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Dossier. L’Est socialiste et le Sud : coopération éducative et formation des élites

Introduction. Socialist countries and the global South: Educational aid and student training

Constantin Katsakioris
Traduction de Constantin Katsakioris
p. 569-576
Cet article est une traduction de :
Introduction. L’Est socialiste et le Sud : coopération éducative et formation des élites [fr]

Texte intégral

  • 1 Julie Hessler, “Death of an African Student in Moscow: Race, Politics, and the Cold War,” Cahiers d (...)
  • 2 I use the terms “global South” and “Third World” interchangeably.
  • 3 I refer to British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s famous 1960 speech on the Asian and African co (...)
  • 4 Sergei V. Mazov, Politika SSSR v Zapadnoi Afrike, 1956-1964, doctoral thesis, Moscow, Institute of (...)

1Sixteen years ago, in this journal, Julie Hessler contributed an article which has since become a landmark in the historiography of the training of African students in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. “Death of an African Student in Moscow: Race, Politics and the Cold War” was part of a special issue, edited by Larissa Zakharova and Eleonory Gilburd, which investigated the social, political and cultural dynamics set off by Nikita Khrushchev’s Thaw both within socialist countries and their international relations.1 The socialist world’s opening to the countries of Asia and Africa which transitioned to independence and which, together with Latin America, constituted what contemporaries called the “Third World,” was one of the key themes the special issue addressed.2 Hessler explored the relations between the Soviet Union and Africa in a study of the first cohorts of African students who trained in the Soviet Union. By focusing on a tragic incident, the death of a Ghanaian student in December 1963, on the subsequent protests led by his peers and on Soviet reactions, she shed light on Black students’ adaptation and integration difficulties, the political and ideological conflicts with their Soviet hosts and on the racism they often faced: all these problems seriously undermined Moscow’s ambitions to “conquer the hearts and minds” of foreign students.3 Hessler’s widely cited article complemented the work of historians Sergei Mazov and Maxim Matusevich, other pioneers of Soviet-African relations. If Matusevich has delivered a comprehensive study of Soviet-Nigerian relations throughout the Cold War, and Mazov, an in-depth analysis of Moscow’s policies in West Africa during the Thaw tapping on a large number of Soviet archival sources, both have devoted great attention to the provision of scholarships and training to students from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Soviet Union.4

  • 5 Roger Kanet, “African Youth: The Target of Soviet African Policy,” Russian Review 27, 2 (1968): 161 (...)

2Since these studies were published, the historiography of the Second World’s provision of educational aid, particularly student training, to the Third World, has gone through remarkable development, breaking with a long period of neglect. It should be borne in mind that during the Cold War the political scientists who explored the scope, characteristics and effects of this aid were very few.5 The same was true for sociologists and anthropologists, who, unable as they were to do field research in socialist countries, neither contributed to the study of foreign students’ issues nor showed any interest in the trajectories and careers of thousands of graduates after they left the Eastern bloc and Yugoslavia. The dismantlement of East-South relations following the collapse of socialist states in Europe and most of the global South, together with the end of the Cold War and subsequent return home of the largest cohorts of graduates, dramatically reduced the political significance of the topic and undermined scholarly interest in it.

  • 6 Philip Altbach, D. Kelly, Y.G.M. Lulat, Research on Foreign Students and International Study: An Ov (...)
  • 7 Alain Coulon and Saeed Paivandi, “Les étudiants étrangers en France. L’état des savoirs,” working p (...)

3As a result, the state of the field during the 1990s sharply contrasted with the numerous studies conducted by scholars in various disciplines and especially by sociologists of education on foreign students who studied in Western countries. For example, a survey of this literature published in 1985 by three prominent sociologists listed more than 2,800 works.6 The “state of the art” on international students in France, released in 2003, added another two hundred.7 In many respects, therefore, the training of African, Asian and Latin American students in socialist countries and, more generally, those countries’ educational aid to the global South, constituted a “virgin land” mostly reserved for historians.

  • 8 Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (Cambri (...)

4The other reason for the renewed interest in the socialist countries’ educational aid programs has been the renewal of Cold War historiography. This was largely due to Odd Arne Westad’s famous book, The Global Cold War, which revisited the stiff competition between the United States and the Soviet Union – who championed two opposed models of economic development and sociopolitical modernization – in the Third World, and analyzed a number of conflicts and foreign interventions.8 Even though the book ultimately tells a political, ideological and military history of the superpowers’ interventions, Westad’s analytical framework, which invites historians to rethink the appeal, cultural transfers and reception of the Soviet and American models in the Third World, had a huge appeal. For historians of the socialist countries, the challenge was to revisit the relations between the Second and Third Worlds and retrieve missing chapters, including those related to cooperation in the fields of education, science and arts.

  • 9 Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Daniel Hemery and Jean Piel eds., Pour une histoire du développement: (...)

5This trend was reinforced by the historiography of development, a rapidly expanding field whose purpose was to analyze not only the discourse but most importantly a number of development projects led by the wealthier states or by the international institutions they usually controlled in postcolonial and less developed countries.9 Soviet and East European aid, whose importance had been downplayed for a long time, became part and parcel of the historiography of international development. The creation of educational institutions in Asia and Africa and the training of Third World students in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Cuba and China, constituted a major component of this aid. For all these reasons, education occupied a prominent place in the historiography of development, at the same time as it allowed scholars to raise issues of different natures. These dealt with the mutual perceptions between Eastern bloc citizens and foreign students, the experiences of professors and expatriates from the socialist countries and of Third World students, the problems of racism and xenophobia in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the effects of international education policies in terms of strengthening East-South relations and, most importantly, the impact and legacies of the socialist countries’ educational aid programs in recipient countries.

  • 10 About ELITAF, see Monique de Saint Martin, “Repères pour une histoire d’ÉLITAF Élites africaines (...)
  • 11 Monique de Saint Martin, Grazia Scarfò Ghellab and Kamal Mellakh eds., Étudier à l’Est. Trajectoire (...)
  • 12 Monique de Saint Martin and Patrice Yengo eds., “Élites de retour de l’Est,” special issue, Cahiers (...)

6The research project “African Elites Educated in former Soviet Bloc Countries: History, Biographies, Experiences” (Élites africaines formées dans les pays de l’ex-bloc soviétique. Histoire, biographies, expériences, ELITAF) was the first to address these questions in a systematic and interdisciplinary way.10 While the project’s first collective volume investigated the experiences of actors coming from both sides of the connection, the second volume brought together various studies focusing on North Africa.11 Overall, ELITAF’s strengths lay in the fact that it looked at the Eastern bloc and Africa simultaneously, raised the fundamental question how educational aid shaped African states and, at the same time, investigated the trajectories of African graduates after they left the Eastern bloc.12

7This special issue pursues ELITAF’s inquiry and contributes to a vibrant historical discussion initiated in recent years in several countries. Exploring the immense field of socialist countries’ educational cooperation with the Third World, scholars are rediscovering important episodes and actors, remarkable achievements and international trajectories, forgotten connections and intercultural transfers. This special issue sheds light on these not only in the Soviet Union and Sub-Saharan Africa but broadens the research scope to include India and Algeria, Romania and Czechoslovakia, Cuba and other countries. By doing so, it reassesses the dimensions of educational cooperation, at the same time as it reevaluates its political importance for donor countries, and its social and cultural impact on recipient countries. The authors of the eight contributions mobilize new sources, come up with original case studies and provide illuminating insights on the realities, experiences and legacies of these educational relations.

  • 13 Christine Hatzky, Kubaner in Angola. Sud-Sud-Kooperation und Bildungstransfer, 1976-1991 (Munich: O (...)

8Rachel Applebaum and Severyan Dyakonov examine the teaching of Russian and educational cooperation at secondary-level. They analyze the ideas, experiences and role of Soviet teachers and professors of Russian who taught in Africa and Asia. An important yet under-researched group compared to the students from the global South who trained in the Eastern bloc, these expatriates were present in a large number of countries, filling vacant positions in secondary and tertiary education and offering classes of Russian at universities and cultural societies. These representatives of a superpower, these – in Applebaum’s terms – “foot soldiers” of Moscow’s international cultural policies who boasted a large number of women were often exposed to a political environment that was less protected than in the Soviet Union and were compelled to react to critical or sometimes hostile remarks by their students and colleagues. Yet, they had to win their sympathy and convince them that the Soviet Union was telling the truth and that socialism was the only path to a descent future. Dyakonov shows how the first Soviet professors in India struggled to meet these challenges and promote the Russian language and a positive image of the Soviet Union. According to Applebaum, these challenges and the other experiences of Soviet educators in Tanzania, Senegal or Afghanistan ultimately reinforced the educators’ identification with the Soviet ideology and sociopolitical project. In any case, by focusing on Soviet expatriate teachers in the Third World, while the literature has so far concentrated on Cubans and East Germans, the two articles compel us to rethink this component of Soviet aid and to consider its impact on the actors’ worldviews, on bilateral relations and on “friendship between peoples.”13

9Gabrielle Chomentowski focuses on another field, in which socialist countries played a major role: the training of filmmakers from the Third World. Adopting a diachronic perspective in an attempt to highlight the continuities of this policy with the training of Central Asian and Caucasian filmmakers in the interwar period, as well as a synchronic and comparative approach allowing her to assess the role that Eastern bloc film schools played in relation to those in the West, Chomentowski delivers a timely synthesis on this extremely significant but also very complex question. The objectives and evolution of this aid, and its effects on the training of filmmakers, some of whom became prominent directors and founding fathers of national cinemas, testify to the importance of this part of educational aid and invite scholars to pursue the same inquiry with regards to the training of students in drama and the fine arts.

  • 14 On Romania, see also Mihai Dinu Gheorghiu et al., Itinéraires des élites africaines, and on Czech (...)

10Two more contributions focus on host countries and educational institutions that have not received enough attention: Czechoslovakia and the University of 17 November, which was modelled on Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow, in the article by Marta Edith Holečková and Romania in Bogdan Cristian Iacob’s article. If Czechoslovakia was a key actor during the 1960s, when it was the second most important destination for Third World students in the Eastern bloc, Romania too became important in the 1970s, when it championed the training of international students not only to promote ties with developing states but also to earn hard currency. As Holečková and Iacob demonstrate, both Czechoslovakia and Romania faced the same challenges as other socialist states in integrating students coming from remote and alien countries in societies largely indifferent about the problems of the Third World. At the same time, Holečková and Iacob show that both Czechoslovakia and Romania distinguished themselves from the Soviet Union, the former by closing down the University of 17 November in 1974 and the latter by pursuing its foreign relations without political or ideological constraints.14

  • 15 On the first generation of Cuban students in the Soviet Union, see also Raphael Pedemonte, “The fir (...)

11The challenge posed by student integration in the host countries is also the subject of the article by Liubov´ Ivanova and Sergei Mazov, who focus once again on African students. This time, however, the authors study how the Soviets tried to manage political and ethnic conflicts opposing students to their governments back home. What was to be done to protect students loyal to the Soviet Union without undermining diplomatic relations with their home countries? Ivanova and Mazov’s article fills an important gap in the literature, which has been mostly concerned with conflicts that occurred between the students and the citizens or the authorities of the host countries. Likewise, Isabelle DeSisto’s article is among the first to draw a comprehensive picture, supported by data, of Cuban students in the Soviet Union from the early 1960s to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.15 Using both archival documents and interviews, DeSisto shows that Cuban trainees, still very enthusiastic about the revolution and the construction of a communist society, were disillusioned with Soviet citizens’ lack of commitment and with the contradictions of late Soviet socialism. Last, Constantin Katsakioris examines the educational cooperation between Algeria and the Eastern bloc. His contribution goes beyond the Algerian independence war, which is certainly the most researched historical period, to argue that educational aid was instrumental in the Eastern bloc’s relations with Algeria throughout the Cold War and that it left an important legacy behind, such as educational institutions and an influential technical, scientific and creative intelligentsia.

  • 16 The article by Ophélie Rillon and Tatiana Smirnova, “Quand des Maliennes regardaient vers l’URSS,” (...)

12It is certainly possible to identify gaps in such a vast and complex field as the Second World’s educational aid to and cooperation with the Third World. For example, there exists no study about mixed couples and families, even though evidence suggests that they were common, nor about female students from the global South.16 The same is true regarding certain groups of trainees of great importance for developing nations such as economists or civil aviation engineers. The policies of educational institutions that played a major role in the training of Third World elites, like the Higher School of Economics Bruno Leuschner in Berlin-Karlshorst or the Gamal Abdel Nasser Institute at the University of Sofia, remain unknown. In addition, studies focusing on different generations of students and especially on the last ones, on regions other than Sub-Saharan Africa and, as mentioned above, on the careers, ideas, commitments and memories of graduates, are still missing.

13Nevertheless, building on the studies put together in this special issue and on the recently published literature, it is possible to draw a number of preliminary conclusions. First and foremost, it is safe to argue that the well-known saying, “If you want to produce a capitalist, send him to Moscow,” is particularly misleading. On the contrary, the socialist countries educated thousands of specialists and friends both at home and abroad thanks to their expatriate professors. The high academic standards in most disciplines and schools, the students’ follow-up by faculty members, the systematic practical training and the provision of scholarships were major advantages of education programs in the socialist countries. If the cooperation’s achievements, embodied by the thousands of graduates, are rather self-evident, the broader impact of this cultural policy is also very significant. Strong links were established through the different schemes of educational cooperation between donor and receiving countries, while friendship societies and alumni unions were founded by the returnees. Once we add the mixed families created by students, it is safe to argue that educational aid and exchange brought the postcolonial world closer to the socialist one in so many ways that the dismantlement of these ties between 1989 and 1991 cannot obliterate. Contrary to what one may assume, in most cases, the socialist countries’ educational aid programs and the ties that they fostered continued to flourish until the end of the 1980s.

  • 17 See James Mark, Artemy Kalinovsky and Steffi Marung eds., Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europ (...)

14Moreover, if one considers the data and evidence amassed by historians of educational aid in the broader picture of East-South relations, it is possible to present another argument: education was the second most important and dynamic field of East-South relations after military assistance to liberation movements and military cooperation with independent states. To be sure, the socialist states also pursued economic and technical cooperation with many Third World countries.17 Huge water dams and steel plants, for example, were built in Egypt, Syria, Algeria or Iran with Soviet loans and technical aid. If the impact of these development projects, heavily concentrated in the Middle East and North Africa, remains to be evaluated, it is possible to observe that economic and technical cooperation did not have the scope, continuity and steady increase of educational aid.

  • 18 Adam Mayer, Naija Marxisms: Revolutionary Thought in Nigeria (London: Pluto Press, 2016).

15By contrast, it appears safer to evaluate some of the effects of the socialist countries’ educational aid programs and the use of education as a tool of international cultural policy. On the one hand, the picture that emerges through the historical literature reveals several educational institutions created with these countries’ support and often functioning with their professors. On the other hand, it shows thousands of graduates, many of whom took over after foreign professors in secondary and higher education institutions. Some graduates, like the Algerians Abdellah Arbaoui and Djamil Aïssani, cited in Katsakioris’s paper, created new educational and research institutions which still exist today and provide training to the younger generations. Others, like the Nigerian economists and historians who had received training in Poland and the Soviet Union, and whose trajectories and work Adam Mayer has carefully analyzed, became prominent professors who left their imprint on Nigerian academic and intellectual life.18

  • 19 Abdou Moumouni, L’éducation en Afrique, preface by Joseph Ki-Zerbo (P.: Présence Africaine, 1998, (...)

16Beyond these facts, one should not underestimate the influence of the socialist states’ educational model and the discourse praising their achievements and expertise from literacy campaigns to the development of education at all levels. Academics, educators, writers and political activists who lived or traveled in the Soviet Union, like the Nigerien Abdou Moumouni, the Beninese Richard Dogbeh or the South African Alex La Guma, have expressed their fascination with these achievements and argued that African countries should draw inspiration from them.19 From the technical institutes and universities established in the Third World, the study programs devised by Eastern bloc expatriate professors to the workers’ faculties whose concept reached Asia, Africa and Latin America, the history of intercultural transfers is extremely rich and testifies to the socialist countries’ impact on the development of education in the Third World after decolonization.

  • 20 John Meyer, John Boli, Francisco Ramirez and Richard Rubison, “The World Educational Revolution, 19 (...)

17Taken together, these facts compel us to rethink the phenomenon that Western sociologists of education once described as an “educational revolution,” referring to the international commitment to the development of education in the Third World and its impressive expansion in the 1960s. According to them, the so-called educational revolution was a by-product of nation and state-building. It reflected the enormous social pressure for access to education, as well as the power of developmentalist ideologies which saw education and human resources as the drivers of development and modernization.20 Sadly though, while these sociologists highlighted these factors and referred to the crucial role of Western aid, they completely omitted the “socialist countries” factor. And yet, as the recent historical literature and this special issue clearly show, the educational revolution cannot be understood without seriously taking into consideration the role that the socialist countries played in the development of education and the training of Third World elites.

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Notes

1 Julie Hessler, “Death of an African Student in Moscow: Race, Politics, and the Cold War,” Cahiers du Monde russe 47, 1-2 (2006): 33-64, in Eleonory Gilburd and Larissa Zakharova eds., Repenser le Dégel: Versions du socialisme, influences internationales et société soviétique.

2 I use the terms “global South” and “Third World” interchangeably.

3 I refer to British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s famous 1960 speech on the Asian and African countries which transitioned to independence.

4 Sergei V. Mazov, Politika SSSR v Zapadnoi Afrike, 1956-1964, doctoral thesis, Moscow, Institute of World History, 2002; Maxim Matusevich, No Easy Row for a Russian Hoe: Ideology and Pragmatism in Nigerian-Soviet Relations, 1960-1991 (Trenton: Africa World Press, 2003).

5 Roger Kanet, “African Youth: The Target of Soviet African Policy,” Russian Review 27, 2 (1968): 161-75. Alvin Rubinstein, “Lumumba University: An Assessment,” Problems of Communism 20 (1971): 64-69; Seymour M. Rosen, The Development of People’s Friendship University (Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1973), 1-17.

6 Philip Altbach, D. Kelly, Y.G.M. Lulat, Research on Foreign Students and International Study: An Overview and Bibliography (New York: Praeger, 1985).

7 Alain Coulon and Saeed Paivandi, “Les étudiants étrangers en France. L’état des savoirs,” working paper, Paris 8 University, Center for Higher Education Research, 2003.

8 Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

9 Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Daniel Hemery and Jean Piel eds., Pour une histoire du développement: États, sociétés, développement (P.: L’Harmattan, 1988); Gilbert Rist, Le développement: histoire d’une croyance occidentale (P.: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1996); Corinna Unger, International Development: A Postwar History (London: Bloomsbury, 2018); Stephen Macekura and Erez Manela eds., The Development Century: A Global History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018); Sara Lorenzini, Global Development: A Cold War History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2019).

10 About ELITAF, see Monique de Saint Martin, “Repères pour une histoire d’ÉLITAF Élites africaines dans l’ancien bloc soviétique: histoires, biographies, expériences,” in Mihai Dinu Gheorghiu, Simona Corlan-Ioan and Abel Kouvouama eds., Itinéraires des élites africaines dans le monde: réseaux et transferts entre diasporas et “petites sociétés” (Iaşi: Editura Universităţii “Al. I. Cuza,” 2021), 23-53.

11 Monique de Saint Martin, Grazia Scarfò Ghellab and Kamal Mellakh eds., Étudier à l’Est. Trajectoires d’étudiants africains et arabes en URSS et dans les pays d’Europe de l’Est (P.: Karthala, 2015); Michèle Leclerc-Olive and Marie-Antoinette Hily eds., “Former des élites: Mobilités des étudiants d’Afrique au nord du Sahara dans les pays de l’ex-bloc socialiste,” special issue, Revue européenne des migrations internationales 32, 2 (2016).

12 Monique de Saint Martin and Patrice Yengo eds., “Élites de retour de l’Est,” special issue, Cahiers d’Études africaines 226, 2 (2017). In the same vein, see the special issue edited by Anton Tarradellas and Romain Landmeters, “Les étudiantes et les étudiants africains et la fabrique d’un monde postcolonial : mobilités et transferts (1950-2020),” in Diasporas. Circulations, migrations, histoire, 37 (2021).

13 Christine Hatzky, Kubaner in Angola. Sud-Sud-Kooperation und Bildungstransfer, 1976-1991 (Munich: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2012); Eric Burton, “Engineering Socialism: The Faculty of Engineering at the University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) in the 1970s and 1980s” and Alexandra Pepiorka, “Exploring ‘Socialist Solidarity’ in Higher Education: East German Advisors in Post-Independence Mozambique (1975-1992),” both in Damiano Matasci, Miguel Bandeira Jerónimo and Hugo Gonçalves Dores eds., Education and Development in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa: Policies, Paradigms, and Entanglements, 1890s-1980s (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020), 205-233 and 289-318.

14 On Romania, see also Mihai Dinu Gheorghiu et al., Itinéraires des élites africaines, and on Czechoslovakia, Barbora Buzássyová, “Socialist Internationalism in Practice: Shifting Patterns of the Czechoslovak Educational Aid Programmes to Sub-Saharan Africa, 1961-1989,” PhD thesis, Comenius University in Bratislava, 2021.

15 On the first generation of Cuban students in the Soviet Union, see also Raphael Pedemonte, “The first generation of Cuban students in the 1960s Soviet Union: Shaping a revolutionary ‘culture of militancy’,” Cold War History, online first in April 2022: https://doi.org/10.1080/14682745.2022.2057472.

16 The article by Ophélie Rillon and Tatiana Smirnova, “Quand des Maliennes regardaient vers l’URSS,” Cahiers d’Études africaines, 226, 2 (2017): 331-352, is an exception.

17 See James Mark, Artemy Kalinovsky and Steffi Marung eds., Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2020); James Mark and Paul Betts eds., Socialism Goes Global: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in the Age of Decolonization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022).

18 Adam Mayer, Naija Marxisms: Revolutionary Thought in Nigeria (London: Pluto Press, 2016).

19 Abdou Moumouni, L’éducation en Afrique, preface by Joseph Ki-Zerbo (P.: Présence Africaine, 1998, first published in 1964), 238; Richard Dogbeh, Voyage au pays de Lénine. Notes de voyage d’un écrivain africain en URSS, preface by Constantin Katsakioris, (Munich: Akademische Verlagsgemeinschaft München, 2022, first published in 1967); Alex La Guma, A Soviet Journey: A Critical Annotated Edition, introduction by Christopher J. Lee, preface by Ngugi Wa Thiong’o, (Lanham : Lexington Books, 2017, first published in 1978).

20 John Meyer, John Boli, Francisco Ramirez and Richard Rubison, “The World Educational Revolution, 1950-1970,” Sociology of Education 50, 4 (1977): 242-258; John Boli, Francisco Ramirez and John Meyer, “The Origins and Expansion of Education,” Comparative Education Review 29, 2 (1985): 145-170; Robert Fiala and Audri Gordon Lanford, “Educational Ideology and the World Educational Revolution, 1950-1970,” Comparative Education Review 31, 3 (1987): 315-332.

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Constantin Katsakioris, « Introduction. Socialist countries and the global South: Educational aid and student training »Cahiers du monde russe, 63/3-4 | 2022, 569-576.

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Constantin Katsakioris, « Introduction. Socialist countries and the global South: Educational aid and student training »Cahiers du monde russe [En ligne], 63/3-4 | 2022, mis en ligne le 02 décembre 2022, consulté le 08 décembre 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/monderusse/13257 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/monderusse.13257

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Auteur

Constantin Katsakioris

Institut of World History
Charles University, Prague
Ali Mazrui Centre for Higher Education Studies at Johannesburg University
Konstantinos.Katsakioris[at]ff.cuni.cz

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