Navigation – Plan du site

AccueilNuméros17VariaBetween “Utopia” and “Dystopia”

Varia

Between “Utopia” and “Dystopia”

American 20th century industrial novels and industrial sociology
Between “Utopia” and “Dystopia”. American 20th century industrial novels and industrial sociology
Entre “Utopía” y “Distopía”. Novelas industriales americanas del siglo XX y sociología del trabajo
Erik de Gier
Traduction(s) :
Entre « Utopie » et « Dystopie » [fr]

Résumés

Cet article s’intéresse aux relations entre le roman industriel et la sociologie du travail. S’il est admis que le roman industriel constitue une source précieuse, il est encore trop souvent négligé alors qu’il pourrait constituer d’excellentes sources secondaires pour la sociologie. C'est particulièrement le cas lorsque les romans industriels sont eux-mêmes basés sur un travail de terrain. Cet article se concentre sur quelques romans industriels américains modernistes emblématiques, publiés dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle. Il s'agit des romans d'Upton Sinclair qui traitent des conditions de travail et de vie dans les abattoirs de Chicago (1906), dans les mines de charbon américaines (1917 et 1976) et dans l’usine automobile d’Henry Ford (1937), mais également d’un roman industriel majeur, U.S.A. (1938), écrit au début de la Grande Dépression par John Dos Passos. Les sociologues peuvent ainsi non seulement se référer au roman industriel, mais également aux méthodes appliquées par les auteurs de ces romans qui se révèlent tout à fait pertinentes. Le modernisme expérimental radical de Dos Passos pourrait parfaitement enrichir les outils de recherche sociologiques existants.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 Also, sociology of work.
  • 2 Calvino quit the party after a few years.

1This article deals with industrial novels and its usually underestimated relevance for mainstream industrial sociology1. Industrial novels, a particular sub-genre of social novels, have played an important role with respect to the development of social and labour policies in various countries. Also, these novels contributed to the emancipation of workers and their families. A third objective of industrial novels was to give workers their own voice in literature. This was for example explicitly the case in post WWII Italy. In this country authoritative authors like Italo Calvino, Elio Vittorini and Paolo Volponi intendedly gave workers for the first time in Italian literature their own voice. Until the post-war economic boom in Italy a proper workman’s voice in literature was almost entirely absent (De Gier 2018). At the background the Italian Communist Party (PCI) played a significant pushing role. Both Calvino and Volponi had been active members of the PCI. Volponi even became senator for this party2.

2Industrial novels are not seldomly based on one or more forms of social research such as interviewing, participant observation, use of statistics and thorough study of documents (desk research). Next to narrative, a large part of these novels may therefore also be considered as a combination of pseudo-sociological research and research-based scientific journalism. For example, Volponi, nicknamed “il romanziere-sociologo”, used to work as a social director for the Olivetti type writer company in Milan and Ivrea. He was also close friends to Olivetti’s director and enlightened entrepreneur Adriano Olivetti, who gave him a lot of creative space in the company. For those reasons, his renown industrial novel “Memoriale” (1962) also is a critical but reliable account of the working conditions inside Olivetti in the 1950s. There are many other comparable examples of authors and writers of industrial novels in and outside Italy who based their works on research-like efforts: Ottiero Ottieri in Italy (also on Olivetti), Emile Zola in France (on mining in the North of France), Ilja Ehrenburg in the Soviet Union (on the French and American car industry), Emil Reger (on Krupp) and Siegfried Kracauer (on the new white-collar culture in Berlin) in Weimar Germany (De Gier 2018).

  • 3 Of course, Sinclair and Dos Passos were not the only writers of industrial novels in the US in this (...)

3In this paper I focus on industrial novels written in the USA in the early 20th century until the 1930s. From a sociological point of view, in this period, two authors of industrial novels are of particular interest: Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) and John Dos Passos (1896-1970)3.

4As was also the case with many authors of industrial novels in other countries, Sinclair and Dos Passos were leftist writers. Sinclair used his writing intentionally for influencing actively the national political and corporate elites. Dos Passos, before leaving his leftist stance after publishing his opus magnum U.S.A. (1936), was a member of the American communist party. Nevertheless, their books may be considered as reliable “realist” descriptions of the at the time actual labour relations and working conditions in American industry.

5After paying more attention to the relevant theoretical and methodological background in the next paragraph, I will first sketch the encompassing background of American industrial novels. This is a permanent tension between “utopia”- “dystopia”. The next step is to contextualize the industrial novels of both Sinclair and Dos Passos. Their novels may be considered as exponents of a unique long-lasting progressive period in the United States. Then, the industrial novels of both Sinclair and Dos Passsos themselves will be analysed from a sociological viewpoint. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn.

Theoretical and methodological background

6Industrial novels are as old as the first English industrial revolution. Only, the nature of these novels varied over time. A meaningful distinction can be made between “traditional” industrial novels written in the 18th and 19th century and those written in the 20th century and so far in the 21st century. The first ones usually have a more impressionistic character whereas the last ones more often are based on facts and author’s research on site. Therefore, from a strict sociological viewpoint particularly “modern” 20th century industrial novels are more relevant for sociology. The industrial novels of Sinclair and Dos Passos definitely belong to the modern type.

  • 4 Think in this respect of Park, Thomas, Burgess, Wirth, Zianecki and Veblen (Abbott 1999; Fine 1995)

7From the onset of sociology, sociologist have recognized the possible relevance of literature and narrative. For example, narrative already played an important role in 19th century Chicago’s city sociology4. Nowadays, a new impressive stream of narrative and sociology has become manifest (Packer 2013; Russell Hochshild 2016; Vance 2016; Desmond 2016). Worth noting is also the rather new “mixed” discipline of American Studies, which is a sort of “middle ground between literary criticism and sociology” according to one of its co-founders Henry Nash Smith in 1957 (Bradbury 1969: 111).

8Jackson discerned four areas in which sociology and literature have something to say to each other (Jackson 1969).

9First of all, literature could fulfil the function of general documentation for the sociologist.

10Secondly, the sociologist, by drawing illustrations from literature, could underline a particular period included in sociological analysis.

11Thirdly, by analysing intrinsically a literary work a sociologist could consider such a literary work as the “given” subject of his research.

12Last but not least, the interpretation of social action requires from the sociologist some understanding of the “Weltanschauung” of the writer: “If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” (according to F. Zianecki in 1940).

13More recently Penadés contended that literature generally may contribute to the social sciences in three different ways. These are: observations about unknown data, interpretations about how more specifically function certain social mechanisms, and by exploring alternatives of the current reality. In his vision literature not only encompasses literature in a strict sense but also science fiction and the genre of detectives. For example, by combining imagination, logic and empirical contrasts, the books of Sherlock Holmes contain at least twelve significant lessons for social scientists, such as the capacity to reason backwards (or “backward induction”) in addition to induction and deduction (Penadés 2019). In this way literature could even serve as a primary source for social research.

  • 5 By 1925 the majority of Americans could dispose of hot and cold running water, flush toilets, furna (...)

14In addition, I am convinced that contextualizing industrial novels written in specific time periods in its proper socio-economic, cultural and political contexts adds significant interpretative sociological value. In case of American industrial novels written in the first part of the 20th century these relevant contexts are the large progressive period marked by the so-called “Progressive Era” between 1900-1923 and the almost subsequent “New Deal” order between 1930-1940. Apart from being a time of impressive social and cultural changes and reforms in the United States, the long period between 1900-1940 was a period of increasing wealth and consumption never experienced before in American history until the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. As a result, the traditional small-town culture based on traditional family values was almost entirely replaced by a more cosmopolitan individualistic materialist culture 5(Lynd & Lind 1925; Lynd & Lynd 1937).

Between utopia and dystopia

15Before focusing on the industrial novels of Upton Sinclair and John Dos Passos it makes sense to spend some words on two other remarkable “industrial novels” marking the beginning and the end of the era of the “modern” industrial novel in America. The first one, Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward, published in 1888 is full of utopic optimism. It sketches in a preliminary way a futuristic 20th century socialist welfare utopia. The second novel on the other hand, Dave Eggers’s The Circle, published in 2013, sketches a gloomy dystopic future of future American (industrial) society. That is a future dystopian totalitarian knowledge society dominated by large international technology enterprises.

16Looking backward tells the story of Julian West, a young Bostonian, who falls in a deep hypnotic sleep in a basement bedroom with thick concrete walls in 1888 (Bellamy 1888). He wakes up in a totally changed, “utopian”, society in the year 2000. By 2000 the anterior late 19th century Victorian society had been transformed into a society in which particularly middle-class women enjoyed new rights and opportunities thanks to new labour-saving devices and government services. By contrast to the late 19th century American society women got in the fictitious year 2000 for the first time entitled to paid work, property rights and voting rights. Bellamy’s book was widely read at the time. It had an enormous societal impact. So-called reformist Bellamy societies sprang up all across America. The book inspired strongly the new late-Victorian middle-class reform movement in the country (McGerr 2003: 48-52).

17How different is Eggers’s recent book (Eggers 2013)! Also, a sort of future oriented science fiction, in this novel utopianism is entirely replaced by postmodern pessimism. Its protagonist, 24 years old Mae Holland, is going to work for a large American internet company, called “The Circle”. By means of influential subtle internet-based management techniques she is forced indirectly to increase her work-speed permanently. At the same time her room of manoeuvre and freedom of speech get limited. However, in case of good corporate behaviour Mae and her family are entitled to all kinds of welfare work rights, as an extensive health insurance, The Circle is providing in behalf of its employees and their families. At the background Mae’s former boyfriend who does not work for The Circle sees through the situation and in vain warns Mae in a penetrating way for her increasing dependency of The Circle and her loss of freedom. The resulting picture is without a doubt gloomy: a future American society dominated by large internet firms almost controlling entirely both working life and living conditions of its workers.

18Both novels span a time period of more than one hundred years in which the nature of working life has been changed radically. In the late 19th century among reformers and trade unionists, there was still a lot of hope and confidence with regard to being able to improve and lift up in a substantial way the class conditions of the at the time new industrial army of workers. At the beginning of the 21st century this hope has faded almost entirely. Instead, future work will be dominated by modern information and data technologies. Future workers will be contained both professionally and privately by large Big-brother like corporations, such as The Circle.

19These two novels also illustrate the background tension of the 20th century industrial novels dealt with here. They are setting the stage.

Contextualizing American early 20th century industrial novels

  • 6 In 1900 two-thirds of the American population lived in rural areas and small towns. By 1920 more th (...)

20When interpreting properly industrial novels, it is essential to consider also the factual socio-economic and political context of the time period in which these novels were written. With respect to early 20th century American industrial novels these include two successive periods known as the “Progressive Era”, spanning the period 1900-1929, and the “New Deal” order, spanning the period 1930-1940. As the Progressive Era can be seen as a direct reaction on the preceding conservative period, I need to pay also some attention to the “Gilded Age” (1870-1890s). The Gilded Age was the period after the ending of the American Civil War in which the country rapidly industrialized and urbanized with a rather continuous high economic growth6. The most important industries of that time were railroads, steel, and mining. This attracted a huge quantity, about twenty million, of mostly European immigrants (Pastorello 2014: 50). Although the wealth of the country increased enormously, its distribution was highly unequal. On the one side there were the extreme wealthy so-called “robber barons” like industrialists Jay Gold, Henry Clay Frick, Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. On the other hand, a big mass of usually poor industrial workers emerged. These were mostly European immigrants. This resulted in a new social and national labour problem, aggravated by two economic recessions in 1873 and 1893 respectively. One important indicator of this new problem was the increasing incidence of lock outs of workers and not seldomly severe and violent strikes, such as the railroad strike of 1877, the “Haymarket-affaire” in 1886, the “Battle of the Homestead in 1892 and the Pullman strike of 1894. In particular the Battle of the Homestead stands out as a turning point in American industrial relations. This conflict dealt with the control of the Homestead Steel Works owned by Andrew Carnegie. After a “dramatic and bitter” strike Carnegie and his chief executive Henry Flick succeeded in eradicating the “Amalgamated Association of Iron Steel Workers” (a craft union) and gained complete control of his steel company. After the defeat of the Amalgamated a new economic and political order was born in America. This new order, founded on an alliance between industry and the national government, “brought spectacular technological innovations and greater national output, visible everywhere from the great urban skyscrapers to the swell of mass-produced consumer goods. It also brought new social dislocation and suffering to industrial workers, who had lost any measure of power at the workplace” (Wilentz 1992; Krause 1992). In sum, the Gilded Age, asked for a reformist reaction that solved to some extent the new working-class problem. This became the Progressive Era.

21Historian Karin Pastorello defines the Progressive Era and its progressivism as “a multifaceted effort of reformers to identify and solve the problems of industrialization and Urbanization” (Pastorello 2014: 7; also, Hofstadter 1955). Its main objective was to create a new middle-class paradise in the U.S. by means of a “great work of reconstruction” (McGerr 2003: 80, 317, 319). Social reformers tried to realize this by a two-sided complementary approach which should neutralize the extremities of the Gilded Age. Primarily by containing the rich, including the robber barons and the large corporations, as well as by uplifting and civilize the mass of American workers by forging a new American middle class. In a practical sense, this resulted in nation-wide educational reforms, redistribution of wealth and income, and the introduction of anti-trust legislation, food safety and health and safety legislation.

22During the Gilded Age America had become a country of two extremes. In fact, The US existed in that time of “two nations”. On the one side, there was the rich individualistic leisure class living in extreme luxury as described extensively by Thorstein Veblen in his seminal book “The Theory of the Leisure Class” (Veblen 1925/1970). On the other hand, there was the in numbers rapidly increasing socialist working class.

  • 7 According to the Social Gospelers employers should treat their workers primarily as members of a la (...)

23The new emerging middle class, by 1900, consisted of 12-16 million people, or about twenty percent of the American population at that time (McGerr 2003: 43). The progressive movement and their leaders formulated a very ambitious reform agenda which encompassed reshaping adult behaviour by banning liquor, eradicating prostitution and limiting divorce and promoting women’s rights. Also, this movement intended to improve the working and living conditions of workers by promoting welfare work and efficiency (F.W. Taylor’s scientific management), controlling corporate power and big business, rural reform and last but not least requiring a more active role of the federal government in the socio-political and economic field (McGerr 2003:79-81). In itself the progressive movement consisted of a variety of organizations, institutions and middle-class reformers. Key reformers, among others, were for example Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Both women established Hull House, the first American settlement house in a Chicagoan working-class neighbourhood. Also important were the so-called Social Gospelers, a protestant group of social reformers7, educational reformers (John Dewey), trade unions, a group of progressive investigative journalists (Upton Sinclair) as well as the three successive presidents who made up the Progressive Era: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson. The ultimate overall objective of the progressive movement was not only to end class conflict but “to remake America” (McGerr 2003: 94, 118).

24All in all, the Progressive Era, was constituted by three particular phenomena. These were: industrialization, immigration and urbanization (Pastorello 2014: 10). The Progressive Era was also the period in which entertainment and leisure became accessible to workers. For the first time in history American workers could visit dance halls and cinemas and enjoy other forms of entertainment like sports (Pastorello 2014: 51).

25According to historian Daniel T. Rodgers the progressive Era was first and foremost “an era of shifting, ideologically fluid, issue-focused coalitions, all competing for the reshaping of America” (Rodgers 1982: 114). The progressives focused their discontents in this context on three clusters of ideas: anti-monopolism, an emphasis on social bonds and the social nature of human beings and finally, the language of social efficiency (Rodgers 1982: 123).

26In the wake of the Great Crash of the stock markets on Thursday October 24, 1929, and the subsequent Great Depression in the 1930s the New Deal was shaped by President F.D. Roosevelt and his group of so-called New Dealers (Francis Perkins, Harry Hopkins, and others). This turned out to become a second substantial progressive social reform period in the US. In its core the New Deal consisted of vast package of collective state legislation and administration, as well investments in public works. It was primarily directed at overcoming and repairing the vast economic and social damage (mass unemployment, poverty and want) of the economic slump. It is common to make a distinction between the so-called First new Deal and the Second New Deal. The First New Deal, from 1933 onward, encompassed the first hundred days of F.D. Roosevelt’s presidency. Roosevelt started with reorganizing the American banking system and introduced various recovery-oriented administrations, such as the National Recovery Administration (NRA), the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). During the Second New Deal, from 1935 onward, the active role of the federal government further expanded with the introduction of new and more extensive work programs (Works progress Administration WPA) and the introduction of the Social Security Act including old age insurance, unemployment and disability insurance, and aid for poor families. Also, new labour law was introduced (National Labor Relations Act or Wagner Act). The Wagner Act created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and regulated collective bargaining. It also stimulated the growth and recognition of trade unions by employers. The most visible outcome of all these efforts was not the recovery of the American economy and eradication of mass unemployment in the 1930’s but the creation of the first labour-protective American welfare state.

27In sum, the New Deal was an era of the development of an ambitious spirit of pragmatic experimentation aimed at establishing new rules of social justice. Like the Progressive Era it was broadly supported by the American middle class (Rauchway 2008; Kennedy 1999). However, by contrast to the Progressive Era the main agency of reform of the New Deal was not the middle class itself but the Federal government. For the first time the Federal government acted as an active ally of organized labour and other reform groups.

Upton Sinclair’s realist industrial novels

  • 8 After publishing the book version of The Jungle also a theater version was made and later, in 1913, (...)

28Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) was not only a writer of literary novels but also a journalist and a leftist political activist (Arthur 2006; Mattson 2008). He wrote some 90 novels, among which several industrial novels. In these novels he not only described critically industrialized America from the viewpoint of the workers but also from the perspective of the capitalist employers such as Henry Ford and John D. Rockefeller. Nevertheless, his heart is beyond doubt at the workmen’s side. He gives them a clear and proper voice in his industrial novels. According to historian Mattson, Sinclair was first of all a recorder of historical events as they occurred than a novelist. For this reason, in his opinion, Sinclair turned out to be more a political than a literary figure (Mattson 2008: 8). The Jungle, published in 1906 when he was 27 years old is widely considered as his most important industrial novel8. Thereafter he published a second industrial novel in 1917: King Coal and a third one in 1937: The Flivver King. A late sequel to King Coal, the Coal War was published in 1967. As a writer of industrial novels, partly narrative fiction and partly investigative journalism, Upton Sinclair belonged to the at the time high-profile reform-oriented group of investigative journalists and photographers who tried to influence unpleasant company and government policies, the so-called muckrakers. The muckrakers, a term coined by President Theodore Roosevelt, became active by the end of the 19th century and addressed a multitude of issues related with industrialization, such as: life in urban areas, political corruption, child labour, inhumane living conditions of prisoners, women’s inequality, the drug trade, the tax system, the insurance industry, oil, exploitation of natural resources, tobacco trusts and beef. Well-known muckrakers were for example Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens and also Upton Sinclair. Their primary audience were middle- and upper-class readers (Pastorello 2014: 57-64; see also, Filler 1976).

29When Upton Sinclair published The Jungle in 1906 the public and political influence of the Muckrakers was at its peak. Their publications contributed to the introduction of anti-trust regulations, the regulation of railroad fares, the establishment of the United States Department of Agriculture, the introduction of the Pure Food Act, as well as to the direct election of senators (Pastorello 2014: 63-64).

  • 9 Chicago was at that time a city where all of America’s new problems and progress converged, includi (...)

30Sinclair’s The Jungle, dealing with the living and working conditions of immigrant workers in meatpacking town Chicago as well as with unsanitary food processing circumstances, incited government intervention in the meatpacking industry (introduction of the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act in 1906)9. In response to The Jungle President Theodore Roosevelt even invited Sinclair for a personal luncheon talk to the White House.

31Before writing The Jungle, Sinclair carried out several months of preparatory research including working undercover about seven weeks in Chicago’s meatpacking industry during a stockyard strike: “So, in October 1904 I set out for Chicago, and for seven weeks lived among the wage slaves of the Beef Trust, as we called it in those days” (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2050). “I sat at night in the homes of the workers, foreign-born and native, and they told me their stories, one after one, and I made notes of everything. In the daytime I would wander about the yards, and my friends would risk their jobs to show me what I wanted to see. I was not so much better dressed than the workers, and found that by the simple device of carrying out a dinner pail I could go anywhere”. And, “I went about the district, talking with lawyers, doctors, dentists, nurses, policemen, politicians, real-estate agents – every sort of person (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2059; Mattson 2008: 54). His research and documentary work resulted for example in the following striking observations (Sinclair 1906):

“It was all so very business-like that one watched it fascinated. It was pork making by machinery, pork making by applied mathematics” (27);

“At the end of this hog’s progress every inch of the carcass had been gone several times; and then it was rolled into the chilling room, where it stayed for twenty-four hours, and where a stranger might lose himself in a forest of freezing hog” (28);

“You might easily pick out the(se) pacemakers, for they worked under the eye of the bosses, and they worked like men possessed. This was called “speeding up the gang” (42).

“The speeding-up seemed to be growing more savage all the time; they were continually inventing new devices you crowd the work on” (81).

“Most of the men hated their work. They hated the bosses and they hated the owners; they hated the whole place, the whole neighbourhood – even the whole city, with an all-inclusive hatred, bitter and fierce” (42-43).

“She (Marija) was shut up in one of the rooms where the people seldom saw the daylight, beneath her were the chilling rooms; and so, she stood on an ice-cold floor, while her head was often so hot that she could scarcely breathe. Trimming beef of the bones by the hundred-weight, while standing up from early morning till late at night, with heavy boots on and the floor always damp and full of puddles, etc.” (77).

“A physician made the discovery that the carcasses of steers which had been condemned as tubercular by the government inspectors, and which therefore contained ptomaines, which are deadly poisons, were left upon open platforms and carted away to be sold in the city, etc.” (71).

32The book was first published in serial form in 1905 in a socialist newspaper “Appeal to Reason” with a circulation of about 300.000, and subsequently also in the Socialist journal “One-Hoss Philosophy”.

  • 10 Also, outside the US, particularly in the UK, The Jungle caught serious attention. For example the (...)

33Sinclair got direct inspiration by formerly published articles on working in the meatpacking industry of another muckraking journalist Algie Martin Simons in the Journal of American Sociology in 1899 (Pastorello 2014: 62-63). The Jungle almost immediately stirred a sensation in the country and raised a fierce public discussion. His contemporary socialist writer and admirer Jack London remarked; “The beautiful theoretics of Bellamy’s “Looking Backward” are all very good. They served their purpose, and served it well. “Looking Backward” was a great book, but I dare say “The Jungle”, which has no beautiful theoretics, is an even greater book” (Brewster Folsom 1979: 251)10.

  • 11 According to Mattson Henry Ford’s famous assembly line was foreshadowed in the meat factories (Matt (...)

34Main theme of the novel is the arrival in Chicago at the turn of the 19th century of an extended Lithuanian immigrant family. Several members of the family find work in the slaughter houses and meatpacking industry. But the working and living conditions they meet in the so-called Beef-Trust, one of the biggest industries at that time in the US, are very tough. In fact, they are literally exploited. Protagonists of the book are the young couple Jurgis Rudkus and Ona Lukoszalte. After being sacked after a while by the big Durham Pork factory Jurgis carried out several other jobs in a harvester works and a steel mill respectively. Gradually, over time, he develops himself into a labour activist. The first part of the book is a meticulous documentary reconstruction of the division of labour in the meatpacking industry and its bad working conditions (Mattson 2008: 62)11. Sinclair also gives a “detailed description of the applied methods of dispatching livestock and the ways the carcasses are transmuted into a plenitude of products” (Brewster Folsom 1979: 242-234). The book ends in the fifty last pages with a propagandist plea for socialism, “ceasing to be a story at all and becoming a harangue” (Becker 1959: 133). To Sinclair The Jungle was not only a muckraking book or a Zola-like naturalist novel, but “a book which would show the economic forces driving the working class to socialism” (Brewster Folsom 1979: 251).

35Remarkable is that Sinclair didn’t start from the onset the novel as a novel but, as he contends in his Autobiography, as a piece of social research. The narrative part was added after observing a Lithuanian wedding party, while carrying out his on-site research activities (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2076).

36During his lifetime Sinclair published some other industrial novels. In this context I need to refer in particular to novels about a vicious labour conflict in the coalmining industry in Colorado in 1913-1914 and a novel about Henry Ford and the strained labour relations in this company.

  • 12 Before writing King Coal and The Coal War Sinclair made several trips to the Colorado coal fields d (...)

37The two novels on coalmining were published in 1917 (“King Coal”) and posthumously after Sinclair passed away in 1976 (“The Coal War”) (Sinclair 1917; Sinclair 1976). From the viewpoint of industrial sociology, the latter definitely is the most interesting, because it mainly is a documentary account of the Colorado coalminers strike12. The Coal War, in effect, is a supplement to King Coal. At the time, in 1917, the publisher (Macmillan) did not want to print it in its given form. Sinclair refused to adapt the novel into a less-documentary and more narrative form. Therefore, this sequel of King Coal remained unpublished until 1976 when John Graham, an Associate Professor of English at the University of Colorado, edited and finally published the manuscript (Barnes Jensen 1978: 111-112; Owen 1975: 325). The labour conflict dealt with in the two novels concerns a long-lasting strike (late 1913 until Spring 1914) in the Colorado coal fields, owned by John D. Rockefeller’s Colorado Fuel and Iron Company and other mine owners. They wanted to end the existing closed-shop system by guaranteeing the right to work without union membership. Subsequently, more than 10.000 workers went on strike to prevent this. Then, strikers were evicted from company housing and state militia was brought in. On Easter 1914 the militia attacked a striker’s tent camp and killed some sixteen people including twelve children (the so-called Ludlow massacre). This caused a ten days war between the strikers and the state militia. Ultimately Federal troops disarmed the strikers (Rosenzweig et al.: 2008: 253).

38Protagonist of King Coal and The Coal War story is Hal Warner, a son of a wealthy upper-class family, who is going to work as a sort of undercover worker in the coal fields. Warner identifies himself strongly with the plight and fate of the miners and the labour unions. He becomes their advocate. However, after the strike he appears not being able to commit himself anymore to the working class.

39“The Flivver King: A Story of Ford America” was published by Sinclair in 1937 (Sinclair 1937). In this novel Sinclair intertwines the story of industrialist Henry Ford with the story of a fictional Ford employee, Abner Shutt, and his family during the first decades of the 20th century. In this way Sinclair juxtaposed two opposing social worlds. From the perspective of the Shutt-family it is a fictional novel about the dehumanizing working conditions at Ford, the spying and policing of the workers, the ascend into, and successively descent of the middle class of Abner Shut’s family while working for Ford. The novel ends with the beating of Tom, Abe’s youngest son, by Ford Company thugs while actively supporting the new UAW inside the company. Sinclair contends about this in his Autobiography:

“Henry Ford was blindly and stubbornly opposed to unionization and declared that he would close his plants rather than have them organized. There was a strike. Frank Murphy mayor of Detroit, said to me at the dinner table of Rob Wagner in Beverly Hills: “Henry Ford employs some of the worst gangsters in Detroit, and I can name them”. And, “Because I had known Ford, I was much interested in what was going on; as usual, I decided to make a novel of it. I called the book Flivver King, and when it was done, I sent a copy of the manuscript to one of the strike leaders in Detroit… They wanted the story, and they wanted it quickly. I offered them 200.000 pamphlet copies to be retailed at fifty cents a copy…and the result was that in Ford plants all over the world workers could be seen with a little green paperbound book”. As a consequence, so Sinclair, Ford “suddenly gave way and permitted his plants to be organized” (Sinclair 1962: loc. 5068-5086; also, Mattson: 200).

40In May 1962 the at the time renowned chairman of the UAW, Walter Reuther, awarded Sinclair in behalf the of the Union of Automobile Workers with the “Social Justice Award”, an ebony plaque with the following citation: “With admiration and affection and in thankful appreciation for the great moral courage and social conscience that motivated your writings as you exposed the inhuman exploitation of labour in American industrial jungles. Your life and your work have contributed immeasurably to the extension of the frontiers of Social Justice” (Sinclair 1962: loc. 5714).

“U.S.A. is the speech of the People”13: John Dos Passos experimental trilogy

  • 13 Dos Passos considers U.S.A. as “the speech of the people”. He ends his introduction to the trilogy (...)
  • 14 After finishing U.S.A Dos Passos changed his political stand radically into a rightist conservative (...)
  • 15 Dos Passos fitted very well in the at the in the 1920-1930s first in Weimar Germany and Europe emer (...)

41In comparison to Upton Sinclair John Dos Passos (1896-1970), although still a naturalist writer, was a radical different modernist. Both had in common their leftist progressive political activism, as well as their interest in documentary facts and reportage. But Dos Passos developed a radical new avant-gardist experimental modernist style14. The method he applied was influenced strongly by cubist painting (F. Léger, G. Braque, P. Picasso) and experimental cinema (D.W. Griffith, Eisenstein, Pudovkin) (Foster 1986: 186-194)15. Dos Passes was also a member of the so-called Cultural Front. This was a sort of influential avant-gardist proletarian club of intellectuals, painters, musicians, film makers which had the intention to reshape American culture. U.S.A., his most important work, is not limited to an industrial novel in a strict sense. This novel has a broader scope (Dos Passos 1938/1960). In U.S.A. Dos Passos tried to “chronicle” in a kaleidoscopic way the American society in the first decades of the 20th century. This was the time of the beginning of the American century, marked by continuous intensive industrialization, urbanization and immigration as well as a bigger political involvement of the US in international matters. It was also the aftermath of the Great War, the Wall-street crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. In this context, according to Dos Passos, no less than the survival of the American dream was at stake.

  • 16 Dos Passos published the first volume of U.S.A “1919” in 1930; the second volume “Nineteen-Nineteen (...)
  • 17 An extensive content analysis is given by Denning 1997: 163-199. See also Pizer 1988.
  • 18 Gretchen Foster summarizes the meaning of the various devices as follows: “While the newsreels’ mon (...)

42During his lifetime Dos Passos wrote more than forty books including novels, biographies, essays, memoirs and poetry. His most important novels are “Three Soldiers” (1920), “Manhattan Transfer” (1925), and his ultimate masterpiece “U.S.A.” (1938). Three Soldiers, which was written in France, reveals the story of three American soldiers “destroyed by a military system that closely mimicked the core values and methods of a modern industrial society (Pizer 2012: 53). Manhattan Transfer deals with the complexity of New York life between 1890 and the mid-1920s (Pizer 2012: 56). Both novels can be considered as a prelude to the U.S.A.-trilogy16. In U.S.A. Dos Passos definitely perfected his avant-gardist writing method. This method encompassed a “montage” (combination and juxtaposition) of different fragments of cubism/futurism, film technique, reportage and narrative. According to Donald Pizer, an American literary critic and renowned expert on the works of Dos Passos, the key ideas of Dos Passos are simultaneity and fragmentation: “a reality is stripped to its basic fragmentary components as these exist in space and time and these parts are then rearranged on the canvas to represent the whole as a simultaneity”. Thus, the “fleeting world is recorded the way the motion picture film it recorded” (Pizer 2012: 54-55). Effectively, Dos Passos applied four different alternating albeit linked “devices” or descriptive forms. These are “newsreels”, “camera eye”, “subjective narrative” and “biography” respectively. Each device chronicles actual scenes from different angles, such as objective facts, impressions, images and personal subjective thoughts of the author. On the whole the book consists of 68 Newsreels, 51 Camera Eyes, 27 biographical portraits and a number of fictional narratives organized around twelve major characters.17 18

43American studies expert Michael Denning considers the concise biographical essays as the best part of the trilogy: “More than any other part of the book, the portraits embody the history Dos Passos wanted to tell, chronicling the republic from the year of Buchanan’s election (when, we are told, both Woodrow Wilson and Frederick Winslow Taylor were born) to 1929, the symbolic year in which both Thorstein Veblen and Paxton Hibben die.” (Denning 1997: 171)). These biographical essays deal with a number of at that time high-profile Americans, such as steel baron Andrew Carnegy, car producer Henry Ford, the inventor of Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor and labour leader Eugene W. Debs. Illustrative for Dos Passos’s succinct experimental style are for example the following text fragments:

“Debs was a railroadman, born in a weatherboarded shack at Terre Haute.
At fifteen Gene Debs was already working as a machinist on the Indianapolis and Terre Haute Railway.
He worked as a locomotive fireman,
clerked in a store
joined the local of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, was elected secretary, travelled all over in the country as organizer.
He was a tall shamblefooted man, had a sort of gusty rhetoric that set on fire the railroad workers in their pinboarded halls
made them want the world wanted” (Dos Passos 1966: 37-38).

“Frederick Winslow Taylor (they called him Speedy Taylor in the shop) was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, the year of Buchanan’s election. / the mother came from a family of New Bedford whalers, she was a great reader of Emerson, belonged to the Unitarian Church and the Browning Society. [...] She laid down the rules of conduct:
self-respect, self-reliance self-control and a cold long head for figures.
But when he got to the foreman, he was on the management’s side of the fence,
gathering in on the part of those and the management’s side all the great mass of traditional knowledge which in the past has been in the heads of the workman. He couldn’t stand to see an idle lathe or an idle man.
[...] He broke up the foreman’s job into separate functions, speedbosses, gangbosses, timestudy men, order-of- work men.
The skilled mechanics were too stubborn for him; what he wanted was a plain handyman who’d do the what he was told” (Dos Passos 1966: 745-749).

Henry Ford “was forty years old before the Ford Motor Company was started and production began to move.
[...] In 1913 they established the assembly line at Ford’s. That season the profits were something like twentyfive million dollars, but they had trouble in keeping the men on the job, machinists didn’t seem to like at Ford’s.
[...] The American Plan; automotive prosperity seeping down from above: it turned out there were strings to it.
But that five dollar day
paid to good, clean American workmen who didn’t drink or smoke cigarettes or read or think, and who didn’t commit adultery and whose wives didn’t take in boarders,
made America once more the Yukon of the sweated workers of the world;
made all the tin lizzies and the automotive age, and incidentally
made Henry Ford the automobileer, the admirer of Edison, the birdlover, the great American of his time” (Dos Passos 1966: 769-776).

44For industrial sociologists it is not only worthwhile to analyse the biographical sketches, but also the other “devices” applied by Dos Passos in U.S.A. For example, Newsreel 59, which succinctly pictures the city of Detroit at that time:

45(Dos Passos 1966: 961-962).

46Dos Passos himself concluded in his “Statement of Belief” in 1928: “I think any novelist who is worth his salt is a sort of truffle dog digging up raw material which a scientist, an anthropologist or a historian can later use to permanent advantage”. That is, the future reader of U.S.A. collects the truffles, while the author “simply buries the items of his own time, awaiting future historians who will uncover what he has stored” (Trombold 1998: 241).

Conclusion and discussion

47Returning now to the main question of this article, could industrial novels contribute in a sensible way to formal mainstream industrial sociology?

  • 19 Merton defines serendipity as “the discovery, by chance or sagacity, of valid results which were no (...)

48The answer to this question is certainly affirmative if sociologists use the content of industrial novels as a relevant secondary source, and in some cases possibly even as a primary source in addition to their own research (Jackson 1969; Penadés 2019). In other words, by combining literature and sociology social research will also enable serendipity19, a quality which according to American sociologist Robert Merton, should be inherent in social research (Penadés 2019; Merton 1968).

49Likewise, the sociological relevance of industrial novels increases when these novels are also based on empirical and/or desk research of its authors, as well on statistical facts and figures. On the other hand, a researcher has to keep in mind that industrial novels almost all have been written from a personal subjective viewpoint, often from a left, progressive angle. Therefore, industrial novels are not value-free, but connected with the plight and fate of workers. Also, it is important to consider industrial novels in the wider context in which these were/are written. In case of early 20th century USA this was a context of strong urbanization, immigration and industrialization as well as almost permanent social reform. With respect to reform additionally one has to make a distinction between a period of optimistic utopic reform between 1890 and the outbreak of WWI in 1914 and the more pessimistic dystopic correctional social reform of the 1930s and thereafter. Upton Sinclair, still an exponent of optimistic utopic reform, strongly believed in the possibilities of a better “socialist” or progressive world. In his opinion America could and had to be remade into a middle-class paradise. By contrast, John Dos Passos, an exponent of dystopic reform, forecasted the end of the American dream and finally lost his progressive stance. He preferred the definite lost American pastoral idea (” Back to the land that gave me birth. The grandest place on God’s green earth California That’s where I belong”: 1960: 962) above the materialist consumptive industrial capitalism in the US of the first decades of the 20th century.

  • 20 English version: The Salaried Masses: Duty and Distraction in Weimar Germany. London/New York, 1998

50Beyond the content of industrial novels also the methods applied by their authors are relevant for sociologists. Carrying out desk and/or on-site research as well as collecting relevant facts and figures increases the evidence of these novels from a scientific viewpoint. In this respect both Sinclair and Dos Passos do not stand alone. In particular, Dos Passos fits very well in the New Objectivity style which first emerged In Weimar Germany. His montage-technique has a lot of similarities with for example the montage technique applied by Sigfried Kracauer in his seminal industrial novel “Die Angestellten” (1930/2013)20. It is precisely this at that time pathbreaking montage technique which could also be of great supplementary significance for empirical sociological research today.

Haut de page

Bibliographie

Abbott Andrew (1999), Department & Discipline. Chicago Sociology at One Hundred, Chicago & London, The Chicago University Press.

Arthur Anthony (2007), Radical Innocent: Upton Sinclair, New York, Random House.

Barnes Jensen Billie (1978), « The Coal War: A Sequel to King Coal », Industrial and Labor Relations Review, vol. 32, n° 1, 112-113 (book review).

Bassett Charles W. (2014), « Free and Hope: Writing from the Great Depression of the 1930s », A Let’s talk About It Book Discussion Series, Maine Humanities Council. Retrieved from the Internet on 17 October 2018.

Becker George T. (1959), « Upton Sinclair: Quixote in a Flivver », College English. vol. 21, n° 3, 133-140.

Bellamy Edward (1888), Looking Backward, Amazon Kindle e-book.

Bradbury Malcolm (1969), « Romance and Reality in Maggie », Sociology and Literary Studies II, vol. 3, n° 1, 111-121.

Brewster Folsom Michael (1979), « Upton Sinclair’s Escape from The Jungle: The Narrative Strategy and Suppressed Conclusion of America’s First Proletarian Novel », Prospects, vol. 4, October, 237-266.

Dawson Hugh T. (1991), « Winston Churchill and Upton Sinclair: An Early Review of “The Jungle” », American Literary Realism, 1870-1910, vol. 24, n° 1, 72-78.

Denning Michael (2010), The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century, London, Verso.

Desmond Matthew (2016), Evicted. Poverty and Profit in The American City, London, Penguin Books.

Dos Passos John ([1938] 1960), U.S.A., London/New York, Penguin Books.

Eggers Dave (2013), The Circle, New York, Vintage Books.

Filler Louis (1976), The Muckrakers, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

Fine Gary Alan (dir.) (1995, A Second Chicago School. The Development of a Postwar American Sociology, Chicago & London, The University of Chicago Press.

Foster Gretchen (1986), « John Dos Passos’ Use of Film Technique in Manhattan Transfer & The 42nd Parallel », Literature/Film Quarterly, vol. 14, n° 3: 186-194.

Gier Erik de (2018), « Modernist Industrial Novels & Industrial Sociology. A Comparison Between Weimar Germany And Post-WWII Italy », Przeglad Socjologiczny (PS), vol. 67, n° 3, 179-196.

Hochschild Arlie Russel (2016), Strangers in Their Own Land. Anger and Mourning on the American Right, New York & London, The New Press.

Hofstadter Richard (1955), The Age of Reform. From Bryan to F.D. R., New York, Vintage Books.

Jackson John A. (1969), « The Map of Society: America in the 1890s », Journal of American Studies I, vol. 3. 1, n° 103-110.

Kennedy David M. (2009), Freedom from Fear. The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945, New York/Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Koziol Kenneth G. (1992), Novels and Short-stories about Work: An annotated Bibliography, Berkeley, University of California. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

Kracauer Siegfried ([1930] 2013), Die Angestellten. Aus dem neuesten Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp.

Krause Paul (1992), « Rethinking the Homestead Lockout on the Fourth of July », Western Pennsylvania History: 1918-2016. Journals.psu.edu.

Lynd Robert S. & Helen Merell Lynd (1929), Middletown. A Study in Modern American Culture, New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Lynd Robert S. & Helen Merell Lynd (1937), Middletown In Transition.: A Study in Cultural Conflicts, New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Mattson Kevin (2008), Upton Sinclair and the Other American Century, Hoboken NJ, John Wiley & Sons.

McGerr Michael (2003), A Fierce Discontent. The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, New York, Oxford University Press.

Merton Robert K. (1968), Social Theory and Social Structure, New York, The Free Press.

Owen John E. (1978), « The Coal War by Upton Sinclair », The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 435, January, 325 (book review).

Packer George (2013), The Unwinding. Thirty Years of American Decline, London, Faber & Faber.

Pastorello Karin (2014), The Progressives. Activism and Reform in American Society, 1893-1917, Chichester, Wiley Blackwell (The American History Series).

Penadés Alberto (2019), « Sociologia y literatura : invitaçion a una amistad », Letras Libres, Junio.

Pizer Donald (1988), Dos Passos’s U.S.A.: A Critical Study, Charlotsville, University Press of Virginia.

Pizer Donald (2012), « John Dos Passos in the 1920s: The Development of a Modernist Style », Mosaic: a journal for the interdisciplinary study of literature, vol. 45, n° 4, 51-67.

Rauchway Eric (2008), The Great Depression & The New Deal. A Very Short Introduction, New York, Oxford University Press.

Rodgers Daniel T. (1982), « In Search of Progressivism », Reviews in American History, vol. 10, n° 4, “The Promise of American History: Progress and Prospects”, 113-132.

Rosenzweig Roy, Nelson Lichtenstein, Joshua Brown & David Jaffee (2008), Who built America? Working people and the Nation’s History, vol. Two, Since 1877, Boston/ New York, Bedford/ St. Martin’s.

Sinclair Upton (1906), The Jungle, Kindle eBooks Amazon.

Sinclair Upton (1917), King Coal, Kindle eBooks Amazon.

Sinclair Upton ([1937] 2010), The Flivver King. A Story of Ford America, Charles Kerr Publishing Company, Kindle eBooks Amazon.

Sinclair Upton ([1976] 2015), The Coal War, Open Road Media, Kindle eBooks Amazon.

Sinclair Upton ([1962] 2016), The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair, Pickle Partners Publishing S.

Trombold John (1998), « From the Future to the Past: The Disillusionment of John Dos Passos », Studies in American Fiction, vol. 26, n° 2, 237-256.

Vance J.D. (2016), Hillbilly Elegy. A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis, London, William Collins.

Veblen Thorstein ([1925]1970), The Theory of the Leisure Class, London, Unwin Books.

Wilentz Sean (1992), « A Triumph of the Gilded Age », New York Review of Books, October 22 Issue.

Haut de page

Notes

1 Also, sociology of work.

2 Calvino quit the party after a few years.

3 Of course, Sinclair and Dos Passos were not the only writers of industrial novels in the US in this time period, but in my opinion, they are by far the most important and influential from the viewpoint of their representativeness for the wider context of the development of American industrial and labour relations over a longer time period (see for a rather complete overview of American novels about work: Koziol 1992). Also, at the time of the Great Depression a stream of so-called “proletarian” literature evolved. One clear exponent of this stream is Jack Conroy’s The Disinherited (1931) about working conditions in a Missouri coal mine and in Detroit’s car industry in the 1930s (Denning 2010: 200-229; Bassett 2014).

4 Think in this respect of Park, Thomas, Burgess, Wirth, Zianecki and Veblen (Abbott 1999; Fine 1995).

5 By 1925 the majority of Americans could dispose of hot and cold running water, flush toilets, furnaces, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, washing machines, telephones, cars, etc. (Pastorello 2014: 193).

6 In 1900 two-thirds of the American population lived in rural areas and small towns. By 1920 more than one-half of all Americans lived in cities Pastorello 2014: 194).

7 According to the Social Gospelers employers should treat their workers primarily as members of a larger social Christian family and not as parts of an industrial machine (Pastorello 2014: 66).

8 After publishing the book version of The Jungle also a theater version was made and later, in 1913, a movie (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2351, 3691).

9 Chicago was at that time a city where all of America’s new problems and progress converged, including a substantial part of strikes and labour conflicts. As such, for Sinclair it was the perfect place to set his dramatic novel (Mattson 2008: 61).

10 Also, outside the US, particularly in the UK, The Jungle caught serious attention. For example the later prime minister, but at the time a new MP, Winston Churchill, published a favorable two-part review in “T.P.’s weekly”: “.. His book is a tract in a swelling political agitation, and it takes the form of an indictment of the huge meat-packing business on the shores of Lake Michigan popularly called the great Beef Trust” (Dawson 1991: 74). In the US, save Jack London, also Hull House reformer Jane Addams was in support of the book (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2067). The novel also raised controversy. Particularly in behalf of the meatpacking lobby, J. Ogden Armour, whose plant formed the setting of The Jungle, debated in a number of articles in the Saturday Evening Post, the “unscrupulous attacks upon his great business” (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2191). All in all, the book became a bestseller both in the US and abroad. It was translated into 17 languages (Sinclair 1962: loc. 2293).

11 According to Mattson Henry Ford’s famous assembly line was foreshadowed in the meat factories (Mattson 2008: 62).

12 Before writing King Coal and The Coal War Sinclair made several trips to the Colorado coal fields during the strike.

13 Dos Passos considers U.S.A. as “the speech of the people”. He ends his introduction to the trilogy (added in 1938) with this particular sentence (Dos Passos 1966: 7).

14 After finishing U.S.A Dos Passos changed his political stand radically into a rightist conservative direction. Already in 1934, he left the Communist Party.

15 Dos Passos fitted very well in the at the in the 1920-1930s first in Weimar Germany and Europe emerging “New Objectivity”-style (“Neue Sachlichkeit”), which in case of (industrial) novels applied a documentary and montage style. Relevant European authors in this respect were amongst others Sigfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin and Ilja Ehrenburg (De Gier 2018).

16 Dos Passos published the first volume of U.S.A “1919” in 1930; the second volume “Nineteen-Nineteen” in 1932, and the third volume “The Big Money” in 1936.

17 An extensive content analysis is given by Denning 1997: 163-199. See also Pizer 1988.

18 Gretchen Foster summarizes the meaning of the various devices as follows: “While the newsreels’ montages document public voices and scenes, the camera eye sections present private, subjective images. If the newsreels, biographies, and fictional narratives work with the outside of people and events in order to say something about their insides, the camera eye does the reverse. The biographies: In these short lives, he (Dos Passos) skillfully carries out what Eisenstein envisioned when he wrote about filming the lives of actual people in a new way, using montage with its dynamic juxtaposition of images to portray character. Dos Passos’s biographies, rather than showing the person in ‘long uncut dramatic scenes’, juxtapose fragments from his life in such a way that, in three or four pages, we see around into the whole man, The biographies are a graphic portraits that symbolize parts of the United States and its people” (Foster 1986: 186-194).

19 Merton defines serendipity as “the discovery, by chance or sagacity, of valid results which were not sought for”. The operation of the serendipity pattern “may lead to an unexpected and anomalous finding elicited by the investigator’s curiosity, and conducted him along an unpremeditated by-path which led to a fresh hypothesis” (Merton 1968,: 157, 162).

20 English version: The Salaried Masses: Duty and Distraction in Weimar Germany. London/New York, 1998.

Haut de page

Table des illustrations

URL http://journals.openedition.org/nrt/docannexe/image/7496/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 53k
Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Erik de Gier, « Between “Utopia” and “Dystopia” »La nouvelle revue du travail [En ligne], 17 | 2020, mis en ligne le 31 octobre 2020, consulté le 27 mai 2022. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/nrt/7496 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/nrt.7496

Haut de page

Auteur

Erik de Gier

Professor Emeritus at the Institute of Management Research, Radboud University, Netherlands

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

Licence Creative Commons
La Nouvelle Revue du Travail est mise à disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

Haut de page
Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search