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Colloques | 2014
Les femmes dans les Amériques : Féminismes, études de genre et identités de genre dans les Amériques, XIXe et XXe siècles – Actes du colloque international des 4, 5 et 6 décembre 2013 à Aix-en-Provence
Anne Lesme

Depiction of 19th-Century American Girls in Paintings and Photographs: Lack of Agency and Empowerment

Les petites filles dans la peinture et la photographie américaine au XIXe siècle : entre soumission et agentivité
Niñas en las representaciones visuales del siglo XIX en los Estados Unidos :objectivadas o agentes
[26/11/2014]

Résumés

Cet article s’appuie sur une sélection d’images de petites filles qui figurent de manière prédominante dans les représentations visuelles du 19ème siècle, dans la peinture et, dans la seconde partie du siècle, dans la photographie. En tant qu’icône de l'avenir de l'Amérique, les petites filles américaines blanches de la classe moyenne deviennent un sujet majeur et croissant de représentation tout au long du siècle dans une variété de médias et de situations. En comparaison, les représentations des petites filles amérindiennes et noires sont extrêmement rares mais symboliquement très révélatrices si l'on considère leur rôle dans la société dans une perspective blanche. Loin d’être des agents, elles apparaissent plutôt passives, un dénominateur commun au cours du 19e siècle par rapport aux représentations qui sont faites des garçons ; elles sont souvent objectivés, considérées comme pures et innocentes, et appartiennent dès leur plus jeune âge à la sphère domestique. Cependant, ces représentations ne sont pas toujours conformes à une vision héritée du culte de la maternité. Une forme d'autonomisation est visible dans la sphère de l'éducation davantage que dans des représentations de garçons manqués.

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  • 1 Thomas K. Seligman, in Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, exh (...)

1As the icon of America’s future, following the revolution of 1776, depiction of youth has always played an important role in American history1. In the 19th century, supported by the growing role conferred to children in family and by technological inventions of photography and advances in the printing process, depictions of boys and girls diversified and were widely disseminated, allowing different types to emerge.

2This article is based on a selection of images of girls and young ladies – the future women of America – that figure predominantly in visual representations, whether in painting and, in the second part of the century, in photography. If the ability of American girls to embody the values of the era is predominant (stereotypes of True Womanhood), we have paid special attention to their presence in the public sphere, whether at school or in a working environment.

  • 2 Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, exhibition, New Haven, Yal (...)
  • 3 Holly Pyne Connor, with contributions by Sarah Burns, Barbara Dayer Gallati, and Lauren Lessing, An (...)
  • 4 Higonnet, Anne, Pictures of Innocence, the History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood, London Thames & H (...)
  • 5 Lubin, David M., “Guys and Dolls: Framing Femininity in Post-Civil War America”, Chapter 5, in Lubi (...)
  • 6 Brunet, François, La Naissance de l’idée de photographie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, (...)
  • 7 Rosenblum, Naomie, A World History of Photography, New York: Abbeville Press, 3rd ed, 1997.
  • 8 One can quote the works of Sarah McNair Vosmeier, The Family Album: Photography and American Family (...)

3Critical support on visual representations of childhood in the United States is not prolific compared to Europe. In order to analyze the depiction of boys and girls, one must turn to two volumes dedicated specifically to children and two volumes of American art history with a cultural and social approach. In Young America: Childhood in 19th Century Art and Culture2, Claire Perry shows how portrayals of children reflect the national identity as much as they contribute to building it after 1820 (up until the early years of the 19th century, depiction of children were closely related to their British prototypes), a process we encounter later on with photography. More recently, Holly Pyne Connor curated an exhibition in the Newark Museum entitled Angels and Tomboys: Girlhood in 19th-Century American Art3. One must also refer to Anne Higonnet’s work on visual culture4 Pictures of Innocence, the History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood, keeping in mind that the chapters dedicated to the 19th century mainly refer to British artists. David M. Lubin’s Picturing a Nation. Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America5, adopts a more controversial stance on how children were depicted in Post-Civil War America, focusing almost exclusively on white middle-class American girls. In Framing America: a Social History of America Art, Frances K. Pohl examines the complex intersection of art and politics and pays close attention to Native and African Americans. On photography, no extensive study has been carried out specifically on children embracing the whole 19th century and we will favor the approach of historians of American photography such as François Brunet6, Naomie Rosemblum7 and two recent doctoral dissertations8.

4I will argue that a common thread is the lack of agency of American girls throughout the 19th century; they are commonly objectified, supposedly pure and innocent, belonging to the separate sphere of domesticity, and submitted to men’s authority. This study will also show depictions of American girls which do not always comply with this vision inherited from the Cult of Motherhood characterizing the Victorian era and which foreshadow the 20th century to come. In the first part of this article, we will see that white middle-class American girls became a major subject matter and were represented in a variety of media and situations compared to Native and African-American girls, whose depiction is extremely rare but symbolically very telling if we consider their role in society from a white perspective, as we shall see in the second part of this article.

The white middle-class girl: the centrality of the private sphere and a paradoxical freedom

The changing experience of childhood in the 17th and 18th century: from a productive role to an “emotionally priceless child” (V. Zelizer)

5Throughout the 17th and beginning of the 18th century, children assumed a productive role within a self-sufficient household economy, from the age of six or seven years old. Whereas boys were helping on the farm, girls were often in the home, cooking, spinning and making clothes. Instruction, largely religious, was taught in the home by the parents, with the father playing a leading role, and emphasis was on religion. Since painting was mainly influenced by the British Art, it is hard to find examples of such a social organization. Due to major social and economic changes and new ideas regarding the nature of children, the childhood experience in white households was transformed during the 18th century and into the 19th century. Viviana Zelizer describes an “economically useless but emotionally priceless child”:

  • 9 Zelizer, Viviana A., Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children, Princeton (...)

By the mid-nineteenth century, the construction of the economically worthless child had been in large part accomplished among the American urban middle class. Concern shifted to children’s education as the determinant of future marketplace worth. […] However, the economic value of the working-class child increased, rather than decreased in the nineteenth century.9

6With a lower birth rate and labor generally accomplished outside the family, the role of women in nurturing and child-rearing grew substantially and the gender gap in terms of education was sharper than ever. Whereas daughters were reared to be chaste, loving and nurturing, eventually being prepared for marriage and the experience of motherhood, boys were expected to be ambitious, competitive, assertive and to exhibit gentlemanly self-control within the family.

Domestic virtue and the temptation of liberty

7Portrayals of girls were consistently less prevalent in comparison to the representations of boys – country boys, street boys, boys at school or preparing for public life – but they could still be found in certain paintings and other visual media which testify to their importance in social life: magazine covers, billboards, calling cards, newspapers, stereographs, etc. (Claire Perry).

Fig. 1 – John George Brown, Resting in the Wood (1866)

Fig. 1 – John George Brown, Resting in the Wood (1866)

8The range of subjects is limited and the depiction of domestic virtue dominates the genre. When the child girl is outside, in the woods for example, the subject seems to belong to the ideal realm of childhood, full of innocence and filled with agreeable activities, but she is very often alone and her gestures are very telling in terms of internalized constraints. John George Brown’s Resting in the Wood (1866) conveys a sense of piety usually seen in a Madonna depiction, all the more so that the young girl’s head is surrounded by bright light, and the position of her hands, as if ready to pray, seems to respond to the inclination of her head, typical in Madonna’s portraits. She is as emblematic of the culture of self-improvement as girls portrayed in a more domestic setting.

Fig. 2 – Seymour J. Guy, Temptation (1884)

Fig. 2 – Seymour J. Guy, Temptation (1884)

9While at home, girls are expected to learn the art of being a good wife and homemaking. They are usually portrayed gathering flowers, occupied with clothes, or interacting with pets, either playing or watching them. Dolls are also frequently associated with girls as a part of the gendered accessories which contribute to defining them as sweet and submissive, a “mother-in-waiting” (Holly P. Connor). To a certain extent, the numerous pictures which can be found of siblings, where the girl or the very young woman is taking care of her brother or sister as if he or she were her own child, as in Eastman Johnson’s The Party Dress (The Finishing Touch) (1872)10, symbolize the child unconsciously prefiguring his/her adult role. Other images convey ambiguous messages. In Seymour J. Guy’s Temptation (1884), and Close Your Eyes (1863)11, the little girl is ostentatiously giving a red fruit – a forbidden fruit? – to her brother and the title chosen for the canvas clearly undermines the supposed innocence of the child girl who is not passive any more but could be seen rather as an agent of sin.

Fig. 3 – Seymour J. Guy, Gathering Flowers (1861)

Fig. 3 – Seymour J. Guy, Gathering Flowers (1861)

Fig. 4 – Seymour J. Guy, Making Believe (1870)

Fig. 4 – Seymour J. Guy, Making Believe (1870)

Fig. 5 – Seymour J. Guy, Making a Train (1867)

Fig. 5 – Seymour J. Guy, Making a Train (1867)
  • 12 Lubin, David M. Picturing a Nation. Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America, New Haven, (...)

10The imagery of flowers has been common in Western Art history since ancient time but it was particularly used in the United States in the 19th century as a symbol of purity, grace, tenderness and fertility as in Seymour J. Guy’s Gathering Flowers (1861), or as in F.A. Wenderoth’s Portrait of the Artist’s Daughter (1855). Selecting outfits, dressing for special occasions or playing with a garment are also frequent; these paintings often portray the transition from childhood to adulthood. In this respect, the rigid protocols and constraints visible in Eastman Johnson’s The Party Dress (1872) is opposed to the sense of eroticism conveyed by Seymour J. Guy’s Dressing for the Rehearsal, or Making Believe (1870) and even more so Making a Train (1867) which has been very abundantly commented12. Adolescence, a new concept in the end of the 19th century which only became plainly acknowledged in the 20th, deserves a study of its own. With a few exceptions, we have limited our study to girls under twelve or fourteen years old.

Fig. 6 – Seymour J. Guy, Girl with Canary (The New Arrival) (1860)

Fig. 6 – Seymour J. Guy, Girl with Canary (The New Arrival) (1860)

11Images of girls with pets depict conflicting messages. On the one hand animals are associated with the freedom of nature as in Eastman Johnson's The Pets (1856)13. On the other hand, girls are ultimately faced with a future of seclusion at home, a concept which is best embodied by Seymour J. Guy’s Girl with Canary (The New Arrival) (1860), whose caged bird mirrors the fate awaiting the young lady.

  • 14 Walter Barbara, “The Cult of True Womanhood, 1820-1860, in “The Cult of Domesticity”, chapter 5, Ma (...)
  • 15 Connor, Holly Pyne, Sarah BurnsBarbara Dayer GallatiLauren Lessing, Angels & Tomboys: Girlhood (...)
  • 16 Connor, Holly Pyne, with contributions by Sarah Burns, Barbara Dayer Gallati, and Lauren Lessing, A (...)

12In a period of time when the marketplace dictated numbers of representations, artists and studio photographers often met their audience’s demands for a sentimentalized depiction of girlhood. By doing so, they did not always comply with “the four cardinal virtues” of True Womanhood: “piety, purity, submissiveness and domesticity”14 and a sense of freedom and eroticism sometimes emerged – as in Making a Train, by Seymour J. Guy – that could be seen as undercutting the iconic vision of a wise and obedient child thanks to compelling and transgressive female images. This argument is defended by Holly Conor in the recent exhibition she curated in Newark museum Angels & Tomboys: Girlhood in 19th-Century American Art15; she has identified transgressive images of “tomboys, working children and adolescents”, along with the “pervasive characterization” of the project, “sentimental portrayals of girls as angelic, passive and domestic”16. The necessity to avoid a simplistic reading of the subject is also shared by Claudia Nelson and Lynne Vallone in The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Girl, 1830-1915:

  • 17 Nelson, Claudia and Lynne Vallone (ed), The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Gi (...)

Poised not only between childhood and adulthood but also between purity and desire, home and market, tradition and change, nineteenth-century Anglo-American girls at once symbolized, experienced, and in some degree forwarded the cultural crisis into which they were born. (…) it is unwise to read the Victorian Girl simply, whether as a creature of patriarchal repression or as a late-twentieth-century teenager in period costume. Often, indeed, it is difficult to separate repression from empowerment.17

Fig. 7 – Seymour J. Guy, Unconscious of Danger (1865)

Fig. 7 – Seymour J. Guy, Unconscious of Danger (1865)

13Unconscious of Danger by Seymour J. Guy (1865) offers an interesting transition to our reflection. While depicting a brother and sister at the edge of a cliff, the painter summarizes the well-differentiated status and role of men and women in Victorian society. The boy approaches the cliff and stares at the precipice, little aware of the danger but dreaming of an illustrious future, while at the same time his vigilant sister reaches out to bring him to reason. The child’s gesture also reminds the girls of the American Revolution that they enjoy a certain amount of freedom as long as they are children (in many ways greater than in Europe) since what is to be expected as a woman – to become wife and mother – is a more constricted life. This sense of freedom can even be observed in many representations, some of them picturing girls as mischievous or naughty in magazines or newspapers as in Lilly Martin Spencer’s The Fruits of Temptation (1857) for example. It echoes the vivid accounts made by outside observers such as Alexis de Tocqueville who insisted on the paradoxical autonomy granted to American girls and the constraints imposed on American women once being married. As Claire Perry wrote:

  • 18 Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, p. 64.

Foreign visitors often remarked on the severity of the restriction imposed on American women, as well as the singular autonomy enjoyed by American girls. [They] were astounded by the liberties granted to girls, who were allowed to play with boys, engage in vigorous sports, and appeared unchaperoned at social events. The observers noted that these freedoms lasted only until marriage, however, after which Americans females were deprived of the rights that even aristocratic Europeans considered fundamental in civilized society.18

14What Tocqueville witnessed can be observed in the many pictures which usually stage little girls engaging in leisure activities and therefore convey a real sense of freedom, such as Three Girls On A Swing – The Three Tomboys (1868) by John George Brown, Seymour J. Guy’s Girl and Kitten (1862)19 or Winslow Homer’s energetic young girls in “Winter”–A skating scene (1868)20. But very few images of tomboys truly challenged gender roles and their subversive nature remains hypothetical.

Fig. 8 – John G. Brown, Three Girls on A Swing – The Three Tomboys (1868)

Fig. 8 – John G. Brown, Three Girls on A Swing – The Three Tomboys (1868)

Fig. 9 – Winslow Homer, The Country School (1873)

Fig. 9 – Winslow Homer, The Country School (1873)

15In comparison to boys, for whom the image of schooling was frequently depicted, the question of female education remained ambiguous. Few paintings showed girls attending school as in the critically acclaimed Winslow Homer’s The Country School (1873) or Charles Frederick Bosworth’s New England School (1852)21, though educational opportunities expanded for girls. Nevertheless, pictures of child readers, more commonly girl readers, became iconic images, as Patricia Crain argued in a recent article22. The book appeared very early as an attribute of power. In the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the standing-book-in-hand child asserted her rank and class, “the royal road to self-possession, or rather the republican and democratic road”23. Meanwhile, “Well into the mid-century, children’s attention often was figured as a property that must always be free to be mobilized by others–whether teachers, parents, or guardians”24. But if we look at the numerous examples of such motives in the second half of the 19th century, it is striking to notice how self-absorbed the subject is portrayed. The reading girl mostly appears as indulging in a compulsive practice, totally immersed in her activity and not ready to be interrupted, or available for anyone. She becomes a “figure for interiority”25. Two of Seymour J. Guy’s models are turning their backs to the window (so far, they were often reading near the window in a dreamlike state), as if they did not want to be distracted, as in An interesting Book, and in Young Girl Reading (1877) by Seymour J. Guy, and even more so in John George Brown’s A Leisure Hour – First Reader (1881). More traditional images of bedtime reading emerged in the 1870s and testify once again to the affectionate bond between siblings and of the mother-to-be figure of the child girl as in Guy’s Story of Golden Locks (1870) or Bedtime Story (1878).

Fig. 10 – Seymour J. Guy, An interesting Book

Fig. 10 – Seymour J. Guy, An interesting Book

Fig. 11 – Seymour J. Guy, Young Girl Reading (1877)

Fig. 11 – Seymour J. Guy, Young Girl Reading (1877)

Fig. 12 – John G. Brown, A Leisure Hour – First Reader (1881)

Fig. 12 – John G. Brown, A Leisure Hour – First Reader (1881)

Fig. 13 – Seymour J. Guy’s Story of Golden Locks (1870)

Fig. 13 – Seymour J. Guy’s Story of Golden Locks (1870)
  • 26 Mager, Alison, ed., Children’s Fashion of the Past in Photographs, An Album in 165 Prints, Dover Pu (...)
  • 27 Brunet, François, La Naissance de l’idée de photographie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, (...)
  • 28 McNair Vosmeier, Sarah, The Family Album: Photography and American Family Life since 1860, Ph.D.,
  • 29 On can refer to Alice Linddell, by Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll),

16In the second part of the 19th century, photographs in studio were mainly posed and printed to look like oil paintings26. The daguerreotype was particularly popular in the United States27 and it answered an emerging demand for portraiture from the middle classes. Before 1890, most children were photographed when they were babies, then around five years old28. And for technical reasons  the time necessary to capture a portrait and cultural ones  sacralization of the child , studio photographs of children increased substantially. The frontier between gender roles is clearly established: boys are playing and their activities (sport) are sometimes violent, while girls are playing with dolls, arranging flowers or sewing. At the end of the 19th century, boys and girls started being portrayed with one of their parents; pictures with mothers dominate the genre. The eroticism which pervades some photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron or Charles Dodgson29 in England was not present in the United States until the advent of pictorialism led by Stieglitz at the beginning of the 20th century.

Girls of the working class: contradictory examples

  • 30 New York in the Nineteenth Century: 321 Engravings from Harper’s Weekly and other Contemporary Sour (...)
  • 31 Szasz, Ference M. and Ralph F. Bogardus. « The Camera and the American Social Conscience: The Docum (...)

17If we explore the issue of social class, while the depiction of innocent and romantic middle-class children was predominant, the effects on children of the Industrial Revolution, urbanization and immigration were widely ignored in the visual arts, especially in photography from the latter half of the 19th century. A few exceptions are found in engravings published in newspapers30. As far as paintings are concerned, the representations are mainly picturesque and the most disseminated paintings staged boys, as in the famous Eastman Johnson’s Ragamuffin (1869), or John George Brown’s A Tough Story (1887), which found their counterparts in innumerable newsboys or shoeshine boys portrayed in drawings published in Harper’s Weekly. Otherwise, “[u]sually, when slum life was treated by photography or the other arts, it was romanticized as “quaint” or “unusual,” states F. M. Szasz31.

Fig. 14 – John G. Brown, Buy a Posy, 1881

Fig. 14 – John G. Brown, Buy a Posy, 1881

Fig. 15 – John G. Brown, The Flower girl (1877)

Fig. 15 – John G. Brown, The Flower girl (1877)

Fig. 16 – John G. Brown, The Crossing Sweeper (1874)

Fig. 16 – John G. Brown, The Crossing Sweeper (1874)

Fig. 17 – John G. Brown’s The Little Servant (1886)

Fig. 17 – John G. Brown’s The Little Servant (1886)

Fig. 18 – John G. Brown, Tête à Tête (1888-1890)

Fig. 18 – John G. Brown, Tête à Tête (1888-1890)

18When they are portrayed, girls are often arranging or selling flowers, alone – Brown’s Buy a Posy, 1881 – or accompanied by a boy to whom they are related and are taking care of, as in Brown’s The Flower Girl (1877)32, or by a group gathering around her. Other occupations, mostly street trades, like the little sweeper, the servant, or newsgirl are sometimes represented but they are a rarity and it is always picturesque as in Guy’s The Crossing Sweeper (1860)33, Brown’s The Crossing Sweeper (1874) or The Little Servant (1886) or Tête à Tête (1888-1890), a rare example of a newsgirl accompanied by a shoeshine boy.

19The very beginning of social documentary photography, with Jacob Riis at the end of the 19th century in New York, offers contradictory examples largely emphasizing, on the one hand, the lack of agency of the girls depicted and, on the other hand, a promising future for those who have the chance to go to school.

Fig. 19 – Jacob Riis, “I Scrubs”, Little Katie from the W. 52nd St. Industrial School (since moved to W. 53rd St.3)

Fig. 19 – Jacob Riis, “I Scrubs”, Little Katie from the W. 52nd St. Industrial School (since moved to W. 53rd St.3)

From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York

Fig. 20 – Jacob Riis, Minding the Baby, ‘A little mother’

Fig. 20 – Jacob Riis, Minding the Baby, ‘A little mother’

From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York

Fig. 21 – Jacob Riis, Little Susie at Her Work,Gotham Court (1890)

Fig. 21 – Jacob Riis, Little Susie at Her Work,Gotham Court (1890)

From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York

  • 34 The title of this photograph is not a grammatical oversight but represents the social, economic sta (...)
  • 35 Riis, Jacob, Children of the Poor, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1892, p. 61.

20Children of the lower classes may not have necessarily been viewed as miniature adults but they were expected to grow up fast to be able to support themselves and very often their families. Most of these pictures showed how quickly children, especially girls, were expected to enter the adult world, thus how soon they would lose their youth. “I Scrubs, Little Katie from the W. 52nd St. Industrial School (since moved to W. 53rd St.)34 allowed Riis to denounce painful situations in poor children’s lives. Katie had assumed full responsibility for her siblings since their mother’s death and father’s remarriage, a situation often experienced by the eldest girls in a family. Like most girls of her age (between six and nine years old), Katie was already a worker. Like all children fulfilling an adult’s role, hers was a life without play or smiles. As Jacob Riis stated: “The picture shows what a sober, patient, sturdy little thing she was, with that dull life wearing on her day by day […] Katie was one of the little mothers whose work never ends. Very early the cross of her sex had been laid upon the little shoulders that bore it so stoutly”35. In Minding the Baby, A little mother’, a nine-year-old girl is holding her baby brother in her arms and she is looking after him while her mother is busy working. As with Little Susie at Her Work, Gotham Court, she spends her days ironing and “Her shop is her home”. At the beginning of the 20th century, John Spargo denounced the idealization of “the most pathetic of all poverty’s victims”:

  • 36 Spargo, John, The Bitter Cry of the Children, New York, Macmillan, 1906, p. 14.

These “little mothers” have been much praised and idealized until we have been prone to forget that their very existence is a great social menace and crime. It is true that many of them show a wonderful amount of courage and precocity in dealing with the babies entrusted to their care. But in praising these qualities we must not forget that they are still children, necessarily unfit for the responsibilities thus placed upon them. 36

Fig. 22 – Jacob Riis, Saluting the Flag

Fig. 22 – Jacob Riis, Saluting the Flag

From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York

  • 37 Riis, who was part of a reform movement, first used lantern slides to illustrate his lectures on «  (...)

21As opposed to the pictures of “little mothers”, in the photograph Saluting the flag, in the Mott St. Industrial School (1890) a little girl is holding the American flag in front of the other students gathered in the classroom, conveying the image of a girl bound to be emancipated and be more responsible for her future. The motives of the classroom and the flag, which was colored to be used in Riis’s lanternslides conferences37, are central. They exemplify how intensively and frequently the reformers used images of children as symbols of a better future, making strong appeals to a sense of national belonging. If the United States was seen as the land of promises and opportunity, improving the living conditions of its children, native or young immigrants, was a key factor of success. What this image conveyed was in accordance with a new perception of poverty caused by the environment and no longer considered as a hereditary curse. What was at stake was the making of future citizens, and it was the children who embodied a vision full of hope.

Black and Native Americans, few depictions submitted to a white American look

Native-Americans and the rarity of girls in visual representations

  • 38 For example: Thomas Waterman Wood, Indian Boy at Fort Snelling (Little Crow), 1862; George Catlin, (...)

22Contrary to the abundant depiction of white upper and middle-class children and even children of a lower class, in a century more and more fascinated with childhood, representations of Native American children were a rare subject in the imagery of the period. The first paintings were made in the 1830s and 1840s when, due to the Indian Removal Act, a group of artists-explorers travelled to make a visual record of the Indian life for a national audience, among them George Catlin, Seth Eastman, Alfred Jacob Miller and John Mix Stanley. The survey mainly focused on exotic features and how they differed from Whites, but we can hardly find any notion of gender since most children are toddlers. When they are older, boys are over-represented38, whether as young hunters or as a young brave Uncas chief later on.

  • 39 For example: Alfred Jacob Miller, Breaking Up Camp at Sunrise, c. 1845 ; Albert Bierstadt, Indians (...)

23Mid-century depictions of tribal family life are outnumbered by scenes of violence reflecting the priorities of the time. And when they can be found, depictions of migration or travelling groups contrast with the domestic habits of their white counterparts. Children are generally absent or overlooked and treated as a type of peripheral element present in the scenes39.

24Finally, in the last decade of the 19th century, the figure of the papoose emerged as a central icon of tribal life, along with the beginning of a tourist industry promoting excursions out West by showing pictures of tribal toddlers as a way to increase ticket sales40, among them old paintings by Catlin for example. Finally, Grace Carpenter Hudson’s famous painting Little Mendocino (1892)41, shows what she specialized in – the depiction of the papoose, a symbol of innocence and vulnerability, emphasized by the tears of a crying baby. From then on, Native American children became the main target of assimilation campaigns. Separated from their parents, they were sent to boarding schools and the few records we have are photographs, but still very few girls are present.

25Nowhere as with Native Americans is the absence of girls as striking. As for the depiction of women, they seem to be exclusively related to their mother’s role and the close bonding they experience with their children in particular.

26As a more democratic art, photography in the United States quickly appeared to be more egalitarian and anti-hierarchical, focusing on the description of everyday life and on the art of the portrait. As early as the mid-19th century, some ethnographic assignments focused on portraying minorities, and especially Native Americans, allowing little girls to be depicted more frequently, though in an aestheticized manner, as in Moki Girls by John K. Hillers (1879)42.

African-American girls: stereotyped or absent

27Similar observations can be made with black American children; they are a rarity in 19th-century American painting. Preceding the Civil War, in 1826, the Pennsylvania artist Robert Street painted Children of Commodore John Daniel Danels, a wealthy Baltimore ship-owner. There is no black girl in the painting but two black boys who are portrayed framing a group of white children who are posing. Whereas one of the children is a participant, the other one is an onlooker, half hidden behind the door. A kind of racial harmony surfaces in the posture of the child in the foreground, reinforced by the look he exchanges with the white boy on the left hand side of the painting. But the realm of childhood is fragile, as the bubble at the center of the composition, and we quickly understand the ephemeral nature of this harmony.

28The restriction placed on the black population in the first part of the 19th century, with slavery in the South and racial discrimination in the North, including laws preventing any kind of access to economic or social power, or any kind of participation in the nation’s life for Blacks, was accompanied by visual productions in which women were toughly depreciated:

  • 43 Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, p. 78.

The visual imagery of elite and popular culture drew on an extensive repertory of derogatory stereotypes built up since colonial times. Painting and prints, which both inspired and were inspired by portrayals in contemporary literature and theatre, characterized African-Americans as lazy, dimwitted, ugly, sly, and susceptible to every kind of vice. Artists who thought it expedient to steer clear of black’s notorious sensuality chose childhood themes, which resonated favorably with white viewers who believed in black’s essential childlike nature.43

29The most typical stereotype concerned the black servant girls and their supposed lack of common sense; Harriet Cany Peal, in Her Mistress’s Clothes, 1848, portrayed the colored servant girl as a comical and irresponsible figure. Lilly Martin Spencer, in Height of Fashion, c.185444 is mocking the pretention to fashion and aspiration to elegance of a young girl that is made ridiculous by the artist. Another persistent and growing contemptuous stereotype was the one of the banjo players, caricatured in George Thatcher’s Greatest Minstrel: “Hello my baby” (1899)45 where a girl can be seen in the foreground with stereotypically thick lips and funny hair.

30A few paintings could be found in portraits ordered by black middle-class families in the North, such as William Prior’s Three Sisters of the Copeland Family (1854)46. We can find no sign of derision or disrespect in this portrait which reminds us of the use of flowers previously studied for girls as an emblem of female virtue. A similar observation can be made at the end of the 19th century in photography when black people started to photograph their community.

Fig. 23 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson, 1893

Fig. 23 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson, 1893

Fig. 24 – Eastman Johnson, Negro Life in the South (Kentucky Home), 1859

Fig. 24 – Eastman Johnson, Negro Life in the South (Kentucky Home), 1859

31Interestingly enough, during their campaign, the Abolitionists produced pictures and stories about black children, mainly with boys, to fight against those stereotypes; some of these works targeted white children who were seen as able to influence their parents and viewed as the future of the anti-slavery movement. While Winslow Homer made a lot of beautiful portraits of black boys, black girls seem to be absent; the same remark applies to the African American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner whose The Banjo Lesson in 1893 offers a beautiful counterpart to the previous caricature, but no sign of girls in the work based on my research on portraits. Nevertheless, girls or baby girls are present when the artist is picturing a group of people, as in the painting by Eastman Johnson entitled Negro Life in the South (Kentucky Home), 1859. The characters are engaged in a variety of leisure time activities, playing the banjo, dancing, socializing, and playing with children. More than being connected to a typical American environment, the style and subject matter seem to refer to the influence of 17th-century Dutch painting. It is worth noticing that the skin color of the girl differs slightly. It could be accounted for by the varying skin color of Black Americans but more probably it was the result of a rape committed by the white male owner on his black female slave. The offspring of these violent encounters were always considered Black, since one drop of black blood was legally enough to confer a black and therefore slave status.

  • 47 Willis, Deborah, Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present, New Yo (...)
  • 48 Mager, Alison, ed., Children’s Fashion of the Past in Photographs, An Album in 165 Prints, Dover Pu (...)
  • 49 Koenig, Thilo, « Voyage de l’autre côté. L’enquête sociale », in Frizot, M. (dir.), Nouvelle Histoi (...)

32Few photographs can be found in the end of the 19th century. Daguerreotypes are regarded as a democratization of art, including for the black community47. But finding copies of these photos is extremely difficult48. We can refer to France Benjamin Johnston who was hired in 1899 to document students at the Hampton Institute, a school that provided vocational training and education for newly freed slaves and Native Americans, even though young ladies rather than little girls were photographed. Her scenes are carefully constructed to exemplify the benefits of vocational training in a progressive perspective. She opposed those images to a report on living conditions of African American in agriculture49. Riis is also famous for a photograph portraying three school girls, and among them an African-American, a photograph published in 1892 in Children of the Poor.

Fig. 25 – Jacob Riis, The board of election inspectors in the beach street school (1892)

Fig. 25 – Jacob Riis, The board of election inspectors in the beach street school (1892)

Conclusion

33I would like to reiterate how the transition from a colonial or post-colonial economy to an increasingly urban industrial capitalist economy emphasized the separation between two spheres. Painting and engraving echo this separation, particularly with regard to the upper and rising middle classes. While, in the 19th century, white girls embodied stability, the idea of mutability was applied to men in a period of time when national identity was reflected in imagery of different types.

34In comparison to boys, girls are defined by their passivity or lack of agency. The little girl is mainly portrayed as an idealized child in rural settings or, more frequently, in her house, arranging flowers or caring for pets. In this process, American females seem to have temporarily lost a form of independence. Regarding Native Americans and black girls, the child imagery produced is further limited in terms of painting patterns. This economy of production of visual materials reflects a lack of interest indicating their symbolic exclusion.

  • 50 Nelson, Claudia and Lynne Vallone (ed), The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Gi (...)

35Child girls’ agency can nevertheless be found in subject matters related to education, when at school or when reading a book or holding a flag like in Riis’s picture. It prefigures the evolution into the 20th century and her constantly evolving role in society. Access to education is truly paramount in the process of agency, especially when working-class labor failed to lead to independence. As Lynne Vallone and Claudia Nelson state – and warn us – we should be cautious as to where to place the Girl in the 19th century: “Commentators were unsure where to place her –as the light of the home? the potential academic or professional rival of her brother? the (a)sexualized object of male desire? And having thus classified her, they had no guarantee that she would stay on her pigeonhole”50.

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Bibliographie

Brunet, François, La Naissance de l’idée de photographie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 2000.

Brunet, François, « Le daguerréotype aux Etats-Unis : un art social », L'art de la photographie des origines à nos jours, sous la direction de André Gunthert et Michel Poivert (coll. L'art et les grandes civilisations), Espagne : Citadelles & Mazenot, 2007.

Cogan, Frances B., All-American Girl: The Ideal of Real Womanhood in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America, Athens: U of Georgia P, 1989.

Higonnet, Anne, Pictures of Innocence, the History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood, London, Thames & Hudson, 1998.

Holly Pyne Connor, with contributions by Sarah Burns, Barbara Dayer Gallati, and Lauren Lessing, Angels and Tomboys: Girlhood in 19th-Century American Art, Newark, N.J.: Newark Museum; San Francisco: Pomegranate Communications, 2012.

Lesme, Anne, « L’enfant dans la photographie sociale américaine de 1888 à 1941 : enjeux sociaux et esthétiques », thèse de doctorat, Aix-Marseille Université, 2012.

Lubin, David M., “Guys and Dolls: Framing Femininity in Post-Civil War America”, Chapter 5, in Lubin, David M. Picturing a Nation. Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1994.

McNair Vosmeier, Sarah, The Family Album: Photography and American Family Life since 1860, Ph.D., Indiana University, 2003.

Mager, Alison, ed., Children’s Fashion of the Past in Photographs, An Album in 165 Prints, Dover Publications, 1978.

Nelson, Claudia and Lynne Vallone (ed), The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Girl, 1830-1915. Paperback edition, USA, 2010 [1993].

New York in the Nineteenth Century: 321 Engravings from Harper’s Weekly and other Contemporary Sources / [compiled by] John Grafton, New York: Dover Publications, 1977.

Norton, Mary Beth and Ruth M. Alexander, Major Problems in American Women’s History, ed., 1996, 2nd ed.

Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, exhibition, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2006.

Riis, Jacob, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, New York:

Charles Scribner & Sons, 1890

Riis, Jacob, Children of the Poor, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1892.

Rosenblum, Naomie, A World History of Photography, New York: Abbeville Press, 3rd ed, 1997.

Spargo, John, The Bitter Cry of the Children, New York, Macmillan, 1906.

Steedman, Carolyn, Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of Human Interiority, 1780–1930, Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1995.

Szasz, F. M.and Bogardus, R. F., “The Camera and the American Social Conscience: The Documentary Photography of Jacob Riis,” in New York History (1 October 1974), p. 413.

Welter, Barbara, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860”, American Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, Part 1 (Summer, 1966), p. 151-174, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2711179

Willis, Deborah, Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present, New York, Norton and Company, 2002

Online sources:
http://www.the-athenaeum.org/

Prints & Photographs Online Catalog, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/

The Museum of the City of New York, http://collections.mcny.org/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=Home

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Notes

1 Thomas K. Seligman, in Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, exhibition, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2006, foreword, VIII.

2 Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, exhibition, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 35-72. One can also refer to Higonnet, Anne, Pictures of Innocence, the History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood, London, Thames & Hudson, 1998, who focuses more on British art.

3 Holly Pyne Connor, with contributions by Sarah Burns, Barbara Dayer Gallati, and Lauren Lessing, Angels and Tomboys: Girlhood in 19th-Century American Art, Newark, N.J.: Newark Museum; San Francisco: Pomegranate Communications, 2012.

4 Higonnet, Anne, Pictures of Innocence, the History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood, London Thames & Hudson, 1998.

5 Lubin, David M., “Guys and Dolls: Framing Femininity in Post-Civil War America”, Chapter 5, in Lubin, David M. Picturing a Nation. Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1994, p. 205-271.

6 Brunet, François, La Naissance de l’idée de photographie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 2000 ; Brunet, François « Le daguerréotype aux Etats-Unis : un art social », L'art de la photographie des origines à nos jours, sous la direction de André Gunthert et Michel Poivert (coll. L'art et les grandes civilisations), Espagne : Citadelles & Mazenot 2007.

7 Rosenblum, Naomie, A World History of Photography, New York: Abbeville Press, 3rd ed, 1997.

8 One can quote the works of Sarah McNair Vosmeier, The Family Album: Photography and American Family Life since 1860, Ph.D., Indiana University, 2003 and Lesme, Anne, « L’enfant dans la photographie sociale américaine de 1888 à 1941 : enjeux sociaux et esthétiques », thèse de doctorat, Aix-Marseille Université, 2012.

9 Zelizer, Viviana A., Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children, Princeton (N.J.), Princeton University Press, 1994, p. 5.

10 http://arthistorynewsreport.blogspot.fr/2013/06/american-abc-childhood-in-19th-century.html

11 https://artsy.net/artwork/seymour-joseph-guy-close-your-eyes

12 Lubin, David M. Picturing a Nation. Art and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1994, p. 212-215.

13 http://www.kevinalfredstrom.com/art/v/paintings/Jonathan+Eastman+Johnson_+Girl+and+pets_+1856.jpg.html

14 Walter Barbara, “The Cult of True Womanhood, 1820-1860, in “The Cult of Domesticity”, chapter 5, Major Problems in American Women’s History, ed. Mary Beth Norton and Ruth M. Alexander, 1996, 2nd ed., p. 115-121. See Cogan, Frances B., All-American Girl: The Ideal of Real Womanhood in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America, Athens: U of Georgia P, 1989.

15 Connor, Holly Pyne, Sarah BurnsBarbara Dayer GallatiLauren Lessing, Angels & Tomboys: Girlhood in 19th-Century American Art, 2012.

16 Connor, Holly Pyne, with contributions by Sarah Burns, Barbara Dayer Gallati, and Lauren Lessing, Angels and Tomboys: Girlhood in 19th-Century American Art, Newark, N.J.: Newark Museum; San Francisco: Pomegranate Communications, 2012, introduction.

17 Nelson, Claudia and Lynne Vallone (ed), The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Girl, 1830-1915. Paperback edition, USA, 2010 [1993], p. 9.

18 Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, p. 64.

19 http://www.sightswithin.com/Seymour.Joseph.Guy/Girl_and_Kitten.jpg

20 http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=37009

21 http://www.masshist.org/revolution/image-viewer.php?item_id=1783&mode=small&img_step=1&tpc=

22 Crain, Patricia, “Postures and Places: The Child Reader in Nineteenth-Century U.S. Popular Print”, ELH, Volume 80, Number 2, Summer 2013, p. 343-372, Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press DOI: 10.1353/elh.2013.0020

23 Crain, Patricia, “Postures and Places: The Child Reader in Nineteenth-Century U.S. Popular Print”, p. 349.

24 Crain, Patricia, p. 351.

25 Patricia Crain, referring to Carolyn Steedman, Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of Human Interiority, 1780–1930 (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1995), p. 12.

26 Mager, Alison, ed., Children’s Fashion of the Past in Photographs, An Album in 165 Prints, Dover Publications, 1978.

27 Brunet, François, La Naissance de l’idée de photographie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 2000, ch.4 – Le daguerréotype aux Etats Unis : photographie et démocratie, p. 157-209.

28 McNair Vosmeier, Sarah, The Family Album: Photography and American Family Life since 1860, Ph.D.,

Indiana University, 2003, p. 150.

29 On can refer to Alice Linddell, by Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll),

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alice_Liddell_2.jpg

30 New York in the Nineteenth Century: 321 Engravings from Harper’s Weekly and other Contemporary Sources / [compiled by] John Grafton, New York: Dover Publications, 1977.

31 Szasz, Ference M. and Ralph F. Bogardus. « The Camera and the American Social Conscience: The Documentary Photography of Jacob A. Riis ». New York History 4 (October 1974), p. 413.

32 http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=14106

33 http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/10976

34 The title of this photograph is not a grammatical oversight but represents the social, economic status of a deprived child, from an immigrant background with a poor access to education, hence the grammatical error in the title as if the child herself is speaking.

35 Riis, Jacob, Children of the Poor, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1892, p. 61.

36 Spargo, John, The Bitter Cry of the Children, New York, Macmillan, 1906, p. 14.

37 Riis, who was part of a reform movement, first used lantern slides to illustrate his lectures on « The Other Half » in front of a Christian audience. One can refer to Riis, Jacob, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1890; Yochelson, Bonnie and Daniel Czitrom, Rediscovering Jacob Riis, Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the –Century, New York: The New Press, 2007; Hales, Peter. « The Hidden Hand: Jacob Riis and the Rethoric of Reform ». Exposure 20, n°3 (fall 1982): 52-58; Stange, Maren, « Jacob Riis and Urban Visual Culture: The Lantern

Slide Exhibition as Entertainment and Ideology », Journal of Urban History, vol.15, n°3, 1987: 74-303.

38 For example: Thomas Waterman Wood, Indian Boy at Fort Snelling (Little Crow), 1862; George Catlin, Tcha-aes-ka-ding, Grandson of Buffalo Bull’s Back Fat, 1832; George Catlin, Osceola Nick-A-No-Chee, a Boy (Seminole), 1840; John Mix Stanley, Young Chief Uncas, 1870.

39 For example: Alfred Jacob Miller, Breaking Up Camp at Sunrise, c. 1845 ; Albert Bierstadt, Indians Traveling Near Fort Laramie, c.1859 ; Seth Eastman, Indian Mode of Travelling, 1867-1869.

40 For example: Paul Frenzeny and Jules Tavernier, « Two Bits to See the Papoose, » from Harper’s Weekly, October 24, 1874.

41 http://arthistorynewsreport.blogspot.fr/2013/06/american-abc-childhood-in-19th-century.html

42 http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=46267

43 Perry, Claire, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, p. 78.

44 http://www.artnet.com/artists/lilly-martin-spencer/height-of-fashion-uB2f0VI0ECpOA_4RBdUZ8Q2

45 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/var.1783/

46 http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/three-sisters-of-the-copeland-family-33213

47 Willis, Deborah, Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present, New York, Norton and Company, 2002: “Part I : the first sixty years, 1840-1900” p. 3-15.

48 Mager, Alison, ed., Children’s Fashion of the Past in Photographs, An Album in 165 Prints, Dover Publications, 1978. Two photographs out of a hundred and sixty four (1860s-1920s), n°49 and n°138 are of black children, a portrait of two boys and a portrait of a girl.

49 Koenig, Thilo, « Voyage de l’autre côté. L’enquête sociale », in Frizot, M. (dir.), Nouvelle Histoire de la photographie, Paris, Bordas-Adam Biro, 1995, p. 352.

50 Nelson, Claudia and Lynne Vallone (ed), The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Girl, 1830-1915, Paperback edition, USA, 2010 [1993], p. 5.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 – John George Brown, Resting in the Wood (1866)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/, 132k
Titre Fig. 2 – Seymour J. Guy, Temptation (1884)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/, 56k
Titre Fig. 3 – Seymour J. Guy, Gathering Flowers (1861)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/, 112k
Titre Fig. 4 – Seymour J. Guy, Making Believe (1870)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/, 16k
Titre Fig. 5 – Seymour J. Guy, Making a Train (1867)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/, 84k
Titre Fig. 6 – Seymour J. Guy, Girl with Canary (The New Arrival) (1860)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/, 188k
Titre Fig. 7 – Seymour J. Guy, Unconscious of Danger (1865)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/, 84k
Titre Fig. 8 – John G. Brown, Three Girls on A Swing – The Three Tomboys (1868)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/, 96k
Titre Fig. 9 – Winslow Homer, The Country School (1873)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/, 16k
Titre Fig. 10 – Seymour J. Guy, An interesting Book
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/, 68k
Titre Fig. 11 – Seymour J. Guy, Young Girl Reading (1877)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/, 88k
Titre Fig. 12 – John G. Brown, A Leisure Hour – First Reader (1881)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/, 72k
Titre Fig. 13 – Seymour J. Guy’s Story of Golden Locks (1870)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/, 72k
Titre Fig. 14 – John G. Brown, Buy a Posy, 1881
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/, 116k
Titre Fig. 15 – John G. Brown, The Flower girl (1877)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/, 76k
Titre Fig. 16 – John G. Brown, The Crossing Sweeper (1874)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/, 68k
Titre Fig. 17 – John G. Brown’s The Little Servant (1886)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/, 80k
Titre Fig. 18 – John G. Brown, Tête à Tête (1888-1890)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/, 100k
Titre Fig. 19 – Jacob Riis, “I Scrubs”, Little Katie from the W. 52nd St. Industrial School (since moved to W. 53rd St.3)
Crédits From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/, 96k
Titre Fig. 20 – Jacob Riis, Minding the Baby, ‘A little mother’
Crédits From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/, 92k
Titre Fig. 21 – Jacob Riis, Little Susie at Her Work,Gotham Court (1890)
Crédits From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/, 88k
Titre Fig. 22 – Jacob Riis, Saluting the Flag
Crédits From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/, 96k
Titre Fig. 23 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson, 1893
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/, 96k
Titre Fig. 24 – Eastman Johnson, Negro Life in the South (Kentucky Home), 1859
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/, 176k
Titre Fig. 25 – Jacob Riis, The board of election inspectors in the beach street school (1892)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/docannexe/image/67429/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/, 92k
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Référence électronique

Anne Lesme, « Depiction of 19th-Century American Girls in Paintings and Photographs: Lack of Agency and Empowerment », Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos [En ligne], Colloques, mis en ligne le 26 novembre 2014, consulté le 21 août 2019. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/nuevomundo/67429 ; DOI : 10.4000/nuevomundo.67429

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Auteur

Anne Lesme

LERMA, Aix Marseille Université,
anne.lesme@univ-amu.fr

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