic references claimed by the author. This connection may also invite to contemplate the importance of Greece as the “birthplace” of Western civilization, now facing numerous difficulties and a lack of support from its European partners. Another exhibition entitled “Scene” was presented in 2019 at Le BAL art center in Paris, with an accompanying catalogue including texts by David Campany and Corinne Rondeau reflecting on the interplay between fiction and reality.

  • 7 Rencontres de la photographie d’Arles, exhibition curated by Fanny Escoulen, 2017.

17The work was also presented at the Arles photography festival, together with images on the rise of Far Right groups in Europe, the large format prints forming an overwhelming grid from floor to ceiling (Figure 3).7 The exhibition title, “Titanic”, conjured the ghosts of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean and exposed the collapse of European integration–the tragic fates of transatlantic migrants seeking a better future in the US, a century ago, echoing those of the more than 22,000 migrants who drowned since 2014.

Figure 3

Figure 3

Installation view of Alex Majoli’s exhibition Titanic, curated by Fanny Escoulen, Rencontres de la photographie d’Arles, 2017, digital photographic file.

Source: Anne Courant, participatory album of the festival. https://www.rencontres-arles.com/​fr/​l-album/​index/​filter/​year/​2017

  • 8 On the representations of a never-ending flood of migrants, see Bischoff, Falk and Kafhesy.

18Majoli has indeed been documenting growing nationalist sentiment in various countries. One of his pictures from Germany shows a T-shirt with a slogan “refugees not welcome” all wrapped in plastic and ready to be shipped or sold, isolated against a black background. At the center, white silhouettes feature a family of three on the run: this depiction is far removed from what Majoli’s photographs, scenes dominated by waiting and weariness; it presents migrants as culprits trying to escape. He has also documented political groups, held together by shared beliefs and symbols, such as the fascist salute in Spain or the flags and crosses of “Britain First” at Far Right demonstrations in Dewsbury – a city singled out for protest because it is home to one of the largest mosques in the United Kingdom (Figure 4). These crowds represent yet another “multitude”, based on exclusion and codes, which seeks to embody a larger fantasy of the multitude, the “imagined community” of legitimate citizens threatened by “waves” of migrants.8 The confrontation of such photographs with the ones of migrants reveals the inequities between these groups, the former being chosen and claimed, the latter fortuitous and precarious.

Figure 4

Figure 4

Alex Majoli, “Britain First” protesters, Dewsbury, Great Britain, 2016, digital photographic file

© Alex Majoli/Magnum Photos

Conclusion

19Majoli’s photographs thus offer a theatrical depiction of the “multitude” of migrants, revealing how this category is constructed from one side of the border, by constraint and exclusion processes which make them illegal, but also showing the dialectics of the singular and the collective within this group, and thus reclaiming the political dimension of this topic. The parallel with photographs of Far Right groups in Europe emphasizes this interpretation, inviting us to reflect on our own positioning in relation with political bodies and on the agency of “legitimate” citizens as opposed to “illegalized” travellers.

20Majoli’s work appears to open up alternative possibilities, moving beyond the opposition between the classic, overarching universalist spirit of early documentary practices and later collaborative practices deconstructing the power relationships at play with a camera. His photographs cannot only be dismissed as exploiting their viewers’ voyeuristic fascination or marketing suffering for the profit of the photographer (Sontag 2003; Linfield; Kempf). Overtly exposing his aesthetic choices, Majoli leaves himself wide open to attacks but also invites viewers to reflect on their own role as witnesses before they merely “shoot the messenger.” Because it simultaneously aestheticizes and politicizes migrants’ journeys, his work ultimately summons feelings into the public discussion. Instead of the hatred and fear fueling Far Right discourses, these photographs may trigger a mixture of awe, empathy, shame and indignation, and contribute, in a precarious and always debatable way, to ongoing political conversations.

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Bibliography

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Notes

1 Majoli uses both the terms “refugees” and “migrants” in his captions. In this paper, I use the generic term “migrant”, as the specific status of these persons remains unclear. For further information, see Meyer, Pécoud and Witkamp; Crawley and Skleparis.

2 Article by Michele Smargiassi in the Sunday special edition La Domenica 384, 8 July 2012, 25-27.

3 Alex Majoli interviewed by Antonio Privitera in Vogue Italia, 14 October 2018.

4 For a critical analysis of documentary practices, see for instance Sontag, 1977, Solomon-Godeau; and for an alternative reading, Linfield.

5 On the limits of the binary opposition between aesthetic and political concerns, see Azoulay, 2010.

6 Exhibition from February 16 to April 1, 2017, with photographs made in Congo, Egypt, Greece, Germany, India, China, and Brazil between 2010 and 2016.

7 Rencontres de la photographie d’Arles, exhibition curated by Fanny Escoulen, 2017.

8 On the representations of a never-ending flood of migrants, see Bischoff, Falk and Kafhesy.

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List of illustrations

Title Figure 1
Caption Alex Majoli, Refugees waiting to board buses to be relocated in centers across France, Calais, 2016, digital photographic file
Credits © Alex Majoli/Magnum Photos
URL http://journals.openedition.org/miranda/docannexe/image/49594/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 1.5M
Title Figure 2
Caption Alex Majoli, Migrants and refugees arriving on the Greek island of Lesbos, Greece, 2015, digital photographic file
Credits © Alex Majoli/Magnum Photos
URL http://journals.openedition.org/miranda/docannexe/image/49594/img-2.jpg
File image/jpeg, 3.2M
Title Figure 3
Caption Installation view of Alex Majoli’s exhibition Titanic, curated by Fanny Escoulen, Rencontres de la photographie d’Arles, 2017, digital photographic file.
Credits Source: Anne Courant, participatory album of the festival. https://www.rencontres-arles.com/​fr/​l-album/​index/​filter/​year/​2017
URL http://journals.openedition.org/miranda/docannexe/image/49594/img-3.jpg
File image/jpeg, 262k
Title Figure 4
Caption Alex Majoli, “Britain First” protesters, Dewsbury, Great Britain, 2016, digital photographic file
Credits © Alex Majoli/Magnum Photos
URL http://journals.openedition.org/miranda/docannexe/image/49594/img-4.jpg
File image/jpeg, 2.3M
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References

Electronic reference

Clara Bouveresse, Alex Majoli’s Theatre of Migrations Miranda [Online], 26 | 2022, Online since , connection on 08 February 2023. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/miranda/49594; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/miranda.49594

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About the author

Clara Bouveresse

Maîtresse de conférences
Université d’Évry Paris-Saclay
clara.bouveresse@univ-evry.fr

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Copyright

CC-BY-NC-4.0

Creative Commons - Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International - CC BY-NC 4.0

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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